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Anchor Bible Dictionary


Aufstieg und Niedergang
der rmischen Welt
Antiquitates Judaicae
Contra Apionem
De bello Judaico
Brown Judaic Studies
Codex Damascus
Concordia Theological Monthly
Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages
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of the Old Testament Supplement
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Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah
Texte und Untersuchungen
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3
Lutz Doering, Schabbat: Sabbathalacha und -praxis im antiken
Judentum und Urchristentum (Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999), viixvi.
4
200 . . . 200 . . . ,
; ,

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, 200 . . .
,
.
(70100 . . .),
200 . . . (Shaye Cohen, The Political
and Social History of the Jews in Greco-Roman Antiquity: The State of
the Question in Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters, ed. Robert
Kraft and George Nickelsburg [Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986], 36).
5
Gabriele Boccaccini, Middle Judaism: Jewish Thought, 300 B.C.E. to
200 C.E. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991).

13

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George Nickelsburg and Robert Kraft, Introduction: The Modern


Study of Early Judaism in Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters,
ed. Robert Kraft and George Nickelsburg (Atlanta: Scholars Press,
1986), 4.
6

16



,
, . 1982 .
(Rowland)

.7
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(McKay),
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:
7
From Sabbath to Lords Day: A Biblical, Historical, and Theological
Investigation, ed. Donald Carson (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982),
4355. , :

(Bacchiocchi)
: ,
,
, .
: , ,
, , , (A
Day of Gladness: The Sabbath Among Jews and Christians in Antiquity
[Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003], 6).
8
,
: The Sabbath in Scriptures and History (Washington,
D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Association, 1982).

17

.9 , :
(1994 .),
. ,

:
1) , , 2) ,
,
3) ,
, 4) , .
Heather McKay, From Evidence to Edifice: Four Fallacies about the
Sabbath in Text as Pretext: Essays in Honor of Robert Davidson, ed.
Robert Carroll [Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1992], 180199.
, E. .
(Sanders)
: , ,
,
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,
(E. P. Sanders, Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE - 66
CE [Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1992], 198).
,
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I- .
,

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( , 25). 2002 .
(Van der Horst)
70 . . .?,
Japheth in the Tents of Shem: Studies on Jewish Hellenism in
Antiquity (Leuven: Peeters, 2002), 5582.
, ,
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,
(Ap. 1:209).
9

18

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,
, 4.11
,
, 1997 .
- - :

12. 13. 1998 .
: 4QMMT (Hempel)14 CD 11:17:
(Werman)15.
Ibid., 121.
Doering, Lutz. New Aspects from Qumran Sabbath Law from
Cave 4 fragments. In Legal Texts and Legal Issues. Proceedings of the
Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies,
Cambridge, 1995. Edited by M. J. Bernstein, F. Garca Martinz, and J.
Kampen. Studies on the Text of the Desert of Judah 23. Leiden: Brill,
1997. 251274.
12
Doering, Lutz. Sabbathalacha und -praxis im antiken Judentum: Von
den Elephantine-Ostraka bis zu den frhtannaitischen Traditionen. PhD
diss., Universitt Gttingen, 1997.
13
The Concept of the Sabbath in the Book of Jubilees. In Studies in the
Book of Jubilees. Edited by Matthias Albani, Jrg Frey and Armin Lange.
Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997. 179205.
14
Hempel, Charlotte, The Laws of the Damascus Document and
4QMMT. In The Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery.
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center
for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 1998.
Edited by Joseph Baumgarten, Esther Chazon, Avital Pinnick. Leiden:
Brill, 1999. 6985.
15
Werman, Cana. CD 11:17 Apart From Your Sabbaths. In The
Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of
the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study
of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 1998. Edited by
10
11

19


1999 .
: . - -
16.
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.17
2003.
(Weiss).
: 18.

Joseph Baumgarten, Esther Chazon, Avital Pinnick. Leiden: Brill, 1999.


201212.
16
Doering, Lutz. Schabbat: Sabbathalacha und-praxis im antiken
Judentum und Urchristentum. Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999.
17
Doering, Schabbat, viixvi.
18
Weiss, Herold. A Day of Gladness: The Sabbath Among Jews and
Christians in Antiquity. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press,
2003.

20

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19
Lutz Doering, Review of Weiss, H., A Day of Gladness: The Sabbath
Among Jews and Christians in Antiquity (Columbia, S.C., 2003), JR 84
(2004): 490491.
20
Lee Levine, Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity: Conflict or
Confluence? (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999), 16.

21

,
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(Bilde), , ( )
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.21
(Collins) ,

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,

21
Per Bilde, The Essenes in Philo and Josephus, in Qumran Between
the Old and New Testaments, ed. Frederick Cryer and Thomas Thomson
(Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998), 33.
22
John Collins, Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the
Hellenistic Diaspora (New York: Crossroads, 1986), 11.
23
,
, .
24
Martin Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their Encounter
in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period (Philadelphia: Fortress
Press, 1984).

22

. -,
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,

Lester Grabbe, The Jews and Hellenization: Hengel and his critics,
in P. R. Davies & John M. Halligan, Second Temple Studies III: Studies in
Politics, Class and Material Culture, JSOTSup 340 (Sheffield: Sheffield
Academic Press, 2002), 5354.
25

23

(hellenismos)
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.28
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26
G. W. Bowersock, Hellenism in Late Antiquity: Thomas Spencer
Jerome Lectures (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1990), 1, 7.
27
Ibid., 261.
28
Martin Jaffee, Early Judaism (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, Inc,
1997), 35.
29
Jacob Neusner, From Politics to Piety: The Emergence of Pharisaic
Judaism (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973), xiixiii.

24

166 . . .

,
;

16563 . . .

;
142 . . .

134104 . . . ;
10476 . . .

;
7667 . . .

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Nickelsburg, George and Robert Kraft, Introduction: The Modern
Study of Early Judaism. In Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters.
Edited by Robert Kraft and George Nickelsburg. (Atlanta: Scholars
Press, 1986), 6.
30

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Towards an Appropriate Textual Base for the Old Testament, JNSL 20/1
[1994]: 171177).

30

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Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature, 79.
36
Allen Lane, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (New York:
Penguin Books, 1997), 507.
37
Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature, 73.

34

.38

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4650

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38
James VanderKam, Book of Jubilees, in The Anchor Bible
Dictionary, Vol. 3 (New York: Doubleday,1992), 1030.
39
Everett Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 3rd ed. (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003), 451.
40
,
-
, ( 15:20, 29).
41
Orval Wintermute, Jubilees: A New Translation and Introduction
OTP, Vol. 2 (New York: Doubleday, 1985), 35.
42
Lutz Doering, The Concept of the Sabbath in the Book of Jubilees,
in Studies in the Book of Jubilees, eds. Matthias Albani, Jrg Frey, and
Armin Lange (Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997), 179.

35

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152140 . . . ,
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VanderKam, Book of Jubilees, 1030.
Wintermute, Jubilees, 44.
46
Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature, 7879.
44
45

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2 50), (4, 17-18), , (6, 17-22; 16, 20-31; 18, 18-19;
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47

VanderKam, Book of Jubilees, 1030.

38

16, 20-31; 32, 4-7.27-29;


18, 18-19; 49, 22-23;
34, 18-19; 49, 1-22a).48

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Ibid., 1031.
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49

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: R. H. Charles,
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1913).

40

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Wintermute, Jubilees, 38.

41

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Doering, The Concept of the Sabbath, 190.


Ibid.

43

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Wintermute, Jubilees, 38.

45

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(50, 10-12a).

1-

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Ferguson, Backgrounds, 447.



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56
57

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58
1- ,

, (. Howard Clark Kee, The
Cambridge Annotated Study Apocrypha: New Revised Standard Version
[Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994], xxiv).

1-

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59
Elias Bickerman, The God of Maccabees: Studies on the Meaning
and Origin of the Maccabean Revolt, trans. Horst R. Moehring (Leiden:
Brill, 1979), 95.

52

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,
(11, 30-31),62
60
Francis Bechtel, 1 Maccabees in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 9
(New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1913), 496.
61
Ibid.
62
Uriel Rappaport, Maccabean Revolt in The Anchor Bible Dictionary,
Vol. 4, ed. David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 433.

1-

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64

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, .
: , , ,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , , ,
. ,

, .
1 . 1, 41-64
- : ,
.
.
, . -,

58

, , ,
, .
,
:
, ,

, ,
,
, ,
,
, .

,
.
,
, . :
,
.

1 . 2, 27-44

(2, 1-14),
(2, 15-18). , (2, 19-22),

(2, 23-26). , .
27-30
, : ,
,
! .
, ,
(. 28-30).

1-

59


, , ,
(. 31-33).
(Goldstein):
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , .69 , ,70
.
, . ,
.
3338
.
(. 34): :
,
. (Dancey) ,
,
, ,

(1, 45).
(.16, 29).
.71
(. 35). (. 36): :
; ,
69
Jonathan Goldstein, I Maccabees: A New Translation and Commentary,
AB 41 (Garden City: DoubleDay and Co., 1977), 235.
70
, IV.
71
. J. C. Dancey, A Commentary on I Maccabees (Oxford: Basil
Blackwell, 1954), 86.

60

.
, ( 38).
, , ,
.
, , ,
,
, .
, ,
- ; ,
,
, ,
, .

39-41. (. 39), ,
, ,
(.40). :
, ,
,
.
, ,
:
,
, ,
(. 41). ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
,
, , .
42-44 , .

1-

61

(. 4243). ,
, ,
. ,

;
(. 44).
, ,
-.

-,
,
.

; ,
.
(1, 43).
-,
,
72
,
(2, 17). , ,
,
, ,
,
, (1 . 2, 7-8)
(1 . 2, 29-41)
.73 ,

72
:

.
.
73
Jonathan Goldstein, II Maccabees: A New Translation with
Introduction and Commentary, AB 41A (Garden City: Doubleday &
Company, 1983), 17.

62

,

,
.

2-

2- 1-, .
. , 1- ,
, . 2- , ,
,
. ,
.
,
,
.74 ,
1- ,
2- , .

.75 , 2-
1-
,
.
,
,
.76
,
, ,
.
74
G. W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 and 2 Maccabees Same Story, Different
Meaning, CTM 42 (1971): 524525.
75
Howard Clark Kee, The Cambridge Annotated Study Apocrypha:
New Revised Standard Version. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1994, xxvii.
76
Goldstein, I Maccabees, 4.

64

2- ?
? ,
( ) 2-
1-? ? (,
, 1- )
?
,

?
2- ,
.
, ,
.
, : ,
,
, ,
(6, 12).
,

.

:
12

2
3

47

810

1015

15


(2 . 1, 1 2, 18).
(2 . 2, 19-32).

(2 . 3, 1-40).

(2 . 4, 1 7, 42).

(2 . 8, 1 10, 8).

(2 . 10, 9 15, 36).
(2 . 15, 37-39).

2-

65

,
, .77
(Tcherikover),
,
,
, ; ,
.78



188 . , 125 . . . ,
2-
. , ,
, . .
(135104.. .). 2-

63 . . .,
.
(
Grabbe
), 125 . . ., ,
1- .79 ,
,
,
, , 1-
,
Bickerman, The God of Maccabees, 95
Victor Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (Peabody:
Hendrickson, 1999), 385387.
79
Lester Grabbe, I and II Maccabees in The Dictionary of New
Testament Background (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 660.
77
78

66

. , 2-

. ,
- 124
110 . . .80

2- ,
(2, 23),
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
,
.81
, ,
. ,
2- ,
,
. 2-
, :
,
; ,
, (15, 38-39; 2, 25-32). ,

.
Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews, 383.
Martin Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their Encounter
in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period (Philadelphia: Fortress
Press, 1984), 95.
80
81

2-

67



.
, , , .
,
. , IV

. , ,
,
.82 ( ) -


, ,
.83

, ,

.
, , .
: ,
, ,
, ,
,
.84 ,

. , ,
John Collins, Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the
Hellenistic Diaspora (New York: Crossroads, 1986), 79.
83
Ibid., 78.
84
Bickerman, The God of Maccabees, 87.
82

68

.85
, ,
, , ,
.
:
,
.86

2- ,
, ,
.
; , ,

(.2, 3).
. ,
.
(1, 18).
(2, 20) (2,23).
(3, 2).
(3, 30).
(5, 15). ,
87 (6, 2).88
Ibid., 90.
Collins, Between Athens and Jerusalem, 77.
87
. . .
88
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
, -
. ,
,
85
86

2-

69


(8, 2).
(11, 25).
(13, 10).
(14, 35).


2- ,
, (
) ,
,
(12, 36; 13, 12; 15, 26-27).
,
,
1. 2, 41. , ,
2 . 8, 26-28 12, 38-39. , ,

, , , , , ,
.89
,
, , ,
(Bickerman,
The God of Maccabees, 6869). , ,
,
, ;
, ,
,
. Olympios
.
,
,
(. 24, 3.7; . 2, 11; . 1, 2; . 135, 26;
. 2, 18; . 1, 9; . 11, 13 16, 11).
89
Goldstein, II Maccabees, 495.

70

(8, 1-2).90
, (12:36).91 ,
(15, 21).92
, 2-
. ,
, ,
, .93
, ,
, . ,
,
, 2- .
. , ,
. ,
(6, 18-31).
,
, , ,

90

.
91

(12, 37).
92
,

( ),
. ,


. ,
, .
, (Ferguson, Backgrounds, 514).
93
George Nickelsburg, 1 and 2 Maccabees Same Story, Different
Meaning, Concordia Theological Monthly 42 (1971), 515626
( 524). 2-
1-.

2-

71

(7, 1 8, 1). ,
,
, .
,
, ,
. (14, 37-46).
(2 . 12, 42-43; 14, 37-46)
:
, : , ;
(7, 14).


,
, ,
, .

,
: ,
: ,
,
, , (3, 25). ,
,
:
, , ,
, , ,
, (3, 26). ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
(. 16, 22). ,

72

. (. 9, 6; . 5, 13-15),

.

,
2- ,
(6, 1-6; 8, 26-28; 15, 1-4).

2 . 6, 1-6
, . 12 ,
. ...
,

....
,
.
,
, -
. ,
, ,
, .
.
. 3-5 ,
:
, , ,
. ,
. ( )

, ,
, ,
, .

2-

73

. 6
:
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,

. ,
.
, ,
. ,
...
, .94

2 . 8, 26-28
,
, .
: ;95
.
,
, ...
, , ,
.
,
.
, , , .
,
Goldstein, II Maccabees, 276.
, :
, , ,
. 28, 7.25 , .
. . 28, 7.25
, ,
1 . 9, 50 ,
(. Goldstein, I Maccabees, 386).
94
95

74


.
, ,
(3. 20, 29-42). , , ,
, (. 30).96
, (2 . 8, 25-28; 12, 38; 15, 1-5),
, 1-

(1 . 2, 39-41; 9, 43-49).97

2 . 15, 1-4
, ,
, , ,
,

.
, ,
, , .
: ... , , .
(. 3), ,
.
: ,
?
,
, :
,
.
96
97

Goldstein, II Maccabees, 338.


Goldstein, I Maccabees, 87.

2-

75


.
, .
- , .
; , ,
,
, . ,
, -
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
:
(6, 1-6).

. , ,

.
-, ,
,
(2 .8,26-28).
,
.
-,

, : , -
,
(2 . 15, 1-4). ,
, ;
(. 31, 15-17).



.
,
.
(
Vermes
), ,


,98
. -, (
) ,
200 . . . 100... ,
. -, ,

, . ,
.
(Charlesworth),
,
.
,
,

98
Geza Vermes, An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls
(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999), 94. ,
.
( ) ,

(1QM 2:1-3 DSSE 125) (Geza Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls:
Qumran in Perspective [Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981], 88).

77

.99
.
,
, ,

.
. ,
, ,
,
,
.
,
, .
,
,
- -,
,
,
. ,

, .
-, ,
,
, -
.
.
99
James Charlesworth, Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek
Texts with English Translations, Vol. 2 (Louisville: Westminster John
Knox Press, 1995), 3.

78


, , ,
,
,
.100
.
,
,
.

, ,
. ,
,

, .

(Garca Martinz)
(Barrera), :
.
.
.

,
(
, ).
100
F. Garca Martinz and Julio Trebolle Barrera, The People of the
Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Writings, Beliefs and Practices, tr. Wilfred G. E.
Watson (Leiden: Brill, 1993), 52.

79

(
), , , ,
, .

: (xv:1 xvi:16),
(ix:1 x:10a),
(x:10 xii:18), (xii:19 xiv:19)
(xiv:20-22).101

, ,
.
.
,
. ,

, .102 , ( )
, ,
(., ,
4- , , 1-
). ,
,
.103


. . (Bruce) ,
. ;
,
.
Ibid.
Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature, 124.
103
Vermes, An Introduction, 36.
101
102

80

, ,

,
.104

: i:5-6 390 , ,
,
587 . . . ,

II . . . , i:10,
,
.
175152 . . .,
,

.105
,
,
. ,
CD xvi:2-4a
.
, .106
,
,
.107
F. F. Bruce and M. H. Shulewitz, Book of Covenant of Damascus
in Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 5 (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House,
1971), 12461250.
105
Ibid.
106
:
, . .,
, , . 24 (87), 1973. . 4445.
The Dead Sea
Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations.
Volume 2. Damascus Document, War Scroll and Related Documents, ed.
James Charlesworth (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995).
107
Charlotte Hempel, The Laws of the Damascus Document: Sources,
Tradition and Redaction (Leiden: Brill, 1998), 86.
104

81

,
,
, ,

(161140 . . .). ,
100 75 . . .

, ,
. , ,
. ,
(, )
, ,
. ,
,
. . . (Davies),
,
,
,
,
, , .108


. :
, , (CDii:2).
: ... ( ) ,
108
P. R. Davies, The Damascus Document: An Interpretation of the
Damascus Document, JSOTSup 25 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press,
1983), 203.

82

()
(CD iii:3-4). ,
...
(CD v:12). ,
,
:
, ...
(CD vi:2-3).
, ,
, , : :

, -
- (CD viii:14-15;
CD
viii
:16-19). , :
- ...
... , ... , ,
(CD iii:10-13;
CD iv:1-7).


. CD i:5-7
,
, ,
: , , ,

. ,
. ,
. ,
. CD ii:17-19 :
,

83

.
,
, , ,
.
( ,
, ), .
: 1)
() ;
2)
; 3)

.


,

. , -,

.
,
.
()
(CD iv:7-10) ()
(CD vi:19-21).
: , , [],
, ,
- []
() , (CD xiii:11-13).


, .

84


: ,
- ,
(CD ix

:1). , ,
,

; . :
, (CD xi:14-15).
,
(
),
.
(Borgen),
; , ,
,
. (CD
xi
:14-15a), , , , ,
.109

.

.
,
, : (CD i:17)
, ,
(CD i:21 ii:1).
,
,
Peder Borgen, Aristobulus and Philo in Philo, John and Paul:
New Perspectives on Judaism and Early Christianity, BJS 131 (Atlanta:
Scholars Press, 1987), 719, and N. Walter, Der Toraausleger Aristobulus,
TU 86 (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1964), 166171.
109

85

(CD ii:21).110
-
:
,
(CD B xix:10-11).

,

(x:14-17a)
,


.111 (Baumgarten) ,
( )
,
,
(, 1:1).112
, CD
xvi
:2 : ... ( ) . ,
, , 1722,

.113 , ,
. CD A v:16; viii:1-3 16-19; CD B xix:17; CD B xx:8.
Lutz Doering, New Aspects from Qumran Sabbath Law from
Cave 4 fragments in Legal Texts and Legal Issues. Proceedings of the
Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies,
Cambridge, 1995, eds. M. J. Bernstein, F. Garca Martinz and J.Kampen,
STDJ 23 (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 251274.
112
Baumgarten, The Laws of the Damascus Document: Between
the Bible and Mishnah in The Damascus Document: A Centennial of
Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the
Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated
Literature, 1998, eds. Joseph Baumgarten, Esther Chazon, Avital Pinnick
(Leiden: Brill, 1999), 23.
113
Ibid., 25.
110
111

86


,114 ,
:

,
.115 (Zeitlin)
:

.
, -
. ,

; ,

.
(. . ) .
... ,
. ,
.
,
,
.116

CD x

:14-17 ,
,
114
,
,
. . . (Charlesworth,
Dead Sea Scrolls, 47).
115
Bickerman, The God of Maccabees, 47.
116
Solomon Zeitlin, Zadokite Fragments: Facsimile of the Manuscripts
in the Cairo Genizah Collection in the Possession of the University
Library, Cambridge, England (Philadelphia: The Dropsie College for
Hebrew and Cognate Learning, 1952), 17.

87

.117 ,
49, 1.118
(Talmon) ,
, , ,
, , ,
, .119

(x:17-19)
,

, . :
. ()
. . ,
.
,
, .

(x:20-21)
.
-,
(. 35, 4-5): , .
.
,
117
Joseph Baumgarten, Studies in Qumran Law (Leiden: Brill,
1977), 124.
118
Ibid., 126.
119
Shemaryahu Talmon, The Calendar of the Covenanter in Judean
Desert in The World of Qumran From Within (Jerusalem: Magnes Press,
1989), 148; and James VanderKam, II Maccabees 6, 7a and Calendrical
Change in Jerusalem, JSJ 12 (1981): 54.

88

.
.

(x:22 xi:1)
,
, .

:
,
.
, .
, , ,
.120 , ,
(xi:16-17a).
, -
.

(xi:2-5a)
,
, : ,
. , ,
, :
121,
....
...

120
,
. 2, 29,
(. 16, 5).
. 2, 29 50, 8: ,
, (.
Charlesworth, Dead Sea Scrolls, 47).
121
. : . . .

89

122 .
, ,
- 123.
,
, , ,
.
,
. ,
, .

(xi:5-7a)
.
, , , ,
.
.124
, (Wise), (Abegg)
(Cook),125 ,
, , :
, ,

. : . . .
Charlotte Hempel, The Laws of the Damascus Document and
4QMMT in The Damascus Document A Centennial of Discovery.
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center
for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolles and Associated Literature, 1998,
eds. Joseph Baumgarten, Esther Chazon, Avital Pinnick (Leiden: Brill,
1999), 80.
124
F. Garca Martinz, Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts
in English (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 42.
125
Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Edward Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls:
A New Translation (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco Publishing
House, 1999), 68.
122
123

90

.126 , :
, ()
. ,
: ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
(. 20, 10).
.
;
.

(xi:7-11a)
,
, . ,
:
. ,
.
.
( ),
, .
, . ,
,
. 17, 22a: ...
,
, ....127 ,
126
Geza Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English (Sheffield: Academic
Press, 1995), 109.
127
Doering, New Aspects from Qumran Sabbath Law, 258.

91

. ,

.


(xi:11 -14a)
, ,
-: ,
, .
.

. ,
.
(. 12, 1-12),
:
,
. , , , ,
,
.

. ,

.

(xi:14 - 15)
;

(. 3, 8; . 1, 22-25; . 53, 8).
.
,
,
. . :

92

.128 .
,
,
.


(xi:16-17a)
, , ,
. -

. ,

.
:
1) -
; 2) -
; 3) (
) ( ).
128
(Rabin) :
,
,
. ,

. .
,
: ,
, ,
. ,
(xii:4-6),
(. 15, 35),
. . 7.4,8;
. T. . 47a. ,

, ,
(Qumran Studies [Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1957], 86).

93

,
4Q265,
4- . , -
. , ,
.
4Q265, .7, i,6-7 :
,
, . ()
.129 , 4Q265 .6
,
; , , ,
.130 , ,
,

. ,

(), .
, 4Q265, .7, i,6-7

. : ,
, ( , 4Q265) .131
,

. ,
, ,
.
- (Murphy-OConnor) ,
, , 4-
Martinz, Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, 72.
Baumgarten, The Laws of the Damascus Document, 23.
131
Doering, New Aspects from Qumran Sabbath Law, 264267.
129
130

94

,
.132

(xi:17-18a)
.
, :
, , : .
,
,
. 23, 37-39. ,
. . ,
,
.
.
. ,
,
. , ;
, ,
,
.133 ,
. 102:2 :
, (
)
, ?
Murphy-OConnor, The Judean Desert, 316322.
Cana Werman, CD 11:17 Apart From Your Sabbaths in The
Damascus Document: A Centennial of Discovery. Proceedings of the Third
International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead
Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 1998, eds. Joseph Baumgarten,
Esther Chazon, Avital Pinnick (Leiden: Brill, 1999), 202203.
132
133

95

.
;
102:3 :
, , , ,
, ,
.134

-,
,

(x:14-17a).
-, , ,
,
.
;
(x:17-19).
-,
;
(xi:2-3). , ,

, , .
-, ,
, (xi:7-11a). ,
,
.
-, ,
(xi:16-17a).
.

134

Werman, CD 11:17, 202203.

96

-,
(xi:17-18a).
, , ,
.

, ,
. ,


.
,
- . ,
.
, (
,
, , ),
,
,
, , ,
.135

,
.
. ,
,

. ,
.
. , ,
.
135
See Per Bilde, Flavius Josephus between Jerusalem and Rome: His
Life, His Works and Their Importance (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic
Press, 1988), 32.

98

,
, ,
, , .
, , :
,
. ,
(Antiquitates Judaicae) (Antiquitates Romanae)136
,
.
,
, : , ,
,
.137
(Feldman), , ,
, ,
90- . , , ,
, ,
, . : ,

(Ant. , 2), . .138

, , ,
136
Antiquitates Judaicae, Antiquitates Romanae
.
137
. Abraham Schalit, Josephus Flavius in Encyclopedia Judaica,
Vol. 10 (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1972), 258.
138
Louis Feldman, Flavius Josephus: Judean Antiquities 1-4. Translation
and Commentary (Leiden: Brill, 2004), xxxiv-xxxv.

99

, ,

. , ,
,
;
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.139
(Mendels),

,
.140 ,
,

-,
-.

: , , ,
.
,
,
,

.141
,
139
Louis Feldman, Josephus in The Anchor Bible Dictionary,
Vol. 3, ed. David Noel (Doubleday: New York, 1992), 987.
140
Doron Mendels, Creative History in Hellenistic Near East in the
Third and Second Centuries BCE: The Jewish Case, JSP 2 (1988):
1320.
141
Collins, Between Athens and Jerusalem, 26.

100

, , :
;
I
;
II
;
III


;
IV
;
V
;
VI
;
VII
;
VIII
;
IX


;
X


;
XI


;
XII


;
XIII


;
XIV


;
XV


;
XVI


;
XVII


;
XVIII


;
XIX


, ;
XX
.

101

.
, IX,
, ;
XIXX ,
. ,
,
,
. IX
; XIXX
. ,
, , , , ,
142 .143


, , ,
, : -,
, , ,
; -,

.
, ,

. :
(Ant. i.13:3),
(xii.7:1),
(. 1 . 3, 19).144
(Attridge) , ,
142
,
(. 1, 1-17).
143
Bilde, Flavius Josephus between Jerusalem and Rome, 8990.
144
Louis Feldman, Studies in Hellenistic Judaism (Leiden: Brill,
1996), 159.

102

,
, -
.145 (Villalba I Varneda)
,
,
.146

.
(Mason) , , ,
- , ,
,
.147 ,
, ,
-,
.
,
. , ,
,
.148


- ,
, -
.

145
Harold W. Attridge, The Interpretation of Biblical History in the
Antiquitates Judaicae of Flavius Josephus (Missoula: Scholars Press,
1976), 17.
146
Pere Villalba I Varneda, The Historical Method of Flavius Josephus
(Leiden: Brill, 1986), XIV.
147
Steve Mason, Josephus, Daniel and Flavian House in Josephus
and the History of the Greco-Roman Period, eds. Fausto Parente and
Joseph Sievers (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 167.
148
Ibid., 332.

103


,
9394 . . .
149 (xx.11:3): ,
. ,
() , ..

.
,
81 . . ., 37 . . .,
, 9394 . ..150
,
. ,

.151
, ,
75 . . ., , 79
81. . .152 , , ,
,
(93 . . .).153

(. 37 100 . . .)
- . ,
149
: .
. 2 . (: , 2003).
150
Bilde, Flavius Josephus between Jerusalem and Rome, 104.
151
Feldman, Flavius Josephus, 985.
152
Ibid., 623.
153
Steve Mason, Josephus: Value for New Testament Study in The
Dictionary of New Testament Background (Downers Grove: InterVarsity
Press, 2000), 597.

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Bilde, Flavius Josephus between Jerusalem and Rome, 27.
Per Bilde, Josephus and Jewish Apocalypticism in Understanding
Josephus: Seven Perspectives, ed. Steve Mason (Sheffield: Sheffield
Academic Press, 1988), 46.
156
Ibid., 48.
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163
Alger Johns, The Military strategy of the Sabbath attacks on the
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Weiss, A Day of Gladness, 7879.
Max Radin, The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans (Philadelphia:
Jewish Publication Society of America, 1915), 17981.
169
Johns, The Military Strategy, 482486.
170
Sidney Hoenig, The Great Sanhedrin: A Study of Origin, Development,
Composition, and Function, of the Bet ha-Gadol during the Second
Jewish Commonwealth (Philadelphia: Dropsie Collage for Hebrew and
Cognate Learning, 1953), 9398.
171
Robert Goldenberg, The Jewish Sabbath in the Roman World up to
the Time of Constantine the Great, ANRW 19.1:420.
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124

,

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. : , 2000. . 14162. :
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, 1849 .)
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., 1900.
, . . . . . .
. 2 . : , 2003.
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