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The Periodic Table of the Elements

Learning Goal:

I will be able to explain how and why the Periodic Table is arranged the way it is today.
I will be able to describe the difference between
>periods and groups
>metals, nonmetals, metalloids
>know the name and symbol of the first 20 as well as a few more
I will be able to describe the properties of elements in relation to their position on the P. Table

A few important definitions . . .


Period: describes something that occurs regularly
each day

ex. Days of the week, classes

Periodic Law: The law that states that repeating chemical and physical properties of
elements change periodically with atomic number.
Dmitri Mendeleev began by arranging the known elements in patterns in 1869.
Henry Moseley re-arranged them by atomic number in 1914, discovering the Periodic
Law and the modern table.
Metals

One way to organize the elements is by class:


Nonmetals
Metalloids
Look at a Periodic Table and find the dividing line!
These classifications are based on properties, and
Electron Configuration
Properties of METALS:
>>>>Few electrons in the outer energy level therefore Gives up electrons

easily
Solids at room temperature (except Hg)
Ductile (can be drawn into a wire)
Good Conductor of Heat and Electricity

Shiny / luster
Malleable (can be flattened)

Properties of NonMETALS:
>>>>Almost a complete set of electrons in their outer energy level (8
counts as a complete set)
More than are gases
Many form brittle crystals
Often have low melting & boiling points
Contain elements in all
phases
Some are inert: dont react at all
Properties of METALLOIDS: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te
>>>>About of a complete set of electrons in their outer energy level
Also called Semiconductors
Border the zigzag line
Some properties are the same as metals
same as nonmetals
Chemical Symbol:
1-7

Some properties are the

Arranging the Table:


Periods: Horizontal Rows.

Numbered

Represents the element.


Groups: Vertical columns. Numbered
1-18.
First letter is capital, second letter is lower case
Periodic Trends to Notice . . . As you go down the table, the elements get heavier and
more reactive.
As you go left to right, the elements get less reactive
Group 1: Alkali Metals
Have 1 electron in outer level, thus very reactive
silvery metals
React violently with water to form hydrogen gas
useful: NaCl KBr
Reactivity gets stronger as you move down the table

Low density, soft,


Form salts that are very

Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals


Have 2 electrons in their outer level
Reactive metals (but not as
reactive as Group 1)
React with Group 17 to form useful salts CaCl2
Group 3-12: Transition Metals
Do not give away electrons very easily, but electrons move around a lot makes them
especially shiny
(s and p orbitals are full, d orbital is partially full)
Generally safe to handle
All are solids except for mercury
Lanthanides & Actinides
Named for the horizontal groups at the bottom
Fit into the last 2 rows after #57 &
#89
(Contain full s, p, d orbitals and partially full f)
Lanthanides: shiny reactive metals used in electronics
Er, Europium (red)coats the
back of monitors
Actinides: very radioactive.
After #94 dont exist in nature,
made in labs
Group 13: Boron Group
Have 3 electrons in outer level
Contains Al, most abundant metal in earths crust
Group 14: Carbon Group
Have 4 electrons in outer level
C, carbon, necessary for life-giving compounds
computers
also makes Diamonds, graphite, and soot
prevent rusting

Si, Ge semiconductors used in


Sn (tin) used to coat steel to

Group 15: Nitrogen Group


Have 5 electrons in outer level
N2 gas makes up 80% of
atmosphere
Phosphorus is extremely reactive in gun powder
2 more metalloids As and Sb
Group 16: Oxygen Group

Have 6 electrons in outer level


O2 gas is extremely flammable
Sulfur is used to make Sulfuric acid most widely used chemical. Often used to
determine a nations level of industrialization.
Group 17: Halogens
Have 7 electrons in outer level react easily to get 8
salts NaCl KBr
Cl and I used as disinfectants: Cl2 in water I2 in hospitals

Combine with metals to make

Group 18: Noble Gases


Have 8 electrons in outer level inert (non-reactive)
Do not combine with other
elements
Used inside light bulbs to prevent rusting and give color
All are gases
Hydrogen It is the most abundant element in the universe
Has only one electron in outer level like Group 1, so it is very reactive
Has properties like the non-metals and it is a gas

BUT