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,

,
.
.

51. .
-
,
.
.
(. 3.13),

r r
p = p0 cos t

532

..

,
+ q q ,

p .
, ,
r , r >>
( ),
:

r
p q

I()

I~

sin 2
,
r2

. I ( ) r
q
( ). ,
,
( = 2) . ( = 0 = ) .
.

52. .

,
( ),
,
.
: ( >50), (
(770< <1) (380< <770),
(10< <380)), (0,01< <100)
- ( <0,1).

... .

5
5th ed., 2002

52

531


1. . .
,
.

.
( ),
,
(,
). ,
.

, . .

, ,
.
2. .
,
(
).
(,
)
() .
s

s = A cos( t + )

;
() ;
t = 0 ;
( t + ) t .

. +1 1, s
+ A A .
cos(a + 2 ) = cos a ,
() 2 ,
, , .
T ,

( )
2

(t + T ) + = ( t + ) + 2

Ei|| Er||
Ei Er

2
n2 < n1
<

>

2
n2 < n1
<

( + ) <
n2 > n1

>

( + ) >
n2 > n1

, ( + < 2)

, n2 > n1 ,

n2 < n1 . .

" "
,
"".
, + = 2 (,
, tg( + ) ). ,
, .

tg =

n2
.
n1

r|| = 0 Er

(
).

50. .
w
we wm :

0E 2 0 H 2
+
.
2
2
0 E = 0 H , w = 0 0 EH .
S = w = EH .
r
S
-.
r
r r
S = [ E, H ]
r
S ,
w = we + wm =

,
, . I ,

-, : I = S .

... .

530

53
:

T=

sin n1
=
= 1 = 2
2 1
sin n2

r
r r
r
E|| , H || , E , H ,

r
r
r r r
. s , E|| , E , H || H

() ().
,
(. ()), (

= n = ) :
Ei|| cos + E r|| cos = Ed || cos

0 E = 0 H ,

n1 Ei|| n1 Er|| = n2 Ed ||

,
r||
t|| , - :

r|| =

Er||
Ei||

sin 2 sin 2
tg( )
=
sin 2 + sin 2
tg( + )

E d ||

2 cos sin
=
t|| =
Ei|| sin( + ) cos( )

(*)

, (. ()), :
Ei + E r = Ed
n1 ( Ei E r ) cos = n2 E d cos

r t :

r =

E r
sin( )
=
E i
sin( + )

(**)
E d 2 sin cos
=
E i
sin( + )
(*) (**) ,
t =

.
Ei|| Ei , E d || E d
,
.
Er|| Er , .

n ,

n=

1
=
T 2

() ,
1 .
3. .
() ()
s
:

ds

= A sin( t + ) = A cos( t + + )
dt
2
d 2s
&s& = 2 = A 2 cos( t + ) = A 2 cos( t + + )
dt
, s
d 2s
&s& + 2 s = 0
+ 2s = 0

dt 2
s& =

. :
s = A cos( t + ) .
4. .

.
O ,
x , ,

, A ,
A ,
.
O , x
s = A cos( t + ) .
5. .

e i = cos + i sin

E (
r
H ). (. .)
r
r E
( H ).
r
E

i = 1 .
s = A cos( t + )

... .

~
s = Ae i ( t + )

54

529


~
s , :

, :

r
r
r
rr
r r
r r
Ei exp[i( i t k i si r )] + E r exp[i ( r t k r s r r )] = E d exp[i( d t k d s d r )]
t

Re(~
s ) = A cos( t + ) = s

6. .

x
, .

: x = A cos( t + )

: = x& = A cos t + +
:

a = & = &s& = A 2 cos( t + + )

A A 2 .

, .
2

,
m
2

F = ma = m A cos( t + + ) = m A cos( t + ) = m x

,
r
t r
r
- r , .. :

= r = d ;
r i
r
r
k i si = k r s r = k d s d

,
, ,
,
r r r
. , si , s r , s d
, (
).
, xOy
, zOx
r
r r
, Oz
r
r
Ei|| r
H r|| sr I
H i||
sr
r
r
H r
r
Ei
II (. ).
H i
r
r
r Er

E
s
s

r ||

x
r
Ed ||

x
r

H d ||
r
r
z Ed sd

si Oz (

),

,
, ( ).
,
,
.

a)

7. , .
:

, - :

m 2 mA2 2
mA2 2
K=
=
sin 2 (t + ) =
[1 cos 2(t + )]
2
2
4

,
:
x

W = Fdx =
0

m 2 x 2 mA 2 2
mA 2 2
=
cos 2 ( t + ) =
[1 + cos 2( t + )]
2
2
4

E = K +W =

mA 2 2
2

,
.
8. .
,
,

&s& + 2 s = 0
... .

r
r
z H d sd

sr Oz (
),

r
sr

Oz (
r
). - s

six = sin , s rx = sin , s dx = sin


r
r
r
, k i si = k r s r = k d s d :
sin sin sin
=
=
1
1
2
, = .

.
n ,
c
:

n=

c
=

, , 1
,

n=

528

55


r
r
r
, E , H

.
( E y 0 H z 0 )

(2)
r
r
E H
, E
H
0 E = 0 H .

,

.
9. .
m ,


F = kx ,
k .

2Ey
x 2

2
1 Ey
= 2
,
t 2

Hz
1 Hz
= 2
x 2
t 2

,
E y = E0 cos(t kx + ) , H z = H 0 cos(t kx + ) ,
E 0 H 0

, , k = ,

r
r
(, E H
).

49.
.

. , ,

.
(i ) , (r ) (d ) :

rr
Ei exp[i( i t k i r si )], k i = i ;
i
r

rr
E r exp[i( r t k r r s r )], k r = r ;
r
r

rr
E d exp[i ( d t k d r s d )], k d = d
d
r
r
r -, , E
r
, s ,
rr
. s r = const
r
, s ,
r r r
, si , s r , s d .
( )

r
r
r
r
(1) (2) (. 4.45):
E 1 = E 2 , H 1 = H 2
... .

m&x& = kx

k
x=0
m

&x& +

&s& + s = 0 , ,

x = A cos(t + ) :

k
m

m
k

T = 2

U=

m 2 x 2 kx 2
=
2
2

F = rx& , r ,
m&x& = kx rx&
r
k
&x& + x& + x = 0
m
m

10. .
,
m ,
l ,
.

,
.
: x l .
:

F = P sin mg = mg

x
l

m&x& = F = mg

x
l

&x& +

g
x=0
l

56

527

,
,
x = A cos(t + ) , :

g
,
l

T = 2

l
g

11. .
,
,
.

,

M = J = J&&

M = F l = mgl sin mgl

J
, O ,
l
C ,
F = mg sin (
,
).
&& + mgl = 0 ,
: J

&& +

mgl
=0
J

,
= 0 cos(t + )
:

=
L =

mgl
,
J

T = 2

J
L
= 2
mgl
g

J

ml

.

, ,
.
O' OC ,
L ,
.
()
,
2

. J = ml , T = 2 l g .

... .

,
, .

,
.


47. .
,
.

:

r
r
r
r
r r D
r
B
rot E = ; div D = ; rot H = j +
; div B = 0 ,
t
t

,
,

r
r
r
r
r D
r
B
rot E = ; div D = 0; rot H =
; div B = 0
t
t

,
r
r
, D = 0 E

r
r
B = 0 H , 0 0 ,

r
r
r
r
r
r
H
E
rot E = 0
; div H = 0; rot H = 0
; div E = 0
rt
t
r
r
V = grad div V rot rot V
r
r
E H :
r
r
r
r
2E
2H
E = 0 0 2 ,
H = 0 0 2
t
t
1
1
c
2
2
2
=
+ 2 , =
= 2 +

2
x
y
z
0 0

1
, c =

00
. ,
.
> 1, < c

, .
48. .
:
r
r
(1) E H
,

526

57


.
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
46. .
,
,
.

.
;
i p (
); n0
; .
1) : i = p = 0 .

12. .

L ,

C
R .

IR = 1 2 + c


=
= n0
T

2) , :
p > 0, i = 0 .

IR =

q
dI
L
C
dt

q

C
t ; R
; c dq
. I =
,
dt
q (1 2 ) =

d 2 q R dq
1
+
+
q=0
dt 2 L dt LC

= T = / n0 . ,
: n =

13. .
,
R = 0 .

+ p , ,

n=

+p

+p
T

+p

n0

, .
3) , :
p = 0, i > 0 .
v ,
,
,
T = .
i T .


= iT .
, : n =

=
=
n0
( i )T i

4) .
.
: n =

p
m i

n0 .

... .

t = 0
q . -

q2
. ,
2C
I .
LI 2 Lq& 2
=
, Wm =

2
2
. ( R = 0 ),
We =

58

525

W = We + Wm .
t =

4 T ( T ),
, ,
( , )
.

, , ,
t = 0
E = U max . t = 1 4 T
, ,
E = K max .
1

t = 1 4 T , ,
, .
, , ,
, .
t = 1 2 T
, ,
.

, ,
( = 0 )
.
,
t = T
.
,
q I .

.
,
, :

,

,
,
L ,
R , .
14. .

, R = 0 .

:

d 2q
1
+
q=0
2
LC
dt

... .

, cos( ) = cos cos m sin sin

k = 2 , :

= 1 + 2 = 2 A cos kx cos t = 2 A cos

2x
cos t

2x
= m

(m = 0, 1, 2,K)



A = 2 A .

.
:

x = m

(m = 0, 1,K)
2

2x
1

= m + (m = 0, 1, 2,K) ,

A = 0 . .
1

x = m +
:
(m = 0, 1, 2,K) .
2 2


.
: =

.
2






x


;



,
2


524

59

44. .

.
,
.
, , .
,


.

,
,
A0 , :

A
A
1 = 0 cos( t kr1 + 1 ),
2 = 0 cos( t kr2 + 2 )
r1
r2
r1 r2 , k
, 1 2 .

1
2
cos[k (r1 r2 ) (1 2 )]
A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos( ) = A02 2 + 2 +
r1 r2 r1r2

1 2 = const ,
( r1 r2 ) ,
.

A = 0 + 0 ,
r1
r2

(m = 0, 1, 2,K) .
k ( r1 r2 ) (1 2 ) = 2m
( m = 0, 1, 2,K)
.

A
A
A = 0 0 ,

r
r2
1

(m = 0, 1, 2,K) .
k ( r1 r2 ) (1 2 ) = ( 2m + 1)
( m = 0, 1, 2,K)
.

45. .
.
,
,
.

x :

1 = A cos( t kx),

2 = A cos( t + kx)

... .

q :

q = q max cos(t + )
qmax
:

1
LC

T = 2 LC .
.
:

dq

= q max sin( t + ) = I max cos t + +


2
dt

q 2 .
q
I max = q = max .
LC
U = 2 1
q :
q
U = = U max cos( t + )
C
q max
U max =
.
C
C
I max = U max
L
L

C
I=

.
15. .

, ,

.
x1 x2

x1 = A1 cos(t + 1 ),

x 2 = A2 cos(t + 2 )


( ).
A1 A2
,
( 2 1 ) .

x = x1 + x 2 = A cos( t + )

510

523

A :

A 2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos( 2 1 ),

tg =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2
A1 cos1 + A2 cos 2



, .

:
1) 2 1 = 2m , ( m = 0,1,2,...) , A = A1 + A2 ;
2) 2 1 = ( 2m + 1) , ( m = 0,1,2,...) , A = A1 A2 .
16. .
,

.
A ,
+ , << . ,
:

x1 = A cos t ,

x2 = A cos( + )t

x = 2 A cos
t cos t
2

t = (
2
, A ).

A = 2 A cos

17. .
s = f (t )
,
0 :

s = f (t ) =

n
A0
+ Am cos(m 0t + m )
2 m=1


f (t )

.
,
0 , 2 0 , 3 0 . ., (
), , . .,
s = f (t ) .
s = f (t )

... .

41. .


:

2 2 2 1 2
+
+
=
x 2 y 2 z 2 2 t 2

1 2
2 t 2

2
2
2
+ 2 + 2 .
2
x
y
z

(
).
,
x :

2 1 2
=
x 2 2 t 2
42. .
, ,
, ()
:

, ,

,
.
43. .

( ).

, .
,
,
.

( ).
u ,

( ).

u=

dx d
=
dt dk

u =

d
d

522

511

, ( x, t )
, x .
,
x , ,

( x, t ) = A cos t + 0

: A = const ,
,
0 ,

t + 0 .

2 2
k=
=
=
T

18.
.
,
x y .
,
:

x = A cost ,

x 2 2 xy
y2

cos + 2 = sin 2
2
AB
A
B

.
19. .

( x, t ) = A cos( t kx + 0 )

( x, t ) = A e i ( t kx+ 0 )
.
,
r
s :
39. .

.
, :
t kx + 0 = const .

dx
= =
dt k

40. .

A
(r , t ) = cos( t kr + 0 )
r

r .

y = BAx,

m ,
m .

dx
=

dt

1
.
r

= m (m = 0, 1, 2,K) ,

r
rr
(r , t ) = A exp[i ( t kr s + 0 )]

y = B cos(t + )

, A B .
( t )
,
:


A + B ,
x = arctg( B A cos m ) .
.
20. .
= ( 2m + 1)

(m = 0, 1, 2,K) ,
2

x2 y2
+
=1
A2 B 2

A B .
A = B ,

,
, .
21. .

p q , q p :

... .

512

521

x = A cos( pt ),

y = B cos(qt + )

x y
T0

T1 = 2 p T2 = 2 q x y .
,

.

,
.


(2:1, 3:2, 4:3) = 2 .


22. .

, .

.
,

.

.
, ,
,
, .

.

,
.
23.


d 2s
ds
+ 2
+ 02 s = 0
2
dt
dt

s ,
= const ,
0
( = 0 ).

... .

T :

1)


= ( x, t = const ) ;
2)


= ( x = const, t ) .

,
.
,
,

= T
= n

n , .
,
t .
,
.
,
.

37. .
,
.

( ).
, ,
,
.

.
,
, .
,
. .
38. .
, x = 0 ,
(0, t ) = A cos t .
.
B (. ),
x O , . ,
x = x ,
.
, x ,

( x, t ) = A cos t

520

513
( X = 0) , cos = 1

P = IU

cos = 0 P = 0 , .

(
:

( R = 0) ,

35. .
( )
, .
,
.
,
, .
,
( ,
).
,
( ).
36. .
,
.

OX . = ( x, t ) .
t
x O
.
:

... .

<< 02 )

s = A0 e t cos(t + )
:

A = A0 e t -

.
34. .
- (,
) , ,
,
.
;
,
.
,
, .
.

, .

.

.

,
A0 ,

= 02 2


.
=

1
,

e .
.
.
,

:

T=

2
2
=
2

0 2

24. .
A(t ) A(t + T ) ,
, ,

A(t )
= eT
A(t + T )
,

= ln

A(t )
T 1
= T = =
A(t + T )
N

.
N ,
e .
25. .

Q , 2 W (t )
t
t t + T (
):

Q = 2

W (t )
W (t ) W (t + T )

W (t ) A(t ) , :

514

519

Q = 2

A 2 (t )
2
2
=
=
A (t ) A 2 (t + T ) 1 e 2T 1 e 2
2

( << 1)

1 e 2 2 , ( T T0 )

Q=

= N =
= 0

T 2

31. .
,
C L ,
U = U m cos t .
12 ( R = 0, L = 0) 1L2 ( R = 0, C = )

I m1 =

26.
:
1) m ,
F = kx
F = rx& ( r )
2)
R , L C

&s& + 2 s& + 02 s = 0

s = A0 e t cos( t + )
1)
2)
-
q
x

r
k
x& + x = 0
m
m

k
0 =
0
m
r

=

2m

= 02 2

&x& +

k
r2

m 4m 2

km
r
x = A0 e t cos( t + )

Q=

R
1
q& +
q=0
L
LC
1
0 =
LC
R
=
2L
q&& +

1
R2
2
LC 4 L

1 L
R C
q = q 0 e t cos( t + )

Q=

27. .

, .
- X (t ) ,
:

X (t ) = X 0 cos t

... .

Um
,
1
C

I m2 =

Um
L

.
()

I m = I m1 I m 2 = U m C

= =

1
,
LC

I m1 = I m 2

1
L

I m = 0 .

,
,

( ).
R 0 , I m > 0 ,
.
32. .

I = I 0 cos t
T :
T

I =

I
1 2
I (t ) dt = 0 ,
T 0
2

cos t =

, : U =

1
2

U0
2

33. , .

P (t ) = U (t ) I (t ) = U m cos t I m cos(t )


P
T

1
1
U m cost I m cos(t ) dt = I mU m cos = I U cos

T0
2
cos .
P=

I =

U
Z

, cos =

R
=
Z

R
1

R 2 + L

P=

2
RU

Z2

2
= RI

518

515


F = F0 cos t .

1
RC =
C

( = 0) RC = , ..
.
R 0, C 0, L 0 .
(5)
U = U m cos t ,

X (t )

U = U m cos t .

q&& +

I = I m cos( t )

I m

Im =

m&x& = kx rx& + F0 cos t

Um
1

R 2 + L

L
R

1
C

s = A cos( t + )

A
2

A=

= R 2 + ( RL RC ) 2

X = RL RC = L

1
C

cos =

R
X
, sin =
.
Z
Z

30. .

1
, = 0
C
. Z = R
L =

.
U C U L
.
( ).

1
LC

.
... .

( 02

x0
2 2

) + 4

, = arctg

2
02 2

,
, ,
q = q m cos( t ) ,

qm =

s = A0 e cos( t + )
. ,

Z = R 2 + L
=

Um
X
, tg =
;
Z
R

Im =

&s& + 2 s& + 02 s = x0 cos t

tg =

U
R
1
q& +
q = m cos t
L
LC
L

Um
1

R 2 + L

, tg =

R
1
L
C

I=

dq
= q m sin( t ) = I m cos( t + 2 )
dt

I m = q m =

Um
2

R 2 + L

I = I m cos(t ) , = 2
.
,

tg = tg =
=

2
tg

L
R

1
C

516

517

28. .



(,
, ) ,

.

A=

x0
( 02 2 ) 2 + 4 2 2

= 02 2 2 ,

. (

(4( 02 2 ) + 8 2 = 0) 2 = 02 2 2 .)
x0
A =
2 02 2
0 ,

(1) R 0, C 0, L 0 : R . :
U U cos t
= I m cos t
I= = m
R
R
U
I m = m .
R


.

,
.
(2) R 0, C 0, L 0 :
.
: s = L

A0 =

x0
,
02

: L

F0
Um
. : A0 =
2
m 0
L 02
, .
2
2
, << 0 ,
x
x
A = 0 = 0 02 = Q A0
2 0 2 0
Q , A0

A0 =

. ,
: Q , A .
29. .
,
.
( )

U = U m cos t

U m .
, R , C
L ,

q&& +

U
R
1
q& +
q = m cos t
L
LC
L

dI
q
+ IR + = U m cos t
dt
C

... .

dI
.
dt

dI
= U L = U m cos t ,
dt
U

I = m sin t = I m cos t ,
L
2

U
I m =
.
L
, U L

I , , .
2
R L = L

. ( = 0) .

(3) R 0, C 0, L 0 : .

(4)

q
= U C = U m cos t
C

dq

= CU m sin t = I m cos t + ,
2
dt

Um
I m = CU m =
1
C
, U C

I .
2
I=