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Dental Mnemonics

Here are certain Mnemonics which i have found over the net and jotted them down onto this one place
for a quick review just before the exam day. These are a mix of all subjects
i ll keep updating this blog with new Mnemonics on the top, so keep visiting for new Mnemonics :)
Updated 2/05/2014 Eruption of permanent teeth
"Mama Is In Pain, Papa Can Make Medicine"
1st Molar - 6 yrs
1st Incisor - 7 yrs
2nd Incisor - 8yrs
1st Premolar - 9yrs
2nd Premolar - 10yrs
Canine - 11 yrs
2nd Molar - 12yrs
3rd Molar - 18 - 25 yrs
Dyspepsia symptoms
ALARM Symptoms

Anaemia (iron deficiency)

Loss of weight

Anorexia

Recent onset of progressive symptoms

Melaena / haematemesis

Swallowing difficulty
If dyspepsia and either >55yrs or ALARM Symptoms then ENDOSCOPY
Syphilis characterized by 4 stages-primary ,secondary ,latent ,tertiary!!
Primary syphilis-PRAISE
P-painless lesion
R-regional lymphadenopathy
A-cArtilagenous consistency of lesion
... I-indurated lesion
S-single lesion
E-exudation with discharging serous fluid

Secondary-CAMP
C-condylomata lata
A-associated lesions(opthalmic,osseous,meningeal)
M-mucocutaneous lesion,mucous patches
P-pruritic papules

Latent-+ve serology;no clinical manifestation


Tertiary-CLASS
C-cardiovascular disorder
L-late benign sypillis(gummata)
A-asymptomatic nuerosyphilis
S-symptomatic nuerosyphillisS-single lesionE-exudation with discharging serous fluid
Ulcerative colitis (UC) complications

How To Perform Gi Colonoscopy

Haemorrhage

Toxic megacolon

Perforation / Pseudopolyps

Gallstones / Gangrene

Colorectal carcinoma (if extensive and lasting >10 years)

(UC features)
ULCERS IN ABDomen

Ulcers (mucosal and submucosal)

Large intestine involved (rectum always involved)

Clubbing of fingers

Extra-intestinal manifestations (e.g. Erythema nodosum)

Remnants of old ulcers (pseudopolyps)

Stools bloody

Inflamed, red granular mucosa/submucosa

Neutrophil invasion

Abscesses in crypts

Biochemical markers of inflammation e.g. ESR raised

Diarrhoea (esp. in pancolitis)

Ulcerative colitis treatment options

SAACS

Steroids oral prednisolone or IV hydrocortisone if severe

5-Aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA) e.g. mesalazine, sulfasalazine

Azathioprine (immunosuppressant)

Cyclosporin (immunosuppressant)

Surgery if perforation, cancer or poor response to medical therapy


Hyperkalaemia causes
7 As

Artifact

Aldosterone antagonist

Addisons disease

Acidosis

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin receptor blocker

Anti-inflammatory

Treatment (if >7mmol/L) is 10mL of 10% calcium gluconate IV over 1 minute; to stabilize the
action potential of the cell membrane.

How Gastroenterology Doctors Visualise Inside The Duodenum

Haematemesis

Gastric biopsy (?cancer)

Dyspepsia

Vomiting, persistent

Iron-deficiency anaemia

Therapeutic e.g. banding, sclerotherapy, stent, laser therapy

Duodenal biopsy

LYMPHOMA TREATMENT:
Hodgkins Lymphoma
ABVD

Adriamycin

Bleomycin

Vinblastine

Dacarbazine

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
R-CHOP

Rituximab

Cyclophosphamide

Hydroxydaunorubicin

Oncovin (Vincristine)

Prednisolone

Splenomegaly cause
CHINA

Congestion portal hypertension

Haematological haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell disease

Infection malaria, EBV, CMV, HIV

Neoplasm CML, myelofibrosis, lymphoma

Autoimmune RA, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis

Causes of Massive splenomegaly (three Ms):

chronic Myeloid leukaemia

Myelofibrosis

Malaria

CANCER, NINE WARNING SIGNS

CAUTION
C hange in blood bowel or bladder habits
Anemia (unexplained)

U nsual bleeding or discharge, Unexplained weight loss


T hickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I ndigestion or difficulty in swallowing
O bvious change in wart or mole
N agging cough or hoarseness, No healing of sore.
Non GIT causes of Vomiting :
ABCDEFGHI:
Acute renal failure
Brain [increased ICP]
Cardiac [inferior MI]
DKA Ears [labyrinthitis] Foreign substances [Tylenol, theo, etc.]Glaucoma Hyperemesis
gravidarum Infection [pyelonephritis, meningitis]
Cardiovascular risk factors
FLASH BODIES:
Family history
Lipids
Age
Sex
Homocystinaemia
Blood pressure
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis
Exercise
Smoking
Causes of gastric carcinoma
JAPAN'S SHAME:
Japanese
A Blood group
Pernicious anemia
Anemia-chronic atrophic gastritis

Nitrates
Smoked,Salted food,Scurvy,Surgery gastric
H.pylori
Adenomatous polyp
Menetrier's disease:glanduar hyperplasia
Drugs causing pancreatitis
GLAD Organ Pancreas iS Traumatised n Destroyed Very Much
Glucocorticoids
L-asparaginase
Alcohol
Diuretics
Ocp's
Pentamidine
Sulfonamides
Didanosine
Tetracyclines
Valproate
Methyldopa

Neurology 1
Absent ankle jerks but extensor plantars Sex can make the F*ing ankles Dorsiflex
Subacute combined degeneration of the cord
Conus Medullaris
Motor Neurone disease
Tabes dorsalis

Fredreichs Ataxia
Diabetic neuropathy

Altered Mental State AEIOU TIPS


Alcohol (drugs), Endocrine, Insulin, Opiates, Ureamia
Toxins / trauma / tumour, Infections, Psychosis / Porphyria, SOL / stroke / seizure /
shock
Cerebellar signs VANISH DDT
Vertigo, Ataxia, Nystagmus, Intention tremor, Slurred speech, Hypotonia
Dysdiadocokinesia, Dysmetria, Titubation
or PINARDS
Past-pointing, Intention tremor, Nystagmus, Ataxia, Rebound, Dysdiad, Slurred Speech
Confusion DIM FACES
Drugs / Dehydration, Infection, Metabolic / MI,
Fracture / Failure, Alcohol / Anaemia, CVA, Electrolyte disturbances, S.O.L.
Dystrophia Myotonica BIG CHIPS
Balding (frontal), Intellectual impairment, Glucose intolerance
Cataracts / Cardiomyopathy, Handshake / Hyporeflexia, IgG, Ptosis, Small gonads
Mononeuritis Multiplex DRAW CLAPS
DM, RA, AIDS, Wegeners
Carcinomatosis / Churg-Strass, Leprosy, Amyloid, PAN, SLE
Multiple sclerosis CURSED HIV
Cerebellar signs, UMNL, Retrobulbar neuritis, Spastic paraparesis, Euphoria
Dementia / Depression / Diplopia
Horners, Incontinence, Vertigo / Vomiting
Muscles supplied by Median Nerve LOAF
Lumbricales, Opp pollicus, Abd pollicus, Flex pollicus brevis
Neuropathic Ulcers TADS
Tabes Dorsalis, Alcohol, DM, Syringomyelia
Parkinsons PARKINSONS
Pill rolling, akinesia, rigidity, kyphosis, instability, neck titubation, shuffling gait,
occulogyric crisis, nose tap (glabellar), small writing
Peripheral neuropathy DANG THE PAPIST
DM, Alcohol, Nutrition (B1, B2, B12), Guillian Barre
Trauma, Hereditary, Environmental (lead, drugs)
Paraneoplastic, Amyloid, Porphyria, Inflammatory, Syphilis, Tumours of nerves (HMSN)

Polyneuropathy VITAMINS
Vit def / vasculitides, infection (TB, leprosy, syphillis, polio)
Toxins (amiodarone, antiseptics, INH, lead, metronidazole, phenytoin, vincristine)
Amyloid, Metabolic (alcohol, DM, thyroid, porphyria, liver & renal failure),
Idiopathic / Inherited, Neoplasm, Systemic (SLE, PAN, multiple myeloma)
clinical features 4 tension pnemothorax

5T
Tachypnoea
Tachycardia
Tympanic note on percussion
Total absence of breath sounds
Tracheal shift
Compliance of lungs factors

COMPLIANCE:
Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Major obesity
Pulmonary venous congestion
Lung size
Increased expanding pressure
Age
No surfactant
Chest wall scarring
Emphysema

International Color Coding IV Canula (size order)!


Oh God. Why Goku Punched Bulma Yesterday.
Orange 14 G
Grey 16 G

White 17 G
Green 18 G
Pink 20 G
Blue 22 G
Yellow 24 G

Causes of asterixis (flapping tremor)


[[ DRUGS (ABC) FAILED Helping Him ]]
DRUGS (ABC) :
- Alcohol
- carbamazepine
FAILED :
- respiratory failure
- liver failure
- renal failure
Helping : [[[ H = HYPO ]]]
- hypoglycemia
- hypokalemia
- hypomagnesemia
Him : [[[ H = HEMORRHAGE ]]]
- intracerebral hemorrhage
- subarachinoid hemorrhage
- subdural hematoma
- Barbiturate
Beneficial actions due to PG synthesis inhibition
5 A's
Analgesia : Prevention of pain nerve ending
sensitizationAntipyresis Antiinflammatory AntithromboticArteriosus-Ductus
closure in Newborns (Its infact Ductus Arteriosus but to fit in mnemonic
Arteriosus ductus is used here)
Xylocaine: Where not to use with Adrenaline?
"Digital PEN"
Digits (Fingers and toes)
Penis Ear Nose tip

Adrenaline causes vasoconstriction which helps to trap Xylocaine (anaesthetic)


locally prolonging its duration of action. The two are not used together at sites
supplied by end arteries as the vasoconstriction produced by adrenaline can
cause ischemic necrosis of the tissues.Adrenaline is also referred to as
Epinephrine.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) diagnostic criteria

MD SOAP BRAIN

Malar rash butterfly rash, sparing of nasolabial folds

Discoid rash basement membrane involved, may cause scarring

Serositis pleuritis/pericarditis

Oral ulcers

Antinuclear antibody (ANA) very sensitive test

Photosensitivity skin rash to sunlight

Blood haemolytic anaemia, leukopaenia, thrombocytopaenia

Renal disorder proteinuria and cell casts

Arthritis symmetrical, involving 2+ small or large peripheral joints

Immunological disorder anti-dsDNA

Neurological seizures, psychosis


STRUCTURES THROUGH SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE

LOT of FANs for OPHTHALMIC MEN..


L-lacrimal nerve
O-oculomotor nerve
T-trochlear nerve
F-frontal nerve
A-abducens nerve
Ns-nasociliary nerve
OPHTHALMIC-ophthalmic veins(sup.&inf.)
MEN-meningeal br.of Lacrimal Artery
-middle meningeal anastomotic br

Branches of Facial Nerve:

Great Nerve Cut Can Produce Motor Palsy.


G- Greater superficial petrosal nerve
N- Nerve to stapedius
C- Corda tympani
C- Communicating branch
P- Posterior auricular nerve
M- Muscular branches to stylohyoid and posterior belly of digastric
P- Peripheral branches

Functions of lateral v/s medial pterygoid muscles


Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of lateral or medial!
La: your jaw is open now ,so lateral opens mouth
Me :your jaw is still closed ,so medial closes the mandible

Vein without valve

I-internal jugular v. ,

P-pulmonary.v ,

S-superior venacava,

S-sinuses of brain

Retro-Peritoneal Organs
RAPID SUCK
R=Rectum (2/3)
A=Abdominal Aorta
P=Pancreas
I=Inferior Venacava
D=Duodenum
S=Supra-renal Gland
U=Ureter
C=Colon(ascending & descending )
K=Kidney

Inferior Vena Cava tributaries


'' I Like To Rise So High''
I- Illiacs
L- Lumber
T- Testicular
R- Renel
S- Supra renel
H- hepatic vein

Internal jugular vein: tributaries


Medical Schools Let Confident People In:
From inferior to superior:
Middle thyroid
Superior thyroid
Lingual
Common facial

Pharyngeal
Inferior petrosal sinus

Horner's Syndrome: Components


SAMPLE:
Sympathetic chain injury
Anhidrosis
Miosis
Ptosis
Loss of ciliospinal reflex
Enophthalmos

Branches of Subclavian Artery

VITamin C,D
V-vertebral artery
I- internal thoracic artery
T- thyrocervical trunk
(VIT-frm 1st part in both sides)
C- costocervical trunk (frm 1st part in left; frm 2nd part in right)
D- dorsal scapular artery (frm 3rd part)

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia

AAA:
Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid)
BUN:creatinine elevation: causes

ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)

Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)
Porphyrias

5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs
Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right

"CADET":
CO2
Acid
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Exercise
Temperature
Fabry's disease

FABRY'S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Sphingolipidoses
Diabetes- complications KNIVES
Kidney, Neuropathy, Infection, Vascular, Eyes, Skin lesions
Hypoglycaemia RE-EXPLAIN
Renal failure, exogenous, pituitary, liver failure, alcohol, infection, neoplasm (insulinoma)
Phaeochromocytoma 4Ps
Pain, pallor, palpitations, perspiration
Down syndrome pathology
DOWN:
Decreased alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (maternal)
One extra chromosome twenty-one
Women of advanced age
Nondisjunction during maternal meiosis

Tissues which don't need insulin for glucose uptake


BRICKLE

B for brain R for RBCs


I intestine
C cornea
K kidney
L liver
E excercising sk muscle
Blood Clotting Factors
"Foolish People Try Climbing Long Slopes After Christmas Some People Have Fallen"
Factor I = Fibrinogen
Factor II = Prothrombin
Factor III = Tissue factor
Factor IV = Calcium
Factor V = Labile factor
Factor VI - Does not exist as it was named initially but later on discovered not to play
a part in blood coagulation.
Factor VII = Stable factor
Factor VIII = Antihemophilic factor A
Factor IX = Antihemophilic factor B or Christmas factor (named after the first patient
in whom the factor deficiency was documented)
Factor X = Stuart Prower factor
Factor XI = Antihemophilic factor C
Factor XII = Hageman factor Factor
XIII = Fibrin stabilising factor
Citric Acid Cycle
Can - citrate
I - isocitrate
Keep - ketoglutarate
Selling - succinyl CoA
Smile - succinate
For - fumarate
Money - malate
Officer? - oxaloacetate
Hyperthyroidism Signs and SymptomsTHYROIDISM

Tremor
Heart rate up
Yawning (fatiguability)
Restlessness
Oligomenorrhea/ amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat Diarrhoea
Irritability
Sweating
Muscle wasting & weight loss
Alkalosis vs Acidosis Direction of pH and HCO
ROME:
Respiratory= Opposite:
pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis).
pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).
Metabolic= Equal: pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis).
pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis)
Bilirubin levels increase causes:"HOT Liver"
Hemolysis
Obstruction
Tumor
Liver disease
Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient

PH
Phenylalanine
Hydroxylase

vental mesentry : forms LOF ( Ligament teres , Lesser Omentum, Falciform ligament )
hypersensitivity reactions :
ACID
type I : (A)naphylactic
type II : (c)ytotoxic
type III : (I)mmune complex
type IV : (d)elayed hypersensitivity
Functions of thalamic nuclei (Lateral to Look; Median for Music)
1. Lateral Geniculate nucleus - Visual
2. Median geniculate nucleus - Auditory

Neuroectoderm derivatives:: neurosurgeon is a OPANAR of CNS


O: Oligodentrocytes
P: Pineal gland
N: Neurohypophysis
A: Astrocytes
R: Retina and optic nerve
Superior mediastinum contents:::::
PVT Left BATTLE--Phrenic nerve
Vagus
Thoracic duct
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Brachiocephalic vein
Aortic arch and its 3 branches
Thymus
Trachea
Lymph nodes
Esophagus
POSTERIOR MEDIASTINUM sructures--there r four birds-esophaGOOSE(esophagus)
vaGOOSE nerve
azyGOOSE vein
thoracic DUCK(duct)
The four fates of Pyruvate: GALA
Glucose
Alanine
Lactate
Acetyl Co-A
Parotid gland: Secretomotor pathway
" IT has Lesser Options Anywhere "
Inferior salivatory nucleus
Tympanic branch of 9th nerve
Lesser petrosal nerve
Otic ganglion
Auriculotemporal nerve
Classification of GLUTSGLUT 1 : R.B.Cs and BBB ,
GLUT2 : liver , low affinity , high km , high Vm ,
GLUT3: NEURONS ,,
GLUT4: skeletal muscle , adipose tissue , regulated by insulin . ,
GLUT5 : transport fructose into intestine and testis
pituitary gland hormons: GP FLAT: it is for acidophilic and basophilic hormones so it gonna be (Gp.A.)
( B.FLAT)
saturated FA: ABC ( Arachidic acid. Butyric,Caproic and capric )segmental RNA :: BOAR ( Bunyavirus ,
Ortho , Arena , Reo )
major mineral ::: 2P 2S 2C
phosphate , phosphor , sulfer , sodium , choline and calcium(A)ndy (E)ats (G)lucose & (C)alcium and

gets fat . for fat soluble hormones .


ANDROGEN
ESTROGEN
GLUCOCORTICOID
CALCITEROL
Go Have Some Pizza
Extrinsic muscles of tongue
Genioglossus
Hyoglo
Styloglo
Palatoglo"CUT down the pyramids" cytosine, uracil, and thymine are all pyrimidines.
Pure Ag (silver) - purines A and G
HIS LARGE ( +VE charged ) GLASS (-ve)histidine , lycine , arginine . glutamate and aspartate
Take My Salary " tryptophan, methionine, and selenocysteine are coded by just one codon
amino acids with aromatic group : HTTP
Histidine , tryptophan , tyrosine , phenyl alanine
Tender loving care for nancy- thyamine , lipoic acid , Co A , FAD , niacin - coenzymes of PDHsugars
containing aldehyde group : FLM GGglucose,galactose,maltose,lactose,fructose
foramen Ovale contents :
OVALE
otic ganglion
V3
accessory meningeal artery
lesser petrosal nerve
emissary vein
Trust Me Tom-3 determinants of occlusion-Teeth,Muscles & TMJ
12 Cranial Nerves: Oh Oh Oh, To Touch and Feel Very Good Velvet, Such Heaven!
Olfactory Optic Oculomoter Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal
Vagus Spinal Accessory Hypoglossal
Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More''' I Sensory-- II Sensory-- III
Motor-- IV Motor --V Both-- VI Motor --VII Both-- VIII Sensory-- IX Both-- X Both --XI Motor-XII Motor
Branches of Maxillary division (CN V):
"Ms. Piz-o"....... Middle meningeal Sphenopalatine Posterior superior alveolar InfraOrbital Zygomatic
Magendie foramen is the Medial aperture.
Luschka foramen is the Lateral aperture
Choroid Creates CSF.
Arachnoid granules Absorb CSF.

O God Drunk & Druggy Nanny!!! Thank God Nanny took Huge Vacation!!!!
O God Drunk & Druggy Nanny!!!
5 requirements for occlusal stabilityO: Centric Occlusion,
G: Anterior Guidance,
D: Disclusion of posteriors during protusive movement ,
D: Disclusion of posteriors on non working side,
N: Non interference of posteriors on working side.
Thank God Nanny took Huge Vacation!!!!!
5 requirements for equilibrium of masticatory systemT: TMJ should be stable,
G: Anterior Guidance,
N: Non interference of posteriors
H: Horizontal harmony (of teeth with neutral zone)
V: Vertical harmony ( of teeth with repetitive strength of closing muscles)
In both of these mnemonics, G & N are common!!My Aunty Reminds My Uncle
Terminal nerves of brachial plexus
Masculocutaneus
Axillary
Radial
Median
Ulnar
STYLO-FACE:exit of cranial nerve 7 (FACEial NERVE ) STYLOmastoid foramen
foramen spinosu(Mmmm) contents
(M)iddle meningeal artery and vein
(M)eningeal branch of mandibular nerve
carotid (S)inu(S) -- pre(SS)ure -- (S)tretch receptors
carotid b(O)dy -- (O)xygen -- chem(O)receptors
minor minerals : 2i ( iodine , iron ) , zi , ni , si
streptococci hemolysis:Alpha--Almost(incomplete) Beta--Best (complete) Gamma--Garbage (none)
Crazy Glue (number of hydrogen bonds in DNA and RNA Three between Cytosine and Guanine other
base pairing only TWO)
Types of Collagen :SCAB,
Type !:Skin,Bone,tendon ,and dentin. Type II: Connective tissue, Type III: Arteries ,Type IV: Basement
membrane
Proteins expressed in smooth muscle
"Can Cause Contraction"
Calmodulin Caldesmon Calponin
dArk - Aband , l I ght - I band
HAZI : H=A band ; Z= I band
sub clavian artery branches ::::
VIT C & D
vertebral artery

internal thoracic artery


thyrocervical trunk
costocervical
dorsal scapular artery
DIG dysphasia ,iron def anemia, glositis
Plummer Vinson s
Contents of pterygopalatine fossa
Poor men naughty people
Pterygopalatine branch of maxillary artery
Maxillary nerve
Nerve of pterygoid canal
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Inferior vena cava tributaries -- I Like To Rise So high Iliacs lumbar testicular renal suprarenal
hepatic vein
SOME LADIES FIND ALL OLD POOR MEN SEXYbranches for external carotid artery
Superior thyroid
Lingual
Facial
Auriculotemporal
Occpital
Posterior auricular
Maxillary
Superficial temporal
CCK FUNCTION : CCC-Contraction of Callbladder(Gallbladder )
TC DAD
GINGIVAL GROUP OF FIBRES
TRAnseptal,, circular,, dentogingival ,,dentoperiosteal ,,alveologingival
Facial nerve branches :
The zebra bit my cow
temporal
zygomatic
buccal
mandibular
cervical
retroperitoneal viscera is SAD PUCKER, or DUKE CRAPS:S = Suprarenal glands (aka the adrenal
glands)A = Aorta/IVCD = Duodenum (second and third segments [some also include the fourth
segment] )P = Pancreas (only head, neck, and body are retroperitoneal)U = Ureters C = Colon (only the
ascending and descending colons, as transverse and sigmoid retainmesocolon)K = Kidneys E = Esophagus
R = Rectum
Eosinophils ( red ) raise red flags when there is worms
picoRNA : RNA virus ( p=polio c=coxsacchie r= rhino a= hep A Virus )
INTERLEUKINS: Famous Tom Buys Expensive Apple, Apple Needs Seasoning Nowdays;
IL1- Fever,
IL2- T proliferation,
IL3- Bone marrow(hemopoietic),

IL4- IgE class switch,


IL5- IgA class switch,
IL6- Acute Phage Reactants,
IL8- Neutrophil chemotaxis,
IL10- supress inflammation,
IL12- NK activation
VIRchow":
Vascular trauma
Increased coagulability
Reduced blood flow (stasis)
Alpha-Hemolytic bacteria
Sweet Salad Made for Veterans.
Streptococcus Salivarius.
S.Sanguis
S.Mutans
S.Viridans.
Essential amino acids : PVT TIM HALL Phenylalanine , Valine , Tryprophan , Threonine , isoleucine ,
methionine , histidine ( semiessential ) , arginine ( semi) , lycine , leucine
Non essential amino acids : (A)lmost (a)ll (g)irls (g)o (c)razy (a)fter (g)oing (t)o (s)ao (P)aulo alanine ,
aspargine , glutamate , glutamate , cysteine , aspartate , glycine , tyrosine , serine , proline
KREBS CYCLE : Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer
Citrate, Isocitrate, alpha Ketoglutarate, Succinyl CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate.
Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused SOFT PAINS:
Skin infections
Osteomyelitis
Food poisoning
Toxic shock syndrome
Pneumonia
Acute endocarditis
Infective arthritis
Necrotizing fasciitis
Sepsis
Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused NIPPLES:
Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
Impetigo
Pharyngitis
Pneumonia
Lymphangitis
Erysipelas and cellulitis
Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal Toxic shock syndrome
Sympathetic NS-fight / flight n ParasymNS-rest n digest
Stimulatory function of PNS-mneumonic SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and
defecation)
Histoplasmosis Hidden in oHio and hit Mississippi. Hidden ( in macrophages) and occurs in ohio and
Mississippi River... so its common in ohio and Mississippiwhat is present in each structure of ethmoid

bone (FLS)
cribri(F)orm plate : ol(F)actory (f)oramina
perpendicu(L)ar p(L)ate : crista ga(LL)i
lateral ma(SS)e(S) : ethmoidal (S)inu(S)e(S)
MEDIAL WALL OF ORBIT:
My Little Eye Sits in the ORBIT
Maxilla (frontal process)
Lacrimal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid (body)
CARTILAGE DERIVATIVE OF FIRST PHARYNGEAL ARCH:
IM A Super Sexy Gini
Incus
Malleus
Anterior ligament of malleus
Spine of sphenoid
Sphenomandibular ligament
Genial tubercle of mandible
kisselback plexus : GLASS
greater palatine artery , lateral nasal artery , anterior ethmoidal artery , sphenopalatine artery ,
superior labial artery.
PHeochromocytoma: Pressure, and Headache
No Cover Round.....nonmembranous organelles :ribosome cytoskeleton nucleoulus
RNA enveloped viruses" Dont Forget To Order Rich Peoples Rice Fries and Coke Bottle
Delta virus
Flavivrus
Togavirus
Orthomyxovirus
Retrovirus
Paramyxovirus
Rhabdovirus
Filovirus
coronavirus
Bunyavirus
Non. enveloped RNA viruses.
CPR : calcivirus , picornavirus , reoviruses
Types of Flavivirus:
To taste the FLAVours of JAPANESE Hen(Chicken) i went to the DEN in theWEST dressed YELLOW "
Flavivirus- Japanese encphlts virus, HCV , dengue virus , West Nile virus , yellow fewer virus
For live accentuated virusROME Is My Best Place To go Yet ! "
Rubella
Oral polio vaccine
Measles
Epidemic typhus

Influenza
Mumps
BCG
Plague
Typhoid oral vaccine
Yellow fever
Except L. DATTA all bacilli r gram -ve (Listeria, diphth,actinomycetes,tb,tetanus clost, anthrax
bacillus)to rememberconyloma lata and condyloma accuminata
Lata - syphLLis - fLat - pappuLes - L is everywhere
acuminata = accumulated papillae = papilloma virus
Non-Lactose Fermenters:
"If you dont lac-toes you can work as a Sneaky SPY"
Salmonella
Shigella
Proteus
Yersinia
Fast Lactose Fermenters:
"If you lac-toes at least you have a KnEE"
Klebsiella Pneu
Ecoli
Enterobacter Cloacae
Slow Lactose Fermenters:
"Lac-toes or not, one should move slow in a Serene City"
Serratia marcescens
Citrobacter
For heat killed vaccines - How Is Jack In CAR.(Hepatitis A n B , Infleunza , Japenese encephalitis , Ipv ,
cholera , anthrax , rabies)

AUTOSOMAL Dominant disorders mnemonic


DOMINANT
D= Dystrophicas Myotonic.
O= Ostogenesis Imperfecta.
M= Marfans syndrome.
I= Intermittent Porphyria.
N= Noonans Symdrome.
A= Adult Polycystic Kidney,Achondroplasia.
N= Neurofibromatosis.
T= Tuberous sclerosis.
PANCREATITIS IS SEEN IN ( GET SMASHed)
G- Gall stones
E- Ethanol
T- Trauma

S-

Steroids

M-

Mumps

A-Autoimmune d/s
S -Scorpion sting
Hed- Hyperlipidemic drugs
mnemonic for the signs and symptoms of endocarditis is FROM JANE:
Fever
Roth's spots
Osler's nodes
Murmur
Janeway lesions
Anemia
Nail hemorrhage (splinter hemorrhages)
Emboli
Beefy red tongue - niacin
Beefy - (n)onveg - (n)iacin def
Magenta tongue - riboflavin
Magenta- (r)ed - (r)iboflavin def
Verisella Zoster Virus needs DR and CARE (VZV remain latent in dorsal root (DR) and Cranial Nerve
ganglia (CARE )
Prokaryotes:::
MaRK prokaryotes
Mycoplasm ,Rikettsiae, Klymadia(chylamadia)
Girls Get Fat First, Get Drunk Blowing Psycho Perverted People Perpetually.
1. Glucose
2. Glucose-6-p
3. Fructose-6-p
4. Fructose-1,6-bis-p
5. G3P + Dihydroxyacetone-p
6. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
7. 3-phosphoglycerate
8. 2-phosphoglycerate
9. phosphoenolpyruvate
10. pyruvate.
ABC'S
Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk, the left Common Carotid, and the left Subclavian
artery
Three trisomies
Puberty age 13 Patau trisomy 13
Election age 18 Edwards trisomy 18
Drinking age 21 Downs syndrome 21
Start and Stop Codons

AUG in AUGurates protein syntesis


UGA = U Go Away
UAA = U Are Away
UAG = U Are Gone
Orbit: bones of medial wall
My Little Eye Sits in the orbit
Maxillae
Lacrimal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Facial nerve branches VII
1)Posterior auricular
after Stylomastoid foramenTwin Zebras Bit My Cookie
Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Mandibular
Cervical
Carotid sheath contents
"I See 10 CC's in the IV":
I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid artery
IV = Internal Jugular Vein
Enzymes: classification
"Over The HILL":
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Isomerases
Ligases
Lyase
Organisms which can cross blood-placenta barrier
''TORCHES''
TOxoplasmosis
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
HErpes, HIV
Syphilis
DiGeorge/ Velocardiofacial syndrome: features
CATCH 22:
Cardiac abnormalities
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia
Cleft palate
Hypocalcemia

"Go Sally Go! Make Chicken!":


G1 phase (Growth phase 1)
S phase (DNA Synthesis)
G2 phase (Growth phase 2)
M phase (Mitosis)
Macrocytic anemia: causes
ABCDEF:
Alcohol + liver disease
B12 deficiency
Compensatory reticulocytosis (blood loss and hemolysis)
Drug (cytotoxic and AZT)/ Dysplasia (marrow problems)
Endocrine (hypothyroidism)
Folate deficieny/ Fetus (pregnancy)
Heart valve sequence
"Try Pulling My Aorta":
Tricuspid
Pulmonary
Mitral
Aorta
"All Patients Take Medicines"
Starting from top left
Aortic- 2nd intercostal space, right sternal edge
Pulomnary- 2nd intercostal space, left sternal edge
Tricuspid- 4th Intercostal space, right sternal edge
Mitral- 5th intercostal space, mid clavicular line.
Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia
"PARTNER" together:
Platelet count low
Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
Renal Failure
Temperature rise
Neurological deficits
ER admission ( as it is an emergency)
Movement of Muscles of Eye Ball
OR means O is on left side and R is on right side at the Top and bottom of diagram.
LM (alphabet series) Lateral is on left side and Medial is on right side with R on both side.
IS IS Clockwise starting above lateral part or from (2nd quadrant).
All SUPERIOR causes Intorsion, Rest causes Extorsion.
Causes of Deep Vein Thrombosis
THROMBOSIS
Trauma
Hormones - OCP's
Recent MI

Operatns- cholecystectomy
Malignancy (pelvic & abd.)
Blood disorder(polycythemia), Behcets disease
Obesity, Old age, Ortho. surgery
Splenectomy
Immobilisation
Serious illness
WBC Count:
"Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas"
"60, 30, 6, 3, 1"
Neutrophils 60%
Lymphocytes 30%
Monocytes 6%
Eosinophils 3%
Basophils 1%
live attenuated vaccines

BOYs Love The CRIME


B= BCG
O=OPV
Y=YELLOW FEVER
Love= LIVE ATTENUATED
The= TYPHOID
C=CHICKEN POX
R=RUBELLA
I=INFLUENZA
M=MUMPS,MEASLES
E=EPIDEMIC TYPHUS

Viruses gastroenteritis

(RACE)
Rotavirus
Astroviruses
Caliciviruses
Enteric adenoviruses

Little's area: Arteries


" LEGS "
L - superior L abial artery
E - anterior E thmoidal artery
G - G reater palatine artery
S - S phenopalatine artery
The four arteries anastamose at Little's area to form a
vascular plexus called Kiesselbach's plexus.
Branches of Vagus nerve
"APE-SCRAP"
A- Auricular nerve
P- Pharyngeal nerve
E- Esophageal plexus
S- Superior laryngeal nerve (Gives internal 'sensory' and
external 'motor' LN)
C- Cardiac branches
R- Recurrent laryngeal nerve
A- Anterior Vagal Trunk
P- Posterior Vagal Trunk
Alkalosis: Metabolic changes
Think: "Al-K-loss & AlCa-loss"Thus, in a state
of alkalosis, there is loss
of K+ causing, Hypokalemia andloss of Ca++ causing
Hypocalcemia
Oncogenic viruses :
DNA viruses
'HE is my PAPa' [mnemonic]
Hepatitis B virus
Epstein Barr virus
Pox virus
Adenovirus
Pappilloma virus
RNA viruses [mnemonic]
'His Salary Feeds Me'
Human T cell leukemia virus
Sarcoma viruses
Feline Leukemia virus
Mammary tumor virus

Clinical Features Of Acromegaly:


A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J
A Arthropathy B Big boggy hands
C Carpal tunnel syndrome D Diabetes
E Enlarged tongue, heart and throat
F Fields (bitemporal hemianopia)
G Gynaecomastia, Galactorrhoea and Greasy skin
H Hypertension
I Increasing size (of shoes, hat, gloves, dentures, rings)
J Jaw enlargement and prognathism
PORPHYRIA'S : acute intermittent porphyria symptoms
5 Ps:
* Pain in abdomen
* Polyneuropathy
* Psychologial abnormalities
* Pink urine
* Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives,
sulpha drugs)