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6/2/2008

Hitachi Data Systems


Enterprise Storage
Boot Camp
Hitachi Universal Storage Platform,
Hitachi Universal Storage Platform V,
Hitachi Universal Storage Platform VM, and
Hitachi Network Storage Controller
Hardware and Architecture

2008 Hitachi Data Systems

6/2/2008

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, the learner should be able to:
Describe the Network Storage Controller hardware architectural concepts and
fundamentals
Describe the Universal Storage Platform VM hardware architectural
concepts and fundamentals
Describe the Universal Storage Platform hardware architectural concepts and
fundamentals
Describe the Universal Storage Platform V hardware architectural concepts
and fundamentals

6/2/2008

Functionality Demanded

Hitachi Storage Families

Network Storage
Controller
Model NSC55

Universal
Storage
Platform VM

Universal Storage
Platform

Universal Storage
Platform V

Intelligent Virtual
Storage Controllers

AMS500

AMS1000

AMS200
WMS100

Advanced
Midrange
Storage
Systems

Small Business
or Department

Mid-size Business
or Department

All product families


are managed from
one integrated
software suite
All models are
designed for tiered
storage

Large Business

Size of Organization Served


3

In the diagram above, and on subsequent pages,


WMS100 = Hitachi Workgroup Modular Storage system Model WMS100
AMS200 = Hitachi Adaptable Modular Storage system Model AMS200
AMS500 = Hitachi Adaptable Modular Storage system Model AMS500
AMS1000 = Hitachi Adaptable Modular Storage system Model AMS1000

6/2/2008

Alternate System Names


Unofficial product names occasionally appear in documentation.
Hitachi Data Systems

Hitachi RSD

Sun

Universal Storage
Platform V

R600

StorageTek 9990V

Universal Storage
Platform

R500

StorageTek 9990

Network Storage
Controller

R500-RK

StorageTek 9985

Universal Storage
Platform VM

R600-RK

StorageTek 9985V

Lightning 9900 V Series

R450

StorEdge 9970, 9980

RSD is a unit of Hitachi Ltd., RSD stands for Raid Storage Division.
RAID500-RK (rack) instead of RAID500-FC (flexible cabinet)
Lightning 9900 V Series stands for Hitachi Lightning 9900 V Series
enterprise storage system

6/2/2008

Hi-Star Crossbar Switch Architecture


Key Components Logical Layout
Host

Host

Enterprise Storage

CHANNEL ADAPTER - CHA

CACHE

SHARED
MEMORY

CACHE SWITCH - CSW

DISK ADAPTER - DKA

PARITY GROUPS
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6/2/2008

Architecture Key Components

Channel Adapter (CHA)


Disk Adapter (DKA)
Shared Memory
Cache Memory
Cache Switch
Service Processor (SVP)

Channel Adapter CHA or Front End Director-FED - Provides ports that


control data transfer between the host and the cache memory.
Disk Adapter DKA or Back End Director-BED. Provides ports that control
data transfer between the disk drive and cache memory.
Shared Memory (SM) - This is the memory that stores configuration data,
plus information and status for controlling cache memory, disk drives and the
logical devices.
Cache Memory (CM) - This is the memory that stores user data in order to
perform I/O processing asynchronously with the reading and writing to a disk
drive.
Cache Switch (CSW) - Provides multiple switched data paths between the
CHA/DKA and Cache memory
Service Processor (SVP) - Exclusive PC for performing all hardware and
software maintenance functions on the
Network Storage Controller.

6/2/2008

Hi-Star Architecture
Key Components Physical Layout

Universal Storage Platform

Host

Host

CHANNEL ADAPTER - CHA

CACHE

SHARED
MEMORY

CACHE SWITCH - CSW

DISK ADAPTER - DKA

PARITY GROUPS
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6/2/2008

Hi-Star Architecture
Key Components Physical Layout

Network Storage Controller

Host

Host

CHANNEL ADAPTER - CHA

Mix Adapter
DISK ADAPTER - DKA

CACHE SWITCH - CSW

Base Adapter
CACHE

SHARED
MEMORY

PARITY GROUPS
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6/2/2008

Architecture Storage
Storage Overview

1. Physical Devices - PDEV


2. PDEV grouped together with RAID type.
RAID 1+, RAID 5, RAID 6

3. Virtual Device(s) - VDEV

4. EMULATION specifies smaller logical unit sizes

5. Logical Devices - LDEV

6. Assign addresses in CU:LDEV format

00:00
00:01
00:02
9

Parity Groups are created from the physical disks.


A RAID Level and emulation is applied to the group.
The emulation creates equal sized stripes called LDEVs (Logical Devices).
LDEVs are mapped into a Control Unit matrix (CU#:LDEV#).

6/2/2008

Network Storage Controller

Network Storage Controller

10

For entry-enterprise storage customers or the high-end of modular storage


customers with either open or mainframe servers who seek to exploit the
reliability, availability and unique software capabilities of the Universal
Storage Platform at a lower capacity and price point with a smaller form
factor.
For disaster recovery programs where it can be deployed as a more costeffective data mover between primary and secondary sites (will support both
Hitachi TrueCopy Heterogeneous Remote Replication Software and
Universal Replicator)
For customers seeking to aggregate or consolidate and simplify the
management of a heterogeneous storage pool
For customers who wish to deploy a storage solution across multiple
differentiated tiers of heterogeneous storage with common management,
replication, and data movement software

10

6/2/2008

Cabinet Layout
Hardware Structure
Primary/secondary racks
are identical components

Primary Rack

Optional disk chassis


DKC-F515-B2R

12U

Initial disk chassis is


required

12U

Secondary Rack

12U

1U
SVP

15U

12U

Logic/Power Supply Box


Two more optional
B2R disk chassis
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The Global Rack provides 42U of useable space. Any portion not covered by a bezel will be
covered by a flat filler plate. Additional bezels may be ordered as a line item.
Note: If a Hitachi Thunder 9500 V Series modular storage system is mounted in place of
the optional disk chassis, its standard bezel will be installed instead of the flat filler panel.
The primary rack is composed of the DKC Box, SVP and up to two disk chassis, which can
hold a total of 120 disk drives. The DKC can control a maximum of 240 HDDs when
connected with four disk chassis.
Disk Controller
The DKC consists of the DKC Box in which the MIX-PCB (channel adapters & disk
adapters), BASE-PCB (cache memories, shared memories, and CSW) are installed, and
power supplies and battery boxes that supply power to the components above. Most of the
main components have been designed with a duplex or redundant configuration, to achieve
non-stop operation against failures at a single point. In addition, components can be
replaced and added, and the microcode can be upgraded while the subsystem is in
operation. The control unit is equipped with an SVP, which is used to service the subsystem,
monitor its running condition, and analyze faults. Connecting the SVP with a service center
enables remote maintenance of the subsystem.
The secondary rack is composed of two disk chassis, which can hold 60 disk drives.
The disk chassis consists of the four HDU boxes in each, of which 15 disk drives can be
installed, cooling fans, and power supplies that supply power to the components above. It
can have up to 60 disk drives installed.
This disk unit is configured from duplex power supply system and cooling fans with
redundancy introduced. In addition, the disk drives achieve non-stop operation against
failure of one piece of components by employing the RAID1, RAID5, or RAID6 levels.
Components can be replaced and added while the subsystem is in operation.

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6/2/2008

Disk Chassis
Disk Chassis Overview
Includes a total of 60 slots for HDDs
Four HDDs (data) plus one HDD (spare) must be included in initial
configuration

Optional disk chassis


DKC-F515-B2R

Initial disk chassis is


required
DKC-F515-B2R

12U

12U

The Disk chassis is comprised of


two assemblies
Each assembly consists of two
rows of 15 slots for HDDs
The disk chassis does not include
any HDDs. The HDDs must be
ordered as a separate line item
Parity groups of four HDDs are
installed vertically in one disk
chassis for RAID 1 or RAID5 (one
disk in each of the four rows)
Parity groups of eight HDDs are
installed vertically in two adjacent
columns for RAID6 (two disks in
each of the four rows)

12

Disk Chassis
The disk chassis consists of two physical HDD boxes which contains two HDU
Boxes in each, of which 15 disk drives can be installed, cooling fans, and power
supplies that supply power to the components above. It can have up to 60 disk
drives installed.
This disk unit is configured from a duplex power supply system and cooling fans
with redundancy introduced. In addition, the disk drives achieve non-stop operation
against failure of one piece of components by employing the RAID1, RAID5 or
RAID6 level. Components can be replaced and added while the subsystem is in
operation.

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6/2/2008

Hardware Specifications

Hardw are
Connectivity
Min/Max ports
Minimum HDD
Maximum HDD
Drive Types
Maximum External Capacity
Minimum Cache
Maximum Cache
Min/Max Control Memory
Max No. LUNs
Max Virtual Host Ports
Max Private Virtual Storage Machines
Max Internal Capacity

Specifications
Fibre CHA, FICON, ESCON, NAS, ISCSI
16/48 Fibre Channel, 16 FICON,
16 ESCON, 8 NAS, 8 ISCSI
4 Data + 1 Spare
240 HDD
73GB, 146GB, 300GB
16PB
4GB
64GB
1GB/6GB
16384
1024 per physical port
8
72TB

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6/2/2008

RAID Levels Supported


RAID1 (2D+2D), RAID5 (3D+1P), RAID5 (7D+1P) and RAID6
(6D+2P)
RAID1 (4D+4D) (two concatenation RAID1 (2D+2D)
RAID / Emulation types supported by the 300GB HDD
(code 50-05-xx):
RAID1 (2D+2D), RAID5 (7D+1P, 3D+1P), and RAID6 (6D+2P)
Open Systems: OPEN-V, OPEN 3, 8, 9, E and L
Mainframe: 3380-3, 3390-9, -L, and -2L are supported

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6/2/2008

Architecture
Channel Interface

Power Supply

DKC

SM

SM

SM Path
(3.6GB/s)

Input
Power

PDB-Box
PDB-Box

MIX
(DKA/CHA)

Battery
Battery
Box
Box

Input
Power

PDB-Box
PDB-Box

CHA

MIX
(DKA/CHA)

CHA

AC-DC
AC-DC
Power
Power
Supply
Supply
CSW

CSW

CACHE

CACHE

Cache Path
(8.5GB/s)

Power Supply

Disk Path (max.8path)

AC-DC
Power
AC-DC
Supply
Power
Supply

FCAL(2Gbps/port)
Max. 60HDD

DKU

Max. 240 HDD/subsystem

15

The Network Storage Controller is divided into the Power Supply section,
DKC section, and DKU section.
The Power Supply section consists of AC-DC power supplies and battery
boxes (only for DKC).
The DKC section consists of channel adapters (CHAs), disk adapters
(DKAs), cache memories (CACHEs), shared memories (SMs).
The DKU section consists of FSWs and HDDs.

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6/2/2008

Architecture
Universal Star Network
The data path bandwidth maximum
is 8.5GB/s (C-HSN)
The control path bandwidth
maximum is 3.6GB/s (S-HSN)

CHA
(Add.1)

MIX(CHA&DKA)
(Basic)

MIX(CHA&DKA)
(Basic)

CHA
(Add.1)

C lu s te r1

C lu s te r2

M IX (C H A & D K A )

CHA

M IX (C H A & D K A )

CHA

(B a s ic )

(A d d .1 )

(B a s ic )

(A d d .1 )

2 p a th
C S W (B A S E P C B )

C S W (B A C E P C B )

2 p a th

2Path

Cluster1
SM DIMM

M a x .8 .5 G B /s

SM
(BASE)

SM
(BASE)

Cluster2
C a c h e M e m o ry (m a x 1 6 G B )

C a c h e M e m o ry (m a x 1 6 G B )

C a c h e (B A S E P C B )

C a c h e (B A S E P C B )
C a c h e D IM M

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6/2/2008

Disk Controller Unit (DKC)


The Logic Box has six slot locations
Rear Side
A

PCB Location

MIX
CHA
BASE
BASE CHA
MIX
(Basic) (Add.1)
(Basic)
(Basic) (Add.1) (Basic)
C
C
C
C
B
B
H
H
H
H
SM
SM
A
A
A
A
A
A
DIMM S
DIMM S
&
&
1
1
E
E
D
D
K
K
A
A
CM
CM
DIMM
DIMM
Logic PL

Cluster 1

Cluster 2
Power supply
sphere boundary

17

The Network Storage Controller has a structure in which the Base, Mix, and
CHA PCBs are arranged on the rear side of the storage system. The domain
power supply is divided into left and right halves forming the center of the
L/G PL boundary. The left half (front view) is the cluster 1 and the right half,
the cluster 2.
Numbers of PCBs that can be installed are as follows:
MIX PCB: 2 Standard
CHA PCB: 2 Optional
BASE PCB: 2 Standard
The shared memory modules and cache memory modules are mounted on
the BASE PCB. The Base PCB also houses the CSW hardware.

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6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform VM

Universal Storage Platform VM

18

Universal Storage Platform VM is targeted at the small enterprise. It sits


between the Network Storage Controller Model NSC55 and the Universal
Storage Platform V. It can be replicated to and from a Network Storage
Controller Model NSC55 and can be replicated to a Universal Storage
Platform V.
All of the Hitachi Data Systems Adaptable Modular Storage and Workgroup
Modular Storage systems in additional to the legacy product lines, can be
virtualized behind the Universal Storage Platform VM for maximum ROI and
reduced storage management.

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6/2/2008

Overview
Smaller businesses can exploit
enterprise-class software and
intelligent storage controller
architecture with their existing
modular storage
Virtualization Services that simplifies:

Single-Rack
Configuration

Dual-Rack
Configuration

Non-disruptive Data Migration


Data Replication
Local
Long Distance

Thin Provisioning of internal and


virtualized external storage that:
Reduces storage management
Reduces capital expenditures and
monthly electrical and cooling costs

Primary
Rack

Primary
Rack

Primary
Rack

19

On September 10, 2007 Hitachi introduced the Hitachi Universal Storage Platform VM

The only intelligent virtual storage controller with the option to add internal disk storage. This enables the Universal Storage
Platform VM to deliver Tier 1 storage with 100% data availability along with storage virtualization services.

Converts into a complete platform for delivery of storage services for mainframes and open systems. This
reduces the requirement for separate storage arrays for each open systems and mainframes and simplifies
management.
Smaller businesses can exploit Hitachi enterprise-class software and Intelligent Storage Controller architecture with their
existing modular storage
Reduces complexity with common data management and data mobility software across a heterogeneous storage pool
Non-disruptive data migration between heterogeneous storage systems

Hitachi Volume Migration software or Hitachi Tiered Storage Manager software

Services Oriented Storage Platform with advanced virtualization offers capabilities for block, file and objectbased data.

Virtualization Services that simplify:


Non-disruptive Data Migration
Data Replication
Local
Long Distance
Thin Provisioning of internal and virtualized external storage that:
Reduces storage management
Reduces capital expenditures and monthly electrical and cooling costs

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6/2/2008

Unique Embedded Virtualization Layer


Simplifies Tiered Storage Management
Hitachi Universal Storage Platform VM
Increase Efficiency
Simplified infrastructure and
management

Maximize current and past


investments

File
Service

ERP

Order
System

Data
Mining

Email

Print
Service

SAN

Extend life of existing devices


Provide the new functionality of the
Universal Storage Platform V to
existing storage

HITACHI

Simplify Operations

Universal Storage
Platform VM

Single set of tools for data


management and replication

Move, migrate, or copy data


across heterogeneous tiered
storage

High Perf.
99.99%

EMC DMX2000

Thunder 9585V

100%
General
Purpose

Lightning 9900 V Series

Archive
Backup

WMS100

IBM Shark
-ESS 800

IBM Shark-ESS 800

Simplifying operations with as much as 96PBs of storage


managed as one common pool
20

This diagram shows EMC DMX, the IBM Shark, and Hitachi storage systems that
can be managed.
Universal Storage Platform VM can virtualize multiple storage systems connected
to the back-end Fibre Channel ports.
Customers can keep existing storage and add value by being able to include
Hitachis latest software functionality on them, and latest host connectivity,
which far outpaces anyone else in the industry. Instead of managing all those
different storage systems, can manage your entire storage pool through Universal
Storage Platform VM. This allows the customer to extend the life of their existing
devices and centrally manage and monitor all storage among all this complexity.
Hitachi Thunder 9500 V Series with SATA disks are included in the same
environment with Hitachi Lightning 9900 V Series enterprise storage system as
high-performance, high-availability disk, and finally the ultra high-performance
and availability from the internal disk of the Universal Storage Platform.
Customers can provide the right storage to the right application at the right time.

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6/2/2008

Hardware Specifications
Hardware

Specification/Quantity

Connectivity

Fibre Channel, FICON, ESCON, NAS

Min/Max Ports

8/48 Fibre Channel


8/24 FICON, 8/24 ESCON
NAS (High Performance NAS)

Drive Types

146GB, 300GB FC, 750GB SATA#

Maximum External Capacity

96PB

Minimum Cache

4GB

Maximum Cache

64GB

Min/Max Control Memory

4GB/16GB

Max # of LUNs

16,384

Max Virtual Host Ports

1024 per physical port

Max Private Virtual Storage Machines

8 (Max 8GB per Virtual Storage Machine)

Maximum Internal Capacity

72TB (300GB FC)

# - GA November 2007
21

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6/2/2008

Hardware Comparison of Crossbar Switch


Architecture Net Control
Universal Storage Platform VM

Network Storage Controller

Control path bandwidth of Crossbar Switch Architecture Net : 4.8GB/s


The number of paths from channel adapter/disk adapter to each SMA is
increased from 12 to 16.
Shared memory is installed on SMA PCB.

Control path bandwidth of Crossbar Switch


Architecture Net: 3.6GB/s
The number of paths from CHA/MIX to each SM is 12.
Shared memory is installed on BASE PCB

CHA
(Option1)

CHA
(Option2)

CHA
(Option3)

CHA
(Option3)

CHA
(Option2)

CHA
(Option1)

CHA
(Add.1)

MIX(CHA&DKA)
(Basic)

MIX(CHA&DKA)
(Basic)

CHA
(Add.1)

2Path

2Path

SM

SM
SMA

4.8GB

SMA

BASE PK
Cluster1
2Path
DKA
(Option1)

DKA
(Option1)

Cluster1

Cluster2

Cluster2

SM DIMM

22

On the graphic above, CHA stands for channel adapter

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6/2/2008

Features
Scalability
Universal Storage Platform VM supports a wide range of configurations to
address the scalability requirements of our customers
Front-end directors: 1 to 3 features
Fibre Channel, FICON, ESCON

Cache memory: 4GB - 64GB


Internal Disk Drives: Zero to 240
Configurations with zero internal disks are referred to as Diskless. These
configurations use Externally Attached Storage for all data storage.
Disk drive capacities supported: 73GB, 146GB and 300GB

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6/2/2008

Features
High-performance
All disks supported by Universal Storage Platform VM operate at 15K rpm.
The data transfer rate between the back-end director Fibre Channel (FC)
disk adapter and the disk drive is 4GB/sec.
Overall system performance has been improved by installing
microprocessors on the front-end directors and back-end director disk
adapter that operate at twice the speed as those used on the Network
Storage Controller.

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6/2/2008

Expanded Configuration
Components housed within the Primary Rack:
Disk Controller Houses Cache/Shared Memory, up to three front-end directors, one
back-end director, Hi-Star Net architectural components and a Service Processor
(SVP).
OPTIONAL: Additional SVP/Battery Chassis - Houses optional SVP for customers
requiring the highest level of system mgmt availability. Houses an Additional Battery
required when Cache Memory capacity exceeds 80B (*Note: Initial release of
Chicago will only support a maximum of 64GB of Cache Memory.)
OPTIONAL: Disk Chassis Supports up to 60 disks. A maximum of two Disk
Chassis may be installed in the Primary Rack.

Components housed within the


Secondary Rack:
OPTIONAL: Disk Chassis
Supports up to 60 disks. A
maximum of two Disk Chassis may
be installed in the Secondary Rack.
Note: The secondary rack is only
required for those configurations
that include three or four Disk
Chassis

Primary Rack

Secondary Rack

12U
Disk Chassis
(DKU-R1)
12U
Disk Chassis
(DKU-R0)
2U
10U
Additional
SVP/Battery
Chassis

Disk Chassis
(DKU-R3)

Disk Chassis
(DKU-R2)

Operator Panel
Disk Controller
(DKC)

25

(1) Disk Controller


The disk controller consists of the disk controller box, in which the channel
adapters, disk adapters, cache memory adapters, shared memory adapters, and
CSW are installed, battery boxes and power supplies that supply power to the
components above. Most of main components have been implemented with a
duplex or redundant configuration, and achieve non-stop operation against a failure
of a single point of the components. In addition, components can be replaced and
added, and the microcode can be upgraded while the subsystem is in operation.
The control unit is equipped with an SVP, which is used to service the subsystem,
monitor its running condition, and analyze faults. Connecting the SVP with a service
center enables remote maintenance of the subsystem.
(2) Disk Chassis
The disk chassis consists of the four HDU boxes in each of which 15 disk drives,
cooling fans, and power supplies that supply power to the components above can
be installed. It can have up to 60 disk drives installed.
This disk unit is configured from duplex power supply system and cooling fans with
redundancy introduced. In addition, the disk drives achieve non-stop operation
against the failure of one piece of the components by employing the RAID1, RAID5
or RAID6 level. Components can be replaced and added while the subsystem is in
operation.

25

6/2/2008

Switched Loop Details


Universal Storage Platform VM introduces a switched back-end, where the drives are
still on arbitrated loops, but the switch logic bypasses all targets on that loop except
for the one disk being addressed.

26

On the previous Hitachi Universal Storage Platform model, all of the disks attached
to a back-end director PCB were on eight shared loops. A transfer to the last disk
on a loop (could be 32 or 48 disks per loop) would have to pass through bypass
logic on all of the disks in front of it.
The Universal Storage Platform VM introduces a switched back-end, where the
drives are still on arbitrated loops (all Fibre Channel disks use Fibre Channel
Arbitrated Loops (FC-AL, not FC-SW fabrics), but the switch logic bypasses all
targets on that loop except for the one disk being addressed. This reduces the
propagation time by some microseconds (not noticeable), but the primary effect of
this change is improved accessibility to individual disks. Each HDU has four such
FSW switches, two on the front side (32 disks) and two more on the back (32 disks).
Each pair of switches is either an upper or a lower switch as seen in the figure
above.

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6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform

Universal Storage Platform

27

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6/2/2008

Functional Descriptions
Using the Universal Storage Platform:
Connect all storage systems into a common storage platform
Reduce complexity and extend the useful life of storage you
already own
Share that platform across virtual storage machines
Address application-specific performance, availability, cost, and
protection requirements
Reduce data management cost by using a single replication engine
Support all of data protection and lifecycle management needs
Enhance server, application, and network performance
Offload replication, migration, and data protection tasks
Manage all of this from a single pane of glass

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6/2/2008

Pricing Models
Universal Storage Platform 100 - Entry Level
Universal Storage Platform 600 - Enhanced
Universal Storage Platform 1100 - High Performance

Array Frame
DKU-L1

Disk Control
Frame
DKC

Array Frame
DKU-L2

Array Frame
DKU-R1

Disk Controller
Frame
DKC

Array Frame
DKU-R2

29

There are three Universal Storage Platform models, ranging from an entrylevel to a high-performance configuration. You may nondisruptively upgrade
from the smallest model to the maximum configuration.

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6/2/2008

Product Overview
Disk Controller Frame - DKC

Operator Panel

30

The Integrated Disk Controller (DKC) frame contains the operator panel,
SVP, FEDs, BEDs, cache switch modules, cache memory boards, control
memory boards, hard disk drives, power supplies, battery boxes, and cooling
fans.
The Universal Storage Platform consists of a disk controller (DKC) in which
128 disk drives can be installed and disk array frames (DKUs) in each of
which 256 disk drives can be installed. The disk controller is capable of
controlling up to 1,152 HDDs when it is connected with four disk adapters.
Disk Controller
The box frame contains channel adapters, disk adapters, cache memories,
shared memories, CSWs, the HDU box containing disk drives, and power
supplies and battery boxes.
Most components have a redundant configuration, which achieves
nonstop operation against failure of single points.
Components can be replaced and added, and the microcode can be
upgraded while the storage system is in operation.
The control unit is equipped with an SVP (special PC), which is used
to service the storage system, monitor its running condition and
analyze faults. Connecting the SVP with a service center enables
remote maintenance of the storage system.

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6/2/2008

Product Overview
Disk Array Frame - DKU

31

The Universal Storage Platform Disk Array Frame (DKU) contains hard disk
drives, power supplies, battery boxes, cooling fans, and communication
interfaces to the control frame.
Disk Unit
A disk unit consists of four hard drive unit (HDU) boxes each with 64
disk drives, cooling fans, power supplies and battery boxes.
It has a redundant power supply system and cooling fans.
The disk drives achieve nonstop operation against failure by
employing RAID1+0 or RAID5. Components can be replaced and
added while the storage system is in operation.

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6/2/2008

Architecture

DKU Frame

DKC Frame
Measurements in
millimeters
OP Panel
3382
750
650

HDDBOX

HDDBOX

L/G-BOX
1860
DKUFRAME
(L2)
DKUFRAME
(L1)
DKCFRAME
DKUFRAME
(R1)
DKUFRAME
(R2)

SW-PS

SW-PS
925

Battery

DKC510I and DKU505I

(750)

(650)

Battery

AC-Power Supply

32

The Universal Storage Platform consists of a disk controller in which 128 disk drives can be
installed and disk array frames (DKUs) in each of which 256 disk drives can be installed.
The DKC is capable of controlling up to 1,152 HDDs when it is connected with four DKUs.
Disk Controller
The box frame contains channel adapters, disk adapters, cache memories, shared
memories, CSWs, the HDU box containing disk drives, and power supplies and battery
boxes.
The control unit is equipped with an SVP (Special PC), which is used to service the
subsystem, monitor its running condition, and analyze faults. Connecting the SVP
with a service center enables remote maintenance of the subsystem.
Disk Unit
A DKU consists of four hard drive unit (HDU) boxes each with 64 disk drives,
cooling fans, and power supplies and battery boxes.
It has a redundant power supply system and cooling fans.

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6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform 100


Up to 256 disks (up to 74TB)
Single back-end director (BED) pair
Two cache memory cards, two cache switch cards,
two shared memory cards
Maximum 64GB cache, 17GB/s data bandwidth

Up to 64 ESCON/32 FICON channels or 128 FC


Front-end directors are the only optional features

Upgradeable to Universal Storage Platform 600


Add second BED, cache switch pair and array frame

33

The model Universal Storage Platform 100 is suitable for small to medium
enterprises and or specific applications.

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6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform 600


Up to 512 disks (96+1 minimum) ~148TB
raw capacity
Dual frame standard, specific cabling

Two BED director pairs


Four cache switch cards, two cache
memory cards, two control memory cards
Additional cache memory and control
memory are available as an optional
upgrade
Maximum 64GB cache, 128GB after
optional upgrade
34GB/sec data bandwidth

Up to 48 (96 in later release) FICON, 96


ESCON channels, or 192 FC
Upgradeable to model Universal Storage
Platform 1100

34

The Universal Storage Platform 600 performance capabilities are created to


match most of the requirements of Fortune 500 customers. It offers full
upgrade ability to the Universal Storage Platform 1100 model and excellent
scalability in terms of features and functions.

34

6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform 1100


Up to 1152 disks (128+1 minimum)
Aggregate up to 332TB of capacity

Two or four back-end director pairs


Two switch pairs, two cache memory pairs and two control memory pairs
Max 256 GB cache, 68 GB/sec data bandwidth

Up to 48 (96 in later release) FICON, 96 ESCON channels or 192 FC


Ultimate consolidation and transaction machine

35

The Universal Storage Platform 1100 is the ultimate configuration. It comes


with everything standard and the only choices are the number of BEDs and
FEDs installed. It is the most high performing configuration of the available of
the models.

35

6/2/2008

Architecture - Clusters
DKC Logic Box Slots
Rear Side - Cluster 2

Controlled by CSW (Add)

2X

2W

2V

Option2 Option3

D
K
A
6
/
C
H
A

2U

2T

CSW
CHA
CHA
(Add) (Add.3) (Add.2)

D
K
A
7
/
C
H
A

2CB 2SB/2SD

2CD

Cache
(Basic)

Cache
(Add.)

Upper

C
DIMM A

C
H
E
1

Controlled by CSW (Basic)

2R

2SD M DIMM A
C
(Add) 3

H
E
3

S
2SB M
(Basic) 1

2Q

2P

2N

2M

CSW
CHA
CHA
Option1 Option B
(Add.1) (Basic) (Basic)

C
D
K
A
4

D
K
A
5

Power supply
sphere
boundary

Lower
Upper

D
K
A
2
/
C
H
A

D
K
A
3
/
C
H
A

Option2 Option3

1L

1K

CSW
(Add.)

1J

S
C
A DIMM M 1SA
0 (Basic)
C
H
S
E
M 1SC
2
2 (Add)

CHA
CHA
(Add.3) (Add.2)

1H

DKC-F510I-CSW

1G

Cache
(Add.)

1CC

Lower

PCB
Location

C
C
A DIMM
H
C
H
A
E
1
0
Cache
(Basic)

1SA/1SC 1CA

Logic PL
D
K
A
1

D
K
A
0

CSW Option1 Option B


CHA
CHA
(Add.1) (Basic) (Basic)

1F

Front Side - Cluster 1

1E

1D

1B

1A

PCB
Location

36

The Logic Box slots of the DKC are divided into two sections. One section is
located on the front side of the DKC, and the other section is located on the
rear side. These two sections function as Cluster 1 and Cluster 2,
respectively. Each cluster has a structure in which two sets of CHAs, DKAs,
Caches, and CSW are installed symmetrically to the right and left. The basic
CSWs are installed at the PCB locations, 1D and 2P, and control the Basic
CHA. Add CHA1, Option B, and Option DKA 1. When installing the channel
adaptor/disk adaptor (CHA/DKA) in the location, 1G/2T, 1H/2U, 1K/2W, or
1L/2X, the DKC-F510I-CSW must be installed in location 1J and 2V. The
locations for installing the shared memory PCBs are separated from the
locations for other components. The shared memory PCBs are installed in
two layers (upper and lower). The shared memory PCBs installed in the
upper and lower layers are different from each other. Besides, locations for
installing the basic and additional shared memory PCBs in Cluster 1 are
different from those in Cluster 2.

36

6/2/2008

Cache Memory and Shared Memory


Cache Overview

Cache Directory
Configuration Info
Device Mapping
Task Queues

1024MB DIMMs = 12GB


512MB DIMMs = 6GB

Shared Memory (Control)


Non-volatile

Cache (Data)

2048MB DIMMs = 256GB


Customer Data

1024MB DIMMs = 128GB

37

Cache directory information allows a CHA microprocessor to find out if


requested data is already cache-resident.
Configuration Info is the configuration data specified via the SVP
installation, maintenance, and change-configuration capabilities.
Device mapping means LUNs mapping to a CU:LDEV, which maps to an
array-group. Logical-addressing has to be converted to physical-addressing
to determine the specific drive containing the requested data.
There are task queues that support front-end and back-end processor
activities. Each MP runs a task created with and RTOS called VxWorks
(WindRiver Inc.)

37

6/2/2008

Shared Memory
Shared memory stores
Cache directory Information
Storage system configuration data
Path group array information
Dynamic path selection
Contains the run-time task list for front-end directors and back-end directors

Size of shared memory storage is determined by


Total cache size
Number of LDEVs
Replication software in use

Shared memory is duplexed


Physical location
In the Universal Storage Platform, shared memory is mounted on dedicated
printed circuit boards
In the Network Storage Controller, shared memory is mounted on the cache
printed circuit boards

38

The non-volatile shared memory contains the cache directory and configuration
information for the Universal Storage Platform. The path group arrays (for example,
the dynamic path selection) also reside in the shared memory. The shared memory
is duplexed, and each side of the duplex resides on the first two shared memory
cards, which are in clusters 1 and 2. The shared memory has separate power
supplies and is protected by separate seven-day battery backup.
For the Universal Storage Platform model, shared memory is now mounted on
separate boards (previously on the cache boards). This new design eliminates the
performance degradation (caused by write-through mode) that was previously
experienced during shared memory replacement.
The basic size of the shared memory is 3GB (two cards), and the maximum size is
6GB (four cards). The size of the shared memory storage is determined by several
factors, including total cache size, number of LDEVs and replication functions in
use. The replication functions affecting shared memory include Hitachi TrueCopy
Remote Replication software Synchronous/Asynchronous software, Hitachi
ShadowImage Heterogeneous Replication software, Hitachi Universal Replicator
software, Hitachi Copy-on-Write Snapshot software, FlashCopy V2, Volume
Migration, Serverless Backup Enabler (E-Copy), and Copy Manager for TPF. Any
required increase beyond shared memory stores configuration data and the
information for controlling the cache memory and disk drives. The memory can be
accessed commonly from the CHA and DKA.

38

6/2/2008

Architecture
Hi-Star Architecture

THEORY 02-60

39

Comprised of:
Cache
Shared memory
Non-blocking cache switches
The Universal Storage Platform has the power supply, DKC, and DKU section in which disk drives are installed.
The High Performance Shared Memory Access Model, in which the shared memory-PCB (SM-PCB) is added
optionally, realizes the bandwidth of up to 15GB/s. Hi-Star net performance according to system configuration:
Cache (Basic) + CSW (Basic) -----------------------------maximum 17GB/sec
Cache (Basic) + CSW (Basic + Option) -----------------maximum 34GB/sec
Cache (Basic+Option) + CSW (Basic)-------------------maximum 34GB/sec
Cache (Basic+Option) + CSW (Basic+Option) --------maximum 68GB/sec
The power supply section consists of AC-Boxes, AC-DC power supplies and battery boxes. The system
architecture adopts duplicated structure for the AC power reception. The AC power supplied is converted into 56V
DC power by the AC-DC power supply and supplied to each component inside the subsystem. Each component
has a DC-DC converter and generates necessary voltage from the 56V DC to supply it to itself.
New generation non-blocking switching architecture
Faster switch components
Enhanced data and control bandwidth
Helps consolidations and fast transactions applications
Separate control memory region for increased reliability and serviceability
Expanded Cache Memory and flexible front-end/back-end configuration
Faster and increased number of RISC processors across the system (2GB/s)
Conform better to the applications needs
Improved Fibre Channel and FICON design
Additional reliability: reduces outages, increases productivity
Faster back-end design
2Gbit/sec disk interface
Optional faster back-end director (Later release)
Ease performance bottlenecks, helps with applications consolidation and QoS
Enhanced RAID-1+ and RAID-6
RAID-6 (6+2) for increased reliability, recovery and security

39

6/2/2008

Optional Disk Features


Also called hard disk drives (HDDs)
All Universal Storage Platform
models support

73GB,15Krpm
146GB,10Krpm
146GB,15Krpm
300GB,10Krpm

Dual vendor policy will be applied


wherever possible
HGST and Seagate

Universal Storage Platform/Network


Storage Controller hard disk drives
are not interchangeable with other
Hitachi Data Systems Storage
Systems
40

Universal Storage Platform supports four types of disk drives; these drives have a
2Gb/s fibre channel interface. The respective capacities of the disk drives are:
73GB/15k rpm

146GB/10k rpm

146GB/15k rpm 300GB/10k rpm


Each disk drive can be replaced nondisruptively on site. The Universal Storage
Platform utilizes diagnostic techniques and background dynamic scrubbing that
detect and correct disk errors. Dynamic sparing is invoked automatically if needed.
For an array group of any RAID level, any spare disk drive can back up any other
disk drive of the same rotation speed and the same or lower capacity anywhere in
the subsystem, even if the failed disk and the spare disk are in different array
domains (attached to different disk adapter pairs). The Universal Storage Platform
can be configured with a minimum of one and a maximum of 40 spare disk drives
(Four slots for spare disks + 36 slots for spare or data disks). The standard
configuration provides one spare drive for each type of drive installed in the storage
system. The Hi-Track tool monitoring and reporting tool detects disk failures and
notifies the Hitachi Data Systems Support Center automatically and a service
representative is sent to replace the disk drive.

40

6/2/2008

HDU Box
Configuration in HDU Box in which 32 HDDs are controlled by two Fibre
Channel Arbitrated Loops (FC-ALs)
HDU Box

HDU Left Side


HDU
FC-AL boundary

HDU Right Side

1F 1E 1D 1C 1B 1A 19 18 0F 0E 0D 0C 0B 0A 09 08
FSW-A1

FSW-A2

FSW-A1

FSW-A2

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00

Extension of FC-AL
connection

DKU F505I
FSWA
1F 1E 1D 1C 1B 1A 19 18 0F 0E 0D 0C 0B 0A 09 08

FCAL boundary

FSW-A1

FSW-A2

FSW-A1

FSW-A2

HDD Location
17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00

HDU

The first FSWA1 is standard and is always installed.


When connecting to the HDU using the two FC-ALs, installation of the second FSWA2 is needed.
When using the second FSWA2, the HDU is configured as two separate HDUs.
41

In the disk controller (DKC) and DKU frames, two HDUs each contain 32 HDDs. The
HDDs are connected to the disk adapter (DKA) through the fibre channel interface
switches (FSWs) with the FC-AL.
When the FSW-A is installed, the HDDs in the HDU are controlled by the two FC-ALs.
For the HDU box in the disk controller (DKC) (DKU-R0), the FSW-A is the standard
installation. The HDDs are controlled by eight fibre channel ports in the first DKA pair.
Fibre Channel interface switch PCB is a board that provides the physical interface (cable
connectors) between the ACP ports and the disks housed in a given disk drive.
A HDU box has been called a HDD canister in the past.

41

6/2/2008

DKU Hardware and Interconnections


High Speed Disk Access Model - Four DKA Pair Configuration

L2 DKU

L1 DKU

DKC

R1 DKU

R2 DKU

R0 DKU

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

HDU

HDU

DKA
DKA
(Opt.2)

DKA
DKA
(Opt.B)

DKA
DKA
(Opt.3)

DKA
DKA
(Opt.1)

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

HDU HDU

42

The DKU section consists of HDU boxes and HDDs.


FC-AL connections are used to access the HDDs installed in the HDU-boxes.
A maximum of 48 HDDs on two FC-AL loops from the OPT B BED feature is possible
and a maximum of 32 HDDs on two FC-AL loops from each of the other three BED
features is possible. Every HDD is connected to two FC-ALs.
Option B Base Option, standard
High Performance Disk Access Model
Device Interface Cable options:
R0
DKC
R1

R1
R1
R2 (two features)

DKC

L1

DKC

L1

L1

L2 (two features)

42

6/2/2008

DKA Options - Enhanced Backend FC-AL

Item

Universal Storage Lightning 9900 V


Platform
Series system

Number of Backend path (Max)

64

32

Number of Backend path DKA

Bandwidth of FC path (Gbps)

Processor per DKA

12.8 or 6.4

3.2

Total bandwidth (GBps)

43

In the Universal Storage Platform, the number of ports per disk adapter is increased to
eight and furthermore, the transfer rate per fibre port is made higher to 2Gbps. In the
storage system with the maximum configuration, disk drives are accessed through the
four disk adapter pairs and 64 paths.
The full specification model (DKA-F510I-400) controls one Fibre Channel port with one
microprocessor (Eight FC-AL and eight microprocessors (MPs) per PCB).

43

6/2/2008

RAID Protection
RAID 0/1
2D+2D (2 Disk+2 Mirror)
4D+4D (4 Disk+4 Mirror)*
N/A Hitachi Lightning 9900 Series enterprise storage systems

RAID 5
3D+1P (3 Data Disk+1Parity Disk)
7D+1P (7 Data Disk+1Parity Disk) Also 16 or 32 Disk Groups*
N/A Lightning 9900 Series systems

RAID 6
6D+2P (6 Data Disk+2Parity Disk)
N/A - Lightning 9900 V Series system or Lightning 9900 Series system

* With Concatenation on Universal Storage Platform, Hitachi Network


Storage Controller or Hitachi Universal Storage Platform V only

44

44

6/2/2008

Cache Destaging Process


Cache Destaging (new for the Universal Storage Platform) will be
configured for either
Backup mode
Destaging mode
Not supported network storage controller

In the event of a power failure longer then one minute, the Universal
Storage Platform will begin the backup process
Backup process is configured when Universal Storage Platform is installed

The backup process is set to either


Destaging mode
Destage to disk all write I/O in cache
Backup mode
Provide power to cache until power resumes

Cache Destage Requires


Cache memory batteries
Disk adapter batteries
Destaging Mode = On
45

Battery backup and destage option for HDDs.


The Universal Storage Platform provides separate battery backup for the hard disk
drives with an optional setting to destage data from cache to the (internal) HDDs
during a power outage. This feature is new with the Universal Storage Platform.
Note: The destage option is not supported when external storage is connected
and/or when Cache Residency Manager BIND mode is applied.
Shared memory has separate power supplies and is protected by separate sevenday battery backup.
Cache memory in the Universal Storage Platform is nonvolatile and is protected by
36-hour battery backup (without the destage option, cache size of 132GB or more)
or 48-hour battery backup (without destage option, cache size of 128GB or less).

45

6/2/2008

Hi-Track Monitor
Hi-Track Monitor call-home service and remote maintenance tool
Hi-Track Monitor is a standard for all of the Universal Storage Platform
models

Monitors the operation of the Universal Storage Platform at all times


Collects hardware status and error data
Transmits this data through a modem to the Hitachi Data Systems
Support Center
The Support Center analyzes the data and implements corrective action
as needed

46

Hi-Track Monitor enables most problems to be identified and fixed prior to


actual failure and the advanced redundancy features enable the system to
remain operational even if one or more components fail.

46

6/2/2008

Hi-Track Monitor
In the event of a component failure
Calls the Hitachi Data Systems Support Center immediately to report
the failure
No customer action is required

Provides for remote maintenance


Hi-Track Monitor does not have access to any user data stored on
the Universal Storage Platform
The Hi-Track Monitor requires a dedicated RJ-11 analog phone line

47

47

6/2/2008

Universal Storage Platform V

Universal Storage Platform V

48

48

6/2/2008

Specification Comparisons

Feature
Maximum Internal Capacity
Maximum External Capacity
Maximum Number of HDDs
HDD Types
Maximum Cache Memory
Maximum FC Ports
Maximum ESCON Ports
Maximum FICON Ports
Maximum iSCSI Ports
Max NAS Ports
Max Back-End Paths
Internal Bandwidth
External Storage Connection

Maximum Volumes
Maximum Definable in 1 Ldev

USPV
332TB (300 GB HDD)
256PB
1152
FC 73GB 15K RPM
FC 146GB 15K RPM
FC 300GB 10K RPM
256GB
224
112
112
**
**
64 x 4Gbps
106GBps
Fibre Channel
128K mainframe
64K Open Systems
4TB

USP
332TB (300GB HDD)
32PB
1152
FC 73GB 15K RPM
FC 146GB 10K RPM
FC 146GB 15K RPM
FC 300GB 10K RPM
256GB
192
96
96
32
32
64 x 2Gbps
81GBps
Fibre Channel
64K Mainframe
16K Open Systems
2TB

49

** iSCIS and NAS connectivity is scheduled for a later release.


See Maintenance Manual pages THEORY03-310, THEORY03-320, THEORY02220.
In the table above, and subsequent pages,
USPV or USP V stands for Universal Storage Platform V
USP stands for Universal Storage Platform

49

6/2/2008

Overview
Base controller frame and one to four optional disk array frames
Controller boards are reduced to half previous size, fewer resources
affected by a service action
Improved availability, configurability
and serviceability
CHA Type

FED Packages

Ports / Package

USP

USP-V

USP

USP-V

Open Fibre

16,32

8,16

ESCON

16

FICON

8,16

Back-end Loops
USP
USP-V
1 BED
2 BED
3 BED
4 BED
5 BED
6 BED
7 BED
8 BED

16
32
48
64
-

8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64

Max Disks
USP
USP-V
384
640
896
1152
-

192
384
512
640
768
896
1024
1152

Up to
256 drives

Controller &
128 drives

50

The Universal Storage Platform V is a high performance and large capacity disk storage system at the
high end that follows the architecture of the Universal Storage Platform and has an improved Hi-Star
Net Architecture and a faster microprocessor. An Universal Storage Platform V can consist of one disk
control frame (DKC) which can install 128 HDDs, and up to four disk array frames (DKU) which each
can install 256 HDDs and a subsystem is a flexible configuration, which goes from 5 to 1,152 HDDs
(minimum and maximum). The Universal Storage Platform V is lined up with two models of a 3-phase
AC power model and a single-phase model, and each model is connectable to both mainframe
systems and open systems.
Number of disk drives:
Up to 256 HDDs/16 disk paths (when 2 DKA pairs are installed), or
Up to 640 HDDs/32 disk paths (when 4 DKA pairs are installed), or
Up to 896 HDDs/48 disk paths (when 6 DKA pairs are installed), or
Up to 1,152 HDDs/64 disk paths (when 8 DKA pairs are installed)
The Universal Storage Platform Vs new half-sized PCBs allow for a less costly, more granular
expansion of a system. For instance, there were typically 4-6 front-end director (FED) packages
installed in a Model Universal Storage Platform 600, and they could be a mixture of Open Fibre,
ESCON, FICON, and iSCSI. However, this gave you a large number of ports of a single type that you
may not need, with a substantial reduction of other port types that you may need to maximize.
With the new half-sized cards, you can have 8 CHA packages (or up to 16 at the expense of disk BED
packages), using any mixture of the interface types as before. Only now though, there are half as
many ports per board, smaller numbers of lesser used port types can be installed. Packages are still
installed as pairs of PCB cards just as with the Universal Storage Platform.
The Universal Storage Platform V back-end disk adapter (BED) has 4-4Gbit/sec loops supporting up
to 128 physical disks. The Universal Storage Platform BED pair has 16-2Gbit/sec Fibre loops
supporting up to 256 physical disks. There are up to eight BED packages (16 PCBs) in a Universal
Storage Platform V, while a Universal Storage Platform has four BED packages (8 PCBs), both having
the same number of loops.

50

6/2/2008

Overview
Frame Types
Disk Controller (DKC) Frame
Disk Unit (DKU) or Disk Array
Frame

Disk Controller Frame

Disk Array FRAME

HDD Box
Logic-Box

(1920 mm)
(75.59 in.)

AC-DC
Power Supply

(750 mm)

(650 mm)
(25.59 in.)

AC-DC
Power Supply

51

Disk Controller Frame (DKC):


The DKC consists of the DKC box in which the channel adapters, disk adapters,
cache memories, shared memories, CSWs are installed, and the HDU Box in which
disk drives are installed, and power supplies and Battery Boxes that supply power
to the components above.
Disk Array Frame or Disk Unit Frame (DKU):
The DKU consists of the four HDU Boxes in each of which 64 disk drives can be
installed, cooling fans, and power supplies and Battery Boxes that supply power to
the components above. It can have up to 256 disk drives installed.

51

6/2/2008

DKC Frame Logic Box Design

DKA pair 5&6

Rear / Cluster 2

2XU 2WU 2VU 2UU 2TU

2CC

Option5 Option6 Option2 Option6 Option5

D
K
A
5
/
C
H
A
12

D
K
A
6
/
C
H
A
11

C
S
W
2

C
H
A
6

C
H
A
5

2XL 2WL 2VL 2UL 2TL

2CD
Option2

D
K
A
8
/
C
H
A
9

C
S
W
3

C
H
A
8

C
H
A
7

DIMM

C
M
A
2

2CG

2RU 2QU 2PU 2NU 2MU

Option2 Option3 Option2 Option1 Basic Option2 Option1

S
M
A
2

C
M
A
1

Option7 Option8 Option3 Option8 Option7

D
K
A
7
/
C
H
A
10

2SD

Option1

C
H
A
2

C
M
A
3

2SB

2CH

Option1

C
H
A
1

C
S
W
0

D
K
A
2

D
K
A
1

2RL 2QL 2PL 2NL 2ML

Option4 Option4 Option3 Option1 Option4 Option3

DIMM S DIMM

M
A
1

C
H
A
4

C
M
A
4

C
H
A
3

C
S
W
1

D
K
A
4
/
C
H
A
13

D
K
A
3
/
C
H
A
14

PCB
Location

Upper

PCB
Location

Lower

DKA pair 1&2

The new Logic Box is


divided into CL1 a CL2 with
a lower and upper layer.
All PCBs are half size.

Power supply boundary

D
K
A
6
/
C
H
A
11

C
S
W
2

C
H
A
6

C
H
A
5

C
M
A
3

DIMM

S
M
A
1

DIMM

Option5 Option6 Option2 Option6 Option5 Option3 Option1

1LU 1KU 1JU 1HU 1GU


D
K
A
7
/
C
H
A
10

DKA pair 7&8

D
K
A
8
/
C
H
A
9

C
S
W
3

C
H
A
8

C
H
A
7

1CE 1SA

C
M
A
4

S
M
A
2

Option7 Option8 Option3 Option8 Option7 Option4 Option2

1LL 1KL 1JL


1AL

1HL 1GL

1CF

1SC

C
M
A
1

DIMM

Option1

1CA

C
M
A
2

Option2

1CB

Front / Cluster 1

C
H
A
2

C
H
A
1

C
S
W
0

D
K
A
2

D
K
A
1

Logic PL
Upper

Option2 Option1 Basic Option2 Option1

1FU 1EU 1DU 1BU 1AU

C
H
A
4

C
H
A
3

C
S
W
1

D
K
A
4
/
C
H
A
13

D
K
A
3
/
C
H
A
14

PCB
Location

Lower

DKA pair 3&4

D
K
A
5
/
C
H
A
12

Option4 Option3 Option1 Option4 Option3

1FL 1EL 1DL 1BL

PCB
Location

52

Advantages of half size PCBs:


More granular upgrades
Smaller upgrade steps for host connectivity; easier for mixed connectivity
type platforms
In a pure mainframe environment a half Fibre option is enough for
replication, more Ficon ports for host connections
iSCSI will not occupy a full sized feature like on the Universal Storage
Platform
Less impact on PCB maintenance
Only half of the host ports need to be switched offline compared with the
Universal Storage Platform
Only four instead of eight backend loops will be unavailable during DKA
maintenance
DKA pairs are installed with two pairs at the time
2 pairs of DKAs
4 pairs of DKAs
6 pairs of DKAs
8 pairs of DKAs

52

6/2/2008

Back-end Connections
DKU-L2

DKU-L1

USP

DKU-R1

L2 (Upper)

L1 (Upper)

DKU-R0

R1 (Upper)

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

HDU

HDU

64sp

64sp

DKU-R2
R2 (Upper)

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

2nd DKA 1st

L2 (Lower)

-AKT Kit

L1 (Lower)

R1 (Lower)
4th

R2 (Lower)

3rd

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

HDU

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

64sp

5th

8th

7th

S
V
R
R
0
5
E
X

SVRR05-U

SVRR05-L

SVRR01-U
FSWR01-U
FSWR01-L
SVRR01-L

HDDR01-00
HDDR01-02
HDDR01-04
HDDR01-06
HDDR01-08
HDDR01-0A
HDDR01-0C
HDDR01-0E
HDDR05-00
HDDR05-02
HDDR05-04
HDDR05-06
HDDR05-08
HDDR05-0A
HDDR05-0C
HDDR05-0E

Front View of DKU

HDDR01-01
HDDR01-03
HDDR01-05
HDDR01-07
HDDR01-09
HDDR01-0B
HDDR01-0D
HDDR01-0F
HDDR05-01
HDDR05-03
HDDR05-05
HDDR05-07
HDDR05-09
HDDR05-0B
HDDR05-0D
HDDR05-0F

DKUPS
-xx3

BATTERY-Uxx7

BATTERY-Uxx6

BATTERY-Uxx5

BATTERY-Uxx4

BATTERY-Uxx3

DKUPS
-xx2

BATTERY-Uxx2

BATTERY-Uxx0

DKUPS
-xx1

BATTERY-Uxx1

DKUPS
-xx0

6th

53

The Standard DKC-F605I-18 Disk Unit frame is delivered with power and logic
(FSW / SVR) installed in the lower section of the frame. This will allow to install
HDDs in the Lower half only.
It is now an option to use the Upper part of the frame, the option is:
DKC-F605I-AKT = DKU Expansion Kit
DKUPS 2
(FSW) 8
(SVR) 18

53

6/2/2008

DKU - B4 Numbering
L2

R0

L1

B4
18-x

B4
17-x

B4
10-x

B4
9-x

B4
16-x

B4
15-x

B4
8-x

B4
7-x

B4
2-x

R1
B4
1-x

1st DKA Pair

5th DKA Pair

2nd DKA Pair

6th DKA Pair

3rd DKA Pair

7th DKA Pair

4th DKA Pair

8th DKA Pair

R2

B4
6-x

B4
5-x

B4
14-x

B4
13-x

B4
4-x

B4
3-x

B4
12-x

B4
11-x

54

See Maintenance Manual page INST03-10A-40 and INST03-14-10.

54

6/2/2008

DKU HDD Installation Order


Universal Storage Platform V

Universal Storage Platform


HDU-Box

HDD-PL

0F 0D 0B 09 07 05 03 01 0F 0D 0B 09 07 05 03 01

FSW-U
FSW-L

Order of
HDD
installation
FC-AL
boundary

0E 0C 0A 08 06 04 02 00 0E 0C 0A 08 06 04 02 00

HDU

HDD-PL

1F 1E 1D 1C 1B 1A 19 18

0F 0E 0D 0C 0B 0A 09 08

FSWA-LU

FSWA-RU

FSWA-LL

FSWA-RL

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00

1F 1E 1D 1C 1B 1A 19 18

0F 0E 0D 0C 0B 0A 09 08

FSWA-LU

FSWA-RU

FSWA-LL

FSWA-RL

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00

Right
HDU
0F 0D 0B 09 07 05 03 01 0F 0D 0B 09 07 05 03 01

FSW-U
FSW-L

FC-AL
boundary

0E 0C 0A 08 06 04 02 00 0E 0C 0A 08 06 04 02 00

55

See Maintenance Manual page INST01-200.

55

6/2/2008

FSW Switch
Switched Loop Back-end
Reduces impact during drive failure and/or sparing
Improves Performance by reducing disk-to-disk daisy chain latency

BED
Cluster 1
BED
Cluster 2
56

On the previous Universal Storage Platform model, all of the disks attached
to a DKA PCB were on eight shared loops. A transfer to the last disk on a
loop (could be 32 or 48 disks per loop) would have to pass through bypass
logic on all of the disks in front of it. The Universal Storage Platform V
introduces a switched back end, where the drives are still on arbitrated loops
(all Fibre Channel disks use FC-AL, not FC-SW fabrics), but the switch logic
bypasses all targets on that loop except for the one disk being addressed.
This reduces the propagation time by some micro-seconds (not noticeable),
but the primary effect of this change is improved accessibility to individual
disks. Each HDU has four such FSW switches, two on the front side (32
disks) and two more on the back (32 disks).

56

6/2/2008

Backend Loops 2Gbit/sec 4Gbit/sec Rules


Disk Adapter supports two kinds of transfer rate settings defined at
installation time (4Gbit/sec and 2Gbit/sec).
The setting of transfer rate must be set by the unit of 2 DKA Pairs.
HDDs of 2Gbit/sec / 4Gbit/sec can be installed (mixed) in 2 DKA Pairs
that are set to 2Gbit/sec (HDDs will operate at 2Gbit/sec).
Only HDDs of 4Gbit/sec type can be installed in 2 DKA Pairs that are set
to 4Gbit/sec.
Different transfer rates cannot exist together in the same loop.
The HDD-copy (spare and correction copy) between HDDs set by
different transfer rates is not allowed.
Off/On of the power supply for HDDs is needed for the switch of
4Gbit/sec / 2Gbit/sec (disruptive change).

57

57

6/2/2008

Parallel Crossbar Switch Architecture


Universal Storage Platform V logical design is similar to Universal Storage
Platform
Channel Interface

DKC

Power Supply

SMA

SMA

SM Path
(38.4GB/s)

Input
Power

DKA
DKA
DKA
DKA
AC-Box
AC-Box

DKA
DKA
DKA
CHA

DKA
DKA
DKA
CHA

CSW
CSW

CSW
CSW

Battery
Battery
Box
Box

Cache Path
(68GB/s)

CMA
CACHE

Input
Power

Power Supply

AC-Box
AC-Box

DKA
DKA
DKA
DKA

AC-DC
AC-DC
Power
Power
Supply
Supply

CMA
CACHE

Disk Path (max.64path)

AC-DC
Power
AC-DC
Supply
Power
Supply
Battery
Battery
Box
Box

FCAL(4Gbps/port)
Max. 48HDD

DKU

Max. 1,152HDD/subsystem

58

At first glance, it is like the Universal Storage Platform but on a closer look, the
details are different:
Shared memory bandwidth
Effective cache memory bandwidth usage
Back-end loop speed and hardware design
Battery usage and
Very different physical hardware layout in the Logic Box
Main design is like Universal Storage Platform but the differences include:
Half sized Logic PCBs, all PCBs are like the shared memory boards on the
Universal Storage Platform.
The microprocessors (128 of them) have double clock speed compared with the
Universal Storage Platform.
A more effective (double) use of the 2x cached bandwidth
2x speed of backend loops and HDDs to support those speeds

58

6/2/2008

Hardware Architecture
Service Processor
(SVP)

Connect to Host CPU

Logic
Based Box
on R500 architecture
Enhanced Hi-Star
Enhanced Processor
Enhanced Back End FC
Half size PCB
max8

CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW
CACHE
CSW
CACHE
CACHE

CHA

CHA

max
28

max64
max64

CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW
CSW

max8

CSW max4
CSW
CSW
SM

Data Path
Main Data Path (CHSN)
Shared Data Path (SHSN)
Maintenance Path (LAN)

HDD Box

DKA

DKA

max
16

FSW PCBS

Data Path

HDDs

Back-end Fiber Pass


59

Main design is like Universal Storage Platform, but again, when looked in detail,
things are very different.
Half sized Logic PCBs, all PCBs are like the shared memory blades on the
Universal Storage Platform.
Hitachi Data Systems have a microprocessor with double clock speed compared
with the Universal Storage Platform.
A more effective (double) use of the cached bandwidth
Double speed backend loops and HDDs to support those speeds
In the diagram above, Hi-Star is Hitachi Crossbar Switch Architecture.

59

6/2/2008

Hardware Architecture New Microprocessor

Microprocessor (MP) clock speed doubled


Same amount of MPs in a full system
Escon uses the same MP as the Universal Storage Platform
Fibre can have 1MP <-> 1Port or 1MP <-> 2Port

Item
Number of CPU (max)
CPU Core
Relative Performance of 1CPU

USP V

USP

128

128

Y-wing H

Y-wing

60

USP V = Universal Storage Platform V

60

6/2/2008

SVP Specifications

Universal Storage Platform SVP

Universal Storage Platform V SVP

Windows XP (SP1 or SP2)

Windows XP (SP2)

Intel Celeron 1.2GHz

Intel CeleronM 1.5GHz

512MB

1GB

80GB

160GB

CD-ROM Drive

None

FDD

3.5 inch (Internal)

3.5 inch (External by the USB I/F)

LAN

Ethernet
10Base-T/100Base-TX

<- Same as left

USB

Version 1.1 x2 port

Version 2.0 x2 port


(1 of 2 port is used by
the external FD drive)

PC Card Standard (release.7.1)


Type2 x2 slot

PC Card Standard (release.7.1)


Type2 x2 slot

(1 of 2 slot is used by the modem card)

One slot is used by the modem card. The


other one is used by the CF memory card)

OS
CPU
Memory
HDD
CD Drive

PC Card slot

61

61

6/2/2008

Summary
The Universal Storage Platform V is an evolution of the Universal Storage
Platform architecture with refinements and extensions to existing
architecture, functionality, performance, and scalability

Proven 4th generation Hitachi Crossbar Switch Architecture


Faster Internal bandwidth = 106GB/sec
Increased IOPS/sec = 3.5M
Faster Internal Processors = doubled
Increased 4Gbit/sec end-to-end (FC Ports, disks, back-end)
More Fibre Channel Ports = 224 max
5x external support performance
2x remote replication performance
Increased external storage capacity = 247PB

62

62

6/2/2008

Questions/Discussion

63

63

6/2/2008

Module Review
1. Which disk drives does the Universal Storage Platform support?
2. What is the maximum cache capacity in the Universal Storage Platform?
3. What is the maximum number of back-end directors supported by the
Universal Storage Platform?
4. Which of the following components does the disk adapter section of the
Universal Storage Platform contain?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Front-end director features


Cache switches
Shared memory
Disk drives

64

<InstructorNotes>
1. 73GB / 15Krpm, 146GB / 10Krpm, 146GB / 15Krpm, 300GB / 10Krpm
Fibre Channel Drives. SATA Drives are not supported
2. 128GB of cache with a maximum of 4 cache boards
3. 64 BEDs; 4 BED Features = 8 DKAs x 8 BEDs per DKA
4. Disk drives
</InstructorNotes>

64