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Q. 1 - Q. 20 carry one mark each.

Q.l Which one of the following is OT necessarily a property of a Group?

( ) Commuta ivity

( ) Existence of invers for every element

(B Associativity

(D) Existence of identity

Q.L What is the chromatic number of an n-vertex imple conn ctcd graph which does not contain any odd length cyel ? A umen ~ 2.


(B) 3

(C) n-l

(D) 11

Q. Which one of the following is TRUE for any simple connected undirected graph with more than 2 venice ?

(A) No two vert ices hay the same degree.

(B) Al least two vertices have th arne degre . (C) At leas. three venice have the am degree. (D) II vertices have the sam degree.

cy.4 Con ider the binary relation R = (ex, y), (x. z), (z. x), (z, ).) ~ on the set {x y. z}. Which one of the following is TRUE?

(A) R is symmetric but NOT anrisymmetric. (C) R is both symmetric and antisyrnrnctric.

C{5 (1217)8 is equ ivai nt to

(B) R is 'OT symmetric but antis nnrnetric, (D) R is neitb r ymrnetric nor antisyrnmctric.

(A) (1217)16

(B) (028F)'6

(e) (2297)u)

(D) (OB 17)]6

~.6 What is the minimum numb rof gates required 0 implem nr (he Boolean function AB + C) if we have to use only 2-input NOR gates '?

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 5

Q(7 How man}' 32K x 1 RAM chips arc needed to provide a memory capacity of 256 K-byte ?

(A) 8

(B) 32

(C) 64

(D) 128

9!8 A CPU gen rally handl s an interrupt by executing an interrupt ervice routine

() oon as an interrupt is raj cd.

(B) by ch eking the int rrupt register at the nd f f tch cycle.

(C) by checking the interrupt register after fini hing the execution of th current instruction. (D) by checking the interrupt register at fixed time intervals.

~.Y In which one of the following page replacern nt policies. Belady's anomaly may occur?


(B) Optimal



Otfo The es enrial content(s) in each entry of a page table is/are (A virtual page number.

(8) page frame nurnb r.

(C) both virtual page number and page frame numb r. (D) accc right information.

q 1 What is the number of swaps required [0 sort n elements using election SOrt, in the wor t case '?

A) 6(n)

(8) e(n log n)

(D) e(,llog n)


<i 12 S -; aSa I b .. b I a I b

The language g nerated by the above grammar over the alphabet r a, b) is the set of (A) all palindromes.

(U all odd length palindrom

(C . ring rh I hcgil\ and end with th arne ymbol, (D) all veil length palindrorn .

Q.l ~ Which of the foJ lowing suuemenus is/are correct regarding Bellman-Ford harte t path algorithm '?

P. Ah\3)' finds a negative weighted eye! > if one exists.

Q. Finds whether any ncaativc wcizhied cycle is reo chable from th source.

(A) P only

(13) Q only

(C) both P and Q

(D) neith r Poor Q

oo.~ UL1tA be a problem that belongs to th las NP. Th n which one of (he following j TRUE?

I (A) There is no polynomial time alzorithm for rcA.

(B) If 1t" can be solved deterministically in polynomial time (hen P = NP. , (C) If 11,,;: P-hard. (hen it is ~P-completc.

(D) 1t" n1'IY be undecidable.

q/L Which one of the following languages over the alphabet (0. L} is described by rhe regular e pre ion: (0 + 1)*0 0 + 1)* + 1 1i"?

(A The. et of all strings containing th substring 00. (B) The sec of all string containing at most two O's. (C) The set of all strings containing at least two 0 s.

(D) The set of all strings that beain and end with eith r 0 or 1.

Q. f 6 Which on of the following is FALSE?

(A) There i a unique minimal DF fOT every regular language. (B) Every NFA can be converted 10 an equivalent PDA.

(C) Complement of cv ry com xi-Iree language is recursive.

(D) Every nond termini tic PDA can be converted to an equivalent deterministic PDA.

Q 17 Match all items in Croup 1 with correct options from those given in Group 2.

Group J

P. Regular expression

Q. Pushdov o automata

R. Dataflow analysis

S. Register allocation

Group 2

1. Syntax analysis

2. CO<ic generation

3. Lexical analysis

4. Cod Optimization

( ) P - 4. Q - l, R - 2. S - 3 (C) P - _, Q - 4, R - 1 S-

(B) P - 3, Q - I. R - 4, S - 2 (D) P - 2 Q - 1, R - 4, S - 3


2009 L:S

Q.18 Consid r th program below: #include ~stdio.h>

int fun(int n, int *f_p) { int t, f;

if (n <= 1) { *f = 1 ; return 1 ;


t = fun (n-1, f ; f = t T *f_p ;

*f c t ;

return f ;


int main{) { int X = 15;

printf ("%d\n", fun(5, &x»; return 0;


he value printed is :

( ) 6

(B) 8

(C) l4

D) 1

. Q/19 The coupling between different module of a software is cut gorized as follows:

L Content ·oupling /

n. Common coupling

Ill. C ntrol oupling

.. lump coupling V, Data coupling

COl pIing between modules can be ranked in th order of trongest (least desirabl ) [0 \V akest mo. t desirabl as follows :

(A) I -11- IlJ IV - V (C) J - III - - n - IV

(B) V - TV - III - II - (D) IV - IT - V - ill - J

Q.20 Consider (he Hf'Ml, table definition given blow: <table border=1>

<tr> ~td rO\\Tspan=2> ab <ltd> <td colspan=2> cd <ltd> <ftr>

<tr> <td> ef <ltd>

<td rowspan=2> gh <ltd>


<tr> <td colspan=2> ik <ltd> </tr>


The number of rows in each column and the number of columns in each row arc:

(A) (2.2.3) and (2,32) (C) (2,3,2) and (~3,2)

(B) (2,2,3) and (~2,3) (D) (2,3,2) and (2.2.3)



Q. 21 to Q. 60 carry two marks each.

Q.21 An unbalanced dice (with 6 faces. numbered from 1 (06) is thrown. The probability that the face value is odd i 90% of the probability thal the face value is even. The probability of getting any even numbered face i. the amc.

Tf the probability that the face i. cv n given that it is greater than 3 i 0.75, which one of [he following options is closest to the probability that the fac -alue exc ds ?

(A) 0.453

(.9) 0.46

(C) 0.48

CD) 0.492

Q.22 For the composition tabl of a cyclic group shown below

• I abc d

--- --I-~·· - -.-------- -------------

a I abc d

bib a d c

c led b a

did cab

Which one of the following boice' is correct '?

A) a, b arc generator (C) c , d are generators

(B) b, c arc gen rater (D) d, a are generator.

Q:23 ~ hich one of ttl following is the most appropriate logical formula to represent the statern ru :

"Gold and silver ornaments are precious'

The following notation, a~ used: I C( .. r): ,\: is a gold ornament.

Sex): x is a silver ornamcru. Ptx): x is precious.

(A) 'ifx(P(x) ~ CG(x) 1\ (x») (C) «(G(x /\ Sex) ~ P(x))

(B) rJx«G(x) /\ Sex») ~ P(x) (D) t/x(G(x) v so» ~ P(x))

Q:24 The binary op ration u is defined as follow

_I T T
F l' }'
F F T Which one of the following is equivalent to P v Q?

(A) ...,Q u _, P

(B) P -,Q

(C) ...,P o Q



f (1- tan x)/(l + tan ')dt o

evaluates to

(A) 0

(B) 1

(C) In 2

(D) Vz In 2



Q.26 Con ider (he following well-formed formulae :

1. -,'\fx(P(x)) u. -dx(P(x» IlL -,3x( -.P(x)) IV. 3x( P(x))

Which of the above arc equi val nt ?

(A) I and ITT

B) and rv

(C) Il and I

(D) U and rv

Q.27 Given the following state table of an FSM with two stales ~'\ and 13. one input and one ouiput :

Present State A Present State B Input Next Stale A Next Stale B Output
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 I 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 L 0
1 I () 1 0 0
0 0 I 0 1 0
0 J I 0 0 1
1 0 I 0 1 1
1 1 J 0 0 J If the initial stale is A = 0 B =. 0, what is the min irnum length of all input string whi h will take the machine to (he state A = 0 B = 1 wOth Output e l '?

(A) 3

(B) 4

(C) 5

(D) 6

Q.28 Consider a 4 tage pipeline processor. The number of cycles needed by the four in rructions II. n. 3 14 in stages I, S2, S3, S4 is shown below:

SI S2 S3 S4
11 2 1 1 I
12 I 3 2 2
13 2 1 I 3
14 I 2 2 2 What i th number of cycles needed to execute [he following loop?

(A) 16

(B) 23

for (i = I to 2) (II: 12; 13; 14; I (C) 2

D) 30

~29 Consider a 4-way el associative cae he (initially empty) with total 16 each blocks. Th main memory consists of 256 blocks and the request for memory blocks is in the following order:

0.255, 1,4.3,8, 133) 159,2]6, 1f9.63, ,48,32, 73, 92, 155.

Which one of the following memory block will OT be in cache if LRU replacement p licy is u: cd 1

(A) 3

(B) 8

(C) L9

(D) 216

2009 t~

Q.30 Consider a system with 4 types of resources R 1 (3 units), R2 (2 units, R3 (3 units), R4 (2 units). A non-preemptive Ji source allocation poli }' is used. At any given instance, a request is not entertained if it annot be completely satisfied. Three processes PL, P2 P3 reque t the r SOUfe . as follows if e ccuced indepcnd otly.

Proc 55 PI: Process 1'2:

l = 0: request 2 unit of R2 t. - 0: requc ts 2 unit of R3

[ = J: 'cquc ( 1 unit ofR t ="; reqe ts I unit ofR4

t = 3: requests 2 units of R 1 t = 4: requests 1 unit of R 1

[== 5: releases I unit of R2 and (:; 6: releases I unit of R3

1 unit of Rl It = &: Finishes

l': 7: releases 1 unit of R3

l = 8: requ sts 2 units of R4

t = 10: finishes

Process P3:

1= 0: requests 1 unit of R4 t = 2; requests 2 units of R I 1= 5: release. 2 units of R 1 { = 7: requests I unit of R2 1 = 8: requests I unit of R .... t =9: Fini be

Which one of the following stat ments is TRUE if all three processes run concurrentlv starting at time 1=01'

(A) All proces e will finish without any deadlock. (B) Only PI and P2 will be in deadlock,

(C) Only PI and P3 will be in deadlock.

(D) All three processes will be in deadlock.

Q'.j I Consider a disk ystem with 100 cylinders. The requests to access the cylinders occur in following

sequ nee:

4 34, to, 7. 19. 73,2. 15,6,20.

Assuming mar [he hca i curtCrHI. at cylinder 50. what is the time taken to atisfy all requests if it takes I ms to move from one cylinder to adjacent one and shortest seek time first policy is used?

(A) 9 ms

(8) 119 rns

(C) 233 ms

(D) 276 ms


In th following process, stat transition diagram for a uniprocessor system assume that there are always some processes in the ready tate:


'ow consider the following statements:

L If a process rna cs a transition D, it would rc wit in another procc making tran ition A


Il. A pro ess Pl in blocked stare can make transition E while another process PI is in running state. ill. The OS uses preemptiv scheduling.

N. Til OS use non-preemptive cheduling.

Wbich of the above statements are TR iE?

(A) 1 and IT

en T and m

(C IT and m

D) nand rv



Q. 3 The enter_CS () and le8.ve_CS () functions to implement critical section of a process are realized using rc r-and-set instruction as follow

void enter_CS(X)


while (test-and-set(X»;


void leave_CS(X) {



In (he above solution, X is a m 1 OfY location a sociated with ih CS and is initialized to O. ow consider the following statements;

T. The abov solution LO CS problem is dcadlock-fre .

D. The olution is starvation free.

ill. The processes ent res in FIFO order.

IV. More than one proc S can enter CS at the same time.

Which of the above statements are TRUE ?

(A) 1 only

(B) 1 and 11

(C) II and m

CD) TV only

Q . .>4 A multslevel pag table is preferred in compari on to a single l vel page [able for translating virtual addre S (0 physical address becaus

A) it reduce' the memory access time to read Or write a memory locarion.

(B) it helps to reduce the size of page table need d [C} implement the virtual address pace of a process. (C) it is required by the translation loa ide buff; r.

CD) it helps to reduce the numb r of page aults in page replacement algorithms.

Q.35 The running time of an algorithm is repr cnted by the following r currence relation:

In 11 s 3

T(n) = T(;) en otherwise

Which one of the following represents the tim complexity of (he algorithm?

(A) Sen)

(B) S(n log IT)

(D) 6Cn2 log n)

o,zo The keys 12, 18, 13.2,3,23,5 and L. arc inserted into an initially empty hash table of length 0 using open addressing with hash function h(k) ;: k mod 10 and linear probing. What i the resultant hash tabl ?


0 0 0 0
1 I 1 I
2 2 2 J2 2 12 2 12,2
3 23 3 13 3 13 3 13,3,23
4 4 4 2 4
5 15 5 5 5 3 5 5 15
6 6 6 23 6
7 7 7 5 7
8 18 8 IS 8 18 8 18
9 9 9 J5 9 (B)




2009 C

Q.37 What is th maximum height of any A VL-tree with 7 node ? Assum that the height of a tree with a single node is O.

(A) 2

(8) 3

(C) 4

(D) 5

Q.3~ Consider he fo lowing graph:

6 Which one of the followins i . 'OT [he sequence of edges added to the minimum spanning tre u ing Kruskal algorithm ?

(A) (b, e) (e f) (a, c) (b. c) (f. g) (c. 0) (C) (b, c) (a. c) (e, f) (b, c) (L g) (c. d)

(B) (b, e) (e, f) (a, c) (f g) (b, c) (c. d) (D) (b, e) (e, f) (b. c) (a, c) (f. g) (c, d)

. Q.39 In quick sort, for sonins 11 elements, the (n/4)t}t small l clcm nt is selected' s pivot using an O(n) time algorithm. What is the wor t case time eomplc rity of the quick sort?

(A) 8(11)

(B) 8(n log IJ)

(D) e(nl log '1)

Q.40 Let L = LJ n Ll. where Ll and L~ are languages a defined below:

Ll = {am o" can b" 1m. n ~ O}

T-'2 = {a' b' ck I i.], k 2: 0 '/ / 5 a pan . co. n r

Then Lis

(A) not recursive.

(C) context-free but not regular.

(B) regular.

CD) recursively enumerable but not context-free,



The above DFA accepts the set of all strings over to, I} that

(A) begin either with 0 or I. CC) end with 00.

(B) end with O.

(0) contain the substring 00.

Q.42 Which of the following statem nt are TRUE ?

1. There exist p~rsillg algorithms for some programming languages whose complexities are less than 8(n·).

11. A programming Ian uage which allows recursion can be implemented with static storage allocation.

m. 0 L-attributed d finition can be evaluated in the framework of bottom-up parsing.

IV. Code improving transformations can be performed at both source language and intermediate cod level.

(A) I and n

(B) j and IV

(C) ffiand IV

(D) I, ill and IV



l~ CS

Q.43 Con ider two tran a [ion TI and T1, and four chedule S" 52. S), S~ of TI and T2 a given below: t. : R,Lx] W,Lx] W;[y

1~ : R2[x] R1[y] W;zJy]

51: RJ[. ] R2[x] Rl,(Y] W1[x] WI[Y] Wz[y] s.. R.r., ] R~r .. I Rll.rl ~[xl W2[y] Wary] S3 : RJ[x] W;[x] R:![x] l~[y] R1[y] W:!Lv] s.. l?J.] !?2[yJ R1[x] \~[x] w.[y] W2[Y]

Whi .h of the above schedules are conffict-serializable ?

(A) S! and S:.

(C) S3 only

(D) S40nJy

Q.44 The following key valu s are inserted into a B+ -tree in which order of he internal nodes is 3, and that of the leaf nodes j 2. in the sequence given below, The order of internal nodes i rh maximum number of tr e pointer in each nod and th order of leaf nodes is the maximum number of data items that an be stored in it. The B+ -tree is initially empty.

to, 3, 6 8, 4, 2, I

The maximum number of lim leaf node would get split up as a result of these insertions is

(A) 2

(B) 3

(C) 4


Q.45 Let Rand S be relational ch roc uch that R = {a, b, c} and S = {c} . ow consider the following

qu ri s on th database:

I. 7rR_S(r)-nR_S(nR_S(r)'Xs-7r'H .. (r») r

11. {t It E 1tR_S (r) 1\ \;/ U E s(3 v E r(u = v[s} 1\ I = v [R - S]»}

TIL (t I t E 1tR_S (r) I\, 'r;j v E r(3 II E s(u = v[sl A J = v rR - 51»} IV. Select R.a, R.b

from R. S where Rc = S.c

Which of the above queri ar equivalent?

(A) I and IT

(B) I and m

(C) IT and IV

(D) m and TV

Q.46 In the RSA public key cryptosystern, the private and public keys are (e, n) and d. It) respectively, where I7=P*(] and p and 'I are large primes. Besides. n is public and p and q ar private. L t M b an

integ r uch that 0 < M < n and¢(n) = (p -l)(q -1) .. ow consider the following equations.

1. M':Mf'rnodn

M=(M dmodn Il, ed = 1 mod n

ill. ed =lmod~(n)

IV. M' = Me modq,(rt)

M = (i''1l)d rnodet»)

Which of th above equations correctly represent RSA cryptosystem ?

(A) I and II

(B) 1 and ITT

(C) 11 and IV

(D) a 1 IV



Q . .! While pcning a TCP connection. the initial ~ .. e-ice number is to be deriv d usins .1 time-of-day (ToO) 'lock that k-.: ps running even when the nest ~ down. The low ordcr L' bit. ofthecoumer of th

ToD clock i. [0 be ..;J for the initial ·CtlU:1': =umbers. The clock ouru r increments once per

millisecond. The rna i: .. urn packet lifetime L £!;., t be 64,.

Which one of the (:1 0I-~5 given below is close-

numb rs u. ed for pac ::.-: a conn ction can 1

he minimum pcrmissi Ie rate at which sequence

(. )O.Ol Is

s 064/s

C ( 51,

(D 0.3_7/s

Q..t: Lei G(x) b the genera: - - lynomial used f r CRC he kino. What is the condition that should be

sausficd by G(. ') LO deicer d number of bits .::": r !

A) G(.) contain rnon, ; .rn :'\0 terms.

(8) G(x) docs no divi . - x' . for any k II"'. " dmg the frame length.

(C) l+ \ i. a factor of C .

(0) G(x) has an odd nun er . {ems .

. ~9 Which of the following _:_, _. are TRUE>

1. sr. uld depict the '. ste .. as a single bubble.

II. E'[ mal enritic: . - identified . - • .it all levels of DFDs.

ITT. Control informa I h uld not be rep e =" ed in u DID.

IV. A data store n _ roan -cicd either to :r data store or [0 an external entity.

A) II and III (C) I and ill

Q,:r I Con ider the Iollov v ing . tate _ ents about the ) program module. Whi h f· ese JIe TRUE ?

The 'y lornatic comp., f 3 module is c

circuits in the graph

",11. The cyclomatic c mpie I·. i J module is the

J x.ision is effectively ...::. ~ nditional taterne . i Il . Th cyclornati cornpie '.' also be used .. ~ be tested during path'

atic comple il_ of th ontrol now graph of a

the maximum numl r of linearly independ nt

r of decisions in ( e module plu one, where a <he module.

i.mbcr of linearly in ependent path that should

and n «: land IJ)

{13 (0

Common Data Que nons

Common Data for Questions 51 ana _-::

A hard di: ha 63 ectors per tra .. oln er each with _ re

ofa se tor ~ given JJ a tripl·(c,I·.s here c i [he C) I

. ector nu . r Thus, the Qlh sector is ..... -e-scd 3 {O.O 0).

) ')

"\ . ~

dins surface' and 1 ()()(, . ndcr •. The addr

number, IIi' th surf umbel" and s is the

. -~~toras(O,O,l).and:oon.

-J. ~ I The Idress (400.16,29)

Clor nurn _



Q.,62 The addr of 1 039th S .ctor is

(A) (0.15.3J) (r-) (0.16.3))

\B) (0.16.30) {D (0 17, _, I)

Common Data for Questions 53 and 54:

A ub- equence of a gi 'en sequence is just the given sequence with some clements (possibly non' or all left out. W arc given two sequences X [rn] and Y[n) of lengths m and n, re pectivcly, with in exes of X and y starting rom O.


\Ve wish to ind the length of the lon .C t common sub- cquence (LCS) of x f.) and Y (n) as I(m, n). where an incomplete rc ursive definition fo the function I( i , j) to compute (he kllo(h of the LCS of X [m] and Y rn 1 is gi en below:


I(i,j) = 0

, if either i=O or jeO

;:;: exprl, if i,j>O and x[i-l.l=Y[j-l] = expr2, if i,j>O and X[i-l]*Y(j-l)

Which one of the following options i correct?

(A) eJ(prl »u t-:», j) +1 pa n . CO. n r

(B) exprl ;;/(i,j-l}

(C) t!1X])r2 ~ max(l(i-l,j), I(i,j-l) (D) expr2 = max(/{ i-I, j-l) , i( i, j) )

Q.54 The values of /( i., j) could be obtained by dynamic programming ba cd on the correct recursive definition of I( i, j) of the form given above, using an ar ay L [M, N}, where M = m + 1 and N;:; n + l.suchlhul L[i,j] = l(i,j).

Which on [he. following taterncnts vould be TRUE re ardin the dynamic programming solution for the recur ivc definition of i(i, j) ?

A) All elem nts of L should be j nil ialized to () for th . v 1 u . of I ( i, j) to be properly computed.

(B) The values of I( L , j) may be computed in a row major order or column major order of L [M, NJ • (C) The values of lei, j) cannot be computed in eith r tow major order or column major order of L [1>1, NJ .

(D) L [P, q] needs to be computed before L [r, s1 if either p<r or q<s.



Common Data for Questions 55 and 56:

Con ider [he following relational SChCIll3 :

Suppliers(sid: sname.string, city.string. street: Iring) Parts id:iQJ..e er, pnar tc.siring. color.string) Cmalog(sid:inlt,;gcr, rid:inle&~,r. co t.real)

<}OS Con ider th f Hewing relational query on the above databa e :

SELECf S.snamc

Fl{OM Suppl icrs S

WHERE S. id OT 1N ( SELECl C.sid

}1{O Cataloz C


WHERE P. olor <> 'blue'»

A urn that relation 'one pending to the above schema arc not empty. Which one of the followino is the correct intcrpr tali on of the above query?

(A) Find rh nam of all suppliers who have upplic a non-btu part. "1'(B) Find the names of all supplier. who hav not supplied a non-blue part, i (C) Find th names of all suppliers who have supplied only blue parts.

to) Fmd the name of all suppliers who have not supplied only blue parts.

Q.56 Assurn that in the suppliers relation above, each supplier and ca h street within a ci y has a unique name. and (snarnc, city orms a can id te key. No other functional dcpcnden ies are implied other than those implied by primary and candidate ro ys. Whi 11 on of rh fol1 wmg is TRUE about [he above schema?

( ) The schema is in BCNF.

(B) The schema is in 3NF but not in BCNF, (C) The s hema i in 2NF but not in 3 W. (D) The schema i not in 2NF.

Linked Answer Questions

Statement for Linked Answer Que tions 57 nod 58:

Frames of lOuD bit are sent over it 106 bps duple link between twO ho: LS. The propagation time is 25ms. Frames are to be tran mined into this link (0 maximally pad Lh ern in transit (within the link).

Q.57 What i the minimum number of bits (/) that will b r quired (0 represent [he cqucnce number distinctly ? Assume (hal no time gap need. ro be given between transmission of two frame "

(A) I = 2

CB) 1=3

(C) 1=4

(0) 1=5

Q.58 Suppose that the Jiding window protocol is used with the sender window size of 2', where I is the number of bits identified in [he earlier part and acknowledgements are always piggy back d. After

sending i frames. what i the minimum lime the sender will have to wail before starting transmission of the next [ram ? (Identify the closest choice ignoring the fram processing tim .)

(A) 16m5

(B) 18m5

(C) _Oms

(D) 22ms


Statement fOT ink d Ans ' ... ·cr Questions 59 and 60:

Consider a binary ma c-heap implem ntcd u. ing an array.

() 9 Which one of the following array repre scnts a binary rna. -heap ? (A) { 25, 12,16.13,10. s, 14 }

(B) { 25. 14. 13. 16. I( .8. 12 }

(C) ( 25, 14, 16. 13.10.8. 12 }

(D) { 25, 14-, 12, 1 , to. 8. 16 }

«.'to What is the content or the array after two del ere operation on the corre I answer 10 the previous que tion ?

(A) ( 14, I", 12, 10.8 ) 'I (n) { 14. 12, 1 ~ , IO} <.(C) { 14. 13.8, 12. 10 } (D { 14,13. 12.8, 10 }