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Joy Stanilka

2/1/2016

Topics To Know

Cell structure and function


Levels of organization
Evolution: evidence and theories
Evolution: Classification of organisms (Taxonomy)
Diffusion and Osmosis
Ecology: Interrelationships
Plants and Photosynthesis
Genetics (Dominance, Segregation and Independent Assortment)
DNA
Research Procedures (data, light and electron microscope,
variables, constants, Lab Safety)
Human A& P (see following slide a lot of information to know!! )
Health (Nutrition, Diet and Exercise; Sterilization Antisepsis and
Cleanliness; Smoking Alcohol and Drugs; Food Prep and Storage;
Disease Transmission*****

Topics To Know: A & P


Digestion
Circulation: Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

Respiration & Cellular Respiration


Regulation: Nervous System
Regulation: Endocrine System
Support & Movement: The Musculoskeletal System
(Bones, Connective Tissue, Muscles)
Excretion
Reproduction
Senses (sight, hearing)

Scientific Method
1. Form a question with a measurable outcome
2. Begin research on the topic (background
information)
3. Make a hypothesis (educated idea that answers
original question)
4. Test the hypothesis, conduct experiment
Determines if the hypothesis is true or false

5. Analyze data, draw conclusions


If the hypothesis is false, redesign the hypothesis and
make a new experiment
If the hypothesis is true design further experiments
to validate results

Research Methods: Experimental


Design
variables: measurable factors that change
during an experiment
Independent variables: changed by the
experimenter
Dependent variables: changes in response to the
independent variable

constants: factors that do not change in the


experiment, often used to compare the
response of variables over time

Ferulic Acid Activation


Gamma Delta Activation from Ferulic Acid
Treatment (Exp.20)

Gamma Delta Activation from Ferulic Acid


Treatment (Exp.21)

25000

MFI of CD69

MFI of CD69

20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0

20

40

60

Ferulic Acid (g)

80

100
Ferulic Acid 24hr
Ferulic Acid 10 day

900000
800000
700000
600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Ferulic Acid (g)


Ferulic Acid 24hr
Ferulic Acid 10 day

Dependent Variable MFI of cell surface marker CD69


Independent Variable 3 concentrations of Ferulic Acid Used
10g, 50g, 100 g

Lab Safety
Emergency procedures location of :
fire extinguishers
eye wash and shower stations
body wash & decontamination areas
alarm locations
KEEP AREA CLEAR
emergency exits
Signage on patient doors !!!!!!!

Lab Safety

Microscope
Light

2000x using light

Electron

2 x 106 using beam of electrons

Scientific Notation
Speed of Light
299,792,458 m/s or 2.99 x 108 m/s
On the other hand, the weight of an alpha
particle, which is emitted in the radioactive decay
of Plutonium-239, is
0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,006,645 kg
Or 6.645 x 10-27 kg

Scientific Notation
Andromeda
Galaxy is the
closest to our
own and is
visible from
earth even with
the naked
eye.

24,000,000,000,000,000,000
Kilometers from earth

Move the decimal over to the left until


it is between 2 numbers greater than 1
And you get 2.4 x 1019 km

Metrics

King
Henry
Doesnt
Usually
Drink
Chocolate
Milk
Made
Near
Poo

KILO
HECTO
DEKA
BASE UNIT (meters, liters or grams)
DECI
CENTI
MILLI
MICRO (106 from base)
NANO (109 from base)
PICO (1012 from base)

Evolution
1859 Charles Darwin On the Origin of the
Species by Means of Natural Selection
evolved from ancestors
evolution comes from natural selection

Natural Selection: traits that promote or


enhance organisms ability to
survive and reproduce are
passed on to following
generations

Evolution: Fossil Record


Evolution is a theory but evidence comes from
the fossil record which gives a timeline of the
appearance of different organisms
Carbon dating of fossils helps to create the
timeline

Fish

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds & Mammals

Evolution
Biogeography: geographical distribution of plants
and animals

Comparative anatomy: comparison of organisms


structures
Comparative embryology: comparing organisms
embryos
Molecular biology: biology at the molecular level

Evolution Today
Organisms resistant to
antibiotics

Pesticide resistant
insects
GMO mosquitos

C. difficile

http://time.com/3681770/gmomosquito-florida/

Earths History
Precambrian Era: 455 billion years ago. Oceans
developed and lead to rise of single celled
organisms
Paleozoic Era: 4.55 x 109 -2.54 x 108 years ago.
Appearance of plant, fish, reptiles, and
amphibians
Mesozoic Era: 254 x 108 6.7 x 107 years ago.
Age of the Dinosaurs. Small mammals arose

Earths History: Cenozoic Era


Tertiary period : 57.8 million-20,000 yrs ago.
Includes the where large mammals, apes and
primitive humans arose, also includes Ice Age.

Quaternary Period: modern times. Covers the


last 10,000 yrs, where man learned how to
grow crops, make and use tools, domesticate
animals and use metals, beginning of history

Taxonomy
The classification of living things according to
common characteristics
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Taxonomy: Domains
single celled prokaryote
Bacteria

No cytoskeleton
asexual reproduction
(binary fission or budding)
DNA doesnt organize
within a nucleus
no organelles

Taxonomy:
Domains Archaea

single celled prokaryote


adapt quickly to extremes
such as high temps, high
acidity, high salinity and
high sulfuric environment
Wide variety of food
sources (metals and
oxygen)
Are mostly plankton
More closely related to
eukaryotes than Bacteria.

Taxonomy:
Domains
Eukaryra

Dinoflagellates are
an example
of eukaryra

Consists of plants, animals,


protists and fungi
Different than prokaryotes
because they have an
organized nucleus and cells
contain organelles
Multiply via mitosis and
meiosis
More flexible in forming
colonies, such as multi
cellular organisms like
humans

Kingdom
Monera: Prokaryotes, bacteria, nutrition by
absorption, unicellular

Archaea: unicellular prokaryotes; adapt to extreme


conditions, unusual nutrition (photosynthetic or
chemosynthetic)
Protista: mostly unicellular eukaryotes; nutrition by
photosynthesis (algae), absorption or ingestion
(protozoa). Also includes some molds.

Kingdom
Plantae: Eukaryotes, multicellular, produce food by
photosynthesis, contain rigid cellulose cell walls and
chlorophyll a and b, food stored as starch, autotrophs,
plants, cell reproduction by mitosis and meiosis
Animalia: Eukaryotes, multicellular, must obtain food
from outside source and digested in an internal cavity,
heterotrophs, most capable of movement, animals, cell
reproduction by mitosis and meiosis
Fungi: multicellular eukaryotes, obtain food from
outside source by absorption, heterotrophs, almost
never capable of movement, usually have filaments,
spore formation during asexual and sexual
reproduction (molds, mushrooms, yeasts)

Matter
3 phases: Solid, Liquid, Gas
Gas Laws
Charles Law: V1T1 = V2T2. At constant pressure,
the temperature of a gas is proportional to its
volume

Volume = Temperature

Matter-gas laws (cont)


Boyles Law: V1P1 = V2P2. At a constant temperature,
the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its
pressure

Volume = Pressure

Matter-gas laws (cont.)


Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT. Indicates that the
relationship between pressure, temperature
and volume is constant

Osmosis in Red Blood Cells

Isotonic = concentration inside the cell is the same as the concentration outside
Hypotonic = solute concentration outside the cell is lower than inside the cell
Hypertonic = solute concentration outside the cell is higher than inside the cell

Diffusion

Particles move randomly throughout a space


from areas of high concentration to low
concentration (ex. Open a bottle of perfume in
a room)

Osmosis : type of diffusion specific to water


that moves from an area of high water
concentration to an area of low water
concentration

A & P: Musculoskeletal System


Bones, connective tissue and muscle
Support and protection of internal organs,
movement
Red marrow: located in the long bones, place
where blood cells are made
Osteocytes: type of cell in the bone that produce a
hard, calcium rich extracellular matrix
ligaments : connect bones to other bones
Tendons: connect muscles to bones
Cartilage: cushion bones at the joints

A & P: Musculoskeletal System


Axial portion of the
skeleton = skull,
vertebrae, ribs, sternum
Appendicular =
shoulders, arms, pelvis,
legs
Joints = connect bones to
skeletons
Sutures = immovable
joints that join bones in
skull
Movable
Ball and socket
Hinge
Sliding or gliding

A & P: Musculoskeletal System


Muscles use an enormous amount of energy in the
form of ATP.
1. Cardiac muscle: only in the heart, involuntary
2. Smooth muscle: involuntary, found in internal
organs of digestive tract and in blood vessels
3. Skeletal muscle: striated muscle b/c
appearance of individual muscle cells or fibers;
move bones and are responsible for voluntary
movements. Attached to bones by tendons,
move the bones when they contract and
shorten.

A & P: Musculoskeletal System

Skeletal muscles are found in opposing pairs


Flexor: any of the muscles that decrease the angle between
bones on two sides of a joint
Extensor: returns the limb to anatomical position, muscle that extends or
straightens a limb or body part

Musculoskeletal Example
Questions
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which is an example of connective tissue?


Striated muscle
Epidermis
Nerve
tendon

A & P: Digestion
Breaking down of nutrients into small, soluble
molecules that can be absorbed into the
blood.
Mechanical digestion: breaking food down into
smaller pieces, increase surface area making it
easier to swallow and digest
Chemical digestion: breaking nutrients into
smaller molecules
Hydrolysis: process by which chemical digestion takes
place, splitting molecules by adding H2O
Enzymes (hydrolases): speed up chemical digestion

A & P:
Digestion
Alimentary Canal

The alimentary canal


includes the mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine, and
anus.
Tube that extends between 2
openings, the mouth and
anus.
Carries out specific phases of
digestion through
mechanical digestion,
chemical digestion and
absorption.
The liver, gallbladder and
pancreas are accessory
organs in the system.

A & P: Digestion
The lining of the stomach releases gastric juice
gastric juice: made up of HCl (contributing to the acidic pH
in the stomach) and proteases (protein digesting enzymes)
Chyme: partially digested liquid food mixed by the smooth
muscles in the stomach and released into the small
intestine.
Chyme is released in small
portions through the pyloric
sphincter into the small
intestine

A & P:
Digestion

The liver produces bile that is


stored in the gallbladder and
helps break down fats.
The pancreas supplies
enzymes needed for digestion.

Villi line the small intestine


and help absorption take
place. In addition the surface
area of the intestine is
increased to aid with
absorption of end products
into the blood and lymph.

Nutrient

Enzymes

carbohydrate

Amylase
Sucrase
maltase

protein

proteases

lipids

lipases

End
Product

Location

starts in
mouth,
glucose
completed
in small
intestine
starts in the
stomach, is
amino acids completed
in the small
intestine
Fatty acid
Small
and glycerol intestine

Example Digestion Questions


1. The alimentary canal is associated with the:
a. Spinal cord
b. Digestive system
c. Urinary tract
d. Birth canal
2. The numerous villi in the small intestine serve to:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Secrete enzymes for digestion


Absorb water from dissolved foods
Secrete hydrochloric acid to dissolve food
Provide greater surface area for absorption

Example Digestion Questions


1. To be absorbed by cells, proteins must be changed to:
a. Amino acids
b. Sucrose
c. Fatty acids
d. Glycerol
2. If a persons gallbladder were removed by surgery, which of the
following substances would they have the most difficulty digesting?
a. Carbohydrates
b. Nucleic acids
c. Fats
d. proteins

A & P : Respiration

A& P: Circulation - Cardiovascular &


Lymphatic Systems
Circulation: transport of fluid throughout the
body allowing for gas exchange, absorption of
nutrients and disposal of waste.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM = cardiovascular system +


lymphatic system

A& P: Circulation - Cardiovascular &


Lymphatic Systems
Cardiovascular system: heart, blood vessels,
blood

A& P: Circulation - Cardiovascular &


Lymphatic Systems

Systole : pressure
increases when the
heart contracts

Diastole: pressure
is lowered when the
heart is relaxed

Types of circulation:
Coronary = blood, pulmonary = lungs, systemic = body

A& P: Circulation - Cardiovascular &


Lymphatic Systems
Cells are suspended in plasma.
RBCs (erythrocytes) 45% of blood
WBCs (leukocytes)
< 1% of blood
Platelets
Plasma (proteins, ions, hormones
and gases) 55%
RBC = contains 250 million molecules
of hemoglobin (oxygen carrier)
WBC = host immune defense
Platelets = pieces of cells important
in blood clotting

A& P: Circulation - Lymphatic Systems

A&P: Excretion

A&P: Excretion
Kidneys: principle excretory organ of the body
Nephron: functional unit of the kidney
- Glomerulus
- Bowmans capsule: materials such as water, soluble salts,
nutrients and urea diffuse out blood into the capsule.
- proximal convoluted tubule
- Loop of henle
- Distal convoluted tubule

kidneys absorb any small soluble particles that are in


high concentrations in the blood
Filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron,
water, nutrients and ions are reabsorbed into blood by
diffusion, osmosis or active transport into the
capillaries surrounding the tubules.

A&P: Excretion
Urine: concentrated
mixture of wastes that
is left in the tubules
Ureters: urine enters
collecting tubules and
on to ureters
Urinary bladder:
storage or urine coming
from ureters
Urethra: location of
urine excretion

Excretion Example Questions


1. Most of the work done by the human kidney
occurs in the:
a. Nephron
b. Neuron
c. Ureter
d. alvelous

A & P : Regulation Nervous System


Neuron: functional unit of the nervous system
Neurons have electrical potential due to sodium and
potassium ion concentration across the cell
membrane
Impulse : when dendrites are stimulated by the
environment or by another neuron, creates a moving
electrical charge.

A & P : Regulation Nervous System

Nervous System: Divisions


2 divisions coordinate activity
1. Central Nervous System

2. Peripheral Nervous System


Nerves &
Ganglia

Integrate/
interpret or
sense

Communicate
signals to and
from CNS to
rest of body

Nervous System
Spinal cord: from brain
downward, enclosed by
bones of vertebral
column, passes messages
to and from the brain
and acts as the center for
reflex actions.
Openings between
vertebrae allow nerves to
join with the spinal cord.

A & P : Regulation Nervous System


1. cerebrum: largest
portion of brain, site of
high level thinking,
conscious and
voluntary actions,
speech, vision, hearing
and memory.
2. Cerebellum: muscular
coordination and
balance
3. Brain stem/medulla:
homeostatic functions
(body temp, blood
pressure, and
breathing)

Example Nervous System


Questions
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The spaces between neurons are called:


Synapses
Dendrites
Inter-neurons
Cell gaps

2. A neuron that transmits impulses from the receptors to the


spinal cord is called:
a. Motor neuron
b. An associative neuron
c. Interneuron
d. Sensory neuron

A & P: Senses- Sight


Cornea: transparent and allows light to enter eye
Iris: gives our eyes color and changes in size to
regulate light entry into the pupil (middle of the
iris)
Lens: focuses light onto the retina
Retina: innermost layer of eyeball, contains 2
types of photoreceptor cells
- rod cells: distinguish between black and white,
help you see at night
- Cone cells: distinguish colors in the day
- When stimulated they transmit information to
the optic nerve

A & P: Senses- Hearing


Ear contributes to hearing and balance
- Outer ear: collects sound and transmits to tympanic
membrane
- Inner ear: many channels containing fluid move in
response to movement or to sound. Sound comes
through fluid which causes the cochlea (part of inner
ear) to convert movement into signals or action
potentials. Small hairs in cochlea influence signals sent
from sensory neurons to the brain.
- Middle ear: vibration from sound are transmitted
through 3 small bones ( malleus, incus, stapes).
Connected to the Eustachian tube which opens to
pharynx, tube equalizes pressure between middle ear
and atmosphere (i.e. what makes you ears POP!!!)

A & P: Reproduction
Reproductive organs
Male (external) = penis & scrotum; (internal)
testes (AKA primary male reproductive organs)
- Seminiferous tubules: inside testes where
sperm is formed
- Interstitial cells: produce male sex hormones
such as testosterone.
- Epididymis: coiled tubes that store sperm
while they mature
- Vas deferens: mature sperm are sent
through vas deferens into ejaculatory duct to
the urethra

A & P: Reproduction
Reproductive organs

Female (primary) = ovaries that produce eggs and


hormones progesterone and estrogen.
- Ovarian follicles contain an immature egg call oocyte
- Ovulation: follicle releases mature egg, occurs about
every 28 days
- Egg travels through fallopian tubes where it can be
fertilized
- If fertilized it will travel to the uterus and is
implanted in the uterine lining (endometrium)
- Menstruation: if egg is not fertilized the endometrial
lining is shed and thickens again to prepare for next
cycle
- Placenta: tissue of embryo and mother grow
together to form, blood of embryo and mother are
never directly connected but nutrients and oxygen
from the mother and waste from the embryo are
exchanged through the placenta
- Umbilical cord: connects fetus to placenta

Reproduction Example Questions


1. The organ in the human female that develops to
nourish the embryo is called the:
a. Amnion
b. Yolk sac
c. Fallopian tube
d. Placenta

A & P: Endocrine System


Maintains homeostasis
Homeostasis: keeping the internal body stable by
means of secretions from endocrine glands.
Hormones: chemicals that act as messengers help
control growth, metabolism, reproduction, osmotic
balance and development.
- Hormones enter directly into bloodstream, bind to a
specific type of cell by a receptor and influence cell
activity
- Activated by a stimulus

Negative feedback mechanism: prevents


oversecretion of hormones, when stimulus
decreases hormone production decreases also.

Gland

Location

Hormone(s)

Function

Pituitary gland

Under the brain

Growth-stimulating
hormone, folliclestimulating hormone
(FSH), thyroid stimulating
hormone

Master gland, controls


other endocrine glands

Thyroid gland

On the trachea, in the neck


region

Thyroxin (iodine
containing compound)

Regulates metabolism

Parathyroid
gland

Behind thyroid gland

parathormone

Regulates calcium
metabolism

Adrenal gland

On the kidneys

Adrenaline, steroids
(cortisone)

Fight-or-flight
syndrome; regulate
water balance, blood
pressure, joint
articulation

Isles of
Langerhans

pancreas

Insulin, glucagon

Control storage of
sugar in liver and blood
level of sugar

Testes (male)

In scrotum

testosterone

Male secondary sex


characteristics

Estrogen and
progesterone

Female secondary sex


characteristics,
menstrual cycle

Ovaries (female) Pelvic region