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WORKSHOP ON

ING-IABSE

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD


BRIDGES IRC:112

WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Session -2
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Umesh Rajeshirke
Managing Director

SPECTRUM Techno Consultants Pvt Ltd, Navi Mumbai

Mr. Umesh Rajeshirke has completed his BE Civil form VJTI (Univ. of
Bombay) and M.S. from IIT, Madras. He has over 27 years of
experience in planning & designing of long span bridges, precast
segmental & cable stayed bridges. He has also involved in design of
number Nuclear Containments, tall chimneys, Natural Draught Cooling
Towers and maritime structures. Actively involved in various code
committees

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Method for design of shell element


is given in annexure B1 of the
code.

This method is generally used


when the analysis is performed
using finite element method for
structures like fish belly or curved
box girders.

Verification at ULS is to be
performed adopting the sandwich
model for shell elements

Force Resultants of Shell Element.

Out-of-plane moments and twisting moments are converted into stress


resultants acting planes of the top and bottom layers.

The core/middle layer is designed to carry the out of plane shear force.

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

The method is broadly described in following three steps:


1.

Carry out FEM analysis (generally elastic, linear) of structure with


geometry assumed initially, for all applicable loads and load
combinations and get the results (i.e. nEdx, nEdy, nEdxy, mEdx, mEdy, mEdxy,
vEdx, vEdy, and principal stresses s1, s2, s3) at required locations.

2.

Find out whether the element is cracked or not, using Eqn. B-1-1 of
the code. If the element is un-cracked, the only verification required is
to check that minimum principal stress, s3 (i.e. maximum compressive
stress) does not exceed the design compressive strength, fcd.

3.

If the element is cracked, follow the method using sandwich model to


find out the required reinforcement.

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Check for cracking


Where

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Calculation of reinforcement using sandwich model:


Steps involved in this method are given below:
1. Split the shell element in three layers as shown in figure below:

Two outer layers resist the


membrane actions arising from nEdx,
nEdy, nEdxy, mEdx, mEdy, mEdxy,

Inner layer carries the shear forces


vEdx, vEdy.

The thickness of the different layers


should be established by means of
an iterative procedure

The Sandwich Model

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

2. Design of outer layers for membrane action:

Determine the forces in outer layers of sandwich model using


equation B1-13 to B1-20 of the code or by using simplified approach
in section B1-13 & 14.

Basically, the membrane forces, nEdx, nEdy, nEdxy are divided between
the two layers and the bending moments, mEdx, mEdy, mEdxy are
converted into ( +- m/z ) forces in top and bottom layers.

These forces are depicted here in figures on next slide

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

2. Design of outer layers for membrane action (Cont)

Axial Forces & Bending


Moments in Outer layers

Membrane Shear forces and


Twisting Bending Moments in
the Outer Layers

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

2. Design of outer layers for membrane action (Cont )

Design the outer layers as membrane element using method


given in section 9 of the code.

If it is not possible to satisfy the design rules given in section 9,


then as suggested in clause B1.15 of the code, either

increase the concrete cover and consequently reduce the


internal lever arm or
use different values for lever arms, zn and zt with zn > zt ;
internal concrete stresses should then be added vectorially
or
Increase the layer thickness to satisfy the concrete

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

3. Design of inner layer for out of plane shear:


Out of plane shear forces vEdx and vEdy are applied to the inner layer with the laver arm
zc , determined with reference to the centroid of the appropriate layers of
reinforcement
For the design of the inner layer the principal shear vEdo and its direction o should
be evaluated as follows:

In the direction of principal shear the shell element behaves like a beam and the
appropriate design rules should therefore be applied. In particular clause 6.2.2 of
the code should be applied for members not requiring shear reinforcement and
clause 6.2.3 should be applied for members requiring shear reinforcement. In
expression 6.2a, 1 should be taken as

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

When shear reinforcement is necessary, the longitudinal force resulting from the
truss model vEdo cotq gives rise to the following membrane forces in x and y
directions and shall be added to the forces obtained in outer layers:

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Worked Examples:

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

ICI Workshop, New Delhi, May


2013

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

, Reinforcement provided in Y-dirn is sufficient.

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

* fcd = 0.541 * 13.4 = 7.262


MPa

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WORKSHOP ON CODE OF PRACTICE FOR CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES IRC:112 2011, ORGANISED BY ING-IABSE, 11-12 JULY 2014, KOLKATA

Thank you