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HEAT AS A SOURCE OF
ENERGY
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HEAT NATURE

Atoms and molecules are in continuous motion. If heat energy is added, the motion increases. While if heat energy is removed, the motion decreases. Example:

The separation of components in a mixture carried out in distillation needs heat to do the work. A refrigerant first absorbs heat from a process and then discharges that same heat to the atmosphere.

2 important principles:

1. Must be a donor or receiver of heat

2. Heat moves only from a higher temperature to a lower temperature.

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OBJECTIVES

1)

2)

3)

Recognize the heat nature, heat content and heat transfer. Explain the heat transfer in the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Describe the safety considerations dealing with heat as a source of energy

TEMPERATURE AND HEAT CONTENT

The use of temperature as a tool to measure and control the heat content of process streams. A change in T of a material indicates a change in heat content.

SITUATION 1

The change in heat content for a substance with an increase in temperature, but no phase change.

Equation:

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SITUATION 2

The change in heat content with a decrease in temperature and no phase change.

Equation:

SITUATION 3

The change in the total heat content of one pound of a substance when heat is added can be expressed as:

H = Cp T + HF + Hv

SITUATION 3

When heat is being removed from a system, the change in heat content can be expressed as:

- H = (Cp)(- T) - HF - Hv

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3 ways to
transfer
heat
3) Conduction
2) Convection
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 HEAT TRANSFER Several principles are involved in the movement of heat. 1) Heat moves from a higher to a lower temperature. There must be both a recipient to absorb heat and donor to provide the same quantity of heat. Sensible heat is absorbed and accompanied by an increase in T. Sensible heat is given off accompanied by a decrease in T. Latent heat is absorbed or given off during a phase change with no change in T. 2) 3) 4) 6 1) RADIATION Definition: The heat transferred from a hot to a cold body through waves. 8

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 CONTINUE Characteristics of Radiant Heat • Radiant heat occurs at high temperatures. • Radiant heat does not need matter (solid, liquid, or gas) to transfer from one body to another. Example: The sun heating a car. • Can be described as waves of energy. • Absorbed by objects in its path. • One of the controlling mechanisms in furnaces, radiators and fireboxes. 9 CONTINUE Characteristics of Convection • Convection occurs at all temperatures, but is most useful to transfer heat at moderate to low temperatures. • Heat transfer occurs when the molecules of warm and cool materials collide, so effective mixing to optimize contact is desirable. • The primary heat transfer mechanism in fluids. 11

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2) CONVECTION

Definition: A term used to describe the mechanism that transfers heat in fluids (liquids and gases).

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3) CONDUCTION

Definition: The method of transferring heat energy through a solid.

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 CONTINUE Characteristics of Conduction • The mechanism of heat transfer through a solid. • Occurs when there is a temperature difference ( ∆T ) across the solid, which is the driving force that moves all heat. • Conduction is quantified by a physical property of solid called thermal conductivity. 13 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Where U = the overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr/ft 2 Q = The amount of heat being transferred, Btu/hr A = The area across which the heat is transferred, ft 2 ∆T = The temperature driving force A = ( D 2 )(L) / 4 (pi) = constant, 3.146 D = Tube diameter, ft 15 L = length of tube, ft

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 HEAT TRANSFER IN THE SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER Definition: Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from one physical system to another. Important factor to heat transfer across the wall; 1. The Wall Thickness 2. The Transfer Area 3. Temperature Difference 4. The Films 2 important principles of heat transfer across a wall: 1. Heat energy only moves from a high T to a low T. 2. The driving force is the temperature difference across the wall. 14 Shell and Tube HE Purpose: designed to transfer amount of heat that is calculated from the flow rates and the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet flows. The wall keeps the source of heat or the coolant separated from the process stream. The physical conditions that affect the performance of a shell and tube HE can be expressed as: Q = UA T m Where Q = heat load, Btu/hr U = overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr/ft 2 ∆T = mean average temperature difference between the process and the heat source or coolant A = Total surface area, ft 2 16
 Shell and Tube HE 17 Shell and Tube HE Several important process requirements: 1) The flow through the tubes is isolated from the flow through the shell. The material used to construct the shell is compatible with the chemical in the shell and tube. The tubes can be operated at a much higher pressure than the shell for the same thickness. Tubes are an efficient way to install a large amount of heat transfer area into a relatively small amount of shell space. Baffles can be installed along the tube bundle. The purpose is to lengthen the flow path on the shell side in order to increase velocity, which improves mixing. The heads are usually flanged to the shell. The heater/cooler exchanger usually performs well when installed either horizontally or vertically. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 19

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Important uses of the Shell and Tubes HE

Cooler – use to remove the heat put into the process which is usually taken out in cooling water Heater – use steam as the source of energy.

- require heat input

- pre-heat of feed streams to temperature-dependent units.

HEAT EXCHANGER CONTROL DIAGRAM

Purpose: to control the exit process temperature (see Figure 2.11) pg 39 & 40. Refer to :

1. Sketch A - cooler

2. Sketch B heater

3. Sketch C condenser with system pressure control

4. Sketch D - reboiler

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 Sketch A Cooler Process 22 24

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SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

A high-pressure steam leak can be invisible, and the noise should be approached cautiously. In a liquid-filled system with no vent, the expansion is completely control, and the pressure can build up with small changes in T. The volume is not allowed to increase with an increase in temperature change can generate a damaging pressure in equipment. In liquid-filled systems, some type of pressure relief is usually provided.