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316

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

SOLUTION
SOL 7.1

Option (C) is correct.


The sum of the absorbed, reflected and transmitted radiation be equal to
a+r+t = 1
a = Absorpivity, r = Reflectivity , t = Transmissivity
For an opaque surfaces such as solids and liquids
t = 0,
a+r = 1

Thus,
SOL 7.2

Option (A) is correct.


The performance of the fins is judged on the basis of the enhancement in
heat transfer area relative to the no fin case. The fin effectiveness
efin = Heat transfer rate from the fin of base area
Heat transfer rate from the surface area
When determining the rate of heat transfer from a finned surface, we must
consider the unfinned portion of the surface as well as the fins and number
of fins.
Thin and closed spaced fin configuration, the unfinned portion of surface is
reduced and number of fins is increased. Hence the fin effectiveness will be
maximum for thin and closely spaced fins.

SOL 7.3

Option (D) is correct.


According to the reciprocity relation.
Which yields

A1 F12 = A2 F21
F21 = A1 # F12 = pD1 L # 1 = b D1 l
D2
pD 2 L
A2

F11 = 0 since no radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 1


F12 = 1, since all radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 2
The view factor F22 is determined by applying summation rule to surface 2,
F21 + F22 = 1
Thus
SOL 7.4

F22 = 1 - F21 = 1 - b D1 l
D2

Option (C) is correct.


o h = 0.5 kg/ sec , m
oc = 2.09 kg/ sec., e = 0.8
Given : th1 = 80cC , tc1 = 30cC , m

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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

317

Capacity rate for hot fluid

So,

Ch = 4.18 # 0.5 = 2.09 kJ/Ksec.


Cc = 1 # 2.09 = 2.09 kJ/K sec.
Ch = Cc
(t - t ) C
Qo
Effectiveness e = o
= h1 h1 h
(th1 - tc1) Cc
Q max
0.8 = 80 - th2
80 - 30

80 - th2 = 40
th2 = 40cC
From energy balance,

or,

Ch (th1 - th1) = Cc (tc 2 - tc1)


80 - 40 = tc2 - 30
tc2 = 70cC
...(i)
Now LMTD
qm = q1 -qq2
ln q
q1 = th1 - tc 2 = 80 - 70 = 10cC
q2 = th 2 - tc1 = 40 - 30 = 10cC
...(ii)
q1 = q2
So LMTD is undefined
q1 = x & q = xq
Let
1
2
q2
Put in equation (i), so
q (x - 1)
qm = lim xq2 - q2 = lim 2
x"1
x"1
ln x
ln xq2
q2
It is a : 0 D form, applying L-Hospital rule
0
q (1 - 0)
= lim xq2
qm = lim 2
1
x"1
x"1
x
From equation (ii)
qm = q2 = q1
qm = q1 = th1 - tc 2 = 80 - 70 = 10cC
1

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318

SOL 7.5

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

Option (B) is correct.

Given : th1 = th2 = 60c C , tc1 = 30c C , tc2 = 45c C


From diagram, we have
And
Now LMTD,
SOL 7.6

q1 = th1 - tc1 = 60 - 30 = 30c C


q2 = th2 - tc2 = 60 - 45 = 15c C
qm = q1 - q2 = 30 - 15 = 21.6c C
ln b 30 l
ln b q1 l
15
q2

Option (C) is correct.


Given : d 0 = 25 mm = 0.025 m , r0 = 0.025 = 0.0125 m , h = 5 W/m2 K ,
2
k = 0.05 W/mK

Hence, Critical radius of insulation for the pipe is given by,


rc = k = 0.05 = 0.01 m
5
h
...(i)
rc < r0 or r0 > rc
So, from equation (i) option a and b is incorrect. The critical radius is less
than the outer radius of the pipe and adding the insulation will not increase
the heat loss. Hence the correct statement is adding the insulation will
reduce the heat loss.
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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

319

SOL 7.7

Option (D) is correct.


Given : D = 12 mm = 12 # 10-3 m , h = 5 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/m K
-3
For spherical ball, = 12 # 10 = 2 # 10-3 m
6
4 pR 3
volume
= 3 2 =D
l =
6
surface area
4pR
The non-dimensional factor (hl/k) is called Biot Number. It gives an
indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface
(convection) resistance.
A small value of Bi implies that the system has a small conduction resistance
i.e., relatively small temperature gradient or the existence of a practically
uniform temperature within the system.
-3
Biot Number,
Bi = hl = 5 # 2 # 10 = 0.0005
20
k
Since, Value of Biot Number is very less. Hence, conduction resistance is
much less than convection resistance.

SOL 7.8

Option (A) is correct.


dH
dH
1
Given :
b dTh l = 2 and b dTh l = 2
P
Q
Here,
And

dH "Thickness of laminar hydrodynamic boundary layer


dTh "Thickness of thermal boundary layer
(Re) P = (Re)Q = 10 4
(Pr) P = 1
8

(Nu) P = 35
For thermal boundary layer prandtl Number is given by, (For fluid Q)
(Pr)Q1/3 = b dH l = 2
dTh Q
(Pr)Q = (2) 3 = 8
For laminar boundary layer on flat plate, relation between Reynolds Number,
Prandtl Number and Nusselt Number is given by,
Nu = hl = (Re) 1/2 (Pr) 1/3
k
Since, Reynolds Number is same for both P and Q .
So,

(Nu) P
(Pr) 1P/3
=
(Nu)Q
(Pr)Q1/3
(Pr)Q1/3
(8) 1/3
2
(
Nu
)
35
=
(Nu)Q =
#
P
1/3
1/3 # (35) =
1
/
2#
(1/8)
(Pr) P
= 140

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320

SOL 7.9

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

Option (B) is correct.


Given, d = 5 mm = 0.005 m , l = 100 mm = 0.1 m , k = 400 W/m K
T0 = 130c C , Ta = 30c C , h = 40 W/m2 K
Heat loss by the fin is given by,
...(i)
Q fin = mkAc (T0 - Ta) tanh (ml)
p
Perimeter
=
= pd = 4 = 4
p d2 d
0.005
Cross sectional Area
Ac
4
p
...(ii)
= 800
Ac
p
40
And
800 = 80
m = hb l =
400 #
k Ac
From equation(i),
Q fin = 80 # 400 # p # (0.005) 2 (130 - 30) # tanh ( 80 # 0.1)
4
= 8.944 # 400 # 1.96 # 10-5 # 100 # tanh (0.8944)
= 7.012 # 0.7135 - 5 W

SOL 7.10

Option (B) is correct.


Given : T1 = 30c C , T2 = 100c C , k = 1.0 W/mK ,
T = 30 + 70 exp (- y)

...(i)

Under steady state conditions,


Heat transfer by conduction= Heat transfer by convection
- kA dT = hADT
A " Area of plate
dy
- kA d (30 + 70e-y) = hADT
dy
Solving above equation, we get
- kA (- 70e-y) = hADT
At the surface of plate, y = 0
Hence
70kA = hADT
h = 70kA = 70k = 70 # 1 = 1 W/m2 K
ADT
DT
(100 - 30)
SOL 7.11

Option (B) is correct.


Given :
o h = 1 kg/ sec , c ph = 4 kJ/kg K , th1 = 102c C , tc1 = 15c C
Coh = Coc , m
U = 1 kW/m2 K , A = 5 m2

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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

321

The figure shown below is for parallel flow.

o h c ph = 4 kJ/sK
Coh = m
The heat exchanger is characterized by the following relation,
1 - exp (- 2NTU)
e=
2
For parallel flow heat exchanger effectiveness is given by
1 - exp [- NTU (1 + C)]
e=
1+C
Comparing equation (i) and equation (ii), we get capacity ratio
C = Cc = C min = 1
Ch
C max

..(i)

...(ii)
...(iii)

Applying energy balance for a parallel flow


Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 - tc1)
Cc = th1 - th2 = 1
tc2 - tc1
Ch

From equation(iii)

th1 - th2 = tc2 - tc1


Number of transfer units is given by,
NTU = UA = 1 # 5 = 1.25
4
C min
1 - exp (- 2 # 1.25)
Effectiveness,
e=
= 1 - 0.0820 = 0.46
2
2
Maximum possible heat transfer is,
Q max = C min (th1 - tc1)
= 4 # 6(273 + 102) - (273 + 15)@ = 348 kW
But Actual Heat transfer is,
And

Qa = eQ max = 0.46 # 348 = 160 kW


Qa = Cc (tc2 - tc1)
160 = 4 (tc2 - 15)
tc2 = 40 + 15 = 55c C

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322

SOL 7.12

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

Option (C) is correct.

The equivalent resistance diagram for the given system is,

Req = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1
h i A k1 A k 2 A h 0 A
Req # A = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1 = 1 + 0.3 + 0.15 + 1
20 20
50
50
h i k1 k 2 h 0
= 0.05 + 0.015 + 0.003 + 0.02 = 0.088 m2 K/W
Q
Heat flux,
q = = DT
Q = DT
A AReq
R
Under steady state condition,
k (T - T ) k2 (T - T2)
...(i)
q = T3i - T3o = hi (T3i - T1) = 1 1
=
L1
L2
AReq
20 - (- 2)
...(ii)
= T3i - T3o =
= 250 W/m2
0.088
AReq
From equation(i)
= T3i - T1 = 20 - T1
1
1
20
hi
250 = 20 (20 - T1)
12.5 = 20 - T1
& T1 = 20 - 12.5 = 7.5c C
Again from equation(i),
k (T - T)
q = 1 1
L1
250 = 20 (7.5 - T)
0.3

3.75 = 7.5 - T

& T = 3.75c C

Alternative :
Under steady state conditions,
Heat flow from I to interface wall = Heat flow from interface wall to O
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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

323

(T3, i - T)
(T - T3,o)
=
L2 + 1
1 + L1
h i A k1 A
k2 A h0 A
T3, i - T
T - T3, o
=
L2 + 1
1 + L1
h i k1
k 2 ho
(20 - T)
T - (- 2)
=
1 + 0.3
0.15 + 1
20 20
50
50
(20 - T) T + 2
=
1.3
1.15
20
50
(20 - T) = 2.826 (T + 2) = 2.826T + 5.652
T = 14.348 = 3.75c C
3.826
SOL 7.13

Option (D) is correct.

Given : sb = 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4 , T2 = (227 + 273) K = 500 K


T1 = (727 + 273) K = 1000 K
Let,
a " The absorptivity of the gray surface
E1 " The radiant energy of black surface
E2 " The radiant energy of gray surface
Now, Plate 1 emits radiant energy E1 which strikes the plate 2. From it a
part aE1 absorbed by the plate 2 and the remainder (E1 - aE1) is reflected
back to the plate 1. On reaching plate 1, all the part of this energy is
absorbed by the plate 1, because the absorptivity of plate 1 is equal to one
(it is a black surface).
Irradiation denotes the total radiant energy incident upon a surface per unit
time per unit area.
Energy leaving from the plate 2 is,
...(i)
E = E2 + (1 - a) E1
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324

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

Hence, E2 is the energy emitted by plate 2.


E2 = esb T 24 = 0.7 # 5.67 # 10-8 # (500) 4
E = esb T 4
= 0.7 # 5.67 # 10-8 # 625 # 108 = 2480.625 W/m2
And fraction of energy reflected from surface 2 is,
= (1 - a) E1 = (1 - a) sT 14
= 5.67 # 10-8 (1 - 0.7) # (1000) 4 = 17010 W/m2
Now, Total energy incident upon plate 1 is,
E = E2 + (1 - a) E1 = 2480.625 + 17010
= 19490.625 W/m2 = 19.49 kW/m2 , 19.5 kW/m2
SOL 7.14

Option (D) is correct.


Given : e2 = 0.8 , e1 = 0.7
As both the plates are gray, the net heat flow from plate 1 to plate 2 per
unit time is given by,
e1 e2
1
Q12 =
s (T 4 - T 24) =
s (T 4 - T 24)
e1 + e2 - e1 e2 b 1
1 + 1 -1 b 1
e2 e1
1
=
5.67 # 10-8 [(1000) 4 - (500) 4]
1 + 1 -1#
0.8 0.7
= 1 # 5.67 # 9375 = 31640.625 W/m2
1.68
- 31.7 kW/m2

SOL 7.15

Option (C) is correct.


Given : m = 0.001 Pa s , c p = 1 kJ/kg K , k = 1 W/m K
The prandtl Number is given by,
3
mc
Pr = p = 0.001 # 1 # 10 = 1
1
k
d = hydrodynamic bondary layer thickness = (Pr) 1/3
And
Thermal boundary layer thickness
dt
-

Given,

d = 1m
d = (1) 1/3 = 1
dt

d = dt = 1 mm
Hence, thermal boundary layer thickness at same location is 1 mm.
SOL 7.16

Option (C) is correct.


The T - L curve shows the counter flow.

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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

325

Given : qm = 20c C , tc1 = 20c C , th1 = 100c C


oc
oh & m
oc = 2m
=2
m
o
mh
c
c ph = 2c pc & ph = 2
c pc
Energy balance for counter flow is,

...(i)
...(ii)

Heat lost by hot fluid = Heat gain by cold fluid


o h c ph (th1 - th2) = m
oc c pc (tc2 - tc1)
m
oc
c ph
(t - t ) = m
o h (tc2 - tc1)
c pc h1 h2
m
2 (th1 - th2) = 2 (tc2 - tc1)
th1 - tc2 = th2 - tc1
...(iii)
q1 = q2
And
...(iv)
qm = q1 - q2
ln b q1 l
q2
Substituting the equation (iii) in equation (iv), we get undetermined form.
q1 = x ,
Let
...(v)
& q1 = q2 x
q2
Substitute q1 in equation(iv),
q (x - 1)
...(vi)
qm = lim q2 x - q2 = lim 2
x"1
x"1
ln
x
q
2x
ln b
q2 l
0
: 0 D form, So we apply L-Hospital rule,
q (1 - 0)
= lim x q2
qm = lim 2
1
x"1
x"1
x
From equation(iii)
qm = q2 = q1
Now we have to find exit temperature of cold fluid (tc2),
So,
qm = q1 = th1 - tc2
tc2 = th1 - qm = 100 - 20 = 80c C
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326

SOL 7.17

HEAT TRANSFER

CHAPTER 7

Option (D) is correct.


Given : h = 10 W/m2 K , Ti = 30c C , qg = 100 W/m3
Five faces of the object are insulated, So no heat transfer or heat generation
by these five faces. Only sixth face (PQRS) interacts with the surrounding
and generates heat.
Hence, Heat generated throughout the volume
Q = Rate of heat Generated # Volume of object
= 100 # (1 # 2 # 2) = 400 W
And heat transfer by convection is given by
Q = hA (Tf - Ti)
400 = 10 # (2 # 2) (Tf - 30)
Tf = 30 + 10 = 40c C

SOL 7.18

Option (B) is correct.


Given : D1 = 1 m , D2 = 2 m
Hence, the small cylindrical surface (surface 1) cannot see itself and the
radiation emitted by this surface strikes on the enclosing surface 2. From the
conservation principal (summation rule).
For surface 1,
F11 = 0
F12 + F11 = 1
F12 = 1
From the reciprocity theorem

...(i)

A1 F12 = A2 F21
F21 = A1 = pD1 L = D1 = 1 = 0.5
D2 2
A 2 pD 2 L
and from the conservation principal, for surface 2, we have
F21 + F22 = 1
F22 = 1 - F21 = 1 - 0.5 = 0.5
So, the fraction of the thermal radiation leaves the larger surface and striking
itself is F22 = 0.5 .
SOL 7.19

Option (D) is correct.


Given : b2T l = 10 K/m , (T ) P = (T)Q , (k) P = (k)Q = 0.1 W/mK
2x Q
Direction of heat flow is always normal to surface of constant temperature.
So, for surface P ,
2T = 0
2x
Because, Q =- kA (2T/2x) and 2T is the temperature difference for a short
perpendicular distance dx . Let width of both the bodies are unity.
From the law of energy conservation,

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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

327

Heat rate at P = Heat rate at Q


- 0.1 # 1 # c2T m =- 0.1 # 2 # b2T l
2y P
2x Q
Because for P heat flow in y direction and for Q heat flow in x direction
2T
0.1 # 2 # 10 = 20 K/m
c2y m =
0.1
P
SOL 7.20

Option (B) is correct.


The region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless
temperature profile expressed as b T - Tw l remains unchanged is called
T3 - Tw
thermally fully developed region.
Nusselt Number is given by,
...(i)
Nu = hL = c2T m
k
2yl at yl = 0
y
Here,
T = T - Tw and yl =
T3 - Tw
2t
y
y 3
So,
= 2 : 3 yl - 1 (yl) 3D
Nu = 2 ; 3 b l - 1 b l E
2
2
2
d
d
2y 2
2yl
t
t
yl = 0
yl = 0
2
y
= ;3 - 3 b l E
= 3 = 1.5
2 2 dt yl = 0
2

SOL 7.21

Option (B) is correct.


The counter flow arrangement of the fluid shown below :

o h = 1 kg/ sec , ch = 10 kJ/kg K


Given: for hot fluid : th1 = 60c C , m
oc = 2 kg/ sec , cc = 5 kJ/kg K
And for cold fluid : tc2 = 30c C , m
Heat capacity of Hot fluid,
o h ch = 1 # 10 = 10 kJ/k. sec
Ch = m
And heat capacity of cold fluid,
oc cc = 2 # 5 = 10 kJ/k sec
Cc = m
By energy balance for the counter flow
o h ch (th1 - th2) = m
oc cc (tc2 - tc1)
m
Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 - tc1)
th1 - tc2 = th2 - tc1
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328

HEAT TRANSFER

LMTD,
Let,

q1 = q2
qm = q1 - q2
ln b q1 l
q2
q1 = x
q2

CHAPTER 7

...(i)
q1 is equal to q2 and qm is undetermined

q1 = x q2
Substituting q1 in equation (i), we get,
q (x - 1)
qm = lim x q2 - q2 = lim 2
x " 1 ln (x)
x"1
ln (x)
0
b 0 l form , So we apply L-hospital rule,
qm = lim q2 # 1 = lim x q2
1
x"1
x"1
x
qm = q2 = q1 & q1 = th1 - tc2 = 60 - 30 = 30c C
SOL 7.22

Option (D) is correct.


Given : T1 = 25c C = (273 + 25) = 298 K , A = 0.1 m2 , m = 4 kg ,
c = 2.5 kJ/kg K
h = ? , T2 = 225c C = 273 + 225 = 498 K
Temperature Gradient, dT =- 0.02 K/s
dt
Here negative sign shows that plate temperature decreases with the time.
From the given condition,
Heat transfer by convection to the plate = Rate of change of internal energy
hA (T2 - T1) =- mc dT
dt
h =-

SOL 7.23

mc
dT =- 4 # 2.5 # 103
(- 0.02) = 10 W/m2 K
#
dt
A (T2 - T1)
0.1 (498 - 298) #

Option (C) is correct.

Let the location of maximum temperature occurs at the distance x from the
left face. We know that steady state heat flow equation in one dimension
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CHAPTER 7

HEAT TRANSFER

329

with a uniform heat generation is given by,


22 T + qg = 0
k
2x 2
Here qg = Heat generated per unit volume and per unit time,
Given : qg = 80 MW/m2 = 80 # 106 W/m2 , k = 200 W/m K
Substituting the value of qg and k in equation (i), we get
22 T + 80 # 106 = 0
200
2x2
22 T + 4 105 = 0
#
2x 2
Integrating the above equation,
2T + 4 105 x + c = 0
#
#
1
2x
Again integrating, we get
2
T + 4 # 105 # x + c1 x + c2 = 0
2
Applying boundary conditions on equation (iii), we get
(1) At x = 0 , T = 160c C
160 + c2 = 0
c2 =- 160
(2) At x = 20 mm = 0.020 m , T = 120c C

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

...(iv)

(0.020) 2
+ c1 # 0.020 + (- 160) = 0
120 + 4 # 10 #
2
5

120 + 80 + 0.020c1 - 160 = 0


0.020c1 + 40 = 0
c1 =- 40 =- 2000
0.020

c2 =- 160

...(v)

To obtain the location of maximum temperature, applying maxima-minima


principle and put dT = 0 in equation (ii), we get
dx
0 + 4 # 105 x + (- 2000) = 0
x = 2000 5 = 500 # 10-5 = 5 # 10-3 m = 5 mm
4 # 10
SOL 7.24

c1 =- 2000

Option (B) is correct.


From the previous part of the question, at x = 5 mm temperature is
maximum.
So, put x = 5 mm = 5 # 10-3 m in equation(iii), we get
(5 10-3) 2
+ (- 2000) # 5 # 10-3 + (- 160) = 0
T + 4 # 105 # #
2
T + 5 # 106 # 10-6 - 10 - 160 = 0

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330

HEAT TRANSFER

T + 5 - 170 = 0
SOL 7.25

CHAPTER 7

& T = 165c C

Option (D) is correct.


Tinter = T1 + T2
2
Heat transfer will be same for both the ends
k A (T - Tinter )
k A (T - T2)
So,
Q =- 1 1 1
=- 2 2 inter
Q =- kA dT
2b
b
dx
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider
portion of equal depth and height of the slab, since it is representative of
the entire wall.
So,
A1 = A2 and Tinter = T1 + T2
2
k1 ;T1 - bT1 + T2 lE
2
So, we get
= k2 :T1 + T2 - T2D
2
2
k1 :2T1 - T1 - T2 D = 2k2 :T1 + T2 - 2T2 D
2
2
Given :

k1 [T - T ] = k [T - T ]
2
1
2
2
2 1
k1 = 2k2
SOL 7.26

Option (D) is correct.


Given : P = 100 W , n = 2.5 # 3 # 3 = 22.5 m3 , Ti = 20c C
Now Heat generated by the bulb in 24 hours,
Q = 100 # 24 # 60 # 60 = 8.64 MJ
Volume of the room remains constant.
Heat dissipated, Q = mcv dT = rncv (Tf - Ti)
Where,
Tf = Final temperature of room

...(i)
m = rv

r = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3


cv of air = 0.717 kJ/kg K
Substitute the value of Q from equation (i), we get
8640000 = 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 # 103 (Tf - 20)
8640 = 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 (Tf - 20)
(Tf - 20) = 446.30
Tf = 446.30 + 20 = 466.30c C - 470c C
SOL 7.27

Option (C) is correct.


Given : Relation humidity = 5% at temperature 20c C
Relative humidity,

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331

Actual mass of water vapour in a given volume of moist air


mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated
air at same temperature & pressure
p
f = mv = v = 0.05
ms
ps
f =

...(i)

Where,
pv = Partial pressure of vapor at 20c C
From given table at T = 20cC , ps = 2.34 kPa
From equation (i),
pv = 0.05 # ps = 0.05 # 2.34 = 0.117 kPa
Phase equilibrium means, ps = pv
The temperature at which pv becomes saturated pressure can be found by
interpolation of values from table, for ps = 0.10 to ps = 0.26
- 10 - (- 15)
T =- 15 + ;
(0.117 - 0.10)
0.26 - 0.10 E
=- 15 + 5 # 0.017 =- 14.47 -- 14.5c C
0.16
SOL 7.28

Option (B) is correct.


The variation of heat transfer with the outer radius of the insulation r2 ,
when r1 < rcr

The rate of heat transfer from the insulated pipe to the surrounding air can
be expressed as
T1 - T3
Qo = T1 - T3 =
r
Rins + Rconv.
2
ln a k
r1
1
+
2pLk
h (2pr2 L)
The value of r2 at which Qo reaches a maximum is determined from the
dQo
requirement that
= 0 . By solving this we get,
dr2
...(i)
rcr, pipe = k
h
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From equation (i), we easily see that by increasing the thickness of insulation,
the value of thermal conductivity increases and heat loss by the conduction
also increases.
But by increasing the thickness of insulation, the convection heat transfer
co-efficient decreases and heat loss by the convection also decreases. These
both cases are limited for the critical thickness of insulation.
SOL 7.29

Option (D) is correct.


The general heat equation in cartesian co-ordinates,
22T + 22T + 22T = 1 2T
a 2t
2x2 2y2 2z2
For one dimensional heat conduction,
22T = 1 2T = rc p 2T
a = k = Thermal Diffusitivity
rc p
a 2t
k 2t
2x2
For constant properties of medium,
2T \ 22T
2t
2x2

SOL 7.30

Option (D) is correct.

Given : T1 > T2 > T3


From, Wiens displacement law,
lmax T = 0.0029 mK = Constant
lmax \ 1
T
If T increase, then lm decrease. But according the figure, when T increases,
then lm also increases. So, the Wiens law is not satisfied.
SOL 7.31

Option (C) is correct.


Assumptions :

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333

(1) Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time.
(2) Heat transfer can be approximated as being one-dimensional since it is
predominantly in the x -direction.
(3) Thermal conductivities are constant.
(4) Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.
Analysis :
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider a 1
m deep and 1 m high portion of the slab, since it representative of the entire
wall.
Assuming any cross-section of the slab normal to the x - direction to be
isothermal, the thermal resistance network for the slab is shown in the
figure.

0.5
R1 = L1 =
= 25 K/W
k1 A1 0.02 (1 # 1)
0.25
= 5 K/W
R2 = L2 =
k2 A2 0.10 # (1 # 0.5)
0.25
= 12.5 K/W
R3 = L3 =
k 3 A 3 0.04 # (1 # 0.5)
Resistance R2 and R 3 are in parallel. So the equivalent resistance Req will be
1 = 1 + 1
Req
R2 R 3
1 = R3 + R2
Req
R2 R 3
Req = R2 R 3 = 5 # 12.5 = 3.6 K/W
5 + 12.5
R2 + R 3
Resistance R1 and Req are in series. So total Resistance will be
R = R1 + Req = 25 + 3.6 = 28.6 K/W
SOL 7.32

Option (C) is correct.


Given : D = 5 mm = 0.005 m , Ti = 500 K , Ta = 300 K , k = 400 W/mK ,
r = 9000 kg/m3 , c = 385 J/kg K , h = 250 W/m2 K ,
Given that lumped analysis is assumed to be valid.
T - Ta = exp - hAt = exp - ht
So,
...(i)
c rnc m
c rlc m
Ti - Ta

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4 pR3
n
Volume
of
ball
= 3 2
l = =
l= n
A
Surface Area
A
4pR
l = R = D = 0.005 = 1 m
3
6
6
1200
On substituting the value of l and other parameters in equation. (i),
T - 300 = exp 250 # t
c 9000 # 1 385 m
500 - 300
1200
T = 300 + 200 # e-0.08658t
On differentiating the above equation w.r.t. t ,
dT = 200 (- 0.08658) e-0.08658t
#
#
dt
Rate of fall of temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling is (at beginning

t = 0)
dT
b dt l

= 200 # (- 0.08658) # 1 =- 17.316 K/sec

t=0

Negative sign shows fall of temperature.


SOL 7.33

Option (C ) is correct.

Given : d1 = 1 m , d2 = 0.5 m , L = 0.5 m


The cylinder surface cannot see itself and the radiation emitted by this
surface falls on the enclosing sphere. So, from the conservation principle
(summation rule) for surface 2,
F21 + F22 = 1
F21 = 1
From the reciprocity theorem,
A1 F12 = A2 F21
F12 = A2 # F21 = A2
A1
A1
For sphere, F11 + F12 = 1
F11 = 1 - F12
From equation (ii) and (iii), we get
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...(ii)

...(iii)

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335

F11 = 1 - A2 = 1 - 2pr22l = 1 - 2r22l


A1
d1
pd 1
# 0.5 = 1 - 1 = 0.75
= 1 - 2 # 0.250
4
12
SOL 7.34

Option (D) is correct.


The figure shown below are of parallel flow and counter flow respectively.

For parallel flow,


th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 30cC , tc2 = 40cC
(t - t ) - (th2 - tc2)
qmp = q1 - q2 = h1 c1
ln b th1 - tc1 l
ln b q1 l
th2 - tc2
q2
Where, qmp denotes the LMTD for parallel flow.
(80 - 30) - (50 - 40)
qmp =
= 40 = 24.85c C
50
ln (5)
ln b l
10
For counter flow arrangement
th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 40cC , tc2 = 30cC
Where, qmc denotes the LMTD for counter flow.
(t - t ) - (th2 - tc1)
qmc = q1 - q2 = h1 c2
q
1
ln b th1 - tc2 l
ln b l
th2 - tc1
q2
(80 - 30) - (50 - 40)
=
= 40 = 28.85cC
50
ln (5)
ln b l
10
Now for defining the type of flow, we use the correction factor.
...(i)
qm = Fqmc = Fqmp
Where F = correction factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat
exchanger and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the of the hot and cold
streams.
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F < 1, for cross flow and F = 1, for counter and parallel flow
So, From equation (i),
F = qm = 26 = 0.90 < 1
qmc 28.85
and also
F = qm = 26 = 1.04 > 1
qmp 24.85
So, cross flow in better for this problem.
SOL 7.35

Option (C) is correct.


Given : A duct of rectangular cross section. For which sides are
a = 1 m and b = 0.5 m
T1 = 30cC , T2 = 20cC , V = 10 m/ sec , k = 0.025 W/m K
Viscosity = 18 mPas , Pr = 0.73 , r = 1.2 kg/m3 , Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
Hence, For a rectangular conduit of sides a and b,
Hydraulic diameter,
DH = 4A
p
Where, A is the flow cross sectional area and p the wetted perimeter
DH = 4ab = 2ab
2 (a + b) (a + b)
= 2 # 1 # 0.5 = 1 = 0.666 m
1.5
(1 + 0.5)
rVDH
Reynolds Number,
Re =
m
= 1.2 # 10 # -06.666 = 4.44 # 105
18 # 10

SOL 7.36

Option (D) is correct.


From the first part of the question,
Re = 4.44 # 105
Which is greater than 3 # 105 . So, flow is turbulent flow.
Therefore,
Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
hL = 0.023 4.44 105 0.8 (0.73) 0.33
#
^
h #
k
= 0.023 # 32954 # 0.9013 = 683.133
h = 683.133 # k
L
= 683.133 # 0.025 = 25.64 W/m2 K
0.666
DH = L = 0.666 m

Nu = hL
k

Total Area,
A = 2 (a + b) L = 2 (1 + 0.5) L = 3L
Heat transfer by convection is given by,
Q = hA (T1 - T2)
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= 25.64 # 3L # [(273 + 30) - (273 + 20)]


Heat transfer per meter length of the duct is given by
Q
= 25.64 # 3 # 10 = 769.2 W - 769 W
L
SOL 7.37

Option (B) is correct.


The one dimensional time dependent heat conduction equation can be
written more compactly as a simple equation,
1 2 rn 2T + q = rc 2T
...(i)
k 2t
rn 2r : 2r D k
n = 0 , For rectangular coordinates
n = 1, For cylindrical coordinates
n = 2 , For spherical coordinates
Further, while using rectangular coordinates it is customary to replace the
r -variable by the x -variable.
For sphere, substitute r = 2 in equation (i)
1 2 r22T + q = rc 2T
k 2t
r22r : 2r D k
1 2 r22T + q = 1 2T
a = k = thermal diffusivity
a 2t
rc
r22r : 2r D k

Where,

SOL 7.38

Option (C) is correct.

Let Length of the tube = l


Given : r1 = d1 = 2/2 cm = 1 cm , r2 = 5 cm = 2.5 cm
2
2
Radius of asbestos surface,
r3 = d2 + 3 = 2.5 + 3 = 5.5 cm
2
ks = 19 W/mK , ka = 0.2 W/mK
And
T1 - T2 = 600c C
From the given diagram heat is transferred from r1 to r2 and from r2 to r3 .
So Equivalent thermal resistance,
loge (r2 /r1)
For hollow cylinder Rt =
SR = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k
r1
r2
2pkl
2pks l
2pka l
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SR # l = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k
r1
r2
2pks
2pka
1
1
=
ln 2.5 +
ln 5.5
2 # 3.14 # 19 b 1 l 2 # 3.14 # 0.2 b 2.5 l
= 0.916 + 0.788 = 0.00767 + 0.627
119.32 1.256
= 0.635 mK/W

...(i)

Heat transfer per unit length,


Q = T1 - T2 = 600 = 944.88 - 944.72 W/m
(SR # l) 0.635
SOL 7.39

Option (B) is correct.


Given : h = 400 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K , r = 8500 kg/m3
Ti = 30c C , D = 0.706 mm , Ta = 300c C , T = 298c C
..(i)
Biot Number,
Bi = hl
k
4 pR 3
1 pD 3
Volume
3
And
=
= 6 2
l =
Surface Area
pD
4pR 2
-3
= D = 0.706 # 10 = 1.176 # 10-4 m
6
6
From equation (i), we have
-4
Bi = hl = 400 # 1.176 # 10 = 0.0023
20
k

Bi < 0.1
The value of Biot Number is less than one. So the lumped parameter solution
for transient conduction can be conveniently stated as
T - Ta = e-c hAt
n =l
- ht
rcn m = e c rcl m
Ti - Ta
A
- 400t
298 - 300 = exp
b 8500 400 1.176 10-4 l
30 - 300
#
#
#
- 2 = e-t
- 270
2 = e-t
270
Take natural logarithm both sides, we get
ln b 2 l =- t " t = 4.90 sec
270
SOL 7.40

Option (A) is correct.


o = 1500 kg/hr = 1500 kg/ sec = 0.4167 kg/ sec
Given : tc1 = 30cC , dm = m
3600
dt
th2 = th1 = 120c C , tc2 tc2 = 80cC , cw = 4.187 kJ/kg K , U = 2000 W/m2 K .
Figure for condensation is given below :

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Hence,
q1 = th1 - tc1 = 120 - 30 = 90c C
And
q2 = th2 - tc2 = 120 - 80 = 40c C
So, Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) is,
qm = q1 -qq2 = 90 -9040 = 61.66c C
ln ^ 40 h
ln _ q i
Energy transferred is given by,
o w DT = UAqm
Q = mc
o
A = mcw DT = 0.4167 # 4.187 # 1000 # 50 = 0.707 m2
2000 # 61.66
Uqm
1

SOL 7.41

Option (B) is correct.


Given, for plate :
A1 = 10 cm2 = 10 # (10-2) 2 m2 = 10-3 m2 , T1 = 800 K , e1 = 0.6
For Room : A2 = 100 m2 , T2 = 300 K , e2 = 0.3 and s = 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4

Total heat loss from one surface of the plate is given by,
Eb1 - Eb2
(Q12) =
(1 - e1)
(1 - e2)
+ 1 +
A1 e1
A1 F12
A2 e2
If small body is enclosed by a large enclosure, then F12 = 1 and from Stefans
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Boltzman law Eb = sT 4 . So we get


s (T 14 - T 24)
5.67 # 10-8 [(800) 4 - (300) 4]
(Q12) =
=
1 - e1 + 1 + 1 - e2
1 - 0.6 + 1 + 1 - 0.3
A1 e1
A1
A2 e2
10-3 # 0.6 10-3 100 # 0.3
22.765 # 103
= 13.66 W
666.66 + 1000 + 0.0233
Q12 is the heat loss by one surface of the plate. So, heat loss from the two
surfaces is given by,
=

Qnet = 2 # Q12 = 2 # 13.66 = 27.32 W


SOL 7.42

Option (B) is correct.

In counter flow, hot fluid enters at the point 1 and exits at the point 2 or
cold fluid enter at the point 2 and exit at the point 1.
Given : for hot fluid,
ch = 2 kJ/kg K , mh = 5 kg/ sec , th1 = 150c C , th2 = 100c C
and for cold fluid,
cc = 4 kJ/kg K , mc = 10 kg/ sec , tc2 = 20c C , tc1 = ?
From the energy balance,
Heat transferred by the hot fluid = Heat gain by the cold fluid
o h ch (th1 - th2) = m
oc cc (tc1 - tc2)
m
5 # 2 # 103 (150 - 100) = 10 # 4 # 103 (tc1 - 20)
10 4 # 50 = 4 # 10 4 (tc1 - 20)
tc1 = 130 = 32.5c C
4
Hence, outlet temperature of the cold fluid,
tc1 = 32.5c C
SOL 7.43

Option (A) is correct.


The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is,
dv = (Pr) 1/3
dT
(i)
When Pr = 1
dv = dT

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(ii)
When Pr > 1
(iii) When Pr < 1
So for Pr > 1, dv > dT
SOL 7.44

341

dv > dT
dv < dT

Option (C) is correct.


Given for water : Tw = 48c C , kw = 0.6 W/mK
And for glass : Tg = 40c C , kg = 1.2 W/mK
Spatial gradient

dT
4
c dy m = 1 # 10 K/m
w

Heat transfer takes place between the water and glass interface by the
conduction and convection. Heat flux would be same for water and glass
interface. So, applying the conduction equation for water and glass interface.
dT
Q - kA dx
dT
dT
=- k dT
= kg c
q= =
kw c
dx
dy mg
dy mw
A
A
kw dT
dT
0.6
4
4
c dy m = kg c dy m = 1.2 # 10 = 0.5 # 10 K/m
g
w
SOL 7.45

Option (D) is correct.


From the equation of convection,
...(i)
Heat flux,
q = h [Tw - Tg]
Where, h = Heat transfer coefficient
First find q ,
q = kw c dT m = kg c dT m = 0.6 # 10 4 = 6000 W/m2
dy w
dy g
Now from equation (i),
q
h =
= 6000 = 6000 = 750 W/m2 K
8
Tw - Tg
48 - 40

SOL 7.46

Option (C) is correct.

Given : (A) For counter flow th1 = tC1 , th2 = tC 2


LMTD , qmc = q1 - q2
ln q1
q2
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(th1 - tC2) - (th2 - tC1)


(t - t ) - (th2 - th1)
2 (th1 - th2)
= h1 h2
=
ln :th1 - th2 D
ln :th1 - th2 D
ln :th1 - tC2 D
t h2 - t h1
t h2 - t h1
th2 - tC1
(B) For parallel flow given : th1 = tC 2 , th 2 = tC 1
qmc =

qmp

...(i)

LMTD , qmp = q1 - q2
ln b q1 l
q2
(t - t ) - (th2 - tC2)
(t - t ) - (th2 - th1)
2 (th1 - th2)
...(ii)
= h1 h2
=
= h1 C1
t
t
t
t
ln : h1 h2 D
ln :th1 - th2 D
ln : h1 C1 D
t h2 - t h1
t h2 - t h1
th2 - tC2

From equation (i) and (ii), we get


qmc = qmp
SOL 7.47

Option (D) is correct.


Given :
F13 = 0.17
Applying summation rule :
F11 + F12 + F13 = 1
The flat surface cannot see itself.
So,
F11 = 0
This gives,

SOL 7.48

F12 = 1 - F11 - F13 = 1 - 0 - 0.17 = 0.83

Option (C) is correct.


S. No.

Materials

Thermal Conductivity (W/m - K)

1.

Aluminum

237

2.

Pure Iron

80.2

3.

Liquid Water

0.607

4.

Saturated Water Vapour 0.026

**********

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