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TERMS

WORD
Technology
Chemistry
Matter
Volume
Mass
Weight
Properties
Structure
Laws/ Principles

DEFINITION
Application of science to improve the quality of life
The branch of science that deals with matter, its properties, changes ,composition and laws or principles
governing the changes
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Other word for space
Amount of matter present in an object
(kg, g, mg, lb, oz)
Gravitational pull acting on an object
(N, dyne)
Characteristics/ qualities
Arrangement of matter
Explanation to the changes

IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY

We need to study Chemistry because we and the environment are matter ant to familiarize the matter around us
BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY
BRANCH OF CHEMISTRY
Biochemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
General Chemistry

DEFINITION
Study of organic compounds where humans are made of
Analysis of the composition of substances/ materials
Study of carbon and its compounds
Study of non carbon containing compounds
Deals with the energy changes happening in chemical reactions
Basic concepts of chemistry
STATES OF MATTER

Solid
Liquid
Gas

Molecules are compress


Molecules are slightly apart
Molecules are far from each
other

Plasma

A form of gas

Bose-Enstein Condensate

A form of liquid

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Systematic way of finding answers in a problem


STEPS
1. Know the problem
2. Making observation
3. Making hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis through experimentation
5. Analyze the data gathered
6. Make a conclusion
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Keen observer/ Curiosity


Open-mindness/ Objectivity
Resourcefulness
Intellectual Honesty
Patience/ Perseverance
Humility
Acceptance of failure
Healthy skepticism

Definite volume
Fixed volume
Dont have fixed volume

Has definite shape


Only occupies
Dont have
the shape of
fixed shape
the container
Composed of energy charged
particles
Produced only in a temperature
near absolute zero

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
PROPERTY
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties

DEFINITION
Can be observed/ measured only after a matter
underwent a change in composition
Can be observed/ measured even without the matter
undergoing a change in composition

EXAMPLE
combustibility
chemical reactivity
rusting formation

5 senses

Mass
Volume
Taste
Odor
Density
Boiling point
Elasticity

TYPES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Extensive/ extrinsic

Properties that depend on the amount of matter


present

Intensive/ intrinsic

Properties that depend on the kind of matter present

CHANGES IN MATTER
CHANGE

DEFINITION

Changes that do not alter the composition of


substance

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Changes in the composition of substances to form a


new substance

Melting
Evaporation
Sublimation
Freezing
Condensation
Deposition

PHASE CHANGES
Melting of snow and ice
Evaporation of water or
Liquid to gas
refrigerant
Sublimation of dry ice, freeSolid to gas
drying of coffee
Freezing of water or a liquid
Liquid to solid (solidification)
metal
Formation of dew
Gas to solid
Formation of frost and snow

EXAMPLE
Breaking
Melting
Freezing
Grinding
Rusting
Decomposition
Cooking
Digestion

Solid to liquid

Heat is absorbed by the matter

Heat is released by the matter

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
(Classified according to composition)

Pure substance
o A matter that is composed of only one kind of particle
KINDS OF PARTICLES
o Atoms
o Molecules
o Ions
KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES
o Elements Periodic Table

Simplest form of matter

Made up of only one kind of atom or molecule

METALS
Usually hard and solid except Hg, which
is a liquid. Cs and Ga melt in unprotected
hand
Malleable and ductile
Conductor of heat and electricity
Lustrous and shiny
High density
High melting and boiling points
High tensile strength

KINDS OF ELEMENTS
NONMETALS

METALLOIDS

Some are solid, liquid (bromine), or gas.


Usually soft except diamond

Solids

Brittle
Basically insulators
Dull except diamond
Low density
Low melting and boiling points
Low tensile strength

Brittle
Intermediate electrical conductivity
Intermediate reflectance
Intermediate density
Low melting and boiling points
Low tensile strength

Compounds

Formed when 2 or more elements combined chemically in fixed proportions

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS

According to Composition
Organic C6H12O6 , CH4

o with carbon
Inorganic NaCl , H2O , H2 , SO4

o without carbon

According to Chemical Bond


Ionic M + NM , ENaCI

o Ionic bond is present


Covalent
NM + NM , H2O

o Covalent bond is present

Mixture
o

Composed of 2 or more substances that combined physically in variable proportions

CLASSIFICATION OF MIXTURE
(According to number of phases)
o Homogenous/ Solutions sea water, air

Single-phased mixtures

All the parts are identical


o Heterogeneous Salad, soup, garbage

Mixtures consisting of 2 or more phases

With parts that are dissimilar


KINDS OF HETEROGENEOUS

Suspension
The suspended particles can be seen and are large to be trapped in a filter

Colloid
Mixture with particles bigger than the particles of a solution but smaller than those of a

suspension

Coarse Mixture
The particles can be separated mechanically

Brownian Movement

o Rapid, haphazard motion of colloidal particles


o Caused by the collision of the colloidal particles with the molecules of the
dispersion medium
o Colloidal particles do not settle because of the Brownian Movement
Tyndall Effect

o The reflection of light by colloidal particles

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPOUND AND MIXTURE


COMPOUND
MIXTURE
Fixed proportion

Variable proportion
Cant be separated by ordinary physical means

Cant be separated by ordinary physical means


Chemically combined

Physically combined
Can be expressed in formulas

Cant be express in formulas


METHODS OF SEPARATING MIXTURES

Filtration
o The pouring of the mixture through a piece of paper (filter paper) which lets the liquid (filtrate) pass through
but catches the solid (residue)
Flotation
o The removal of suspended particles either by sedimentation or coagulation
o Used in mining to separate precious metals/ minerals from impurities
Distillation
o Makes use of the differences in boiling points (evaporation and condensation). The gas is then condensed
back to a liquid (distillate)
Decantation
o The pouring of the liquid from a mixture to separate the liquid (decante) from the solid particles
Crystallization
o Occurs when simple sea water is allowed to evaporate
Centrifugation

The settling of tiny suspended particles using a centrifuge. Tis hastens the settling of the precipitate in a
suspension.

Centrifugate

The liquid that comes from centrifugation


Chromatography
o A solution ca nbe separated by allowing it to flow along a stationary substance
o Uses the different degrees of adsorption of the components to a stationary substance
KINDS OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

Paper Chromatography

Column Chromatography
Magnetism
o Used to separate a metal from a non metal
Mechanical Spearation
o Use machines to separate mixtures
o

EVIDENCE OF CHEMICAL CHANGE


1. Change in color, taste, odor
2. formation of a new substance
3. evolution of gas
4. production of heat and light
5. formation of precipitate
6. production of sound and mechanical energy
ENERGY

capacity to do work or to transfer heat


POTENTIAL ENERGY

the energy stored in an object because of its position or composition


KINETIC ENERGY

energy in motion

LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (1743-1794)


Father of Modern Chemistry
chemist, politician, lawyer, farmer, banker
born in Paris, France on August 26, 1743, son of a wealthy lawyer
suited law, also attended lectures on scientific studies
in 1771, married Marie Paulze (acted as secretary and made many drawings for his book)
they had no children
member of farm General (collect taxes for the king)
during French Revolution; members were arrested tried and sentenced to death
on May 8, 1794, Lavoisier was beheaded (guillotine)

IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS

Oxygen Theory of Burning (Phlogiston Theory of Burning)


o Accepted explanation of burning

Found out that water is composed of 2 gases (O2,H2)

Explained the respiration process ( the body uses breathened oxygen to burn food, which gives the body its heat)

Worked with other chemists to set up a system of naming chemicals


IMPORTANT QUALITIES

Lavoisier didnt make any discoveries of his own but he gave correct explanations to the discoveries of others

He insisted on exact measurements in all his experiments

He helped introduce methods of exactness in chemistry

He would accept no idea unless it could be proved

LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION


Law of Conservation of Mass
o The total mass in any chemical or physical change does not change.
o The number of substances may change, the properties may change, but the total amount of matter remains
constant.
Fe
S
FeS
+
=
(10g)
(5g)
(15g)

Law of Definite Composition


o Formulated by Joseph Proust (1754 1826), a French chemist
o Elements combine to form compounds in definite proportions by mass
H2
O
+
=
2H:1O
11.11%
88.89%

Law of Multiple Proportions

When 2 elements combined to form 2 or more compounds, the masses of one element that combined with a
fixed mass of the elements are in a ratio of small whole numbers
C
O
1st compound
3.00g
5.00g
2nd compound
6.00g
10.00g

Ratio
(mass of O)

Mass of O (1st compound)


Mass of O (2nd compound)

5.00g
10.00g

or 1:2

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANATOMIC THEORY

Leucippus (teacher) and Democritus (student)


o Believed that the atoms were invisible, indestructible, and the smallest particle of matter called atomos.
o He believed that these atoms differ in shape, size, weight, sequence, and position
Aristotle
o Rejected the idea of the atomism of matter
o Believed that theres no limit in subdividing matter
4 ELEMENT THEORY OF EMPEDOCLES

All the matter were made of water, air, fire, and earth

John Dalton (1766-1844)


o An English chemist and physicist
o Stated that his atomic theory based on approximately 150 years of investigation by scientists such as Robert
Boyle, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine Lavoisier
IDEAS OF JOHN DALTON

Matter is composed of tiny indivisible spheres called atoms

Atoms of the same element are identical, but atoms of one element are different from those of all
other elements

Atoms cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical change

Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds

William Crookes (1832- 1919)


o Studied matter using a powerful vacuum pump called the Crookes Tube
o Discovered the cathode rays by connecting the tube to an external source of electricity and noticing that a
flash of light or ray coming from the negative electrode (cathode) and moving to the positive electrode (anode)

Joseph John Thomson


o Gave the name of electron to the cathode rays
o Discoverer of the electrons
o Used magnetic and electric fields to measure the value of the ratio of the electron charge to its mass
E
M
o
o

1.759 x 108

coulomb/ gram

Found out that hydrogen is the lightest atom with its mass of 1/1840
Proposed a model of an atom as a positively charged sphere where the electrons are embedded. This model
is called the raisin cake model or watermelon model where the raisins or seeds are the electrons

Robert Millikan (1868- 1953)


o Measured the charge of the electron with the use of his oil-drop experiment
E = -1.602 x 10-19 coulomb
o

And later the results of Thomson and Millikan, the calculation of the mass of an electron
(E) -1.602 x 10-19 c
(M) -1.759 x 108c/g
M = 9.11 x 10-28g = mass of a negative electron

Eugen Goldstein
o Discovered the canal rays

Particle that were left out of the atoms or molecules after electrons had been pulled out

Wilhel Prentgen (145- 1923)


o Discovered that highly energetic rays could penetrate matter and later called these X-rays

Henri Becquerel (1852- 1908)

o
o

Associated X-rays with fluorescent materials by using a used uranium ore


Discovered radioactivity (uranium)

Any material such as uranium that spontaneously emits radiation said to radioactive

Ernest Rutherford
o Discovered the 2 types of radiation from radio active materials alpha and beta
TYPE OF
RADIATION
Alpha
Beta
Gamma

SYMBOL

NATURE

CHARGE

Helium nuclei
Electron
Radiant energy

+2
-1
0

PENETRATING
POWER
1
100
10,000

o Performed the alpha-scattering except to test the raisin bread


RESULTS OF THE ALPHA-SCATTERING EXPERIMENT

Most of the gamma particles passed through undeflected

The atom is mostly an empty space

A few passed through with large angles of deflection

Gamma particles hit the side of the tiny solid part in the atom

A few gamma particles bounced back

They had a head on collision with the tiny solid part of the atom
o
o

proposed that most of the mass and positively charged parts of the atom, the protons, must be concentrated
in a small region called the nucleus
Thought that the electrons are distributed in the space outside the nucleus of the atom

James Chadwick (1871- 1974)


o Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but with different atomic mass

Isaac Newton
o A scientist that works on light
o Believed that the light was made of corpuscles or particles, although a later theory held that light was made
of waves

ISOTOPES

atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)

gives the number of protons or electrons in an atom

It is shown by the subscript


ATOMIC MASS (A)

gives the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

it is shown by the superscript


EXAMPLES
A.

NEUTRAL ATOMS
17
13
75
33

B.

Al

Protons : 13
Electrons : 13
Neutrons : 14

As

Protons : 33
Electrons : 33
Neutrons : 42

MONOANATOMIC IONS
24
12
80
35

DALTON MODEL
THOMSON MODEL
NUCLEAR MODEL
BOHR MODEL
BOHR-SUMMERFELD
MODEL
QUANTUM

Mg
Br

+2

-1

Protons : 12
Electrons : 10
Neutrons : 12
Protons : 35
Electrons : 36
Neutrons : 45

EARLY MODELS OF AN ATOM


Atoms are solid indestructible spheres
Raisin bread model
Rutherford discovered that the atom possessed a small dense core(nucleus)
First quantum model of the atom w/ the electrons following circular orbits around the nucleus
Electrons in elliptical orbit
Schrodinger proposed a wave equation from which atomic orbitals are derived. It is concerned w/

MECHANICAL MODEL

the probability of finding a given electron in the space outside the nucleus
Excited state-transfer to higher energy level
Ground state-lowest possible state
Energy absorbed
Energy released-light

QUANTUM NUMBERS

numbers used to describe the probable locations of the electron


PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBERS

Tells the number of main energy level where e- can be found


o n = 1,2,3,4
o if n = 1 -1st energy level
o n=2 -2nd energy level
o n=3 3rd energy level..
AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBERS

defines the shape of the orbital

tells the kind of sublevel occupied by the eo


l=0s
o
l=1p
o l=2d
o l =3 - f
MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBERS

Describes the orientation of orbitals in space

Tells the number of orbitals occupied by the eo ml = -1 0 +l


o l = 0 ml =0 1 orbital 2e- s
o l = 1 ml = -1 0 +1 3 orbital 6e- p
o l = 2 ml = -2 -1 0 +1 +2 5 orbital 10e- d
o l = 3 ml = -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 7 orbital 14e- f
SPIN QUANTUM NUMBERS

tells how the e- spin in their axes as they revolve around the nucleus
o clockwise- Ms= -1/2
o counterclockwise Ms = +1/2
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

arrangement of electrons in an atom


RULES TO BE FOLLOWED
1. Aufbau Principle

e- occupy the orbitals in order of increasing energy level


2. Paulis Exclusion Principle

2 e- occupying the same orbital should have opposite spins


3. Hunds Rule

when e- enter a sublevel w/ more than 1 orbital (p,d,f), e- will occupy first all the available orbitals
w/ their spins in the same direction before they can pair up w/ another e- of opposite spin
8e- = d sublevel
THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

periods/series
o horizontal rows
o 7 periods/series

groups/families
o vertical columns
o 18 groups/families

A-8 groups/families (representative elements)

IA Alkali metals

IIA Alkaline Earth Metals

IIIA Boron group

IVA Carbon group

VA Nitrogen group

VIA Oxygen group

VIIA Halogen group

VIIIA Noble gases/ Inert gases

B- 10 groups/families (transition metals/elements)

VALENCE ELECTRON
electron in the outer most main energy level

DETERMINING THE PERIOD AND FAMILY ON AN ELEMENT


11Na 1s2 2s2 2p5 3s1

o n=3
o val e- = 1
o period=3
o family=IA

22

Ti 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2


o n=4
o val e- = 2
o period = 4
o family = IVB

DETERMINING ATOMIC NUMBER


ns1
ns2
ns2np1
ns2np2
ns2np3
ns2np4
ns2np5
ns2np6

1A
2A
3A
4A
5A
6A
7A
8A

ns1md10
ns2md10
ns2md1
ns2md2
ns2md3
ns2md4
ns2md5
ns2md6
8B
ns2md7
ns2md8

period-3

Family-3A
o 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
o Z = 13
1B
2B
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B

period-4
Family-4A
o 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2
o Z = 32

PERIODIC PROPERTIES

Properties of an element seem to be determined largely by the electron configuration of the outermost electrons and by
how far away those electrons are from the nucleus
IONIZATION ENERGY

Amount of energy needed to remove an e- from atom to form (+) ions

Ionization
o when an atom loses or gains electrons to form ions
ELECTRON AFFINITY

Amount of energy released when an atom or molecule gains e- forming a (-)ion


IONIC RADIUS

Isoelectric
equal numbers of electrons in identical configurations

ELECTRONEGATIVITY

General tendency of an atom to attract e- toward itself


METALLIC PROPERTY

w/ few valence etend to give up or donate e E, IE, EA


AS, MP, IS

Octet rule
o an atom should have 8 valence e- to become stable
Duet rule
o needs 2 valence e- to be stable

WAYS OF REPRESENTING AN ATOM

Electron Configuration

Use of Orbitals

Use of Main energy level

Lewis electron dot formula


o consists of a chemical symbol surrounded by dots(Gilbert Newton Lewis)

Chemical symbol
o represents the nucleus and inner e
Dots
o represents the valence e- of the atom