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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Flanges And Fittings: Types And Classes

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not
already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,
or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,
without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering
Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Piping & Valves


File Reference: MEX10104

For additional information on this subject, contact


K.S. Chu on 873-2648 or R. Hingoraney on 873-2649

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

CONTENTS

PAGE

IDENTIFYING Types of Flanges and Fittings .................................................................1


Flange Assembly ...............................................................................................................1
Flange Types .....................................................................................................................2
Flange Attachment Types..................................................................................................3
Threaded Flanges ..............................................................................................................3
Socket-Welded Flanges .....................................................................................................4
Blind Flanges.....................................................................................................................5
Slip-on Flanges..................................................................................................................6
Lapped Flange ...................................................................................................................7
Welding-Neck Flanges ......................................................................................................8
Flange Facing Types .........................................................................................................9
Flange Gasket Types .......................................................................................................12
Sample Problem 1 ...........................................................................................................16
Solution ...........................................................................................................................16
Flange Standards .............................................................................................................17
ASME/ANSI B16.5 Flanges............................................................................................17
API 605 Flanges ..............................................................................................................18
MSS Flanges ...................................................................................................................18
ASME/ANSI B16.47.......................................................................................................19
Saudi Aramco Flanges.....................................................................................................20
Fitting Types....................................................................................................................22
Threading.........................................................................................................................22
Socket-Welded Fittings ...................................................................................................23
Butt-Welded Fittings .......................................................................................................24
Most Common Pipe Fittings............................................................................................25
Fitting Standards..............................................................................................................30
ANSI B16.9 .....................................................................................................................30
ANSI B16.11 ...................................................................................................................30
Other Fitting Standards....................................................................................................30

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Determining The Material Group for ASME/ANSI Flanges and Flanged Fittings .........32
The Materials Specification Table...................................................................................34
Material Groups...............................................................................................................34
Product Forms .................................................................................................................34
Saudi Aramco Practice ....................................................................................................34
Determining Flange and Fitting Rating Class..................................................................35
Flanges and Flanged Fittings...........................................................................................35
Pressure/Temperature Rating Tables ...............................................................................35
Selecting Pressure/Temperature Ratings for Butt-Welded, Socket
Welded and Threaded Fittings.........................................................................................40
Determining the Flange and Fitting Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP)41
Conditions Beyond Normal Design Conditions ..............................................................41
WORK AID 1: Procedures for Determining the Material Group for
ASME/ANSI Flanges and Flanged Fittings ....................................................................42
Flanges and Flanged Fittings...........................................................................................42
Threaded, Socket-Welded, or Butt-Welded Fittings .......................................................43
WORK AID 2: Guidelines for Determining the Flange and Fitting Rating Class..........45
WORK AID 3: Procedures for Determining the Flange and
Fitting Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP).............................................51
Flanges and Flanged Fittings...........................................................................................51
Butt-Welded Fittings .......................................................................................................51
Threaded and Socket-Welded Fittings ............................................................................51

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IDENTIFYING Types of Flanges and Fittings


This section describes the various flange types that are used in Saudi Aramco piping systems.
Flange Assembly
A flange is used to connect a pipe section to a piece of equipment, valve, or another pipe in a
way that will permit relatively simple disassembly. Such disassembly may be required for
maintenance, inspection or operational reasons. Figure 1 shows a typical flange assembly.
Flange assembly is normally used for pipe sizes above 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) NPS.
TYPICAL FLANGE ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 1

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A flange assembly consists of:

Two flanges.

A gasket to provide a seal between the flanges.

Bolting to keep the assembly together.

One flange is attached to each of the items being joined. For example, a flanged valve may
be installed in a piping system, and the pipe ends on each side of it also will have flanges. A
gasket is a resilient material that is inserted between the flanges and seated against the portion
of the flanges called the face or facing. The gasket provides the seal between the fluid in
the pipe and the outside, and thus prevents leakage. Bolts compress the gasket to achieve the
seal, and hold the flanges together against pressure and other loadings. There are several
types of flanges, flange attachment methods, flange facings, and gasket types.
Flange Types
There are several standard types of pipe flange. Two items must be specified to completely
define a flange type.
Flange Type = Attachment Method + Face Type
A flange type is specified by stating the type of attachment and face. For example, "A weldneck flat-faced flange." The type of attachment defines how the flange is connected to a pipe
section or piece of equipment (such as a pressure-vessel nozzle). The type of flange face or
facing defines the geometry of the flange surface that contacts the gasket.

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Flange Attachment Types


THREADED FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 2
Threaded Flanges
A threaded flange has pipe threads machined into its bore as shown in Figure 2. The flange is
screwed to matching threads on the pipe end.
Threaded flanges are used only for small-diameter piping systems, up to 50 mm (2 in.) NPS
(nominal pipe size), at locations where pipe disassembly may be required for maintenance,
field modifications, or to match specialty fittings and valves.
For hazardous services, a threaded flange may only be used up to 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) NPS.
However, based on Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-009, Metallic Flanges,
Gaskets, and Bolts, welded slip-on-type flanges are preferred over threaded flanges in
screwed piping systems. Threaded flanges, and threaded piping systems in general, are not
employed in larger diameters because of the increased difficulty of obtaining sufficient and
uniform thread engagement. The preference for slip-on rather than threaded flanges is based
on the greater likelihood of having a leak in a threaded-flange attachment joint.

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SOCKET-WELDED FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 3
Socket-Welded Flanges
A socket-welded flange has an oversized bore that is partially machined into the end opposite
the face, as illustrated in Figure 3. The pipe is inserted into this "socket" and the flange fillet
is welded to the pipe OD. The section of this module that discusses socket-welded fittings
describes socket-welded attachments in more detail.
Based on Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-010, Limitations on Piping Joints, the
maximum size of socket-welded joints in hazardous services shall be 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) NPS
for new construction. A maximum 50 mm (2 in.) NPS may be used for maintenance, minor
field modifications of existing systems, and when needed to match existing equipment
connections. However, as with threaded piping systems, SAES-L-009 indicates that welded
slip-on-type flanges are preferred over socket-welded flanges in socket-welded piping
systems. Here again, this preference is based on the assumed greater reliability of a slip-on
versus a socket-welded-type flange attachment.

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BLIND FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 4
Blind Flanges
A blind flange, as shown in Figure 4, is a flat metal plate that is used to block flow in a piping
system.
A blind flange is included here for completeness. However, it is not attached to the pipe, but
bolted to a mating flange. It is used when a pipe end or equipment nozzle must be blocked
from flow, but there still must be an easy means of internal access.

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SLIP-ON FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 5
Slip-on Flanges
A slip-on flange, as shown in Figure 5, has an oversized bore. It is slipped over the pipe OD
and projects slightly beyond the pipe end. The flange is then fillet welded to the pipe OD, and
also between the flange bore and the pipe end.
Slip-on flanges are typically a lower cost alternative to the welding-neck-type flange that will
be described below. This is because a slip-on flange is lighter (i.e., uses less material) and
requires less welding to attach it to the pipe. However, a slip-on flange is not suitable for
high-temperature, cyclic, high-pressure or high external loading situations.
Based on SAES-L-009, Saudi Aramco requires that an ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1
flange analysis be performed if a slip-on flange is used for any of the following cases:

Severe cyclic conditions (i.e., large and frequent temperature fluctuations, or vibrationprone services).

Design temperature greater than 230C (450F).

ANSI Class 400 or higher rating.

Pipe size over 600 mm (24 in.).

The flange analysis must consider thermal and other external piping loads, and must
demonstrate that the flange will not be over stressed. Because of this extra analysis
requirement, it is unlikely that a slip-on-type flange will be used in these services because its
economic attractiveness will be reduced.

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LAPPED FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 6
Lapped Flange
A lapped flange, as shown in Figure 6, is not physically connected to the pipe. It is slipped
over a pipe stub that has a flared end, and the pipe stub is welded to the major pipe section.
The flared pipe end has a machined face where the gasket is seated. The bolting holds the
flanges and gasket joint together.
Based on SAES-L-009, Saudi Aramco prohibits the use of lap-joint flanges in severe cyclic
conditions. Their use is also limited to special applications such as:

To avoid welding dissimilar materials.

To facilitate lining up the bolt holes in underwater flanged joints. The nature of a lapjoint flange allows it to be easily rotated to facilitate bolt-hole alignment because it is not
permanently attached to the pipe.

A lapped-flange assembly is less able than other attachment types to absorb loads from a
piping system because there is no connection between the flange and the pipe. Therefore, the
capability to absorb loads must be considered in the overall system design. The use of lapjoint flanges is the exception rather than the rule. The main advantage of a lapped flange is
cost, and then only in high-alloy piping systems. No part of a lapped flange contacts the
process fluid. Therefore, in high-alloy piping systems, a lapped flange may be made from
less costly carbon steel material.

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WELDING-NECK FLANGE

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

FIGURE 7
Welding-Neck Flanges
A welding-neck flange, as shown in Figure 7, is the strongest of the standard flange
attachment types. The end of the flange is butt-welded to the end of the pipe. The flange
bore is sized to match the pipe bore.
A welding-neck flange is the most widely used in refinery services because of its greater
strength and ability to be used at high temperature and in cyclic service. However, it is the
most expensive of the various flange attachment types because it is the heaviest (i.e., uses the
most material) and requires the most welding to attach to the pipe end. Based on SAES-L009, this is the preferred flange type in metallic piping systems, 50 mm (2 in.) NPS and
above.

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Flange Facing Types


The area of a flange where the gasket is positioned is called the face or facing. The three
primary flange facings are the flat face, raised face and ring joint. Any of the flange
attachment types that were described above, except for the lapped flange, may use any of
these facings. The facing for a lapped flange is located on the flared pipe stub end, not on the
flange.
FLAT-FACED FLANGE

Flat Face

FIGURE 8
Flat-Faced Flanges In the flat-faced flange shown in Figure 8, the area where the gasket is

located is at the same elevation as the surrounding flange surface.


A flat face is typically used only for cast or ductile iron flanges, with relatively low-strength
material, or when a steel flange must mate to such a flange.
There is no change in elevation in proceeding from the flange inside diameter to its outside
diameter. This provides uniform flange contact with the gasket over a large surface, and
limits local flange bending that is caused by bolt load. Minimization of flange bending is
necessary for cast iron, ductile iron, or other relatively low-strength materials, but not for steel
flanges.
Therefore, there are few applications for flat-face flanges in refinery or
petrochemical services because there are relatively few applications where such low-strength
flange materials are acceptable. Sheet-type gaskets that extend from the flange inside
diameter to the outside diameter (i.e., full face) typically are used with flat-face flanges.
Based on SAES-L-009, a flat-faced flange with a full-face gasket shall be used when one or
both of the mating flanges is cast iron, aluminum, plastic, or any other material that could be
overstressed by the bolt load.

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RAISED-FACE FLANGE

Raised Face

FIGURE 9
Raised-Face Flanges A raised-face flange is shown in Figure 9. The area where the gasket
is located is higher than the surrounding flange surface, typically by 1.5 mm (1/16 in.). This
raised-face portion of the flange has a specially machined, serrated finish that is suitable for
the typical gasket types used in process plant applications. Any gasket type, other than a ring
type, may be used with a raised-face flange. The raised face results in much less contact area
and higher gasket contact stresses as compared to a flat face. The gasket is compressed and
sealed only in the area of the raised face.

A raised-face flange is used for a very broad range of services, and is the most common type.
Based on SAES-L-009, a raised-face flange is required for steel flanges through Class 600
and/or a maximum design temperature of 480C (900F), except for underwater service. A
smooth machine finish, 3.2-6.4 micrometer AARH (arithmetic average roughness height),
should be specified for use with spiral-wound gaskets.

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RING JOINT
23

Radius

FIGURE 10
Ring-Joint Flanges A ring-joint flange face, as shown in Figure 10, consists of a groove

that is machined into the flange end. The sealing surfaces of the groove are smoothly finished
to 63 micro inch surface roughness, and are free of any detrimental ridges or tool marks. The
presence of such surface defects will result in a leaking joint, since a very smooth contact
surface is required to achieve a leak-proof, metal-to-metal seal. A solid metal ring-type
gasket is inserted in the groove.
The ring-joint flange is used for the most severe service applications where the other possible
flange face and gasket combinations will not provide acceptable performance. Typically,
these are high-pressure and/or high-temperature services.
Based on SAES-L-009, a ring-joint flange is required for steel flanges of Class 900 and
higher, for design temperatures over 480C (900F), or for underwater pipelines in Class 300
and higher.

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Flange Gasket Types


The gasket provides the seal in a flange assembly. The three general gasket types that are
typically used in pipe flanges for process plant and pipeline applications are:

Sheet.

Spiral wound.

Solid metal ring.

A wide variety of materials are available for each of these gasket types to suit particular
service requirements.
Sheet Gaskets The most common material used for sheet gaskets is compressed asbestos.

However, there has been increasing concern regarding the ultimate availability of sheet
asbestos gaskets due to potential worker health and materials disposal issues. Asbestos
gaskets will no longer be available within several years, and the use of asbestos should be
avoided whenever a suitable substitute is available. Several alternative sheet gasket materials
have been introduced in recent years. Many of these use synthetic fibers rather than asbestos,
along with an elastomeric binder. The binder is a larger percentage of the sheet material in
these synthetic fiber gaskets, and thus is a more significant factor in determining acceptable
applications. Nonasbestos sheet gaskets that utilize synthetic fiber with a binder will typically
have a lower maximum operating temperature than a compressed asbestos gasket. Of equal
importance is that they will have much less fire resistance than an asbestos gasket, so that
greater flange leakage could be expected should a fire occur in the vicinity of a flange with a
synthetic fiber sheet gasket.
Another nonasbestos sheet-gasket material is composed of flexible graphite. The best flexible
graphite sheet-gasket-types also employ a stainless steel sheet insert with the flexible graphite
for increased strength. This gasket material has exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in
most process plant applications, and has provided good performance at elevated temperatures.

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Sheet gaskets may be used with flat or raised-face flanges.


requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows:

Sheet gasket selection

Compressed synthetic fiber sheet gaskets with an oil-resistant binder, 1.6 mm (0.063 in.)
thick, may be used for Class 150 flanges in nonhazardous services up to 230C (450F).
An example of their use is in lube oil piping.

Synthetic rubber gaskets, ASTM D1418 Class CSM, shall be used for all acid services
except nitric acid and oleum.
For nitric acid and oleum, ASTM D1418
Class FKM elastomer shall be used for flat-face flanges.

Elastometric material, 3 mm (1/8 in.) thick, with a Shore A durometer hardness of


between 50 and 60, shall be used for full-face gaskets for plastic flanges. For wet
chlorine or hypo chlorite services, the elastomer shall be ASTM D1418 Class CSM.

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CROSS-SECTION OF SPIRAL-WOUND GASKET

FIGURE 11
Spiral-Wound Gaskets A spiral-wound gasket is manufactured by alternately winding strips

of metal and soft filler material around a mandrel. This is illustrated in Figure 11.
Most spiral-wound gaskets that are used for piping applications are supplied with an outer
metal guide or retaining ring. The retaining ring outside diameter is typically sized to just
contact the flange bolts, and thus serves as a gasket alignment aid. The retaining ring also
acts as a compression limit stop to prevent overcompressing the gasket material during flange
boltup. Sometimes, an inner retaining ring is also supplied, as shown in Figure 11. The inner
ring improves stability for either larger gasket sizes or for weaker filler materials, such as
Teflon.
The standard spiral-wound gasket employs Type 304 stainless steel metal windings with
asbestos filler. However, other winding and filler materials are available to suit particular
service needs.
Spiral-wound gaskets are the standard for use with raised-face flanges. Specially sized spiralwound gaskets are also available for retrofit into ring-joint-type flanges when there is such a
need.
Spiral-wound gaskets tend to be used at higher temperatures and pressures than sheet gasket
materials because they are stronger.

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Spiral-wound gasket selection requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows:

Spiral-wound Type 316 stainless-steel gaskets with a flexible graphite filler and a carbon
steel guide ring are used with raised-faced flanges in most services. This includes most
process hydrocarbon and steam services. In an oxidizing environment, the maximum
use temperature is limited to 454C (850F).

For operating temperatures below -45C (- 50F), the guide ring shall be Type 304
stainless steel.

Metal Ring-Joint Gaskets come in two basic shapes, an oval cross-section and an octagonal

cross-section. The octagonal ring seals by surface wedging contact with the flange groove,
and the oval ring seals by line contact. Therefore, the oval ring is somewhat more tolerant of
slight flange misalignments than the octagonal ring, and still provides a tight seal. In
addition, the same bolt load will result in a higher local gasket contact stress and thus a
potentially tighter joint with an oval ring. Also, an octagonal ring cannot fit into older ringjoint flanges that have a round bottom groove.
Ring-joint gaskets are typically softer than the flange grooves. Therefore, the gasket, rather
than the groove, will deform slightly under the applied bolt load. A variety of ring materials
are available to suit the particular service needs. The most common materials are iron or soft
steel, 4-6% chrome, and stainless steels.
A solid metal ring-type gasket is used only with ring-joint-type flanges. Ring-joint gasket
selection requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows:

Soft iron, octagonal ring-joint gaskets shall be used with ASME/ANSI B16.5, MSS-SP44, or Saudi Aramco standard ring-joint flanges.

For ASME/ANSI B16.5 ring-joint flanges in corrosive services, a low-carbon steel,


octagonal ring-joint gasket with a Buna-N rubber inner V-Type guard and outer moldedon ring guard shall be used.

For API 6A flanges, low-carbon steel, octagonal, pressure energized ring-joint gaskets
in accordance with API 6A Type RX shall be used.

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Sample Problem 1
It is necessary to install a new pressure vessel at an existing Saudi Aramco plant. The flange
and facing type and the gasket must be specified for this application. The necessary design
information is as follows:
The pressure vessel is carbon steel and is in a dangerous hydrocarbon service at a design
temperature of 371C (700F). The design pressure is 3,448 kPa (500 psig), an ASME/ANSI
Class 300 carbon steel flange is required, and the pipe size is 200 mm (8 in.).
Solution
Since the material is not low strength, such as cast iron, a flat-face flange is not required. The
service conditions are not severe enough to require a ring-joint flange. Therefore, a raisedface flange should be used. The choices for flange attachment type are immediately narrowed
down to slip-on or weld-neck types due to the 200 mm (8 in.) pipe size. Because the design
temperature exceeds 232C (450F), a weld-neck flange should be used to avoid the flange
analysis required by SAES-L-009.
Since the design temperature exceeds 232C (450F), and the ANSI Class exceeds 150, and
this is a dangerous hydrocarbon service, sheet gaskets cannot be used. Because the flanges
are raised face, ring-joint gaskets cannot be used. Therefore, spiral-wound gaskets with Type
316 stainless-steel windings, a flexible graphite filler, and a carbon steel guide ring are
required, based on SAES-L-009.
The complete solution to this problem is to use raised-face weld-neck flanges with a spiralwound gasket that has Type 316 stainless-steel windings, a flexible graphite filler, and a
carbon steel guide ring.

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Flange Standards
Saudi Aramco uses industry standards to define which flanges are used in Saudi Aramco
piping systems. Piping is typically sized and purchased to meet standard diameters. Because
standard pipe sizes are used, it is practical to have standard flange sizes and dimensions.
There are four industry standards, a Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard, and a Saudi
Aramco Material System Specification that cover flanges:

ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges.

API-605 flanges.

MSS flanges.

ASME/ANSI B16.47 flanges.

Saudi Aramco Special Flanges, as specified by standard drawings listed in SAES-L-009.

02-SAMSS-011.
ASME/ANSI B16.5 Flanges

ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, provides flange dimensional details
and pressure/temperature ratings for standard pipe sizes from 13 through 600 mm (1/2
through 24 in.). This Standard covers a wide range of material types, and will typically be the
flange standard used for process plant applications.
The pressure/temperature ratings that are contained within ASME/ANSI B16.5 specify the
combinations of pressure and temperature that are acceptable for given flange sizes and
dimensions. The term class is used to designate groupings of acceptable pressure/temperature
combinations contained within ASME/ANSI B16.5. ASME/ANSI B16.5 contains seven
classes designated as classes 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500. As the number of the
class increases, the strength of the flanges within it increases. Therefore, higher flange classes
can withstand higher pressure/temperature combinations. Determination of the appropriate
flange class will be discussed later in this module.

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Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-009, Metallic Flanges, Gaskets and Bolts,
contains the following requirements regarding the use of ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges:

ASME/ANSI B16.5 classes 150, 300, 600, 900 and 1500 shall be used for carbon and
alloy steel flanges in 13 through 600 mm (1/2 through 24 in.) nominal pipe sizes. It
shall be used for Class 2500 in nominal sizes 13 through 300 mm (1/2 through 12 in.).

Class 400 carbon steel flanges shall not be used for nominal sizes of less than 750 mm
(30 in.).
API 605 Flanges

API 605 encompasses raised-face carbon steel welding-neck flanges in 650-1,500 mm (26-60
in.) nominal pipe sizes with pressure ratings corresponding to classes 75, 150, 300, 400, and
600. It also includes a class 900 for welding-neck flanges in 650-1,200 mm (26-48 in.)
nominal pipe sizes. Finally, it also specifies flanges that are cast or forged as the integral ends
of valves, fittings, or nozzles for classes 75, 150, or 300.
API 605 begins where ASME/ANSI B16.5 stops in terms of pipe size. However, it does not
reach the maximum pressure/temperature ratings of ASME/ANSI B16.5, nor does it cover
material other than carbon steel. Based on SAES-L-009, API-605 flanges may be used for
only class 75 in sizes of 650-900 mm (26-36 in.) in 50 mm (2 in.) increments, and sizes
1,050-1,500 mm (42-60 in.) in 150 mm (6 in.) increments.
MSS Flanges
MSS standards are developed and revised by the Manufacturers Standardization Society of
the Valve and Fittings Industry. MSS-SP-44, Steel Pipe Line Flanges, originally was
developed to establish uniform flange dimensions for use with high-pressure pipelines of 650
through 1,500 mm (26 through 60 in.) size in pressure classes of 300 through 900. It later
was revised to include sizes down to 300 mm (12 in.) and Class 150. The flange designs are
intended primarily for use with API 5LX line pipe, and they are proportioned accordingly.
Their design reflects also the higher design stresses that are permitted in pipeline service.

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There is a basic difference between ASME/ANSI B16.5 and MSS-SP-44 flanges.


ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges originally were designed for attachment to relatively thick-walled
pipe. However, the larger diameter SP-44 flanges have hubs that specifically are designed for
attachment to relatively thin-walled, high yield-strength pipe.
The "x" grades of the API 5L pipe material specification have relatively high yield strengths.
Special attention should be paid to situations where an ASME/ANSI B16.5 flange is attached
to a thin-walled pipe operating near the maximum atmospheric temperature/pressure rating of
the flange, or where an SP-44 flange is attached to a relatively thick-walled pipe. The stress
at the flange-hub attachment point should be checked in each of these cases to ensure that it is
not excessive.
MSS-SP-44 flanges may be used within the following limitations, in accordance with SAESL-009:

Classes 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900 for nominal pipe sizes of 300-600 mm (12-24 in.)
for welding-neck flanges with single-taper hub only.

Classes 400 and 600 for pipe sizes of 1,250-1,500 mm (50-60 in.), welding-neck and
blind flanges, raised face only.

Class 900 for pipe sizes 650 through 1,200 mm (26 through 48 in.), welding-neck and
blind flanges.
ASME/ANSI B16.47

ASME/ANSI B16.47, Large-Diameter Steel Flanges, is essentially a combination of the API


605 and MSS SP-44 flanges. ASME/ANSI B16.47 covers pipe flanges in 650 through 1,500
mm (26 through 60 in.) nominal sizes in ratings corresponding to classes 75, 150, 300, 400,
600 and 900. MSS SP-44 flanges are designated as Series A flanges, and API 605 flanges are
designated Series B. The materials that are covered by ASME/ANSI B16.47 are the same as
those in ASME/ANSI B16.5, except that nickel-base alloys are excluded.
Pressure/temperature ratings are consistent with ASME/ANSI B16.5.
02-SAMSS-011, Forged Steel Weld-Neck Flanges for Low - and Intermediate-Temperature
Service, permits the use of ASME/ANSI B16.47 flanges, Series B, Class 75 for sizes that are
not covered by Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings.

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Saudi Aramco Flanges


SAES-L-009 specifies standard flange material specifications based on design temperature
and strength requirements, as outlined in Work Aid 1. The use of ASTM A105 and A694
flange materials is restricted due to their poor experience in Saudi Aramco. Flange material
specifications for pipeline applications are selected to be of comparable strength to that of the
connected pipe. For example, if the pipe material that is used has a 290 MPa (42,000 psi)
SMYS, the flange material has an F42 strength designation.
SAES-L-009 also lists standard Saudi Aramco drawings that provide mandatory dimensional
standards for specific size ranges, ratings, flange types, and facings. These standard flanges
must be used as applicable within their defined scopes, even if API-605, MSS-SP-44, or
ASME/ANSI B16.47 has the same designations. These standard drawings are as follows:

NPS Range

Class

Type

Facing

Standard
Drawing

26-60
26-60
26-48
54-60
30-48
26-48
26-48
26-48
54-60
26-48
54-60

150
300
300
300
400
600
600
300
300
600
75

WN
WN
WN
WN
WN
WN
WN
Lap
Lap
Lap
Blind

RF
RF
RJ
RJ
RF
RF
RJ
RJ
RJ
RJ
RF

AD-036634
AD-036991
AC-036484
AC-036437
AD-036698
AD-036673
AC-036442
AC-036486
AE-036438
AC-036443
AD-036696

where:

WN
RF
RJ
Lap
Blind

=
=
=
=
=

Weld neck.
Raised face.
Ring joint.
Lapped flange.
Blind flange.

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02-SAMSS-011 , Forged Steel Weld-Neck Flanges for Intermediate-Temperature Service,

provides Saudi Aramco purchase requirements for forged steel weld-neck flanges in low- and
intermediate-temperature services. Services that have design temperatures above 425C
(800F) or below -60C (-75F), or those that require the use of higher alloy pipe material, are
not covered by this SAMSS and must be handled as special cases.
02-SAMSS-011 was first issued in February, 1994 and supersedes Standard Drawing AB036028. It expands upon the flange material selection requirements that are specified in
SAES-L-009 and the requirements that are specified in the relevant industry standards. These
additional Saudi Aramco requirements are meant to ensure higher overall flange material
quality based on past experience, and to minimize the probability of experiencing problems
during piping system fabrication and operation.
02-SAMSS-011 adds additional restrictions on material usage, and further requirements in the
following areas:

Flange manufacturing details.

Maximum hardness limitations.

Heat treatment.

Material chemistry.

Mechanical strength testing.

Impact testing.

Hardness testing.

Nondestructive examination.

Repairs.

Markings.

Painting and shipping.

Participants are referred to 02-SAMSS-011 for specific details.

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Fitting Types
Pipe fittings are used to make some change in the geometry of a piping system. This change
could include:

Modifying the flow direction.

Bringing two or more pipes together.

Altering the pipe diameter.

Terminating a pipe.

Three attachment methods may be used for fittings:

Threading.

Socket-welded.

Butt-welded.

These are the same alternatives that are available for flange attachment, as was discussed
previously.
Threading
A threaded fitting has pipe threads machined into its bore.
matching threads on the pipe end.

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SOCKET-WELD ATTACHMENT DETAIL

t = Nominal Pipe Wall Thickness


C x (Min) = 1.25t But Not Less
Than 4.0 mm (0.16 in.)

Approx. 1.5 mm (0.06 in.)


Before Welding

FIGURE 12
Socket-Welded Fittings
A socket-welded-type fitting attachment is designed with a recess in its end to permit the pipe
to be inserted, as shown in Figure 12. The pipe is withdrawn approximately 1.5 mm (1/16 in.)
from the bottom of the recess, then fillet welded between the pipe outside diameter and the
end of the fitting. The gap is needed in order to provide space to permit differential thermal
expansion which occurs both during welding and normal operation. Without this gap, the
attachment fillet weld can crack due to the load applied by the pipe when it expands into the
recess due to differential thermal expansion.

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is primarily used to make an


attachment between a 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) or smaller diameter pipe and a larger diameter
header. A coupling is also sometimes used to connect two small diameter pipe sections,
rather than butt welding them together.
A socket-welded or threaded coupling or half-coupling

Use of Threaded or Socket-Welded Fittings Based on SAES-L-010, threaded- or socket-

welded-type fittings are normally permitted through 38 mm (1-1/2 in.). NPS for new
construction in hazardous services. They may be used up to 50 mm (2 in.) NPS in hazardous
services if necessary for maintenance, minor field modifications of existing systems, or when
needed to match existing equipment connections. In nonhazardous services, threaded fittings
may be used through 75 mm (3 in.) NPS for standard fittings, and through 100 mm (4 in.)
NPS when connecting to special items such as fire hydrants.
Butt-Welded Fittings
Butt-welded-type fittings are used in pipe sizes 50 mm (2 in.) NPS and above. As their name
implies, they are welded directly to the connecting pipe sections by using full-penetration butt
welds. Figures 13 through 18 show sketches of typical butt-welded fittings.
These same types of fittings may also be supplied with threaded or socket-welded end
connections. Threaded or socket-welded fittings are used in the same applications but in
smaller pipe diameters, as previously discussed.

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ELBOW AND RETURN

FIGURE 13
Most Common Pipe Fittings
An elbow or return changes the direction of a pipe run. Standard elbows change the direction
by either 45 or 90. Returns change the direction by 180. Long-radius elbows have a bend
radius of 1-1/2 times the nominal pipe size, and short-radius elbows have a bend radius equal
to the nominal pipe size.
The long-radius elbow is more commonly used. Short-radius elbows are normally only used
if there is a space restriction for the piping system layout. The wall thickness of an elbow will
typically be identical to that of the adjacent pipe sections, since it is normally made from
comparable material.

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TEE

FIGURE 14
A tee , as shown in Figure 14, provides for the intersection of three sections of pipe. A straight

tee has equal diameters for both the run and branch pipe connections. A reducing-outlet tee
has a branch diameter which is smaller in size than the run diameter. A cross is a special type
of tee which permits the intersection of four sections of pipe. A cross is rarely seen in process
plant applications. Tees are designed with extra thickness in the area where the branch
connects with the run. This is to provide reinforcement to compensate for the strength
reduction that is caused by the hole cut in the run. The general subject of branch connection
reinforcement is discussed in MEX 101.05.
LATERAL TEE

FIGURE 15
A lateral , as shown in Figure 15, is a special type of tee. In this case, the branch connection

enters the header at an angle, normally 45.


A lateral is used in situations where it is necessary for the two flow streams to combine in a
less abrupt transition than provided by a standard 90 tee.

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TYPICAL WELDING OUTLET FITTING OR INTEGRALLY REINFORCED


BRANCH CONNECTION

Branch

Run Pipe

FIGURE 16
A welding outlet fitting , or integrally reinforced branch connection, shown in Figure 16, is
another method of fabricating an intersection between two sections of pipe. This type of
forged fitting is designed such that all the reinforcement required to strengthen the opening is
contained within the forged fitting itself. The hole is cut in the header pipe and the fitting is
then welded to it. There are two types of attachment used in these fittings. In one, the fitting
abuts the outside diameter of the header and is welded to it using a full-penetration weld
through the fitting thickness. This is the type shown in Figure 16. In the second, the hole is
cut a little larger, the fitting is inserted into the header wall, and then is butt-welded into it.

A welding outlet fitting is often a less expensive alternative to a butt-welding tee, and is often
used as a substitute. It also may be the preferred option when designing branch connections
into large-diameter headers for high-pressure or high-temperature conditions, rather than
using welded-on reinforcement pads.

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REDUCER

Concentric

Eccentric

FIGURE 17
A reducer , illustrated in Figure 17, changes the diameter in a straight section of pipe, and comes

as either a concentric or eccentric type. The centerlines of the large and small diameter ends
coincide in a concentric reducer, whereas they are offset in an eccentric type. Eccentric
reducers simplify the support-point structural design of horizontal pipe runs by keeping both
pipe diameters at the same bottom-of-pipe elevation. The wall thickness of a reducer will
typically be identical to that of the adjacent pipe sections, since they are made of comparable
material.
CAP

FIGURE 18
A pipe cap , as shown in Figure 18, is used to close off the end of a pipe section. This is
analogous to the head on a pressure vessel. A pipe cap rather than a blind flange is used in
situations where it is known that the pipe end will not have to be opened. The wall thickness
of a butt-welded pipe cap will typically be identical to that of the adjacent pipe section. A
pipe plug serves the same purpose in a threaded or socket-welded piping system.

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LAP-JOINT STUB END

FIGURE 19
A lap-joint stub end , as shown in Figure 19, is used in conjunction with lap-joint flanges. The

lap-joint flange is first slipped over the stub end, and the stub end is then butt welded to the
end of the pipe section. Here again, the wall thickness of the stub end will typically match
that of the adjacent pipe.

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Fitting Standards
The two primary design standards that are used for pipe fittings are:

ANSI B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Fittings.

ANSI B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded.


ANSI B16.9

ANSI B16.9 encompasses overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing and markings for
wrought carbon and alloy steel factory made butt-welded fittings of 13 through 1,200 mm (1/2
through 48 in.) NPS. ANSI B16.9 includes fittings of any wall thickness that may be
produced, except low-pressure corrosion-resistant fittings. These latter items are covered by
MSS SP-43, Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings.
ANSI B16.11
ANSI B16.11 encompasses pressure/temperature ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking,
and material requirements for forged carbon and alloy steel socket-welded and threaded
fittings in sizes 3 through 100 mm (1/8 through 4 in.). Such fittings include elbows, tees,
crosses, couplings, half-couplings, caps, plugs, and bushings.
Other Fitting Standards
The following lists other fitting standards that are used and their applications
Standard

Application

ANSI A21.14

Ductile Iron Fittings, 3 Through 24 in., for Gas.

ASME/ANSI B16.3

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300.

ASME/ANSI B16.4

Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 125 and 250.

ASME/ANSI B16.15

Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Class 125 and 250.

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Standard

Application

ASME/ANSI B16.28

Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Short-Radius Elbows and


Returns.

ASME/ANSI B16.39

Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Class 150, 250 and


300.

AWWA/ANSI C110

Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Through 48 in., for


Water and Other Liquids.

AWWA/ANSI C208

Dimensions for Steel Water Pipe Fittings

MSS-SP43

Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings

MSS-SP75

Specifications for High-Test Wrought Butt-Welding


Fittings.

MSS-SP83

Carbon Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and


Threaded.

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

AWWA

American Water Works Association.

MSS

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry.

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Determining The Material Group for ASME/ANSI Flanges and Flanged Fittings
The next step in specifying a flange or flanged fitting is to select the material specification and
group number, which are needed to select the class or rating of the flange or flanged fitting.
This section discusses the selection of flange materials specification and material group
number. Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1A of ASME/ANSI B16.5. A
portion of this Table is reproduced as Figure 20. Material selection for threaded, socketwelded, and butt-welded fittings is not as involved but also will be discussed.
Work Aid 1 summarizes the flange material selection process, the use of SAES-L-009 in
selecting flange material specifications, and how to use the Materials Specifications Table.

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ASME/ANSI B16.5 TABLE 1A MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS


Material Groups
Material
Group No.

Product Forms

1.1

Nominal
Designation
Steel
Carbon

1.2

C-Mn-Si
Carbon

A 216
A 352

WCC
LCC

(1)

A 537

Cl.1

2 1/2 Ni

A 352

LC2

A 203

3 1/2 Ni
Carbon

A 350

LF3

A 352
A 352

LC3
LCB

(1)

A 203
A 515
A 516

E
65
65

(1)
(1)

2 1/2 Ni

A 203

1.4

3 1/2 Ni
Carbon

1.5

C-1/2 Mo

1.7

C-1/2 Mo

A 350

A 182

LF1

F1

(3)

A 217
A 352

WC1
LC1

(3)(4)

A 203
A 515
A 516
A 204
A 204
A 204

D
60
60
A
B
C

(1)

(3)
(3)
(3)

1/2Cr-1/2Mo

A 182

F2

Ni-Cr-1/2 Mo

A 217

WC4

(4)

1.9

Ni-Cr-1Mo
1 Cr-1/2 Mo

A 182

F12

(4)

A 217

WC5

(4)

1.10
1.13

11/4Cr-1/2Mo
21/4Cr-1Mo
5Cr-1/2 Mo

1.14
2.1

9Cr-1Mo
18Cr-8Ni

2.2

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182

F11
F22
F5
F5a
F9
F304
F304H
F316
F316H

(4)

(5)

(5)

A 217
A 217
A 217

A 217
A 351
A 351

WC6
WC9
C5

C12
CF3
CF8

(4)
(4)
(4)

(4)

(5)

A 387
A 387

A 240
A 240
A 240
A 240

11Cl.2
22Cl.2

304
304H
316
316H

(5)(6)

(5)(6)

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo

A 240

317

(5)(6)

18Cr-9Ni-2Mo

A 351
A 351

CF3M
CF8M

(5)

1.3

Forgings

Castings

Plates

Spec.
No.
A 105
A 350

Grade

LF2

Notes
(1)(2)

Spec.
No.
A 216

Grade
WCB

Notes
(1)

Spec.
No.
A 515
A 516

Grade
70
70

Notes
(1)
(1)

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 20

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The Materials Specification Table


The Materials Specification Table is divided into two sections:

Material groups.

Product forms.
Material Groups

Material specifications are grouped within specific Material Group Numbers in this table.
These groupings have been made to provide compatible flanged-joint ratings for materials
that are likely to be used together. The lowest strength material in each group was used to
determine the pressure rating for that group at a given temperature. Therefore, the ratings of
some materials within a group are conservative.
Product Forms
This table also indicates three different product forms that are possible for flanges and flanged
fittings: forgings, castings, and plates. The relevant ASTM specifications are specified for
these product forms. Most material groups have representative specifications in each of the
product forms. However, some material chemistries within a material group might not be
represented in each product form. For example, carbon steel in Group 1.1 can be found in all
three product forms. However, C-Mn-Si steel in Group 1.1 can be plate only. ASME/ANSI
B16.5 specifies that plate may be used only for blind flanges, and certain sized reducing
flanges where a blind flange is used.
Saudi Aramco Practice
Refer to Work Aid 1 for a procedure to select the appropriate material specification and
Material Group Number. Saudi Aramco typically will use ASTM A 350, Grade LF2 forged
carbon steel flanges for most process plant applications. Referring to Figure 20, A350, Grade
LF2 is in Material Group No. 1.1.

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Determining Flange and Fitting Rating Class


Flanges and Flanged Fittings
After the Material Group has been determined, the next step in the selection process for
flanges and flanged fittings is to select the appropriate class. The class is based on pressure
and temperature, and is determined by using pressure/temperature rating tables, the Material
Group, design metal temperature, and design pressure. Selecting the class sets all the detailed
dimensions for flanges and flanged fittings. The objective is to select the lowest class that is
appropriate for the design conditions.
This section will discuss the appropriate pressure/temperature rating classes for flanges and
flanged fittings.
The following will deal only with ASME/ANSI B16.5 because this is the most widely used
and broadest flange standard. The classes of API 605, MSS-SP-44, and ASME/ANSI
B16.47 flanges are identical to those that are contained in ASME/ANSI B16.5 for the same
number designations. API 605 is limited to carbon steel material.
Pressure/Temperature Rating Tables

The class accounts for the required flange design temperature and pressure.

ASME/ANSI B16.5 contains seven classes designated Classes 150, 300, 400, 600, 900,
1500, and 2500.

Each class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are
acceptable for a flange having that designation.

As the number of the class increases, the strength of the flanges increases. Therefore,
higher flange classes can withstand higher pressure/temperature combinations.

As the number of the class increases, the cost of the flanges also increases because more
material is being used to make the higher class stronger. Therefore, there is an
economic incentive to use the lowest class that will meet the design requirements.

Each of the seven classes has a table in ASME/ANSI B16.5 that provides the ratings for
that class. Figure 21 is a reproduction of Table 2 for ANSI Class 150. Note that all the
Material Group Numbers are represented in this table.

ASME/ANSI B31.3 and B31.4 permit higher pressures than are indicated in the rating
table for conditions that exist for shorter duration. These will be discussed in a later
section.

A general flange class selection procedure is contained in Work Aids 2 and 3.

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Figure 22 is a partial copy of Table 9 from ASME/ANSI B16.5 which provides dimensions
for Class 150 flanges. The flange geometry is completely specified by the dimensions given
in this table. As previously mentioned, the flange dimensions for a given class are the same
for all possible flange materials. Therefore, variations in material strength are accommodated
by changes in acceptable temperature/pressure combinations within a given class, rather than
changing flange dimensions. A similar table is contained in ASME/ANSI B16.5 for each
class, but the flange dimensions differ in each class. For the same pipe sizes, flanges become
thicker, heavier, and stronger as the class increases.
Specifying the flange size, material, and class completes most of what is necessary for the
selection of a ASME/ANSI B16.5 flange. The flange type, facing, bolting material, and
gasket type and material must be added to complete the flange selection process.

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ANSI CLASS 150 PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 21

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ANSI CLASS 150 PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS, CONT'D

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 21, CONT'D

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DIMENSIONS OF CLASS 150 FLANGES

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 22
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Selecting Pressure/Temperature Ratings for Butt-Welded, Socket-Welded and


Threaded Fittings
The terms class or rating are not associated with steel butt-welded fittings. Steel butt-welded
fittings have pressure/temperature limitations that are identical to that of piping of the same
material, diameter, and wall thickness. Thus, their thicknesses typically are selected to be
identical to that of the pipe they are welded to.
Forged steel socket-welded and threaded fittings have ratings, but these ratings differ from
those of flanges and flanged fittings.

ANSI B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded, contains a basis for
pressure/temperature ratings for these piping components.

Threaded fittings are designated as Pressure Class 2000, 3000 and 6000.

Socket-welded fittings are designated as Pressure Class 3000, 6000, or 9000.

Design temperature and other service conditions might limit the use of a particular
fitting material, based on requirements that are contained in the applicable piping code.
Within these limits, the maximum allowable pressure of a fitting is based on that
computed for straight, seamless pipe of equivalent material. This calculation was
discussed in MEX 101.03. The wall thickness that is used for the computation is the
nominal wall thickness for the given pipe size, reduced by the appropriate
manufacturing tolerance, corrosion allowance, and threading allowance (if applicable).

The following table summarizes the pipe schedule that corresponds to each fitting pressure
class for rating purposes:
Pressure
Class of Fitting
2000
3000
6000

Type of
Fitting
Threaded
Threaded
Threaded

3000
6000
9000

Socket-Welded
Socket-Welded
Socket-Welded

Pipe Used for Rating Basis


Schedule No.
Wall Designation
80
XS
160
----XXS
80
160
---

XS
--XXS

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard, SAES-L-007, Selection of Metallic Pipe Fittings,


further specifies that for steel piping in hazardous services, threaded and socket-welded
fittings shall be at least Pressure Class 3000.

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Determining the Flange and Fitting Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure


(MAOP)
An engineer may be asked to check the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for a
flange or fitting when there are changes in the piping design conditions, such as an increase in
pressure. This section discusses how to determine the MAOP of the flange/fitting for a given
temperature, given a flange/fitting class.
Previous discussions showed how the required class is determined for flanges and flanged
fittings, and threaded and socket-welded fittings.
They also described how the
pressure/temperature limitations of wrought steel butt-welded fittings are determined. In each
case, it is a relatively simple matter to work backwards to determine the MAOP for a
particular flange or fitting.
Work Aid 3 provides a procedure for determining MAOP.
Conditions Beyond Normal Design Conditions
Previous sections described how to determine the maximum allowable long-term operating
pressure for flanges and fittings. The ASME/ANSI B31 Codes permit an allowance for
occasional excursions above this long-term design pressure. However, the codes differ
regarding the permissible extent of these excursions.
In ASME/ANSI B31.3 piping systems, it is permissible to exceed the pressure rating or the
allowable stress for pressure design at the temperature of the increased condition by not more
than:

33% for no more than 10 hours at any one time and no more than 100 hours/year, or

20% for no more than 50 hours at any one time and no more than 500 hours per year.

Referring to the Class 300 flange in Sample Problem 2 at 371C (700F), the pressure could
rise to 758 psig (1.33 x 570) or 684 psig (1.2 x 570) during a short-time excursion, depending
on the duration of the excursion.
The ASME/ANSI B31.4 and ASME/ANSI B31.8 transportation piping codes differ from
B31.3 and from each other with regard to conditions beyond normal design conditions.
ASME/ANSI B31.4 will permit a 10% increase over the rated pressure for variations from
normal operation, such as those caused by liquid surges. It does not contain any details
covering the maximum duration or number of these variations. ASME/ANSI B31.8 does not
contain any permissible allowance for pressure increases above the normal maximum rated
pressure.

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WORK AID 1: Procedures for Determining the Material Group for ASME/ANSI
Flanges and Flanged Fittings
Flanges and Flanged Fittings
The following procedure may be used to select the correct flange material and Material Group
Number.
1.

Identify the material chemistry (such as carbon steel, 1 1/4 Cr - 1/2 Mo) that is being
used for the connected piping.

2.

Identify the design temperature.

3.

For pipeline applications, identify the Specified Minimum Yield Stress of the pipe
material that is being used.

4.

If the piping material is not carbon steel, refer to Table 1A in ASME/ANSI B16.5
(excerpted in Figure 23), and continue in this step. If it is carbon steel, go to Step 5.
a.

Select the appropriate material specification that corresponds to the identified


material chemistry and product form. The product form for flanges will almost
always be a forging.

b.

Identify the Material Group Number that corresponds to the material specification.

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

5.

If the material is carbon steel (or a low-alloy specification that is identified in SAES-L009 and 02-SAMSS-011), refer to SAES-L-009 and Table 1 of 02-SAMSS-011 to select
the appropriate flange material specification. The most common carbon steel flange
material specifications for plant piping systems are summarized below. Refer to SAESL-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 for conditions that are not included, and for pipeline
applications.

Flare Material

Limitations

ASTM A 105

Restricted to nonhydrocarbon service (except flare


lines), -18 to 425C(0 to 800F)

ASTM A 350 Gr. LF 2

-30 to 345C (-20 to 650F).

ASTM A 350 Gr. LF 2 LO TEMP

-45 to 345C (-50 to 650F). Impact testing required.

Identify the Material Group Number that corresponds to the material specification, from
Table 1A in ASME/ANSI B16.5 (excerpted in Figure 23). Material Group 1.1
corresponds to the above specifications.
6.

Refer to SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 for additional requirements.


Threaded, Socket-Welded, or Butt-Welded Fittings

Material selection for threaded, socket-welded, or butt-welded fittings is straightforward. The


material for forged, wrought, or cast fittings is selected to have a chemistry that is comparable
to that of the pipe material it is connected to. Appropriate ASTM material specifications are
available to meet these requirements.

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

ASME/ANSI B16.5, TABLE 1A - LIST OF MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS


(EXCERPT)
Material Groups
Material
Group No.

Nominal
Designatio
n Steel
Carbon

Product Forms
Forgings
Notes
(1)(2)

Grade
WCB

Notes
(1)

Grade
70
70

Notes
(1)
(1)

A 216
A 352

WCC
LCC

(1)

A 537

Cl.1

A 352

LC2

A 203

3 1/2 Ni
Carbon

A 350

LF3

A 352
A 352

LC3
LCB

(1)

A 203
A 515
A 516

E
65
65

(1)
(1)

2 1/2 Ni

A 203

1.4

3 1/2 Ni
Carbon

C-1/2 Mo

A 350

A 182

LF1

F1

(3)

A 217
A 352

WC1
LC1

(3)(4)

A 203
A 515
A 516
A 204
A 204
A 204

D
60
60
A
B
C

(1)

(3)
(3)
(3)

1.5

C-1/2 Mo

1.7

1/2Cr-1/2Mo

A 182

F2

Ni-Cr-1/2 Mo

A 217

WC4

(4)

1.9

Ni-Cr-1Mo
1 Cr-1/2 Mo

A 182

F12

(4)

A 217

WC5

(4)

A 182

F11

(4)

A 217

WC6

(4)

A 387

11Cl.2

1.10
1.13

11/4Cr1/2Mo
21/4Cr-1Mo
5Cr-1/2 Mo

1.14
2.1

9Cr-1Mo
18Cr-8Ni

2.2

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182
A 182

F22
F5
F5a
F9
F304
F304H
F316
F316H

(5)

(5)

A 217
A 217

A 217
A 351
A 351

WC9
C5

C12
CF3
CF8

(4)
(4)

(4)

(5)

A 387

A 240
A 240
A 240
A 240

22Cl.2

304
304H
316
316H

(5)(6)

(5)(6)

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo

A 240

317

(5)(6)

18Cr-9Ni-2Mo

A 351
A 351

CF3M
CF8M

(5)

1.3

C-Mn-Si
Carbon

2 1/2 Ni

Plates
Spec.
No.
A 515
A 516

1.2

Grade

LF2

Castings
Spec.
No.
A 216

1.1

Spec.
No.
A 105
A 350

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 23

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

WORK AID 2: Guidelines for Determining the Flange and Fitting Rating Class

Refer to Table 2 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. Excerpts from this table are contained in
Figure 24 for Classes 150, 300, and 600 for the most commonly used Material Groups.

Material Group Number is read across the top of the table.

Flange design temperature is read down the left side of the table.

The numbers in the table are the maximum allowable flange design pressures for a
particular combination of flange Material Group Number and design temperature.
Linear interpolation may be used for design temperatures located between the values
listed.

The objective is to ensure that the specified pipe design pressure is no greater than the
maximum acceptable pressure of a given class at the specified design temperature.
Proceed to a progressively higher class until the correct one is found for the design
conditions.

Read down the columns for a particular material. The allowable design pressure
decreases with increasing design temperature. The dimensions of ASME/ANSI B16.5
flanges are fixed for a given class and pipe size. Therefore this decrease in allowable
pressure with increasing temperature ensures that the standard flange design will not fail
due to the reduction in material strength at higher temperature. Material/design
temperature combinations that do not have a pressure indicated are not acceptable.

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ASME/ANSI B16.5, TABLE 2 - PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR CLASS


150
Material
Group
No.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

1.10

1.13

1.14

2.1

2.2

Alloy Steels

Temp.,
F

C1/2
Mo

Carbon Steel

1/2C
r-1/2
Mo,
NiCrMo

1Cr1/2
Mo,
1 1/4
Cr1/2
Mo

2 1/4
Cr1Mo

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Typ
e
309

Type
310

Austenitic Steels

5Cr1/2
Mo

9Cr1Mo

Typ
e
304

Typ
e
316

Typ
e
304
L
___
Typ
e
316
L

Typ
e
321

Types
347,
348

-20 to 100
200
300
400

285
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

265
250
230
200

235
215
210
200

265
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

290
260
230
200

275
235
205
180

275
240
215
195

230
195
175
160

275
235
210
190

275
245
225
200

260
230
220
200

260
230
220
200

500
600
650
700

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

145
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

170
140
125
110

750
800
850
900

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
...

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

95
80
65
50

950
1000

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

...
...

35
20

35
20

35
20

35
20

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 24

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

ASME/ANSI B16-5, TABLE 2 - PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR CLASS


300
Material
Group
No.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

1.10

1.13

1.14

2.1

2.2

Alloy Steels

Temp.,
F

C1/2
Mo

Carbon Steel

1/2C
r-1/2
Mo,
NiCrMo

1Cr1/2
Mo,
1 1/4
Cr1/2
Mo

2 1/4
Cr1Mo

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Typ
e
309

Typ
e
310

Austenitic Steels

5Cr1/2
Mo

9Cr1Mo

Typ
e
304

Typ
e
316

Typ
e
304
L
___
Typ
e
316
L

Typ
e
321

Types
347,
348

-20 to 100
200
300
400

740
675
655
635

750
750
730
705

695
655
640
620

620
560
550
530

695
680
655
640

750
750
730
705

750
710
675
660

750
715
675
650

750
750
730
705

750
750
730
705

720
600
530
470

720
620
560
515

600
505
455
415

720
610
545
495

720
635
590
555

670
605
570
535

670
605
570
535

500
600
650
700

600
550
535
535

665
605
590
570

585
535
525
520

500
455
450
450

620
605
590
570

665
605
590
570

640
605
590
570

640
605
590
570

665
605
590
570

665
605
590
570

435
415
410
405

480
450
445
430

380
360
350
345

460
435
430
420

520
490
480
470

505
480
465
455

505
480
465
455

750
800
850
900

505
410
270
170

505
410
270
170

475
390
270
170

445
370
270
170

530
510
485
450

530
510
485
450

530
510
485
450

530
510
485
450

530
500
440
355

530
510
485
450

400
395
390
385

425
415
405
395

335
330
320
...

415
415
410
405

460
455
445
430

445
435
425
415

445
435
425
415

950
1000
1050
1100

105
50
...
...

105
50
...
...

105
50
...
...

105
50
...
...

280
165
...
...

345
215
190
...

380
225
140
95

380
270
200
115

260
190
140
105

370
290
190
115

375
325
310
260

385
365
360
325

...
...
...
...

385
355
345
300

385
365
360
325

385
335
290
225

385
350
335
290

1150
1200
1250
1300

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

50
35
...
...

105
55
...
...

70
45
...
...

75
50
...
...

195
155
110
85

275
205
180
140

...
...
...
...

235
180
140
105

275
170
125
95

170
130
100
80

245
205
160
120

1350
1400
1450
1500

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

60
50
35
25

105
75
60
40

...
...
...
...

80
60
50
40

70
50
40
35

60
45
30
25

80
55
40
25

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 -1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 24, CONT'D

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

ASME/ANSI B16-5, TABLE 2 - PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR CLASS


600
Material
Group
No.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

1.10

1.13

1.14

2.1

2.2

Alloy Steels

Temp.,
F

C1/2
Mo

Carbon Steel

-20 to 100

1480

139
0
131
5
127
5
123
5
116
5
106
5
104
5
103
5
945

123
5
112
5
109
5
106
0
995

825

150
0
150
0
145
5
141
0
133
0
121
0
117
5
113
5
101
0
825

200

1350

300

1315

400

1270

500

1200

600

1095

650

1075

700

1065

750

1010

800

780

740

850
900

535
345

535
345

535
345

950
1000
1050
1100

205
105
...
...

205
105
...
...

1150
1200
1250
1300

...
...
...
...

1350
1400
1450
1500

...
...
...
...

1/2C
r-1/2
Mo,
NiCrMo

1Cr1/2
Mo,
1 1/4
Cr1/2
Mo

2 1/4
Cr1Mo

5Cr1/2
Mo

9Cr1Mo

150
0
142
5
134
5
131
5
128
5
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
101
5
975
900

150
0
143
0
135
5
129
5
128
0
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
101
5
975
900

150
0
150
0
145
5
141
0
133
0
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
995

535
345

150
0
150
0
145
5
141
0
133
0
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
101
5
975
900

880
705

150
0
150
0
145
5
141
0
133
0
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
101
5
975
900

205
105
...
...

205
105
...
...

560
330
...
...

685
425
380
...

755
445
275
190

755
535
400
225

520
385
280
205

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

105
70
...
...

205
110
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

895
895
885

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Typ
e
309

Typ
e
310

134
5
121
0
114
0
106
5
101
0
955

Austenitic Steels

139
0
136
0
130
5
128
0
124
5
121
0
117
5
113
5
106
5
101
5
975
900

915

2.3

Typ
e
304
L
___

Typ
e
304

Typ
e
316

144
0
120
0
105
5
940

120
0
101
5
910

875

144
0
124
0
112
0
103
0
955

830

Typ
e
316
L

Typ
e
321

Types
347,
348

1440

825

144
0
122
0
109
0
990

765

915

1035

905

720

875

985

134
5
121
0
114
0
106
5
101
0
955

815

890

700

855

960

930

930

805

865

685

840

935

910

910

795

845

670

830

920

895

895

790

830

660

825

910

870

870

780
770

810
790

645
...

815
810

890
865

850
830

850
830

740
585
380
225

750
645
620
515

775
725
720
645

...
...
...
...

775
715
695
605

775
725
720
645

775
670
585
445

775
700
665
585

140
90
...
...

150
105
...
...

390
310
220
165

550
410
365
275

...
...
...
...

475
365
280
210

550
345
245
185

345
260
200
160

495
410
325
240

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

125
90
70
50

205
150
115
85

...
...
...
...

165
125
95
75

135
105
80
70

115
90
60
50

160
110
75
55

1270
1175
1110

Source: ASME/ANSI B16.5 - 1988. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 24, CONT'D


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Piping & Valves


Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

Use the following procedure to determine the Class for ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges and
flanged fittings. Fill in the blank lines as required.
Given

Generic pipe material


(such as Carbon Steel, C-1/2 M, 3-1/2 Ni)

Design Pressure, kPa (psig)

Design Temperature, C (F)

Nominal Pipe Size, mm (in.)

Pipe material SMYS (pipeline applications),


MPa (psi)

____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________

Selection Procedure
1. Review SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 for carbon and low alloy steel flange
requirements.
Saudi Aramco Requirement
____________________________
2.

Determine the required flange product form (forging, casting, plate). Most pipe flanges
are forgings.
Product Form
____________________________

Proceed to Table 1A of ASME/ANSI B16.5 to select Material Group No., considering


the required material and product form. Flange material is to have comparable
chemistry to pipe material (except possibly lapped flanges), and meet SAES-L-009 and
02-SAMSS-011 requirements.
Material Group Number
____________________________

4.

Proceed to Table 2 of ASME/ANSI B16.5 to determine flange class. For the specified
design temperature, determine the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for
the Material Group No., proceeding from lower to higher classes.
Class
150 300 400 600 900 1500 2000
MAOP

Complete this table only until the MAOP for a class exceeds the design pressure. The
required flange class is the lowest one whose MAOP exceeds the design pressure.
Note that SAES-L-009 prohibits the use of Class 400 carbon steel flanges for nominal sizes
less than 750 mm (30 in.).
Required Class
____________________________

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

WORK AID 3: Procedures for Determining the Flange and Fitting Maximum
Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP)
The following procedure may be used to determine the MAOP for flanges and fittings.
Flanges and Flanged Fittings
1.

Identify the flange Material Group Number, class, and design temperature.

2.

From the appropriate class from Table 2 of ASME/ANSI B16.5, read the MAOP from
the intersection of the Material Group Number and design temperature. Use linear
interpolation for intermediate values of design temperature.
Butt-Welded Fittings

1.

Identify the fitting material, nominal diameter, nominal wall thickness, and design
temperature.

2.

Subtract the appropriate manufacturing tolerance and specified corrosion allowance


from the specified nominal thickness.

3.

Calculate the MAOP in the same manner as for straight section of seamless pipe, as
discussed in MEX 101.03.
Threaded and Socket-Welded Fittings

1.

Identify the fitting material, nominal size, class, design temperature, and whether it is
threaded or socket-welded.

2.

Select the appropriate nominal wall thickness for the equivalent seamless pipe from the
following table:
Fitting Class

2000
3000
6000
3000
6000
9000

Fitting Type

Threaded
Threaded
Threaded
Socket-welded
Socket-welded
Socket-welded

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Pipe Thickness Rating Basis


for
Schedule Number Wall Designation
80
XS
160

XXS
80
XS
160

XXS
51

Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping & Valves


Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

3.

Determine the nominal pipe thickness for seamless pipe based on the pipe size and
thickness basis determined in Step 3. See MEX 101.03 for standard pipe thicknesses
based on the Schedule Number or Wall Designation.

4.

Subtract the appropriate manufacturing tolerance, specified corrosion allowance, and


threading allowance (if applicable) from the nominal thickness determined in Step 3.

5.

Calculate the MAOP, assuming seamless pipe, using the procedure that was discussed in
MEX 101.03.

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Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

GLOSSARY
ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

ASME/ANSI B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. Provides dimensional details


and pressure/temperature ratings for steel flanges in standard pipe
sizes of 13 through 600 mm (1/2 through 24 in.).

ANSI B16.9

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Fittings. Provides


requirements for carbon and alloy steel butt-welding fittings in pipe
sizes 13 through 1,200 mm (1/2 through 48 in.).

ANSI B16.11

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded. Provides


requirements for forged steel socket-welded and threaded fittings in
sizes 3 through 100 mm (1/8 through 4 in.).

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials.

AWWA

American Water Works Association.

CR

Neoprene rubber.

Class

A numerical designation given to a flange or flanged component that


is used to indicate its allowable pressure/temperature rating. These
designations are Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500, in
accordance with ASME/ANSI B16.5.

gasket

A resilient material inserted between flanges and seated against their


faces to provide a seal.

MSS

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings


Industry.

MSS-SP44

Steel Pipe Line Flanges. Provides flange dimensions for use in high
pressure pipeline services in standard pipe sizes 300-1,500 mm (1260 in.).

NBR

Nitrile Buna-N rubber.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping & Valves


Flanges & Fittings: Types & Classes

NPS

Nominal pipe size. For pipe sizes 350 mm (14 in.) and above, the
nominal pipe size equals the outside pipe diameter.

SBR

Styrene-butadiene rubber.

socket-weld

A pipe attachment detail in which a pipe is inserted into a recessed


area of a fitting, and then fillet welded between its outside diameter
and the fitting end.

spiral-wound gasket

A gasket type formed by alternately winding strips of metal and soft


filler material around a mandrel.

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