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THE DRONE ZONE arbon-Fiber Guitar i HOWTO D RO N E WATERPROOF YOUR DRONE PREFLIGHT ue FAST, FIERCE, HIGH-FLYING FUN makezine.com | makerfaire. com | makershed.com Vol. 44 April/May 2015 Monitoring network and internet speeds can be a major concern, especialy in the case of LAN parties a vdeo streaming. Modern Operating Systems provide utilities to track al the bits and bytes that pass over anetwork connection, but typically these tools lack obvious visualization. That's where the Internet Speedometer can help. Using 2 BeagleBone Black and the power ofits two Programable Realtime Units (PRUs), the Internet ‘Speedometer will not only test download times, but also output the speed results visually to the tricolor LED strip. But what are PRUs and why use them? PRUs are quite possibly the coolest {feature ofthe BeagleBone Black, and one ‘that sets it apart from other single board computers. They function much ike inierocontalles; however, the two PRU cores on the BeagleBone Black operate ‘at 200mbz with instructions executing on verti JON KARVE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER TYLER WORMAN SOFTWARE DEVELOPER them ata fixed time of SNS, That's fast! What's moreis this speed does nat come atacost to the main processor’ load. Applications run in Linux will ot take a performance hit even there is high PRU activity Thetwo cores are not completely isolated and can share data between themselves ‘and the CPU, making interoperation possible, Programming ofthe cores is done using assembler in Linux, and the execution of codes started by the main CPU. And this sharing of data and signaling features enable clever dovelopers to offload work from the ‘main processor and paralllize their applications. The result isa BeagleBone Black can perform high speed 1/0 with ‘no performance hit to user experience — other boards simply don't have this combination. INTERNET SPEEDOMETER Track the speed of all the bits and bytes that pass over your local area network, and transform that data into blinking tricolor LEDs, e i hepowrs of eorectaumparute romain \eontheBeagobows PE heal beet Tiswre coal hsm the Beagle tothoiedr ED st. On he sanoP hada comecta mpi pin 2on th bard arth ‘athena tetas Th we sdf (nudge beardareeLEDtrp hse rotcarmacte threat te niece ‘sya he LED ipa wodkaserete ‘Their LED oriiswresfolow asad schume efor ome a sigralandbackfor ‘pound Cxnet there vii sownconcnthe vena, Cioecth ee iatthesane ron ssthewre going one Bexar Blak, Cnn hbacketatesanerovas twee ‘pingiopn Zen theBergkBore Bick Wie wala urge crete adytapgso he stipsen toe ligmatehte sips nthewa wart Cavesthestipaireof haere oth sane ‘awasthred wre heLED ip. Cometh si black ifthe attache sanerwasthe lca theLED stip WARNING: hopoerend grees are inproaty cnet apo eplicte Braga le wi nrtaresen tor puesng inthewa art oe ard check owing et thopworondgrouies! Fina litho wal watt walloutandpags Us cab tutwen jour Beane an yur conur. Build the Internet Speedometer. shack con/t PARTS © Getting Started with BeagleBone Black Maker Shed (O Soideriess Breatboard Jumper Wire Kit RadioShack 7 © RadioShack Tricolor LED Strip RadioShack 6-520 (Optional: jumper wires are included in the BeagleBone Black kt) O Enerel 2v/I500mA AC Adapter RadioShack = (© Breaioard Radoshach O freteh2-Pn Adotpig™ Malet Timed eats) (Optiona Breadboard included inthe BeagleBone Back kit) TOOLS ‘© Computer or nterfacing with the BeagleBone Black Now ta he wings compete andthe Beageone hasbeen boxed pgs andloate ml ie. ss: Changewakng eae to ibe {spot the vibes PIS and SLOTS with the follies: NOTE Raherthan typing othe ene patnane st caemi ie, ping theta btn ‘stacolsthe ah Typing ony the conmandbelw anda py, pe -Avtocompos ests nitions, howe: tea save abit oye. Loadthe PRU byruing eso esanne-o » stars ety he PRU sade chekirgthealowng comand’ outpat “esate configuration, ait bacro-fpypraslexamposheke: Runes: tron wick Te onboard LED hod ie ewes, ting yukon te erg Now hat we hae oper PRU sees, we ‘hespostaneter code Change directories to/pyprsslexampes: ~/rere (lone th it rpasiory: Change diciry obivl-ternet-speedometa: unthe Speodonteby runing the python sippy: YG srt congue e download st lon speedtest. srvers hat OW, Under normal teumstances, fle this size wl ownloat quick! andthe ede LED strip wil green When ha downloads at as uc, he ouput clr wile orange A whe he awnlad see ery stow the autgutcolr il bee Each time OME fs dowels, pyGet.py noes git ook and stores the resulta spend Depending onthe content speed one of ee bn flsis ives om the pyGetpy sept tithe edi, ranged, geen ba NOTE: Tho psedametor coe aso canis blue bin and. oterbin. The luetin is snp an extra color that never gets used by Get but is ineuded The otharbin is used as falsae nthe conditional statements of pyGet.p NOTE: you want to hack round the eade ~ which ssronly encouraged ~ remember trun make inthe Bb ed-nternet-speodameter tirectry ores he cade changes wil nat be camped nto the. bin fles CONTENTS COLUMNS Reader Input Welcome Made on Earth =" Explor the amacng world ‘ FEATURES Hands-On Health Care W disgn Maker Pro Q&A Rotary Club Build Your First Tricopter : i y smoother than ‘ 9 ot Noodling Around ‘The Multirotor Checklist re arene QuadH20 and WAVEcopter Ae moisture doesn't both eatery dre Formula FPV Drone Derby rl Don't Be Dead in the Water Hovership: 3D-Printed Racing Drone pere’s no better way On THE CovER: ato buld your own FPY quadcopt Two Ge of ores "io" quotes EF canfgraton rac truth ky ‘makershed.com Parrot as SKYCONTROLLER ‘CONTENTS: PROJECTS Smartphone Microscope 46 Plasma Arc Speaker 56 | Cloning the Fig 68 nakes sound waves byvbrat- | neighbor's figtree — cone it oe DIY “Nutella” Spread 70 Easy Mega Infinity Mok Mirror 60 Build a Twilight Photometer 62 Getting Started with ced cut make LittleBits 72 euaties | nerve 123—HowtoTattooa ecosystem the popular msg Banana 65 etic compan ests sapaiyouroos | Remaking History 75 PiSpy Surveillance Scbostscnaur et aera ae Toy Inventor's tra Module ahd Mot Notebook 78 sytokeepan Make atin to Cartesian ve SKILL BUILDERS Understanding Basic ‘Woodworking Tools 80 Six il Your Obedient Servo 84 How to build a bare-bones robot cart TOOLBOX Tool Reviews 88 Recommendations forunaue New Maker Tech 91 harizon far electron © makershed.com “We look forward to the day when drones are not a novelty, they're just considered Make: ' tool” — EU DE, co-founder, Game of Drones DaleDousherty Gregg Brockway Toda Sotkewicz Sason Babler Sherry Huse cee caine Puorognarny Sfoverrisme ener | pmoorams oe ast VikieWetch nel Huninka eens Sulann Brown Senco indy Lam ois : MAmeIwCPICORNS —usromen coumune gore sim Burke eiigenmaaccs —— Selston SERVICE Caleb rat Proroonarven SSnrtscn amtermesenness _SUSTOMERSERIEE eps area” SARS Teron aoe estes eet Johanna Nuding Maly Thorns yer winegarner Giana sartnegeanons en voscoranicr Maratinesin SaranSlagle —SRETENATYE® pretaLorge, Mat Wilco Miranda Mota ‘Ryan Austin: ae Heckattorn cane gacronazan Renan coer te crete =o, DIRECTOR OF ONLIN NerieeVincent Cochran rig Gouden soveumenrsonee | AGERE comenon Seat weight atvek Me Framers {ure warten wesrmeuens agers, Ualee EO” a yauisuen ay ‘PUBLISHER. 800KS Bill Olson aoa oom “MAKER MEDIA Nc. iran tpeoe David Beauchamp Rleywiinson — SariaMerle So oarty Coron sors i caraee sea wri ee Patrick Duuste jee rian Vandertaan epee na Kaziunas France Rich Haynie taanueremovaron ot seein eis” | occ cone Harty Marin at abernat sescure 0 na 7 ‘Arianna Black cocrumtnsenrens contriauToRS eed Fernaan mec Res Hoon What attachment would you ike to mount fo your drone? Soa Keane” menermenime | Setnewsome KenYostine | SraBrescor ArvnTemiar | LinBecer Seeker AAboombor8y | Abunchoflacer | Ithiokmy Fantachs ould definately Ystunine at dest Gayleaudlcten | pomtrs woud | poreanavdrone | vaewumnezziegs | wontarobatie neem mesa omyamsand | beskioroing. | tulsearrys, | Renudgetaline | srmattaciment Sonetenimae Bynghticoud | Upandptaywity | heattamp or fea foombs | tobemyrobote at fammangan | alliastraycats | mrperpetaty | eantroacn, Sesttatin i aan ntanisrest | inion (neha, cess porvy. Ssbengigme Solassafwater dy any & makershed.com Scudents at the Engineering Robotics Lab at the University of Nevada- Reno use a Tormach PCNC 1100 to make prototypes and parts for fixed wing and quad rotor UAVs. “Using the Tormach CNC we are able to easily create complex wing shapes to develop wings that would ‘otherwise be beyond our capabilities to make,” explains Andy Smith, a graduate student in mechanical engineering Barats To read the fl story.go 10 www.tormach.com/renodrones UP s2 UP BOX” UP mini 5599 S128 a Sew: 3D PRINTER UP for Everyone www.UP3D.com READER INPUT ezin A eee ee ae oo eee fee ern Poetic carried around an imaginary one. \dbe her DREAM oe and get oy Ce CMe cers Cy Ae a eo ou ea Cea em Mt fi i Pi Prt ee ya the eye of some of the make Creo there and they gav ere rer Ee ee » REALLY ENJOYED THE WEARABLES ISSUE OF MAKE: Justhad to send youa note about thelat- estissue (Volume 43). Man, ithad somany ‘B00d projects! | bookmarked just the ones | wanted to do and there were like 10 stickies, flapping around. [My wife] Jeanie liked the pieces on wearabies designers as well And the open-source RC airplane ("Maker Trainer R/C Aigplanes”)from foam? That's Unbelievable! Well Im sure the controler Isstil something beyond my meager skilz, but the plane seems doable Butthen the ("Open-S: watch”) project deceptively simple looking with the exploded diagram ofonlya he website and read the plans and browsed the github, boy. good luck to whoever tries cramming all that stuf together! ‘Anyway, |enjoyed the issue cover to cover New York, NY eee nets Ree et rrr) ene eee Lor ee Sey connected Kara and Allie with the ‘organizers of both the Omaha and Des Pe eee i De es ae ead ‘makershed.com » OPEN SOURCE FOR BETTER 3D PRINTS The manufacturers 0 printers (MakerBot, Zortrax, et.) should Feconsider the benefits of open source for both the customer and the manufacturer. will only buy open-source printers because they giveme the flexibility to fixmy own problems instead of being dependent on the manufacturer Thereare plenty of good open-source printers. Scout of 10 ofthe top performing printers in Make: magazine's annual guide (what Make: called “Tr ‘open-source software. open-source hardware. Mi licator Sth Generation and Zortrax M200 were open source, maybe acu igure cut how to improve ther test = Ralph Kautfman, New York, NY SE es peewee Te it et omen ies | WTI Ipfrg, com Crete The Faure 1 oes fee LARA DSA tg sot 8110) 72508 625 a [ERY me ee as Whether you're working with wood, acrylic, paperboard or just about anything else, Epil Laser systems precisely cut the components you need. Your vision combined with Epilog's power equals spectacular creations. bated nba WELCOME MARQUE CORNBLATT, THE CO-CREATOR ‘OF GAME OF DRONES, KNOWS HOWTO GET YOUR ATTENTION. His contests, both indoor and outdoor, feature drone plats go- ing to battle, Cornblatt also creates popular videos, including an entertaining clip witha set of torture tests fora drone. First, he flew the drone into glass windowpane, then lett ree fll rorn 400 feet and crash tothe ‘ground, And most absurdly the drone was the target for shotgun practice; his YouTube Video, “Shotgun vs. Drone” has more than a million views. Before he got inte dranes, Cornblatt hada video robot named Sparky that he brought tothe first Bay Area Maker Faire. Each year, he improved Sparky, transforming it from an analog toa digital telepresence robot. "As a maker, Id ‘throw outlast year's technology and start vith new technology” he says. Sparky decreased from 300 pounds to about 6 Cornblatt’s craziest creation carne next, the project he called WaterBoy ana BucketHead. “For Burning Man, wanted to ‘come up wit something that was as absurd as passible far the deep desert,” he says, He ‘wanted to seal himselfin a sult filled with water like the opposite af a diving bell. "| connected to people who had professional ‘expertise in special effects and building wetsuits. I said: Here's what m tying to ‘make. They told me:'No you can't dit You've going to die He realized the suit — the WaterBoy half ofthe project — was alot like a water- bed, and he found a Bay Area waterbed ‘manufacturer who generously agreed to smakeilt for him Wearing the other hal, BucketHead, he looked like a man vo took ‘an oversized goldfish bowl and stuck iton hishead — with the water stil ini, “ett like was a test plo,” he says. Cornblatt teamed up with the band OK Go at Maker Faire, and Damian Kulash went onstage in both WaterBiy and BucketHead, singing 2 song underwater, a truly remarkable performance. CCornblatt came to drones through RC carsand planes. “Tm easiy bored and I'm always looking for something to overcome ity He says. He started getting together with Justin Gray and other inventors in Oakland ta“émash our toys together.” Eventually, this became a weekly gathering they called Flight Club, and they began crashing dranes ‘on purpose. “I ddr't want to fy drones by myself” says Cornblat. “The frst thing we learned from setting out to crash drones was that commercial drones were super fragile andthe parts ‘were expensive,” he says. He wanted to figure out how to make the airframe for drones more rugged. With co-founder EU Ela, he launched a Kickstarter promising “tobulld an airframe that didn't need tobe repaired.” Cornblatt knew that he could produce good videos to help him raise the ‘money and to gain momentum for what later became "Game of Drones. During a contest, drones battle inside ‘of cages and knock out their opponents, incapacitating them so that they cannot be quickly repaired by ther pilots and returned to flight. Because some pilots were more interested in acrobatics than battles, he makezinecom/44 began adding competitions for piles to demonstrate new tricks, Now Game of Drones includes racing where plots wear PV goggles. (See “Formula FFU,” page 24.) They are racing a new breed of drone — tiny fast, and angry like hornets, CCornblatt, a race car enthusiast and an SCCA-trained driver, believes a competition like the Gare of Drones isan important way topush the limits of technology. Henry Ford was one ofthe early organizers of auto racing, staging match races and attempting tosetland-speed records. His goal was the kindof publicity that would make ‘automobiles popular — he wanted people to alk about what cars could do, When Ford started out racing, nobody thought of themselves as race car drivers. He had to recruit a competitive cytist, Barney Oldield, who was completely unfamiliar with the controls of a car Nonetheless, by driving ‘a one-mile track in one minute in a Ford vehicle, Olfild vas the first person to ‘rive a car at 60 mph, Racing made Ford and his fortune Cornblatt wants people to get excited aout drones, and he thinks that racing and other aerial games will do that. Events like Game of Drones are creating a new category of competition, much ike the X Games did for skateboards and BMX bikes, veloping a distinctive language of tricks ‘and maneuvers, as well as promating the broader interest in drones by mare people = even among thase whe don't fy them. @ BYDALEDOUGHERTY, uncer and Eyecunve Chatman of Maker Media. 0 makershed.com Ena ROBOTICS nail re). From kits to books, we've Colom eaten rea orate eyitaraiaiite Maker Shed = Sieroter sent YI A D = The world of Bees technology eres Pane LIQUID GLASS poe The flowing glass sculptures created Dee ee y pet Ce en ae re eee ent cea Goria ers {Decree Uf Perrone eae en Y{ WY HaureRmoncerrmnnten Ts eye eae ent renee Secs Hi See) eae eee Renin reer enenr al Cee teen Carron rege Ty receienaii ere eee Peer acne erie) paseo i earn ipy cer eerie Snuabyarier he eeremer eT ere eae enor) Corrine I pect mare coe REGAL RECEIVER orcs ‘Tom Kipgen crafts beautiful old school tube and crystal radio sets from rare parts and antique sche matics, The woodworker and retired salesman has been at it fr nearly two decades — building for collectors, friends, and family On his website you can see his unique designs: There's the Crystal Cyclops — a set that looks tke 3 jukebox with abig circular broadcast splay for the eye — and Canned Ham, described as “a tasty radio It's not just the designs that make the radios special — the 8-1 Bomber crystal radio is made from the parts of aB-1 bomber. They're meticulously assembled from individual components —resistors, capacitors, diodes, and more — serounged up from various electronics stores, Constructing sets goes hand-in-hand with Kipgen’s other wood-intensive craft: Building archtop guitars. Some radios take a couple af hours to make, others couple of weeks. ‘You don't see any unique looking radios anywhere,” the 67-year-old says from his Oklahoma home, “thought | could be creative with this” = Arvin Terkar makezine.com 19 MADE ON EARTH ‘Thomas Richner may have set outto retractable landing gear. roy.N 95) :10)\ >) » aiessnoacineria) orca nccicniaar a ax 50 eet ram ere) Reece onc ee us PU ase es ee eens rene Cette Ne eee ee ee en Cee ee ee Cee ee oe this cardboard model actually has ee ee) = 8 OR Peers, recible Potential of the humble sugar cube dissolving ptural wo intial b ‘an attraction tothe architectural pr ofthe brick-like form” grew into works that push the architectural imits ofthese commonplace materials 'ammyriad of elaborate structures, thigh fireplace to a miniat Great Wall of China, using nothing but sugar cub partae create ncluding led Sugar nprised entirely of sugar-cube ures and installed in cities from Ne York and Los Angeles to Bellas, The beauty of that ith sugar is can operate on many diferent le famison, The the imagined FEATURES ‘THE SUMMER OF 2013 FOUND MICHAEL BALZER IN GOOD HEALTH. A fev years earlier he'd struggled with along ines hat had cost him hs job. As he recovered, he built an independent career creating 3D graphics and helping his wife, psychotherapist named Pamela Shavaun Scott, dovelop treatments for video game Addiction. Balzer’ passion is technology ‘not medicine, but themes of malady and recovery have often surfaced during his digital pursuits, Qut Balzer didnt fel the full impact of that connection until that summer, shortly after he launched his ‘own business in 20 design, scanning, and printing. In August 2013, just as the new venture was getting of the ground, Scott started getting headaches. Iemight have been nothing, but Scott had gotten her thyroid removed afew = ‘months earlier, sa the pairhad been keeping an especially close aye on anything that might have indicated a ‘complication. Balzer pestered his wife to get an MRI, and when she finaly agreed, the s nree-centimeter tumor lodged behind inrevealed a massinside her skull, 7 makershed.com her left ee. They were understandably terrified, but neurologists wi read the raciology report seemed unconcerned, explaining that such masses were common ‘amang women, and suggested Scott have it checked again ina year. That ddr’ sit well wth Balzer Scot's recent thyroid surgery had taught them. that getting the best eare requires being proactive and extremely wel informed ‘Atypical thyroid removals performed via a large incision across the throat that requires a long, uncomfortable recovery ‘and leaves a big scar, but when he and Scott began looking for alternatives, they discovered that she could avoid al that if they traveled from their home in California. tothe Center for Robotic Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Cente. There, surgeons perform delicate procedures with a robotic arm that scales down their movements, making thom smaller and more precise than what the human hand is capable of alone. The experience familarized Balzer and Scot with both the cutting edge of medical technology and the importance of doing their own research, So although the frst doctors tld them to wait, Balzer and Scott sent the MRI results toa handful of reurolagists around the country. Nearly all. ofthe agreed that Scott needed surgery. At this point, Balzer requested Scott's DICOM files (the standard digital format for ‘medical imaging datal so he could work with them at home. twas aerucial step, A few months later, Scott had another MRI, and the radiologist came back with _ahorrlying report: The tumor had geawn substantially, which indicated afar more grave condition than was initially diagnosed But back at home, Balzer used Photoshop to layer the new DICOM files on top ofthe old images, an realized thatthe tumor hadn't grown at all — the radiologist had just measured from a different point on the image, Once his relief subsided, Balzer ‘was furious and more determined than ever to stayin control of Scott's treatment. thought, why don't we take it to the next level?” Balzer says. “Let's see what kind of tots are available so that | can take the DICOMs, which are 20 slices, and convert them inte @ 3D medel."That decision ‘When ter compiled images of Scot's into this 10 rend, he form an shape othe tur become vise changed everything, Balzer, aformer Ait instructor and software engineer as well as 3D-imaging aficionado, is probably fer prepared than most to take medical diagnostic technology into his o¥m hands butts not necessary to have his level of expertise to use 30 imaging to better Understand. diagnosis and possible treatments, and its only getting easier. Groundbreaking advances in medical care are being made using basic maker tools and software, which means that state-of seis becoming cheaper, idely accessible, but ‘and perhaps more importanty —it ‘means that we can use these same tols to ‘make sure our ann health care is up to pa. 30 printing has already brought some astonishing changes to nan-DIY medical care, and the felis stil ints infancy. In China and Australia, where 3D-printed implants have been approved, doctors have replaced cancerous and malformed bones with bespoke titanium pebises, shoulders, and ankles that are produced with speed, precision, and strength that rc technical the-art health faster, and more: makezine.com 1 FEATURES Hands-on Health Care were heretofore unimaginable. ‘models of organs so that doctors can ‘Ateam of British and Malaysian re plan and prepare for surgical procedures searchers used multimaterial 3D printer The software and equipment necessary tacreate model heads with realistically are easily accessible to anyone — one textured skin, skull bones, brain matter, University oflowa surgeon tracked down 8 and tumors so that students could safely Local ewelry maker with a 30 printer and practice high-risk surgeries. Inthe US.,a convinced him to fabricate custom model pair of dactos at the University of Michigan hearts forthe university in his spare time. printed customized tracheal splints for Balzer wanted a tangible model af Scot's ‘woyoung children witha condition called cranium so that he could get perspective on tracheobronchomalacia, or softening of the location and size ofthe turnor and think the trachea and bronchi, which causes the about what kind of treatment to pursue. airways to collapse, The splin's will allow The standard removal process fora tumor the tracheal musclesto develop, and asthey ike Scot's, known as.a meningioma is do, the supportswillbe safely absorbed into @ craniotomy, in which the skull is sawed the children’s bodies ‘open, Her tumor was located under he’ But one of the most widely useful brain, soto remove it, doctors would applicationsis one ofthe simplest: Using have to physically lift her brain out of the patients’ CT scans to 3D print precise way. This is as risky as it sounds. Nerves ‘makershed.com «can be dislodged, and patents can lose their sense of smal taste, or even sight Thinking about her thyroid surgery, she and Balzer wondered ita similarly noninvasive procedure might be possible. Balzer downloaded afree software program called InVesalius, developed by 7 ‘research centr in Brai to convert MRI and CT scan data to 3D images. He used itt create a 30 volume rendering from Scott's DICOM images, which allowed him to Look atthe tumor from any angle. Then he uploaded the files to Sketchlab and shared ‘them with neurosurgeons around the countryin the hope of ining one who was willing t try anew typeof procedure. Perhaps unsurprisingly he found the doctor he was looking for at UPMC, ‘where Scot had her thyroid removed. neurosurgeon there agreed to considera minimal invasive operation in which he would access the tumor through Scotts loft eyelid and remave it using a micro cri Balzer had adapted the volume renderings {or 30 printing and produced afew fl-sze models ofthe front section of Scots sku ‘onhis MakerBot. To help the surgoon vet his micro dling dea and plan the procedure, Balzer packed up one of the madels and shipped it tf to Pitsburch. ‘ Balzer had unknowingly pioneered what researchers at the new Metical Innovation Lab n Austin, Texas, predict wil soon be the standard of cre. Using 3D priting to help plan procedures and to explain diagno topatiens “is going to become the new normal says Dr. Michael Patton, CEQ ofthe Lab, which launched in October 2014 with the goa of bringing newideas for medical devices and technologesto market. Paton saysits doorsare open to creative thinkers Uke Balzer and points out that 3D printing ‘an accelerate the process of product, tool and device developmentin medicine. What you can now do through 30 printing is ike ‘hat you're able tod inthe software word Rapid iteration, aa, get something to market quick” Patton say. "You can print the protetypes, and then you can printout model organs on which o tet the products ‘You can potentially obviate the need for some animal studies, and you can do this proof of cancept before extensive patent ils are conducted Tals, tests, and studies are ‘kay pont: One ofthe important roles of Medical Innovation Labs is to help guide inventions through the regulatory pro- cess. “I's extensive and i's burdensome, Patton says, andi’ @ reason many great ideas never make it off the back of cocktail napkins, But Patton doesn't anticipate any regulatory issues with using 3D-printed ‘models for surgical planning and predicts that other advances invlving simple scanning and printing will be brought to ‘market with relative ease. “Thatis part ofthe new frontier with scanning ané 3D printing, and we don't see the regulatory hurdles that you would see with implants, Patton says. He looks forwarto being able to scan a broken bone at home and printout ‘breathable cast Closer at hand, but no less fantastic, is ‘handheld medical imaging device that will use ultrasound scanners to generate 3D images — no MRI necessary — and send them toa cloud service, where they canbe accessed by doctors around the ‘world, A startup called Butterfly Network recently received $100 milion in funding to build the device and the cloud tool, which willrecognize and automatically diagnose certain irregularities — such asa cleft palate nan unborn fetus — and learn over time. As more scans are uploaded, it willbe able to automate more diagnoses. Patton says he's even more excited to work with inventors and makers than experts within the medical fel, "So many people are trained to keep their head down and focus on practicing medicine,” he says, “and sornetimes they dont think about why they do things a certain way, or how they could do them diferent” Balzerisa prime example. 30 scanning and printing made high-tech healthcare accessible to him, and italso allawed him to influence progress in the medical establishment. This, as Patton ays, is a radical new model for medical Balzer has, in fact, been develoging 2 product for medical Ol | ae ro Pen eee eer ceret imply itto a manageable num makezine.com/hands-on-health-care ned ust behind Sot et centimeter tumor that's similar to the Butterfly Network evice, combining portable 30 scanning with a platform for doctors and patients to share images viaa secure IHIPAA- compliant cloud server. He's also become ‘more focused on education and hosts 3 ppodeast called All Things 30, on which he olten invites doctors to speak. Recently, he organized a ree seminar on 3D in medicine ‘My big message now is that this stuff is out there, and alot ofits free,” he says, “The first thing is getting the word out that your hands aren't tied. Your buddys gota 3D printer? Use it Scot had the tumor removed at UPMC in May 2014 through a small opening above her left eve. The neurosurgeon iscovered thatthe tumor was starting toentangle her optic nerves and told her that if she had waited six months, she ‘would have had severe —and possibly permanent — degradation of her sight The procedure took eight hours and 95% ofthe tumor was removed, She was back at workin three weeks. Her scars, Balzer says, are visible only to her. © aoe ies eee ee makezine.com FEATURES Itty Bitty Boards ......... Maker Pro TINYCIRCUITS IS AN OPEN-SOURCE HARDWARE COMPANY SPECIALIZING IN DESIGNING AND. MANUFACTURING VERY SMALL ELECTRONICS. Founder and president Ken Burns started the ‘company as aside project in a spare bedroom of his house in 2011, Now housed in an old tre factory in Akron, Ohio, it sells more than 40 tiny products and ‘emplays seven people. You once wrote an article for Make: about using your boards to track your outdoor cat, Conley. But you ditin’t say what you learned about his whereabouts. What do you now know about Conley? People liked that idea. | estimate that there are now 200 to 300 cats that have been racked with ‘our boards, Ilearned that he's lazy. Thathe spends ‘most ofthe time sleeping in a neighbor's shed down the road ‘What changes when boards get tiny? ur stuffs based on the Arduino, and it works lke @ regular Arduino. But by making it smal it allows you to puttin places you've never been able to before, like in very small rockets. You can power and control litle Matchbox cars and prosthetic hands, ‘Are any of your customers spies? (One guy whe works here used our technology to ‘make ite spy device that he snuck onto my bookshel. He used itto turn my air conditioner an and of, randomly, very quickly. That was pretty annoying, uni figured it out You manufacture TinyCircuits in the U.S. How do you make that work? For us, manufacturing here in Akron costs less than outsourcing to China. In San Francisco we wouldn't be able to do that, Just the cost of labor and space would make that impossible. A software startup makes ‘more sense in San Francisco, but fora hardware startup, the Midwest is great. Also, it's realy not that hard to get qualified engineering people here and pay them livable wage. We have some great engineering 66] estimate that there are now 200 to 300 cats that have been tracked with our boards.99 M DCDENISON is:he editor of he Maker Pro Nester which covers theintersection of makers anabusiness andthe formertecnnoicgyecttr of TheBoston Globe colleges nearby: Carnegie Mellon, Case Western, ‘Akron University ‘What's the biggest challenge when you're ‘marketing tiny technology? The biggest challenge forall hardware projects happens once the Kickstarter periods over. What 'ypically happens is thatthe first month after you fulfill your Kickstarter orders, you de about one twentieth of what you did before. That's tough. Soif you've had a $110,000 Kickstarter like we did then inthe month after that we made about $5,000;n revenue. Pretty sharp dropoff. It’s been called the “Valley of Death.’ Because you have tat intial money, and you know how many units you have t build, So you do that But then you have ofgure out how you're going ta finance the next round. tricky. We inital raised $110,000, and we turned that into $50,000 worth of deb by the time we actualy delivered the product. don't know anybody who's actually made money on Kckstarter. How did you get out of the Valley of Death? ‘We went toa lot of Maker Faires and talked to people. ‘We blogged a lot and posted on Facebook. If you can get independent people to buy your boards and ‘rite about them, ithas tremendous ered. We've been building that over the last two years. I's slower, organic growth. All your hardware is open source. How does ‘that work for you? opens up lt of advantages. Our hardware isnot thal complicate. If someone wanted to copy it it ‘wouldn't be dificult, so closing it off wouldnt give us that much protection. By opening it up, we're able toplay in tis much bigger community. And the cool thing is that it really feeds this innovation engine: People use it, add something and contribute it back: and the pool gets bigger. That enables realty rapid innovation.@ ‘makezine.com 2 Flying your quad makes the endeavor infinitely more enjoyable Groups of fiers around dare gathering ees ey 2 co zi é: Fal S) a) a! eH Z| a! a a! a LITTLE PROPS BUZZAT DIFFERENT PITCHES, LIFTING DRONES INTO THE ‘CHILLY AIR OVER CESAR CHAVEZ PARK ‘ON A GRAY, BREEZY DAY IN BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA. A dozen pilots prep equip- ment on the open grassy space that juts into the San Francisco Bay, replacing prop blades or setting up ther frst-person- video (FPY rigs ‘Who just turned on?” calls out Eliott 108 geting video interference yn my channel. Nearby, a series of PVC poles wrapped in foam pool noodles demarcate am ft racecourse a couple hundred ft in length. There are several hairpin degree turns, anda arch, all marked in bright orange $0 the plots can see them through cameras ‘mounted on their specialized drones, ‘The group, a Meetup called FPV Expl rs & Racers, formed last summer, They jogether about once a week, usual real-time video from ‘mounted on th counts dawn from three and the drone: Ut off and rip around the fi ‘They're fast — most can excees SPECIAL SECTION body rotating to face the direction they want to gownile the drone is stil sliding sideways through the air The racers sit onthe ground arin folding chairs, concentrating only tn the controllers in their hands and the horizon ‘We look ike Ray Charles playing the piano,” remarks Kember, sa race to four laps, but really its 2 race of submission, One drone crashes into the ground, tumbling ike a downrill skier; nother gets lost and flies offcourse. |FPV has virtually no peripheral vision soit apilat Loses sight ofthe route markers its very dificult find thern again. The two remaining contenders fly around the course afew times betore one — Kember's — laps the other and is declared the winner by FPVracing isthe hot news thing in ‘competitive drone fying. Over the past year of so, more and more pilots have started building racers, The craft are 'ypicaty small, compact quadcopters, 26 makershed.com measuring less than 1Dinches iagonall from rotor to rotor. Its taking off party because i's fost, fun, and imagine doing it themselves, says Carlos Puertolas, whois described by many as the best drane racer inthe Bay Area, i not the world, The technology i getting cheaper and asia; a pilot now can get his ar her start fora few hundred dollars, and out of-the-box racers ate starting to become thatyouhave, and understand what's wrong, Last fall, European enthusiasts caling ther selves Airgonay became internet famous for videos featuring FPY | drones ripping around a course, set up in a French forest, at nearly 70 mph Like FPY Explorersin the US, the group is made Lp of people from varied backgrounds and professions who get together whenever they canto ace informally “This is actualy our lunch break. This is what we do everyday” says Argonay le. founder Hervé Pellarin, who does ma Puertolas, whois sponsored by Luminier, ' keting fr FPV companies Fat Shark and flies their frames, produces video, and ImmersionRC. “You dont need much space consuls on design forthe racing quads the | to organize something very amazing for company makes, But sil he recommends | the pilots, as an experience. Just apiece of building your aur: “There's nothing wrong forest, trees, and path, and you can have with getting one thats already built, but | fun all day yougeta lot of knovdedge from building it Like many racers, Pellarin overpowers yourself,notoniytobe able torepairit but | his drones, substituting larger motors tobe ableto troubleshoot the problems | and rotors and higher voltage four-cell batteries forthe standard three, which ‘enables greater speed and thrust. What's ‘mora it means the drones can maneuver quicker, iting over and accelerating around obstacles, ‘We think [racing] has real meaning,” Pellarin says, "We're sick of hearing about drones just because they're toy ofthe NSA, ‘or carrying bombs, or killing people. Drones ‘ane fun; drones can bea mechanical sport forthe next century. Itrequires sls, itrequires engineering, it requires piloting Such competition can also lead toreal advances in design, mechanics, and technique. Leagues ‘and contests offer a sort ‘of Darwinian incentive te building better drones, ‘and require competing against — or collaborating wth — people with i Eli DElia and Marque Comblat, better known asthe founders ofthe drone fg ing ring Game of Drones, have gotten the bugas well "FPY racing isa real visceral ‘experience. it basicaly makes anybody ‘who can doitkind af like Superman for 5to 10 minutes,” says Dla, who has a long history in action sports and in video games. To him land mary others), drones are bringing these worlds together. “in ry mind, ithas completely replaced video games, and has become my new addiction, he says. If could fy all day frst person video, I would When D'Elia and Comnblat first started battling, there was an immediate need to rethink the drones so they wouldt get quite s0 devastated upon colsion. “twas kind of like the crucible of drone combat sports that birthed Game of Drones,” says Cornblat. "You saw every kind of engineering solution you could imagine, realy high tech, really low tech. The problem was, no matter what, ‘they all ol apart ‘They ried frames of laser-cut cardboard, ‘waterjet-cut carbon fiber, and Home Depot hardware; and they eventually realized they needed something truly durable: a military- ‘grade polymer alloy body, which they now ell. “I's through the fighting, i's through the racing, and its through going aut every ‘weekend and experiencing the challenges for the consumer that we've come up with alist of objectives that we really plan on solving,” Cornblatt continues. He figures they can simplify drone racers down toa low profile, slick, crash-resistant sliver. If they do, they be competing against Hovershio's 20-printed,250-class racing drone called the MHO2, and anewer laser cut, carbor-fiber version called the ZUUL. Its ony been inthe past 12 months, creator Steve Doll says, that small drones — 20, rmilimeter mainly, though the 150 classi growing in popularity — became powerful enough to support the FPV gear needed to race. Doll, wha’s been builling and thing drones for years, gave the MHQan He shaped body, rather than the more typical “x” or “+” shape, so the keychain-size security camera linked toa 5.8GHz band video transmitter, can sit ‘on front, out ofthe way ofthe S-inch rotors, Lightweight with no lag, keychain cams are the preferred choice. They also have a good light sensor, meaning they respond quickly to changes such as going from shade to Doll doesn't see a lot of carryover fram racing to industry, whieh has been focused of late on GPS guidance, obstacle avoidance, and artificial intelligence, rather than piloting and first-person. “its really just a hobbyist thing, taking this thing and having fun wit it,” he says. Al these motors and speed controllers were designed for R/C airplanes, I's al il ery much a hack, in a ‘way. We're kind of ust making this up as we ge along, ‘The sameis true of technique and rules. “The best rule,” says Pellain of Airgonay, “is ro rules” Stil, while it may not be explicitly prohibitee, racers tend to avoid contact {unlike drone combat), as any collision with ‘an opponent is iklyto knock both drones ‘ut of the race. {A this all gots cialed in, Eliott Kember and fellow racer Tyler Koblasa sea riche fr a tuning and support company. Koblasa races a hexacopter called the TBS Gernini, which was designed by Team Blacksheep tobe ready out-of-the-box. But between mounting hardware, preparing flight controllers, receivers, and video, makezine.com/44 ,’ makezine.com oo Gs PL om SPECIAL SECTION a ~ 2 aa ae downloading software, matching rotors, | and hard banking, thoughit sacrifices some! and dealing with techricaldficuties,t_ power de tosmaler rotors. tookaround furhourstoset up. he says. |The cool thing right now FPV racing] “There's tremendous amount oFtimeto | issuper underground, Somer sys. et upto speediththe products out there, | “Youhave these super close-knit groups hhow they work, dealing withthe concept ofa | that meetup totlywhenevertheycan” | fight controler, PIDs [proportional ntarval, | Buti ony a matter fine, he adds, unit ‘and derivative values], andthe receiver | we start to see organized — perhaps even binding, ts a nightmare" "televised — leagues. Kember's and Koblasa’s company, West | Several groups are working toward Coast Rotors, plans toofer customization | raking that area, Pellerin recruiting and personalization of four popular models, | pilot rom France, Holland, and the US. aswellasmake them race ready. Asof | linluding Puertlas) to form atoose in- January.they hada backlog of orders, | formal league on an international sale though theyre aporcachng the company-as | Andi Janay Doll was one af bout 25 aside project \ fiers who participated in amultrace event { One ofthe reasons out-of-the-box racing_| hosted by arial Grand Prixat the Apollo X! | drones arent ready —and why sucha ser- | RC ridin Los Angeles, Aninteratonat sce could be very popuar—isthat thers | organization wth mare than seven chapters, issillsomuch experimenting ccing on, | eri Pw beheld races throughout ‘Atoverycvet atendad, racers brought | 201Sin the Netherlands, France, stat, cases fullocomponents, spare parts, and | Mexico, and elsewhere, nd hopes to further tetra batteries and spent 90% ofthertime | standardize the sport. getting ready and 10% racing, "We're sill | Puertolas also ancipates more organ finding that sweet spot between the fare | ization nthe near future “lean see this pats andthe motor and the FPY gear says | being aig thing,"he says.“ never saw Comblat.“Thore realist clear winner | somebody who tried tried the glasses yel.evenone’sknd of stil figuring out” | on and wasn tke, whoa!” @ aloft isbulding thom, halfis | tuning them, concurs Kurt Somervile, | vhoflies amin deadcat-sylequadcopter | {pictured on page 281. Its frame, whichhe | cRU arseipers bought froma maker in China is sort of a brybrid, withthe front rotors situated straight ‘across the frame, andthe back splayed out | JZ behind, which he saysis goodfor stability oO BEFORE YOU HEAD OUT Check that onboard and transmitter batteries are charged. Optional: pack charger Grab the correct transmitter. And bring the bind plug for your receiver, just in case Check the weather — especially wind speed and precipitation — at your local flying site Na PRE-FLIGHT Position your antennas and range-check your aircraft Check that wires are secure on the receiver and control board Check props for signs of stress Tighten prop nuts Secure battery strap = FPV Check that camera batteries are fully charged and the SD card is empty Test FPV screen and/or goggles Check goggle battery charge IF flying near others, call out the video channel you are using makezine.com/44 y thing ra Tre ect Peer ard eee ne ee ea eed SE Ea nee a your props, We've compiled this eee ats aT Beir en nem) ee "A 3 CRASH KIT Its important to have a safe area, free of people, to make mistakes and, in the event ofa crash, to be able to make simple repairs out on the field. Everyone's crash kitis going tobea little different, but here are some recommended items to bring with you every time you fly I's easiest to incorporate them into a tackle box you can grab so everything is ready to go when you walk out the door. Extra propellers and prop nuts (plus the proper sized wrench or screwdriver) Clear tape, electrical tape, and hot glue sticks and gun Soldering iron, battery- or butane- powered if you don't have access to power Zip ties of multiple sizes Rubber bands Spare booms and landing gear Fire extinguisher and first-aid kit eee eee en eee eee et Coes Dey ‘makezine.com 2° DONALD H He, nimerstonat eo Pee eee See coe Pee ee Teva Suited to beginners and indoor racing pons Cee ey eta) ey Peat tea Ce Ce Suen FPV racing, Upto.250mm ed em ested Pere aad Oy Fewer restrictions for faster races fand Det cen spel 6" props ras eee ae! Ee eo Pee eee! then choose a unique channel and this Eerste tan pilots should switch on their goggles ee ea) the same channel before switching on Crees PMCs eee eed Cee Een Ceo eT) vertically Ceeareted ee eo ee eta Sete ect DONT DRINK ‘AND DRONE in progress Gotorsee tos Beene eee net Deer rear PILOTING BY FPY ONLY for experienced pilots. However keep Darerieiserrrosennensen Se ee Fae Soe re 62 PL “4 ' tera ae ee 4 Lent a ' een Piriinerenese vison lay Coroplast arrows on the ground a ‘i DO NOT FLY YOUR DRONE coroner etree eens Pree eee eats Pieter rena Cee eee SWEEPERTURN ee Toten Cemetery here people won'tinacvertently Petey Pere rete Breet See Poteet eer STRAIGHTAWAY ipa * makezine.com/44 TO FIND DRONE RACING GROUPS AND EVENTS NEAR YOU, check out dugn.org STRAIGHTAWAY Be _ OBSTACLES. re makezine.com =e 277 GAONES HOVERS ~~ peta ee Cera ES Roped READY TO JUMP INTO THE WORLD OF FIRST- PERSON-VIEW [FPV] DRONE RACING? Building your own mini quads 8 good wey to get your frst Figuhile learning the fundamentals of muttrotor flight and piloting, as well as brushing up on your electronics and soldering skills ‘Aquaaicopter isthe mast common configura- tion and is widely supported by airframes tailored ' toracing, which require extra durability during | crashes. This build is based on the Hovership [which can be purchased or downloaded and 3D [ry eerste: | 41.FRAME (PARTIAL) ASSEMBLY Attach the arms ofthe frameto the center base Pee plates. Mount the power distribution board to the pod Gy motor to each arm [Figure ny tel center of the baseplate using double-sided foam See tape or nylon screws, Place 2 speed controllers on ol each side ofthe power distribution board. Attach @ ere are ere anrN een 2. POWER SYSTEM pres Solder the red and black 14AWG silicone wires eeu tothe primary power input pads ofthe power epee oe pore distribution board. Cut the primary power leads to ae about 130mm or longer. The length will depend Pa ce ‘on where youattach the battery) Cut2 pieces of hem Gena heat-stvnk ting and std ther down ete es each power lead. Solder the power leads to their : * corresponding sides ofthe battery connect Slide the tubing up othe batey connector and c shrink them to cover the exposed solder connec rena fons Figure @ Solder the red [positive wires from the elc- tronic peed contra ESC tothe corresponding pads af the power distrbuton boars. Repeat for theblack negative wires (Figure ©) ifyour metas and ESCs ainat come wth | connectors presoldere, itis reommendes tat ' you doso; this will maka iteaier to replace’ Fetes pete) Pil aac See ee) Rooter eee eee ea porared ere Pee ead cera SPECIAL SECTION ANATOMY OF AQUADCOPTER AIRFRAME motor or ESC wires to length leaving some. | slack, and use a wire stripper to expose the | wire inside. Solder the wre into the gold bullet connectors. Male connectors should | be places on the motors, female connectors ante ESCs. Cover eachconnactorin im! hheat-shrink tubing [Figure 3. FLIGHT CONTROLLER AND RADIO RECEIVER your frame has an additional plate be- tween the ESCs and the flight controller, assemble this part now. Feed the servo ‘ables through to the center ofthe frame where the fight controller wil be mounted. Before mounting your light controller, you will need to determine which ESC plugs into the correct motor output of your fight controller, Consult the fight controller documentation for the order of an X-quad layout Once the ESCs are connected, attach the fight controler tothe frame [Figure ©). tyour frame has aspectc side that is the front (look for an arrow, your fight controllers front should be pointed inthe same direction Consult your flight controller's docu ‘mentation forthe wiring between the radio receiver and flight board 4, FINAL FRAME ASSEMBLY Secure any loose wires or components with cable tes. Assemble any remaining frame parts such a the top pate or camera mount Figure @) os 5, MOTOR CALIBRATION Consult your radio documentation for the procedure to bind your transmitter tothe receiver. Once the radios bound, plug one ofthe ESC servo connectors inte the throttle channel ofthe receiver With the propellers olf, perform the following stops: A.Turn the transmitter on, move the throttle stick al the way up, BB. Connect power from the battery to the quad. The ESC will make a series of beeps when powered on, €. After the tones complete, lower the throttle, The ESC will make another se Fes of beeps confirming the calibration 1. Place a propeller on the motor you calibrated but DO NOT secure it. Slowly "3 makershed.com raise the throttle until the motor starts to spin. You ill be able to see which direc tion the motor spinning and can now lower the throttle. Consult your fight con- troller documentation to verity the motor is spinning inthe corret direction. fits rot, unplug the battery and swap 2 the connections between the motor and ESC to reverse the motor rotation, E. Repeat for the remaining 3 motors 6. FLIGHT CONTROLLER AND RADIO SETUP Most flight controllers come reprogram: med for an X-quad layout. yours does not, you will ned to configure it over USB or onboard controls, depending an the fight controller. For beginner pilots itis recommended that you verify thatthe default fight made is atitude/ stabilized/auto-evel The flight controller's configuration software wil also alow you tocanfirm that al the radio channel inputs are in the correct order ori any need to be reversed, 7. TEST FLIGHT AND TROUBLE- SHOOTING Charge your battery and attach the propel lers tothe correct motors. Your first test flight should be used to verity that all com: ponents have been properly configured. ‘Slowly raise the throttle untilthe quad ‘almost leaves the ground. IFt shakes while hovering you willneed to reduce some gains inthe PID tuning, Ifthe quad lifts off, verity the radio chan- nels are correct. This can be performed vile the quadis stil on the ground and the ‘motors are spinning, For a mode 2raci: ‘A. Move the right stick up (elevator), the (quad should pitch forward. B, Move the right stick let (aileron, the ‘quad should pitch to the lft €. Move the left stick to the Left rudder the quad should rotate counterclockwise, TAKE FLIGHT Your quad is now ready for practice fights — refer to our Multrotor Checklist on page 29, and only fy in areas where you can safely control your rig without harm to others. @ Get detailed instructions at hovership.com/ guides cy THEY F WIDEOS MRICOPTER 3 makershed.com | QUADCOPTERS ARE ALITTLE EASIER TO | BUILD, BUT TRICOPTERS HAVE ADVANTAGES "that make them more excing to fy — especialy "tor shooting aerial video bul my fret onein | 2010 inspired by David Windesas beaut aera | GoPro videos Ircexplorer.se/Ipv-videos-setups), "dnt get many igh out ofthat est bid, bt | earned lt Aer bung several more ve ' developed enstfordble it that anyone can bl 1 the Maker Hangar Tricoper. | WHY FLY TRI? " Altrcopter’s three motors are usually separated | by 120°, not 90° tke a quadcopter's, This makes "them great fr video because you can pace the | camera really close to the body and stillhave ne Yaw Servo Hep Sap propellers in view, And where quads must rely on counter-rotaing propellersto handle torque and balance the aircraft, a tricopter can use identical props because it has a special servo in the back —2 yaw servo — that twists the tal motor to counter torque (Figure @) Tricopters fy differently too, With their dedicat ed motor for yaw {turing}, they fy with more fui, natural-looking movements — they can bank, Pitch, and yaw ike an airplane, but still hover like a helicopter. A quadcopters flight is more robotic, as the controller board calculates the precise rota tion for al four motors to create the proper torque and balance to yaw the aircraft, you lt goof the stick, a quad stops turning abruptly; fr video ‘work, this can be obvious and distracting, Let goof a tricopters stick and the tited tal motor takes a ‘moment to return to hovering position: this gives you stow stop and even litle overshoot, as though a person were moving the camera, Finally tricopters area lot of fun to fly, especial- ly for stunts and acrobatics. The titing motor also {gives youmuch higher yaw speeds — that means thoy turn faster & Soa Cr Materials Maker Hangar Ticopter cos airframe arts ey ‘Carbon fiber hinge pieces arenes eee teats eee Poon ob) eer) eee) Nn) Bolts, nylon, 6-32%%" (4) Nuts, nyion 632 (4) pan cere ay creer) een aera) een) Velero straps (2) Coe eaten pare ener Perea Frente oe Petras reas Peer eed eer) ey een He corny ee ner Fe reaver rant ea Tools aren Enel rae eee perenne Sr) eed Seren Pec) makezine.com oa, SPECIAL SECTION | ATRICOPTER FOR MAKERS ‘The Maker Hangar Tricopteris made of ‘wood — hackable, easy to drill and cut, and ‘natural absorber of vibration, the enemy of aerial video, The airframes big, with plenty of room for large controller boards, video transmitters, drop mechanisms, or ‘whatever you can imagine. And we widened the front arms to about 150° so our tricopter more agile The kt includes. 3D-printed tal assembly and all the hardware you need, plus a wire rope vibration absorber that wil pretty much erase camera vibrations ‘even ifyour propellers ae unbalanced, Acarbon-fiber hinge provides a strong, smocth connection between the tall motor and airframe. Filly, ike mast tricopters, the two front arms lock in place for ght, then fod back. neatly for transportation and storage Its a great kit for anyone wanting te get ‘makershed.com into multicopters or aerial photography. You can alco build ittotaly from scratch; download the POF plans, laser cutter layouts, 20 fles for printing ight controller settings, and watch the how-to video series ‘at makezine.com/ga/makerhangat 1. SAND AND PAINT ‘Sand down any burrs or splinters on the ‘wooden parts. Ifyou wish, paint with a couple of light coats (Figure @) 2. ASSEMBLE THE HINGED TAIL To build the hinge, glue the 2%" carbon od flush into the %" carbon tube using CA glue (Figure @). Hot-glue tis end into the 3D-printed motor mount. Also hot-glue the 1 carbon tube into the 3D-printed fal piece. Naw put it together: Slide anto the hinge rod an Mé washer, then the tail piece, then another washer. Finally glue the i" carbon tube to the end ofthe rot capture the whole assembly Hot-glue the servo into the tailpiece (Figure @) and instal 2 easy connectors in "holes onthe servo arm Figure @). Yau can glue the hardwood alarm into the tailpiece now as wel Bolt the tail motor into the motor mount vith M3 washers [Figure @ Finally, connect the ser linkages, Use pliers to creat tiny “Z-bend”on the end of each push rod. Hook the bent ends into the motor mount, and sie the unbent ends int the easy connectrsion the servo arm (Figure @) 3. ASSEMBLE THE FRONT ARMS Drill each front arm using the 2 templates provided: at one end for the motor mounts, andat the other end forthe rotation bolts for folding the copter arms (Figure @D). Note thatthe motor template has 2cfferent spacing patterns (Figure @I; use each pattern on only one arm, so your motors will, ‘end up being mounted symmetrically ‘Then mount the remaining 2 motors using the 4 raund plywood motor maunt pieces — the ones with the larger center holes go up against the motors — and M3e22mm bolts with washers Figures @ and ®) 4, PREPARE THE BODY PLATES. Install the nylon standoffs on the upper body plate, but don't maunt the small top plate yet Figure ®) Bolt of the small plywood brackets to the lower body plate, and 4 tothe camera/ battery tray, using M3x1Omm bolts and ruts [Figure ®, following pagel. This ‘rays optional {you could just velcr the battery to the bottom ofthe copter but i's highty cecommended for video because its ‘makezine.com = = guitb YOUR Fis af secu. section isolated from vibrations by shor wire ropes. Clamp the & wire ropesint the brackets onthe bottom plate, but dont connec the camera tray ye (Figure @l 5. INSTALL THE ESCS Connect the 3 electronic speed controllers (ESCé) tothe motors and ip-ti them to the arms Figure @) Arrange the 3 arms in their folded configuration, then measure out enough wire to extend al the power and ground wires to meet at the back ofthe body (Figure @. Solder the extension wires and insulate connections wit heat-shrink tubing Strip the fre ends and solder them into your battery connector (Figure @) NOTE: tows aso the time to splice ina JST connector [optional fyou want to power an onboard EP list person ‘ideo system and watch ive veo from the ticopter: Learn more about batter ies, FP, and other fight components in the fst season of Maker Hagar videos, 6. ATTACH THE ARMS, Bott the 2front arms t the lower body pate through the outer mounting hales using M325mm bots and lock nuts. Place the Upper acy pat ontop, then pass 2more bolts through the locking siots and the iner arm holes, and secure with washers and lock nuts. Final clamp the tailarm between the body plates using 4 bots ure @) Test the folding action and loosen or Lighten bolts unt the arms fold smoethly and lock forward securely. 6. MOUNT THE LANDING GEAR Zip-tie the 2 pywood landing struts tothe front arms [Figure @) 7. SUSPEND THE CAMERA TRAY. Clamp the free ends ofthe wire ropesinto the brackets on the camera tray, Make sure the camera platform faces forward [Figure @®) and the bolt heads face outward; you'll need access to them to adjust the tray later 7 Strap the battery onto the tray with the BE velero strap ‘makershed.com 8, MOUNT THE RECEIVER AND FLIGHT CONTROLLER ‘tach your Hight contraller tothe upper body pate using hot glue double-sided tape, or bolts trough the mounting slots, [We used the Fp 15 MWC controle. You ‘can download the settings atthe Maker Hangar project page) Bind your R/C receiver to your transmitter Isee Maker Hangar Season One, Episode 12 and then st the trate ranges by plugsing each of your ESCs, in turn into the receivers Throttle port ISeasen?, Episode 4). Mount the receiver and plug into the fight controler Figure @). Center the yaw servo and tighten the inkages Finally crew the top plate onto the standeftso protect your electronics (Fig- ures @ and @, and your Maker Hangar Tricopter is complete! © See een eee eee Sree oral Ce ate eres et) Pe Penh eee ceo Pe eed Pree ne ren eae cence rte ear St Deen Oe eee Re See Omer ear Bee ou eee ee Sent een ca LET'S FACE IT: THERE'S JUST SOMETHING [AMUSING ABOUT POOL NOODLES IN FLIGHT. designed and built this copter in response toa CrashCast challenge to build a cheap, sturdy, flyable quad. Itwas bodged together in an evening with materials at hand, but | was happy enough with the result that | use it as a trainer when somebody wants to try fying (can’t imagine much you could do to break a pool noodle! 1. CUT AND TRIM THE ARMS Cut 4 noodle pieces to 1814" for the front, back, left, and right arms, and one piece to 514" forthe battery mount. The battery mount will be glued to the side arms and the side arms will be glued tothe front arms, so the tends of these pieces need to be curved. You should be able to dry-fit the frame together without any Large gaps. 2. REINFORCE THE ARMS Make a 4" deep sit along the top of each of, the 4 arms, Insert the 12" carbon fiber rods into the slits on the left and right arms, and the 15" rods into the front and back arms. Squeeze glue into the slits so that there are ro dry areas. This is important, as gaps will allow the arms to flex 2 makershed.com 3. ATTACH THE ARMS Measure and mark 5" from either end of the front and back arms. Cover the entire curved ‘mating surfaces ofthe left and eight arms with glue and center them on the marks. Do the same with the battery mount; it fits centered between the left and right arms. Run strap- ping tape along the bottom of the & arms, 4. MOUNT THE MOTORS Attach the motors to plywood scraps and secure to the ends of the arms using strap- ping tape. (Zip ties don’t work well here.] 5. MOUNT THE BATTERY AND. ELECTRONICS Cut enough foam out of the bottom of the battery mount to fit a 3S 2,200mAn battery Secure battery with a velero strap. Glue the electronics toa piece of scrap plywood or plastic and attach to the top of the battery ‘mount with more velcro straps. Configure the flight electronics as you would for any quadcopter (see our quide at makezine.com/the-handycopter! and take ‘er ut for a test flight. You can add lights if you Like for night fying; LEO strips fit perfectly into the hollow noodles. Improvise, have fun, and don't be afraid to try out new ideas! © Borer meres peered naa eee ere) Dea rea o) eras eet Beret » Battery,35 2200mAh Reinforced strapping tane yreserorey erry BCT Sree ne sien ens Seer ir ai a makezinecom/44 Ns WATER’S FINE! Sm WATERTIGHT MULTIROTORS FROM QUA Ss Seated IF YOUR FLIGHT PLAN INVOLVES MORE THAN THE OCCASIONAL, DOUSING, QUADH20'S MULTIROTORS — available either asa kit or ready-to-fly — are designed to safely land in the water or flyin the rain. The campany got its start in 2012 when designerftabricator Nick Wadman was acked to photograph realestate using an aerial ‘drone and needed to fly over water: Having a background in R/C and ‘a passion for tinkering, he developed the QuadH2o ($849 kt; $3,499 RTF], designed to house the DJl Naza GPS and to carry a GoPro. The second drone in their leet, the Hex!HZo, announced in late 2014 and available for preorder ($895 kit; $9,459 RTF], adds the capability to capture stabilized sill or video footage underwater thanks toa watertight ‘gimbal housing built for the Dl Zenmuse and GoPro, Videos ofthe HexH20 in action show it landing on calm water, maneuvering slowly white filming beneath the surface, and then taking off to capture aerial shots. © SHOOT THE CURL WITH A DIY WAVECOPTER BUILD A WATERPROOF QUAD F ax Opamsea tesa | BUILT THE WAVECOPTER TO GAINA NEW PERSPECTIVE ON | SURFING PHOTOGRAPHY ants do orl survayng ol event tes | ABVC4snayhncioncuttofitinstdea weather! lca 1 sodtetbox arms the hu, The arbr-fber rr ams re securedin place wth king PVC cont tad adaptors The motor mounsare 1" made trom PYC2-vayinspecon ees wth bth ends sealedvath uber grommets Is impartant to upgrade the scene ta come wth the inpecton corr mci boli athere ie mtos wl pul er reed | Contiguratr ofthe power andfight contra electronic wil ary 11 Segendgon your species the mos portant part ofthis pie 727 being ble tohavse an optnum balance of batery power and weight ina trig rae. ound ha we ZPPYFightax2200nA Lio bates ft perfect ander the ithe Dall model WPZ2_ socket bo used, but you may need {Desperimet abit wh comparable components ralabl nea yu Tocormplete your done, tach nding ger and eats tthe ndercarvage cattrate yur ght controler per the manufactures instructions. Then instal the maar; as ongas tye rushes ost al nadtonalwaterroting is necessary bul eu can tak ther wh ur oir poteing electronic ips tthe low poge, Connect the bltres andes your Tight on ayers Delors atachingthe propstothe maar Hoy ying! @ Fall instructions at makezine.com/go/waterproof-wavecopter/ ‘makezine.com > SPECIAL SECTION c Bi ay) FLYING OVER OPEN WATERIS EXCITING, BUT A 00D DAY of RIC fun can be ruined by even arela- tively small puddle. Fortunately, you can protect your electronics investment from a dunk with few readily available product. PLANNING YOUR APPROACH The major of what we dat Flt Test invles radio controled airplanes or multioors, so the components en we want to treat include transmiters,receners elec- tronic speed controlar [ESCs servos, and fight contrat boards. For mos ofthese a petrolou-based epee Iyerophobi agen’ suchas CorosonK applied uberly wile sufcient to protect against incidental exposure pone tomoisture, for example fying in light ain or snow. 10-18 Minutes] {Conformal coating, essential spray enamel, is an- 3 ctor option fo ecevrs buts not recommended for ESCs or motors because wil cog the bearings Inoc,we submerged small IC helicopter coated In CorrsianXin fesh and salt water and were able tofyitout ofboth Figure BIO course this isan extreme test and not everyone is planning on dunk ing his or her electronics na tub of water you co Cee anticipate mre extensive or prolonged expose, that pester os right change now much ime and effort you're going ‘ aren erinen tospend making everything water estan PROTECTING CRITICAL SYSTEMS Wee PonEy For servos, we recommend CorrosionX's denser HD rr oduct; you need to open up the housing and spray [eredcailialinat ashi inde gure). Th ptentometer vai et tea torlis the mst critical pat to waterproof because if water gets inside it wil give you false readings. When you're finished, be sure to clean the ouside with iso- propyl alcohol or glue won't stick tit For mare sensitive electronic components such as ESCs we suggest using heat-shrink tubing and epony to create a protective barrier. Note: Hot glue vill at work for this because it doesn't stick ta sil- cone. First remeve any manufacturer-applied heat shrink tubing and replace it with a Larger piece. Apply heat as you normally would, then seal the ends with S-minute epoxy, making sure not to leave any gaps [Figure @). Ifyou want to make the seal waterproot, instead of just resistant, you can use 24-hour epoxy ANOTE ON MOTORS It you're using brushless motors, they are, by their nature, waterproof and will operate while submerged, assuming the wiring is property insulated, The bear- ings should be oiled after exposure to water, though With afew precautionary measures, youcan feet ‘more confident fying over lakes, in inclement weat or wherever there may be water involved! Just be sure to brush up on our swimming and SCUBA skis. © makezine.com 45 PROJECTS | Take amazing high-magnification photos with your phone, using the Jens fromacheap laser pointer Smartphone Microscope %_ makershed.com YOU CAN EASILY TURN YOUR SMARTPHONE ‘CAMERA INTO A POWERFUL DIGITAL MICRO- SCOPE. All you need isa few tools, the focus tons fom a cheap laser pointer or two, and about $10 worth of materials fromthe hardware store Not only wil this homemade microscopy stand take high-quality macro photos, but with the abilly to magnify objects upto 175x lor 225x iT you use two lenses), you can easily see and photograph cells. You can even do laboratory experiments — we were able to observe plasmolysis in red onion epidermal cals. You're not restricted toa laboratory setting with this microscope. twas designed to be easy to operat, lightweight, and portable. Just align your phone's camera withthe facus lens ontop ofthe camera stage, then place the object you'd ke to view onthe adjustable specimen stage. Sincel frst shared this project on Instructables, ‘ve added a second lens for higher magnification, springs to keep the specimen stage steady, and plexiglass slides to make switching samples clean and easy Because the stages are also constructed with plexiglass, objects can easily be viewed with or Without an external light source, This lets you use the microscope in a wide range of settings — in the classroom, outside, or in your own horne — to take a closer look a the world around you. Here's how to make it. 1. EXTRACT THE LASER LENS (optional) The fous ens ofjust about any laser pointer wil serv asthe mact lens onthe microscope stand. Don't waste money onan expensive modo: the tons froma $2 lasers fn. To achieve higher ‘magniation yp to 26x, use two! You can also tuythe bare lenses online and skip this step To getthelens from the laser pointer, str by unscrewing te front cone and the back cover of the tbe, Remove the bateris, Using the eraser end of pencil push the innards out ofthe front of the tub Figure @) The front ofthis assembly is whers the focus tens sits, Unscrew the small lack pastic retainer infront ofthe lens andthe lens wil core free (Figure OI. “he ens isnot symmetrical when vewee from the edge You see atin, translucont stip {-tmnm on one side of the otherwise transparent tons in Figure @ its shown on the et sie. This side must face away rom the camera, You can dotrrine the correct orientation by sticking the tens between the prongs fair, then taping the gto the back ofyour smartphone as shown in Figure @. The correct venation wil provide you vitha larger eld of view Asis you ean ake reasonably qood macro photos wth ust this ens and your smartphone. Butits extremely hard to keep the phone steady wen taking 2oomed:in photos. Thats wy you need to build a stand! KENJI YOSHINO site! chemistyat Grinnell Colles and curtenlly wots ee Grincty cot art residency incentra Io ‘Yoursmartphone Laser pointer focus tens (Vora) salted ffom $2laser pointers or ought separately at Plywood, 67047" Acrylic shaot, Yo": 7x7" (hyata7" and 2"<4" C1 ‘rmmore) asa pewsiaes AS Jourhardvare store to ct WSiyoure euting your oun akiftheyltsell ouscraps Carriage bolts, he" ro Nuts, "40" (9) ‘Wing nuts, (2) washers, 546" (5) ‘Compression springs, -20 ‘gauge, 10, "tong (2) si Compressea with your fingers Youcan buy alonget oneand axtitintoshocer peees Light source (optional) for wewngbaeiltapceimens | lke cheap LED clk Ights or Stubby C0 flsrlignts te Biamend sions 408-0775, Dil anal crit bits ‘clamp Saw(s) for cutting piwvood ‘anoaervic (if yourhara ‘ware store wort) Fite ‘Sandpaper Wire cutters Puers| Levet makezine.com «7 PROJECTS ‘Smartphone Microscope 2. CUT AND DRILL THE STAND Marth tp ofthe pend bast he fen estas rr bata esa mie ‘camera stage (7"*?'] x -i7"Von op ofthe the plywood base G'xPlontepofthe | sete diling camerastage,with¥e | Het sont won ‘ofthe specimenstage | to damage your ding over the front | workbene extending ver the font] oid crack ofthe base.Clampand | ng sani so drilthrough the entre | “Skil Bulger" on the next page assembly [Figure @). The bolts that stick up through the base must be ‘counterbored in order forthe standto st flat. Flip the base ever and counterbore the holes with a spade bit to accommodate the bolt heads. 3. MOUNT THE LASER LENS Finda cil bit slightly smaller than the diameter ‘ofthe lens, Then measure, mark, and drill @hole inthe camera stage, "from the front edge in Line with the bolt holes Press-ithe lensinto the hole (Figure @).t itdoesn't quite fi, use a file or sandpaper to ‘enlarge the hole, Work slowty and test theft often Its easy to overshoot and make the hole too large! You can remedy this with tiny bit of glue, but be very careful not to get glue onthe lens surfaces. ‘When using the stand, its important to have the lons as close as possible tothe camera. If you plan to Keep your phone in a case when you use the stand, then leave the top ofthe Lens slightly ‘exposed so thatit will rest closer to the camera. Otherwise, mount the lens flush with the stage. 4, MOUNT SECOND LENS loptional) Ifyou're using 2 laser lenses, mount them one above the other in the camera stage, inserting one _ makershed.com lens from below and the other fram above. This increased my magnification to ~325x. Be careful not to let these lenses touch, and install them as level a possible. Failure to do so ‘ean cause aberrations in the image. 5. PLACE THE LIGHT SOURCE Next, ila shallowhole in the base to accom- modete your ight source [Figure @). (Small LED lick tights work wel It irmportant that your light sources directly below the focus ens. To mark the right placement firs test-ft the base, bolts, and camera stage together, then slide the «camera stage dosnt the base and mark the base with 2 pencil, rectly beneath the lens 6. ASSEMBLE THE MICROSCOPE Startwith washers and nuts to ald the 3 bolts tight othe base, Add some upside-down wing ute and then washers tothe 2 front bolts. Then place the specimen stage on top ofthese washers Figure Ol. ‘Ads aut to each bol, an lower them about 1s" Then puta compression spring over each front nut and bolt, and rest the camera stage on top ofthe nuts Figure Ol ‘Aleve is handy here to make sure tha the stageis actually fat. you don't own a level there are plenty free lve aps fora phonel Use wire cutters or pliers to trim or adjust the springs it necessary. When the stage slevel bat front to back and lett right tighten down the final rts. ‘The cornpression springs kep the specimen stage stabiized and allow you to make far ner adjustments withthe wingnuts. Without these springs, the specimen stage can lt one way or another if the load is imbalanced or ifthe bolt holes are too large. 7.MAKE SOME SLIDES The focal length ofthe lenis very short and the specimen stage can only be raised so close tot because ofthe nuts holding up the camera stage. Using a transparent sample side fixes this problem and makes manipulating samples ‘while viewing easier. Simply cuta 2x" piece of plexiglass. With 2 tenses, the focal length gets even smaller, $02 ples slides are required. 8. TAKE AMAZING PICTURES! Or video! With $10 worth of materials and a smartphone, you just made a digital microscope. ‘Align your smartphone camera lens withthe microscope lens. Bring the object into focus by Coes makezinecom/44 slowly turning the wing nuts on either side, then use your phone to take a picture or video, or even, zoom in fora closer look. fm a major proponent of making home science more accessible. My goa in designing ‘and building this phone-to-micrescope conversion stand is to provide an alternative to overly expen: sive microscopes. This setup isa viable option for underfunded science classrooms that would not otherwise be able to perform experiments, requiring a microscope. But more than that, this device will allow people to rediscover the world ‘round ther. @ ‘See mare step-by-step photos and micro photos {and share your awn at makezine com/a ‘smariphone-microscope, SKILL BUILDER DRILL ACRYLIC WITHOUT. CRACKING Ais roe to erating when tuto ile. Hersh to prevent it Fast, uta piece of ape ove the area yu'eebut to dil Measure andar then il sly using a sharp it and gente pressure. Do rt ress had et he il a the nok makezine.com «? PROJECTS Use free 3D Mee L design tools tomolda e tough, sleek guitar body (or ] a anything else) slevalisieurelal A 4 e composite Guital oe HERE'S HOW I MADE THE BODY FOR MY CARBON-FIBER ACOUSTIC GUITAR, AS PART (OF A WORKSHOP AT TECHSHOP in San Fran- isco. l'sa great technique that anyone can do First you design @ 30 mold made of stacked-up slices of cardboard, using Autodesk's free 1230 Make software. Then you lay carbon-fber fabric aver the mold and harden the fibers with marine= grade epoxy, My mold is modeled after 2 1940 Gibson L-00 but the sides are rounded like an Ovation-style guitar, because carbon fiver doesn't bend well around sharp corners. The finished guitar looks and sounds great! | designed the workshop for complete begin- ners, 0 the whole bodys aid up and finished with brush and gloved hands. {A more advanced technique uses vacuurn bags, which | hope to try inthe future. it tock mea week, working nights, tofinish the body lone. You can probably make the whole guitarin a couple of weekends. WHY CARBON FIBER? “= ae ee et eee . Peters reece 1. GET THE 3D GUITAR MODEL You can design your ovn guitar sing your favorite 3D design software, or skip it and just download the 3D model used (igure QI. Gott atthe project page online: makezine.com/ga/carbon 2. SLICE THE MODEL INTO LAYERS Open Autodesk 1230 Make and import your 30 model. On the left, under Construction Techniques, select Stacked Slices, Now set the dimensions forthe object you're making and the materia is being made from, For the Object Size, my model was 935mm tong x 358mm wide « 111mm high (36"*14"»4:37". For my Manufacturing Settings, | chose 0.177" slices cn 18°x24" sheets, which created 56 parts spread over 23 sheets of standard cardboard [Figure @) Inspect the model and sheets for errors. Then Get Plans and select EPS format. Pere etoreers eer rene) eret ‘Time Required: ACouple Weekends Cost: 3180-$200 body 100 components Materials » Comugated cardboard »Carbon-ber fabric | use Dini wanve base eas Stordable bt other sives right work beter Fiberglass, S-Glass optional) chapel {seu between carbon aves. » Coremat polyester foam Epoxy, TAP Plastics Marine (Grade Premivm 304 resin ‘and TO9 ardener Lore open ime, ow oc few bua. slack plgment fr ncn laste veans| Plastic packing wrap 2a Sreten wan oe palit va » Auto body putty aka Bordo Painter's tape »Serap wood Sandpaper, 80 or 20 git » Sandpaper, waterproof: aD design software {eotions) ny nstucors {Ses autovesk mentor, Seng the gtr so model Sourtoas rom the oraeet Page ere “230 Make software fee {rom sdeppeommaie > Laser cutter (optional Yoo ancot he crsooeray fSnatut ecomme Secess ta finda machine or service youcane. » vector saphes software {eptonal) ches coe A2teterorcortoeanito send eso hetaser cater vee » Seale (optional) | Disposable containers and res » Disposable gloves Dust mask or respirator Caroeniberand epowy make ‘Some asty dust when cut andeange Safety goggles Disposable scissors Hacksaw Rotary tool with cutot wheel such sea Grama ‘Sanding block »»Ragorpolishing pad makezine.com 51 PROJECTS SP makershed. Carbon-Fiber Acoustic Guitar 3. LASER-CUT AND ASSEMBLE THE MOLD lused Adobe lustrator to send the EPS les to an Eplog 60W laser cutter Figure @). Choose settings appropriate fr cardboard I used 70% ower 90% speed, and ODH2 frequency. Each partis numbered, Stackthernin numer: icaorer, then assemble witha ite glue be- tween each ayer (Figures @ and Clamping is opiona 4, PREPARE THE MOLD >» Sten edges. Carbon ber doest bend wel, cover sharp corners Use auto-body pty to smooth the joint between the body and neck iFgure @) »» Make 3 handle, Nail boards tothe bottom ofthe molt to make afr handle, Then claritin 2 vise to elevate the mold and keept rock steady iFgure @) »» Mold release. To prevent the epoxy rom boning wth the cardboard, you need ome ‘ype of barrier. Commercial mold release products won'twork with cardboard, so you'll \wrap the entire moldin packing plastic — a thicker, tougher cousin of tng-wrap Figures @ and @). Aim for tong, smooth mations to ‘void tangling and bunching. 5. LAY UP THE CARBON FIBER Protect your workspace with tarps or plastic wrap, then neatly arrange your materials before start- ing, Once you mix the epoxy, things get messy fast! ‘Cut2 sheets of carton ber and 1 sheet of ‘S-Glass just alittle longer and wider than the mold lI had about "overlap on each side). Set ‘aside the beter-looking sheet of carbon; this will, be your final, show ayer. Mix 1002 of epoxy following the manufacturer's instructions inthis case 4 parts resin to 1 part hardener. You can eyeballit ina measuring cup, butts best to measure it by weight. pay likes itwarm, so be aware of your epoxy's minimum recommended temperature. Lay the first layer of carbon over the mold, then load up your brush and wet the carbon fiber thoroughiy with epoxy — no dry spots or bubbles [Figures @ and @). Your epoxy has a 20-30 minute “pot time” betare it hardens. In tight corners the carbon fiber wll tent and pull away trom the mol. Cut rele slits, then overlap the 2 sides, needed, bulk up the area with scraps of carbon fiber to soften the curve Don't worry about how ittooks fit only the first ayer| and don't be afraid to use your (loves) fingers to tug, smoosh, and reshape the fiber by hand. Mix another batch of epoxy and put down a layer of S-Glass in exactly the same way. Then an- ‘other batch and your final ayer of carbon. Careful, as everything you do now will show on the surface. Let the epony cure fully, protecting it from dust and fingerprints 6, RELEASE THE MOLD Wearing your goggles and respirator, use aDre- mel. anole grinder, or hacksav to cut away the excess carbon and eporyringe tojust above the cardboard mold, Beware of sharp ltl spikes and splinters. Havea friend hold the guitar body while you {ug the mold ou or just tear it out in pieces {Figure @). Examine your handiwork. The hard- est partis over! makezinecom/44 ‘makezine.com 5 PROJECTS s makershed.com Carbon-Fiber Acoustic Guitar 7. REINFORCE THE BODY ‘guitar body must be sturdy — any energy spent flexing is energy taken avay from the sound — and the neck must withstand more than 100lbs ‘of pull rorn the strings. (Check for any areas that are flexing too much, ‘The edges of my guitar flexed a litle bit, and so did some parts ofthe neck. A traditional guitar thas a threaded truss rod to adjust stiffness, but ‘urs just has a very stif carbon neck CCoremat isa super absorbent foam that sucks ‘up lts of epoxy, making it very sti once it ares, I puta layer of Coremat all atong the edges ofthe ‘body and down the center from the neck, adding a strip of S-Glass under the Coremat to helpit stick tothe carbon. I's not pretty, but nobody will see it anyway Figure ©) Flip the guitar upside down on aplastic mat and tot the epoxy drip down to form a “ip” around the inside edge ofthe guitar. This makes a nice ‘surface for mounting wooden components later Wieight the body and neck so they! ry flush (Figure 8. FLATTEN AND SHAPE THE BODY Check that the guitar lies flat, and sand down any high spots with 80- or 120-grit paper on along ‘sanding block made of scrap 2 4. (Check the size ofthe neck and how it feels in your hands. Compare it to other guitars you pay. makezinecom/44 Use an angle grinder or Dremel to cu the neck down lawer'f you wish Now measure the thickness of your soundboard [mine was 2.4mm), and cut the body down lower than the neck by that exact thickness, so the soundboard wil ie flush beneath the fretboard marked the cut line with painter's tape [Figure @ —— and I. 9. INSTALL THE GUITAR COMPONENTS Instaling the wood components i exact tke smakinga traditional guitar. glued them tothe body with minute epoy, using clamps and woights frst the soundboard, then the headstock, and finally the fretboard and bridge. Figures ®, Qa) ‘u'll need to cut the neck o fit your headstock then cut your fretboard to fit the neck for details, see the project page at makerine.corvgo/carton- fiber-acoustic-gitar also recommend Build Your vm Acoustic Guta by Jonathan Kinkead, 10. PATCH, SAND, AND POLISH Patch ary gaps wth blak 5-minute epoxy or our Layupepony inte Black Figure @) Protect the woaden components with masking tape and sand down ay drips or high spts wth 0 or 120 git. Then wet-sand with waterproof sandpapersin 19,220,320, and aly 600 grit (Figure ‘ALthis pint | gave the whole body another ‘gloss coat loptionall of epoxy [Figure @Bl, and let it dry a full day, then wel-sanded wth 400, 600, and 1000 grits to get a semi-aoss shine To pals the body, gave it coat of Turtle Wax auto-body rubbing compound, then afna coat of paste wax [Figure ©) Thisproject pushed meto earnalota new skills and ty experiments I never would have attempted atherwse. The fretboard sina two ways: wth CNO-cut maple and with aser-cut tering ile wth colored epowy: the headstock i also laser ina and the bridge is CNC-cut 100. Final, laser-tched the Westen ed cedar seundboard with yawn artwork, then hand= tintecit Figure @) Considering this wos my ist time working with carbon fk — oF making a musical instrument — Imveryhappy wth now tal tunes out © Gel the 0 gator medelandmre theandghoosatraterneconoy, rt bar aco gata ‘makezine.com 5 PROJECTS Plasma Arc TeV Create a high-voltage loudspeaker that makes sound waves by vibrating an electric arc JOHNIOVINE av Pin tinside Power Pindouteide Sten 1 Breen Power LED ne rwvoc ex treguates! 5 eress viv oy ay ov cooling 16BT Audioin Ot a aro Pin tateeve . Pn2ip 19K ‘WHAT DO THE WORLD'S MOST EXPENSIVE ‘SPEAKERS, THE SUN, AND LAMPS FROM THE 118905 HAVE IN COMMON? Plasma, the fourth state of matter, of course! After building this little plasma are speaker, youl be able to hear your favorite jams played directly from the vibrating plasma ofan electric are. Plasma isa high-temperature, hight ion- ized gas that's electrically conductive, While conventional loudspeakers use a solid diaphragm, the plasma arc speaker uses ionized gasasa gaseous diaphragm — it's virtually massless, soit easly responds to high-frequency audio signals. By varying the electrical signal across the electrodes, youl cause the ions in the plasma to jiggle, which causes the gaseous diaphragm to vibrate and create sound wavesin the ar THE SINGING ARC The frst instance ofa plasma arc speaker can be traced back to William Duddell in 1899. Duddelt connected an ordinary carbon arc lampto 8 tuned circuit made of a capacitor and inductor, and he discovered that he could generate tones that corresponded tothe resonant frequency af the tuned circuit. He wired a keyboard and played ‘God Save the Queen” on what is considered the first electronic musical instrument — the “sing ingare HOW IT WORKS Most madern published schematis for building ‘singing are” speakers use ether a 555 timer ora TLA%4 PWIM controler, whose output s wired toa Pa Pe Swetem Pa stander power transistor or MOSFET torapaly switch current on and ff othe high-voltage [HV) transformer [Figure @).| chose touse a 55 timer wih 2 unique power component, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor ISBT), whichis. ideally suited for this aplication. I's got the high current capacity ofa bipolar transistor andthe voltage contrl of @ MOSFET. The 555 timer is set upinastable mode to continually output a frequency dependent upon an RC network composed of two resistors and a capacitor. This is the oscillation frequency that powers the HV transformer. chose a "base Frequency" of approximately Z3kHz because it allows the HV ransformer to create an output are Iplasmal that doesnt produce any sound or tone an its oem, as his would detract rom the sound quality ofthe speaker Pin 5 on the 555 timer is the contra veltage input By applying avltage otis pin, we can vary the output requency ofthe timer independenty from the base frequency thats set by the RC network. Tis creates frequency modulation IF) output ike FM radio. ust connect the audio autput from the 2N3P04 transistor to pin, and now your auto signal is modulating the output frequency ofthe 855 timer. This FM output, amp- tie by the HV transformer, is what gales the ionsin the plasma arco create sound This small speaker isthe equivalent ofa tweeter: Large electric ares ean produce better fdeiy tower frequencies, but the smaller ares inthis device are better at reproducing sound in the higher frequencies. e3Hows ‘$$0'5100 Materials Plasma Ar Sposher kit, fravors ata ated clon. $90 from imag I Heatsink compound =Orbuy the following, parts separately — High voltage fyback transformer, 40W=80W, 20kV max ovtput avaliable ‘Separately romimages Dar sHVT-Ol Designated 1 [ithe sehemate Powerlack,2.ImmP? ‘Tossleswiteh Resistors, 100k0, uw (2) BURG Resistors 10K, WW (3) BERS? Resistor, ka, WW R4 Potentiometor, mutturn {rimmen25kn #3 can use Tok 2ska Capacitor, A70yF,25V CCheanuse a70)F-L000uR, Tevarhgner ‘Capacitor, .0014F,100V C2 CCapaciter,330pF,50VC3 Capacitors, ]OpF,16V (2) cares. Capacitor, 01, 1]00V C5 LED, subminl green ‘Audio ack, 3.5mm ‘555 timer IC chip, LMSSS Ut ICsocket, Bin Transistor, 2N3904 0} ‘Transistor, |GET, 1SLovs036P3 G2, aso valle separately rom Images I Large heat sink for 63 Plastic tube, 3" diameter, ‘length Binding post, black Binding post, red Wire, 22-20 gauge, sold Insulated, 12" engin Power supply, 12VDC, 2Rorereater Plast projectenciosure Tools Soldering ron Wrench orliers Rotary cuting tool Drill and ants ‘Breadboard (optional) FRyoure not Using te makezine.com 5 PROJECTS ‘makershed.com Plasma Arc Speaker 1. BUILD THE CIRCUIT Solder the components tothe printed circuit board {PCB} includedin the kit (Figure I. youre not using the kit, ou can prototype the circuit using point-to-point wiring, following the schematic (Figure Al You can use a solderless breadboard {or the low-current components ony like the 555 timer, 2N3906 transistor, and audio input. While the creuitas a whole draws less than 2A of caren, that's still above the rating of solderiess breadboards | fer you may need to adjust the base frequency ff the 955 timer in order to achieve a silent igh-voltage plasma ar. Experiment with th esistor ana capacitor values of the RC ne tune the base frequer ‘Spread heatsink compound on the back of the IGBT and make sure there's good contact withthe hheat sink to ensure good heat transfer [Figure @. 2. MOUNT IT IN THE ENCLOSURE ‘The output ofthis circuit ganerates high voltage — be careful near the output ofthe HV transformer! so you'll mount tina plastic enclosure, as plastic isan insulator and will be safer than a metal enclosure. First, connect the high voltage wires to the output ofthe HV transformer; you wl (for inte 2 10 permit ficient airflow or cooling Without taking these aetio jour IGT will overheat in less than a minute run these outto the binding posts af the plasma speaker ube Oril and cuthotes in the enclosure fr the fan venting, power ack, audio input, LED, sitch, and high voltage wires Figure ®) following the template an the project page at mekezine.conv/gofplasma arc-speker. 3. BUILD THE PLASMA SPEAKER TUBE “The speakers fabricated outa 4" length ot 3°-iameter clear plastic tubing. Cut notches in the bottom ofthe plastic tbe to create logs and to allow aitflow The are can get ashot as a candle) Dril holes on opposite sides ofthe tube, 1% from the top, sized to accept the binding post terminals|Figure @) j / La rt nen ategip aes Tomatethe lectrogessalderalengtner 22-20. \Wihyeur plasma are speaker. youUbe, gauge sald wre tothe solder tab ofthe binding fekinatunes with ne sane technology post terminal. If your terminal doesn't have a ena Sderot smplywrapthevirearounteinse EYRTHER EXPERIMENTS binding post screw. Crossover To use your plasma are speaker Secure each binding post with anut, then ert deci aici ‘as.a tweeter to complement your existing ee te ee caer eine hifi speakers, try the bass crossover circuits former Figure @). used by Paul Faget Jor Oliver Hunt 5. PREPARE THE CIRCUIT FOR nl AUDIO INPUT By turning potentiometer RO witha smallscrew-__”Fame’SpeaerYoucan even use igh tine Fgue Ol youcannetnethe bias or emperture ame lowemparate iaiesice ne eNeadanaiiee, | Seaeiemmmmmeninwss Adjust potentiometer R3 to its midpoint position 8 u " " ? before turning on the plasma arc speaker. age online! @ The audi input signal used was 1COmV 101M) Tore ghvlage mitre Wha Wallon Ua Fgh peak to peak from an Pod, Ifthe auco signa is kate See grup do great thing wih Teli ‘too large it will be clipped, creating distortion in and fusors at i and reduce the volume of your audio signal going into ‘See the plasma arc speaker in action, try more cegmerined yaar Saeco ate 6. ROCK SOME TUNES! Cavan inG@iruaaarees Nosema es SEN Ta On oc player tothecireuitsaudo input. anépross Poy EERE gue) SSeS cae [dues ec cganaeaniag cttw ace SERRE Teer iene sets Power up the spe: adjust the vo Reavepesrnd orm re errs noe eer asnecessarytofarm anarc Figure@).\'an rc EAS a eer SY doesn't form, make sure audios being played. es theare sill doesn't farm, switch the speaker off, eeu eee peered makezine.com 5? PROJECTS This quick build makes a door-sized star portal — or a vertiginous beer-pong table! IWAS INSPIRED TO BUILD THIS PROJECT AFTER VISITING A MUSEUM IN SCOTLAND that 60 makershed.com I é 3. Screw the 4 boards together to make a rec- tangular frame 72°*2514", using two 174 flat- head screws in each corer. Make sure to screw the 24" beards inside the 72" boards 4. Locate the end ofthe LED wire that does not hhave the electrical plug and use the staple gun to staple it inside the frame atthe corner where the filed board i. Now staple the LED lights around ‘the inside ofthe frame along the midpoint of the ‘ads, with bulbs facing the canter ofthe frame, Staple all the way around the frame. Partly unscrew the corner with the filed hole ‘and thread the electrical plug through to the ‘outside of the frame. Then rescrew the corner. 5. Drill 12 evenly spaced holes through the clear acrylic sheet, aligned with your frame. Then countersink them, 6. Apply the mirror window film very carefully to the countersunk side ofthe clear acrylic, fllowing the manufacturers instructions, Make sure there ‘are no air bubbles. You've just made avery large: ‘one-way miro: Use the hobby knife to cut out the window flim ‘overlapping the countersunk holes, 7. Drill 12 eventy spaced holes through the ordinary acrylic mirror, and countersink these on the backing side Inot the mirror sidel Attach this mirror tothe frame using 12 screws, with the mirrored surface facing inside. 88. Attach your one-way mirror tothe opposite Plug — - Wooden frame Acrylic with LED Christmas: mirror lights on inside edge side of frame, with the window film facing inside. 9. Wrap any extra LEDs onthe outside of the frame in black tape, or by a black project box and fold the extra ight into to hide them. 10. Ptugin and enjoy USEIT Hang your mega infinity mirror on the wall as fullength mirror or ona door to create life-size portal to another dimension, Or useitas a tabletop — fora coot coffee table, ara not-at-all distracting beer-pong table! Make sure to use 6 legs and attach them with 2 standard brackets on each log, Use brackets at least 8” long arelse the table will be alittle wobbly Fora beer-pang table, use legs 231" long, ‘as regulation table height is 2714", [Note that requlation tabletops typically measure 82, where oursis about 62") That's a "make"! © See step-by-step photos and share your build Smale camp negra makezinecom/44 PROJECTS Nl Ih This ultra-sensitive device detects the altitude of dust, smoke, and volcanic emissions high in the sky Written and photographed by Forest M. Mims | Mustrated by James Burke Cee eee eo CNet ee eines Sree eee Cee ene enc ed LED like those used in remote controls for eee ues! a Deets ey es tes Aol Cera ol orto cg Pk Seen PLAC ATS oor ‘neato ery meee, Papas Se ene eee ee ee eee P installed in clear epoxy. For best results, use an LED Ge eames See eee eon peer ere ety eg erg es Dene a en) Bonar eee ea eer See ee ee tn a TLCZ71BIP operational amplifier with avery high ee eer Lo inseries. Capacitor 1 suppresses osclation Seca ei oars ee cae eo ra De eed Pecan te tar oe as en eee ee are eee Pere ete ere et Cet es a eee ree eee renee ees 40-gigohm axial-ead resistor (MOX-400224008K) eee ere ey poet cece as ae alas ee ae eT ‘metal housing to block electrical noise from power eer a ad Peo e esc cece Bree ete noo Tetoy Pape eee eet Eee y fe ee eae ie) ‘phone or audi plug fitted with a collimator tube andinsertedintoajackatoptheenclosure.1¥2 Twilight STE OMA Pu oie Sun below © horizon PROJECTS ees ee ee es eee eens See arty ee et eee Poa) surfaces of 1, R2, and IC1 with a ct Pee ete] atop a pair of insulated standoff inside a metal Ce as Pere et eee eee (CU-124 enclosure. larger enclosure can be used, as can various metal containers sold by teen es 3d telight observations at jighiephotometa ea PROJECTS makezine.com/44 How to Tattoo a Banana Witton by Jason Pal Smith DON'T JUST PLAY WITH YOUR FOOD MAKE ARTWITH IT. Istarted tattooing bananas after seeing similar ‘work by artist Pit Hansen. Itisa great way to add some fun to packed lunches, andit doesn't ruin the food. When you puncture or bruise banana peel, the ruptured cells release chemicals that stat to oxidize and turn brown, By using a fine tipped needle, you can make detailed