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Music of India

-includes multiple varieties of folk

music, pop, and Indian Classical
Music. India's classical music tradition,
including Hindustani Music and
Carnatic, has a history spanning
millennia and developed over several
eras. Music in India began as an integral
part of socio-religious life.
Classical Music

also enriched by the Persian performance

practices of the Mughals.

Carnatic music
- The present form of Carnatic music is
based on historical developments that
can be traced to the 15th - 16th
centuries AD and thereafter.

The two main traditions of classical music

are Carnatic music, found
predominantly in the peninsular
regions, and Hindustani music, found
in the northern, eastern and central
regions. The basic concepts of this
includes shruti (microtones), swara (not
es), alankar(ornamentations), raga
(melodies improvised from basic
grammars), and tala (rhythmic patterns
used in percussion). Its tonal system
divides the octave into 22 segments
called shrutis, not all equal but each
roughly equal to one quarter of a whole
tone of Western music

- said to have originated in the South

Indian state of Karnataka.

Hindustani music

Tappa - is a form of Indian semi-classical

vocal music. Its specialty is its rolling
pace based on fast, subtle and knotty

- The Hindustani music tradition diverged

from Carnatic music around the 13th 14th centuries AD. The practice of
singing based on notes was popular even
from the Vedic times where the hymns in
Sama Veda, an ancient religious text,
were sung as Samagana and not
- In contrast to Carnatic music, the other
main Indian classical music tradition
originating from the South, Hindustani
music was not only influenced by ancient
Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic
philosophy and native Indian sounds but

- It is melodic (like Hindustani) , with

improvised variations, but tends to have
more fixed compositions. The main
emphasis is on the vocals as most
compositions are written to be sung, and
even when played on instruments, they
are meant to be performed in a singing
style (known as gyaki)
Light classical music
Thumri - the text is romantic or
devotional in nature, and usually revolves
around a girl's love for Krishna.

Kajri - a film based on real story.

Though Indian cultural and religious
traditions put women at a high pedestal,
in reality they are subjected to all kinds
of physical and mental exploitation.
Chaiti - are semi-classical songs sung
in the Hindu calendar month
of Chait. These songs are rendered
during the Holy month of Sri Rama
Navami in March/April.

Ghazal - is a poetic form consisting of

rhyming couplets and a refrain, with
each line sharing the same meter.

Dadra - is a light classical vocal form

in Hindustani classical music. It was
originally accompanied by
dadra tala (from where the term for the
genre was borrowed), but later dadra
compositions are often found in other
light talas (such as keherwa).
Folk Music
Rabindra Sangeet (Music of Bengal)
-also known as Tagore songs, are songs
written and composed by Rabindranath
Tagore. They have distinctive
characteristics in the music of Bengal,
in India and Bangladesh. "Sangeet"
means music, "Rabindra Sangeet"
means music (or more aptly Songs)
of Rabindra.
Bihu of Assam
-Bihu is the festival of New Year
of Assam falling on mid April. This is a
festival of nature and mother earth
where the first day is for the cows and
buffalos. Bihu songs are energetic and
with beats to welcome the festive spring.
Assamese drums (dhol), Pepa(horm
usually made from buffalo horn), gogona
are major instruments used.

-Dandiya is a form of dance-oriented

folk music that has also been adapted
for pop music. The present musical style
is derived from the traditional musical
accompaniment to the folk dance. It is
practised in (mainly) the state of Gujrat.
Actually Dandiya is a kind of dance rather
than a music, the music is called
a Garba in local language.
-Ganasangeet is generally sung in
chorus carrying some social message.
The songs are usually about Freedom,
community strength, patriotism. Due
to the British occupation in India, a lot of
protest songs about anti-imperialism/prosocialism have been written in India.
Examples: Apni Azadi Ko Hum Hargis Mita
Sakte Nahin, ajadee hoyni tor, Kadam
kadam badhaye jaa, Vande Mataram, etc.
Uttarakhandi Music
-Uttarakhandi folk music had its root
in the lap of nature. The pure and
blessed music have the feel and the
touch of nature and subjects related to
nature. The folk music primarily is related
to the various festivals, religious
traditions, folk stories and simple life of
the people of Uttarakhand.
-Musical instruments used
in Uttarakhand music include the dhol,
damoun, turri, ransingha, dholki,
daur, thali, bhankora and
masakbhaja. Tabla and harmonium
are also used, but to a lesser extent.
Lavani comes from the word Lavanya
which means love. This is one of the
most popular forms of dance and music
that is practiced all over Maharashtra.

Traditionally, the songs are sung by

female artistes, but male artistes
may occasionally sing Lavanis. The
dance format associated with Lavani is
known as Tamasha. Dance performed by
attractive women wearing nine-yard
saris. They are sung in a quick tempo.
The verve, the enthusiasm, the rhythm
and above all the very beat of India finds
an expressive declaration amidst the folk
music of India, which has somewhat,
redefined the term "bliss". Lavani
originated in the arid region of
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
-is derived from the combination of
string instruments, percussion
instruments and wind instruments
accompanied by renditions of folk
singers. It enjoys a respectable presence
in Bollywood music as well.
-has a very diverse cultural collection of
musician castes, including Langas,
Sapera, Bhopa, Jogi
and Manganiyar(lit. the ones who
ask/beg). Rajasthan Diary quotes it as a
soulful, full-throated music with
harmonious diversity. The melodies of
Rajasthan come from a variety of
Popular music
Film music
-The biggest form of Indian popular
music is film, or songs from Indian
films, it makes up 72% of the music
sales in India. The film industry of India
supported music by according reverence
to classical music while utilizing the
western orchestration to support Indian

Raga Rock
-Raga rock is rock or pop music with a
heavy Indian influence, either in its
construction, its timbre, or its use of
instrumentation, such as the sitar and
tabla. Raga and other forms of classical
Indian music began to influence many
rock groups during the 1960s; most
famously The Beatles. Rock music in
India has its origins in the 1960s when
international stars such as The
Beatles visited India and brought their
music with them. These artists'
collaboration with Indian musicians such
as Ravi Shankar and Zakir
Hussain have led to the development
of raga rock.
Indian rock
-The rock music "scene" in India is small
compared to the filmi or fusion musicality
"scenes" but as of recent years has come
into its own, achieving a cult status of
sorts. Rock music in India originated
around the 1960s
Dance Music
Indian hip hop
-Hip hop music in India had started at
around 1990 and Baba Sehgal is
credited as India's first rapper. Hip Hop
music became all the more famous with
the song 'Pettai Rap' from the Tamil
movie Kadhalan starring Prabhu
Deva. The song catapulted Suresh
Peters as a rapper and a music director.
Rap/Hip Hop was often used in the
regional movies as fillers in between
songs and off late has started to become
main stream songs.
Some Instruments

-is a two or four or sometimes five
stringed musical instrument resembling
more to mandolin than a guitar. It is
commonly used
in Assam, Bangladesh, West
Bengal & Bihar, and dates from the
15th-16th century when it was adopted
by the ascetic cults of Bauls and Fakirs.
-literally "one-string", also
called iktar,ektar, yaktaro gopichand)
is a one-string instrument most often
used in traditional
music from Bangladesh, India, Egypt,
and Pakistan.
Bulbul tarang
-literally "waves of nightingales",
alternately Indian or Punjabi banjo) is
a string instrument from India and Indian
and Pakistani Punjab which evolved from
the Japanese taishgoto, which likely
arrived in South Asia in the 1930s.
-The instrument employs two sets of
strings, one set for drone, and one for
melody. The strings run over a plate
or fretboard, while above are keys
resembling typewriter keys, which when
depressed fret or shorten the strings to
raise their pitch.

-also called (the Indian harp) is a string
instrument found in two forms
throughout the north, central, and east
regions of India. It is a young instrument

by Indian terms, being only about 200

years old.
-is a stringed Indian and Nepali folk
musical instrument similar to
lutes or fiddles. It is played with
a bow and has between three and
thirty strings depending on the
region. The bottom part of the front of
its hollow wooden soundbox is covered
with animal skin. It is played while
sitting on the ground in
a vertical orientation.
Music of Thailand
Mor Lam
-Mor lam is the dominant folk music of
Thailand's north-eastern Isan region,
which has a mainly Lao population. It
has much in common with luk thung,
such as its focus on the life of the rural
poor. It is characterized by rapid-fire,
rhythmic vocals and a funk feel to
the percussion. The lead singer, also
called a mor lam, is most often
accompanied by the khaen, also known
as khene.
Luk thung
-Luk thung, or Thai country music,
developed in the mid-20th century to
reflect daily trials and tribulations of rural
Thais. Pongsri Woranut and Surapol
Sombatchareon were the genre's first
big stars, incorporating influences
from, Asia. Many of the most popular
artists have come from the central city
of Suphanburi, including
megastar Pumpuang Duangjan, who
pioneered electronic luk thung. The late
90's saw a commercial resurgence of Luk
Thung, and the modern electrified, pop-

described as the Renaissance


influenced version of the genre remains

the country's most popular music form.
- 1450-1600
The 4 Major Events Of the Renaissance
1.The MAGNA CARTA it was a document
that limited the power of kings in Britain
2. The RENAISSANCE it was a time of
growing knowledge for the poor, the idea of
humanism and the idea of free thinking
3. The PRINTING PRESS it was probably
the greatest invention of this time
- this made books cheaper and easier to
afford for the poor
- this caused many poor citizens who could
couldnt read before to learn how to read
4. The REFORMATION started when
Martin Luther wrote the 95 theses which
were against the churches bad practices
Famous Persons from the Renaissance
Nicolaus Copernicus astronomer
known for figuring out that the sun is
the center of our solar system
Desiderius Erasmus- Dutch scholar
and theologian
Galileo Galilei- his achievements
include improvements to the telescope
and consequent astronomical
Johann Gutenberg- the printing
press invented by German goldsmith
Johann Gutenberg in 1448
Leonardo da Vinci- an Italian
polymath, painter, sculptor, architect,
musician, scientist, mathematician,
engineer, inventor, anatomist,
geologist and writer often been

Italy and Venice as merchant and

intellectual centers

Republic of Florence

Republic of Venice

VENICE Europes gateway to trade with the

East produced fine glass
FLORENCE the capital of silver and
Medici Family played an important role in
patronizing and stimulating the arts
Mass- a sacred choral composition that sets
the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy
Order of music
1. Kyrie Kyrie means God
- this is the first piece in a musical mass
2. Gloria means Glory and follows the
3. Credo - means creed or belief
- is the longest text of a sung Mass
4. Sanctus - means holy
5. Benedictus means Blessed
6. Agnus Dei- means Lamb of God
MOTET - it is a polyphonic work with four or
five voice parts singing one religious text
- these are religious works or compositions
MADRIGAL- this is a polyphonic work, which
means it has many musical lines of equal

- were performed in groups of four, five or six

- they sang secular music, a non-religious

- However, opera is musical theatre, while

oratorio is strictly a concert piecethough
oratorios are sometimes staged as operas,
and operas are sometimes presented in
concert form.

- these are usually love songs

Concerto Grosso


- (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti

grossi) is a form of baroque music in which
the musical material is passed between a
small group of soloists (the concertino) and
full orchestra.

- (English plural: operas; Italian

plural: opere) is an art form in
which singers and musicians perform
a dramatic work combining text (called
a libretto) and musical score, usually in a
theatrical setting.
- Opera incorporates many of the elements
of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery,
and costumes and sometimes
includes dance. The performance is typically
given in an opera house, accompanied by an
orchestra or smaller musical ensemble
- (literally "sung", past participle of the
Italian verb "cantare")
- is a vocal composition with
an instrumental accompaniment, typically in
several movements, often involving a choir.
Trio Sonata
- is written for two solo melodic instruments
and basso continuo, making three parts in
all, hence the name trio sonata.
- However, because the basso continuo is
usually made up of at least two instruments
(typically a cello or bass ,a keyboard
instrument such as the harpsichord)
- is a large musical
composition for orchestra, choir,
and soloists.
- Like an opera, an oratorio includes the use
of a choir, soloists, an ensemble.

- This is in contrast to the solo

concerto which features a single solo
instrument with the melody line,
accompanied by the orchestra.
- pavan, paven, pavin, pavian, pavine, or
pavyn (It. pavana, padovana;
Ger. Paduana) is a slow processional
dance common in Europe during the 16th
century (Renaissance).
- a lively Italian dance for one person or a
-It covers the period 1750-1820.
-It was actually a reaction against the
Baroque Period.
-The musical style was an attempt to produce
music that is elegant, well-balanced and
moderate in expression
Franz Josef Haydn (1732-1809)
-Father of the Symphonies
-A prominent and prolific composer of his
-750 original composition

100 symphonies

52 piano sonatas

3 oratorios

14 masses

-One his greatest contributions to music,

aside from his long list of works, is the
establishment of the parts of the concerto
and sonata form into fast-slow-fast
-He died in 1809 at the age of seventyseven.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
-He was born in Germany.

Reincarnation- new life in a new body
Ionic Order- buildings were made up of
Corinthian Order- characterized by
slender fluted columns and elaborates
capitals decorated with acanthus leaves
and strolls.
Athena- goddess of crafts and domestic
arts. Patron of Athens.

-He was a transition composer-from

Classical Period to Romantic Period.

Hieratic- cursive writing system used in

the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt.

-He was the first successful freelance


Hieroglyphics- sacred writing is the

character of Egyptian writing system.

-He had patrons to support music his music,

unlike Mozart.

-The Egyptians use amulets (charms)

not only by decorations but because they
believed that this item protect them from

-He suffered from hearing disability.

-He produced a great number of works which
have become standards in all classical
-When he composed his symphony no. 9 in
minor D (choral) and his Missa Solemnis, he
was totally deaf.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
-He was born in Salzburg.
-He was a son of a gifted violist, Leopold
-He was a very gifted composer and pianist
-He produced 600 works with his short life
-He later settled in Vienna where he married
and live in a constant financial struggle.
-He died very poor and was buried in a
paupers grave.

Bent Pyramid
Constructed in Egypt during the reign of
King Sneferu ( 2575 BC)
Constructed in two stages
1st, architect build the walls
55 degrees but encountered
structural problem
2nd , they flattened the angles
to 43 degrees.
The pyramids unusual shape
gave it its name.
Great Pyramid of Giza
Demonstrate the power of the
Egyptian pharaohs of the old



-ceramic act of making pottery wares

(earthenware, stoneware and porcelain)

Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix

- 1800-1840
Rousseau- Man is born free, but is
everywhere in chains!
Romanticism (also the Romantic era or
the Romantic period)

- was a French Romantic artist regarded

from the outset of his career as the leader of
the French
- Delacroix's use of expressive
brushstrokes and his study of the optical
effects of color profoundly shaped the work
of the Impressionists, while his passion for
the exotic inspired the artists of
the Symbolist movement Romantic school

- was an artistic, literary, and intellectual

movement that originated in Europe toward
the end of the 18th century and in most
areas was at its peak in the approximate
period fro

- The Death of Sardanapalus

- Defining the nature of Romanticism may be

approached from the starting point of the
primary importance of the free expression of
the feelings of the artist 1800 to 1850

- was a 19th-century German

Romantic landscape painter, generally
considered the most important German artist
of his generation.

- The importance the Romantics placed on

emotion is summed up in the remark of the
German painter Caspar David
Friedrich that "the artist's feeling is his

- He is best known for his midperiod allegorical landscapes which

typically feature contemplative figures
silhouetted against night skies, morning
mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins.

- In literature, Romanticism found recurrent

themes in the evocation or criticism of the
past, the cult of "sensibility" with its
emphasis on women and children, the
isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect
for nature.

- His primary interest as an artist was the

contemplation of nature, and his often
symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to
convey a subjective, emotional response to
the natural world.

- Romantic painters and sculptors tended to

express an emotional personal response to
life, in contrast to the restraint and universal
values advocated by Neoclassical art.
- The tenets of romanticism included: a
return to nature - exemplified by an
emphasis on spontaneous plain-air painting a belief in the goodness of humanity,
- the promotion of justice for all, and a strong
belief in the senses and emotions, rather
than reason and intellect.

- The Liberty Leading the People

Caspar David Friedrich

William Blake
- an English painter, poet and printmaker.
Largely unrecognized during his lifetime,
- Blake is now considered a seminal figure
in the history of the poetry and visual arts of
the Romantic Age.
- His prophetic poetry has been said to form
"what is in proportion to its merits the
least read body of poetry in the English

His visual artistry led one contemporary art

critic to proclaim him "far and away the
greatest artist Britain has ever
- In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in
the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons
John Constable
- was an English Romantic painter. Born
in Suffolk, he is known principally for his
landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the
area surrounding his homenow known as
"Constable Country"which he invested with
an intensity of affection.
- I should paint my own places best", he
wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821,
"painting is but another word for
- Although his paintings are now among the
most popular and valuable in British art,
Constable was never financially successful.
- He did not become a member of the
establishment until he was elected to
the Royal Academy at the age of 52.

Baroque Period
Baroque- Portuguese noun Barroco
which means a pearl that is not round
but of unpredictable and elaborate in

Varavaggio (1571-1610)- best

exemplar of naturalistic painting in the
early 17th century
Rembrant (1606-1669)- Dutch
Baroque artist
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Flemish painter

Ballroom dance
-it is a set of partner dances, which are
enjoyed both socially and competitively
around the world. Because of its
performance and entertainment aspects,
ballroom dance is also widely enjoyed on
stage, film, and television.
-it may refer, at its widest, to almost any
type of social dancing as recreation.
-It usually refers to the International
Standard and International Latin style
-The term 'ballroom dancing' is derived
from the word ball, which in turn originates
from the Latin word ballare which means
'to dance' (a ballroom being a large room
specially designed for such dances).
Element of Competition
-In competition ballroom, dancers are judged
by diverse criteria such as :



Diego Velasquez (Diego Rodriguez

de Silva Velasquez)- the most
important Spanish painter of the 17th
century, a giant western art.

the hold or frame

musicality and expression,

Gianlorenzo Bernini- most artistic

talent of the Italian Baroque

timing, body alignment and

shape, floor craft, foot and
leg action, and


Types of Social/Ballroom Dance

Cha Cha
-is a lively, flirtatious ballroom dance full of
passion and energy. The classic "Cuban
motion" gives the Cha Cha its unique style.
Partners work together to synchronize each
movement in perfect alignment.
-The Foxtrot is a smooth dance in which
dancers make long, flowing movements
across the floor.
-is a ballroom dance style that originated in
the United States from African-Americans.
It is a lively form of Swing dance, and a
variation of the Jitterbug.
Lindy Hop
-is the ballroom dance considered to be the
father of all Swing dances. It is known for
its unique, athletic style, and often contains
aerial jumps, twists and flips.
-is one of the most sensual and emotional
Latin American ballroom dances. Swaying hip
movements, facial expressions, arm
movements and holds all add to the
sensuality of the dance.
Paso Doble
-is one of the liveliest ballroom dances,
originating in southern France. It is
modeled after the sound, drama, and
movement of the Spanish bullfight.
-is a quick version of the Foxtrot. It is a
ballroom dance comprised of extremely
quick stepping, syncopated feet rhythms,
and runs of quick steps. The Quickstep is
exciting to watch, but among the most
difficult of all the ballroom dances.

-is considered by many to be the most

romantic and sensual of all Latin ballroom
dances. It is often referred to as the
"Grandfather of the Latin dances."
-Possibly the most popular of all Brazilian
ballroom dances, the Samba is popular
with young people as well as older
generations. The Samba can be performed
solo or with a partner.
-is one of the most fascinating of all
ballroom dances. This sensual ballroom
dance originated in South America in the
early twentieth century.
-is one of the smoothest ballroom
dances. It is a progressive dance marked by
long, flowing movements, continuous turns,
and "rise and fall." The dance is so
graceful and elegant, Waltz dancers
appear to glide around the floor with almost
no effort.
-Only major team sports that is completely
American in origin.
-Started with a peach basket

Invented by Dr. James Naismith

A student in YMCA Springfield



Dr. Luther Gullick

-A P.E. professor in YMCA Springfield

Facilities and Equipments
Basketball Court
-Rectangular in shape

-Flat surface, rubberized colored paint

for outdoor court and wooden floor for
indoor court.

-To maneuver a difficult situation

Types of Dribble

Cross- over dribble - Is used to

move the ball from one hand to the

Between-the-leg dribble - is used

to change direction to protect the ball
from your opponent

-50 x 90 feet- for College and


Spin dribble - to move to change

direction to reverse pivot.


Behind-the-back dribble to move

or face change direction to protect the
ball from the player in front.

One side right (left) deceptive

dribble for getting open on a drive to
the basket .

*Sizes are as follows

-42 feet x 44 feet - for juniors
-50 feet x 84 feet - for high school

-Made up of solid iron

-18 inches in diameter
-10 feet above the floor


-Inflated leather nylon

-The act of throwing the ball towards a

teammate using any of the types of the
pass with correct body position.

-29 - 30 inches circumference

Types of Pass

-20 - 22

-Chess Pass Push or two handed pass


ounces in weight

-Dark orange in color

-Baseball Pass - One handed pass


-Bounce pass

Shorts, Sando or jersey, Socks, Rubber


-Underhand pass

Fundamental Skills

Officials and their Duties in the Game



- Is the successive tapping of the

ball with the palm of the hands towards
the floor with full control and follow

-Overhead pass

-Inspect and approves all equipment facilities

to be used.
-Examines the score sheets during intervals.


-Stops the games when conditions warrant it

-To advance the ball

-Makes the final decision after consultations

with the other referees.

-To break for a basket

-Has the power to make decisions on any

point not especially covered by the rules.
-Blows his whistle simultaneously giving the
signal to stop the clock causing the ball to
become dead.
-When a personal foul is committed, blows
whistle and gives signal to stop the clock.
-Indicates to the offender that a foul has
been committed.
-The scorer shall use the officials score
-Records the name and number of
players based on the submitted line up
-Records the field goals and free throws
made, personal and technical fouls called on
each player.
-Notifies the referee when the 5th foul is
already committed.

Baseline - refers to the end line

Charging personal contact against the
body of a defensive opponent by a player
with the ball.
Double foul - when two opponents commit
personal foul against each other at the same
Fast break moving the ball quietly down
court in order to score before the defense
can set up
Field goal a basket scored from the field
Free throw the privilege given to a player
to score one or two points by unhindered
shots for a goal from within a free throw,
circle and behind the free throw line
Jump ball a method of putting a ball into
play to start the game
Over time period an extra period of
playing time if the score is tied at the end of
the regulation game

-Operates the score board

Personal foul - a player foul that involves

contact with an opponent while the ball is

-In case of discrepancy between the score

board and the score sheet the official score
sheet shall take precedence

Technical foul a non-contact foul abide by

a player team or coach for unsportsmanlike
behavior or failure to abide the rules

Time keeper

Throw-in a method of putting a ball in play

from a out of bounce

Assistant scorer

-Keeps of record of playing time and all

time stoppage.
-Notes when each quarter is to start and
notifies the team and officials at least three
minutes in advance.
-Indicates the expiration of playing time in
each quarter, period, and extra period.

Travelling when a player in possession of

the ball within bounce progresses illegally in
any direction
Violation an infraction of the rules
resulting in a throw in front out of bounce for
the opponents.

24 second operator- Operates the 24

second device

- It is a sport of technique and power

Common terminologies

- Develops speed and agility

-Similar to tennis
- This sport showed its roots in an old
childrens game in England known as
battledoore and shuttlecock

5. Handle- intended to be gripped by the


Poona-first name of badminton

-must be made of natural/synthetic


- It is also a racket sports

-Played by two opposing teams. It can be
singles or doubles
1992- Badminton became an Olympic sport


Definition of Terms
Attack zone- court area where the smash
can be done
Back court- midway of the court down to
the baseline
Backhand- a stroke on the left side of the
body by a right-handed player
Backhand grip- method of holding a racket
to execute a backhand stroke

Facilities and Equipments

Baseline- back boundary line

Badminton Court

Bird- shuttlecock

- 20 feet by 44 feet

Center line- divides the court into 2 parts

- service court for singles- 5.13 meters wide

and 13.40 meters long

Cross Court- diagonal trajectory

-service for doubles- 6.10 meters wideand

11.88 meters long
- The court is divided into two parts called
center line in which we place the net with
1.55 meters high

Doubles- 2 participants
Forehand- a stroke hit on the right hands
side of a player
Forehand grip-hand stroke grip to hit the
forehand stroke


Grip- manner of holding the racket

- used to hit the shuttle

IBF- International Badminton Federation

- closely similar to a tennis racket

Kill- a smash

*Frame of the Racket*

Let- allowance to replay a service

1. Head- stringed area

Long Serve- high serve directed to the


2. Stringed area- part of the racket where

it hits the shuttle
3. Throat- connects the shaft and the head
4. Shaft- connects the handle to the head

Love- zero or no score

Rally- exchange of shots before a fault is
Serve- to put the ball in play

Short Service- over the net and lands on

the short service line

gas that interferes with the bloods ability

to carry oxygen.

Different Strokes in Badminton

Reasons why People Smoke

Clear Shot- used to move your opponent

back so you can return to your home position
Smash shot- hit the shuttle down. Used to
end the point quickly
Drop shot- short shot, falls close to the net
of the opponent
2 Basic Grip
Forehand Grip- hit with the fronthand
Backhand grip- hit with the backhand


Peer pressure

Enjoyment and pleasure

Create a social atmosphere

Eases away depression

Relief of some problems and


Diseases Associated with Smoking

Emphysema- is a killer disease in

which there is a destruction of
breathing mechanism.

Cancer of the:

Lungs, mouth, bladder, esophagus,

Pancreas, coronary heart disease, Larynx,

Tobacco- is a dried leaf of several species
of nicotine, which is the main content of

Dangerous substance of Tobacco

Nicotine- it is poison which immediately
affects lung function and contracts
the cardio vascular system. It
destroys vitamin C which is vital to
ones health.
Tar- Substance that contains
carcinogens that cause cancer. It is a
thick, brown and sticky substance
that is produced when tobacco is burned.
Carbon Monoxide-It is released once
you burn cigarette. It is a dangerous

Who smokes?

Each day, more than 3,200 people

under 18 smoke their first
cigarette, and approximately 2,100
youth and young adults become
daily smokers.

9 out of 10 smokers start before

the age of 18, and 98% start
smoking by age 26.

1 in 5 adults and teenagers smoke.

In 2011, an estimated 19% of U.S.

adults were cigarette smokers.

Approximately 18% of high school

students smoke cigarettes.

In 2011, nearly 18% of high school

boys were current cigar users.

From 1964 to 2014, the proportion

of adult smokers declined from
42.0% to 18.0%.

Facts about Smoking

Smoking causes 1 in every 5

deathsin the U.S. every year.

Every cigarette you

smoke reduces your
expected life span by 11 minutes

Classifications of Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol
-Are found in alcoholic beverages like
beer, gin, -and whisky
- the alcohol content in an alcoholic
beverage is measured in proof
-Form from fermentation of fruits or
grains of cereals
-Also known as grain alcohol
Methyl Alcohol
-Are those found in industrial products
or in cosmetics

A single cigarettecontains
over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which
are known to cause cancer.

-Has poisonous properties and used as

denaturant additive for ethanol for

About 69% of smokers want

to quit completely

-It is used in thinner or paints

Every day, nearly 4000 teens in the

U.S. smoke their first cigarette,
while 1,000 start smoking on a
daily basis.

Exposure toSecondhand
smokecauses nearly 50,000
deaths each year in the U.S. alone.

Smoking near Apple

computers voids the warranty.

More than athird of theworld's

smokers are Chinese.

-A common depressant
-The oldest and widely used mind altering
-Liquid organic compound that affects
the normal body metabolism

-Also known as wood alcohol

-Are those used in the field of
-Isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol

Different Types of Alcoholic Drinks

Beer- Produced by the fermentation of
sugars derived from starch base
Wine- Made from fermentation of
grape fruits
Distilled Liquor- A liquid preparation
meant for consumption containing ethyl
alcohol purified by distillation from a
fermented substance such as fruit,
vegetables or grain.


Effects of Alcohol to Ones Family


-Conflicts with members of the family


-Not able to work, less income


-Lost of jobs

Mixed Drinks- Any alcoholic drink mixed

with juice, sodas or with other type of
alcoholic drink

-Theft from family members to sustain



-Shows decrease scholastic

achievements for students



Reasons Why People Drink Alcohol

Social customs
To celebrate events
To relieve shyness
To escape problems or pressure
To conform
To enhance the pleasure of food
Parental influence
Appeal of the adds
Feeling of sophistication
Effects of the Alcohol on the Body
-Coordination is affected
-Brain cells are destroyed
-Blood vessels dilate giving blushed
appearance and temporary warm feeling

-medicines that act on the central

nervous system that causes drowsiness
and seizures (convulsions).
- Central Nervous System
-sedative hypnotic drugs that can make
people sleep, calm and very relaxed
-sold in capsule, tablet, liquid and
injectable forms
-commonly used: Phenobarbital
(Barbita) and secobarbita (Seconal)
Signs of an Overdosed Person
- sever drowsiness
- breathing problems
- slurred speech
- staggering
- slow heartbeat

-Disturbs the function of the liver in

breaking down fats and fatty deposits in
the liver

- severe confusion

-Irritates the stomach and intestinal

lining causing inflammation

Side effects of barbiturates when


- severe weakness

- dizziness, lightheadedness or faintness

- anxiety or restlessness
- hallucinations
- vision problems
- nausea and vomiting
- seizure (convulsions)
- muscle twitches or trembling hands
- weakness
- sleeping problems, nightmares or
increased dreaming