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1.1 Introduction to Interlocking
In railway signalling, an interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents
conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or crossings.
The signalling appliances and tracks are sometimes collectively referred to as an
interlocking plant. An interlocking is designed so that it is impossible to display a signal
to proceed unless the route to be used is proven safe.

Fig 1.1 Interlocking

Types of Interlocking:

Mechanical interlocking


Electro-mechanical interlocking


Relay interlocking


Electronic interlocking

1.2 Signals
Signal is a medium to convey a particular pre-determined meaning in non-verbal form.

1.2.1 Multiple Aspect Color Light Signal (MACLS):

Multiple means more than 2 indications .They may have 3 or 4 different aspects or
indications to be given to the driver. These signals have longer range of visibility and
Improved reliability.

Classification of CLS:

1.2.3 Manual Stop Signal :

Each aspect of the signal is represented by a circle. A horizontal line inside the circle
indicates Red aspect, an inclined line the yellow aspect and vertical line the Green aspect.
The normal aspect of the signal is shown by double line.
1.2.4 Permissive Signal (Distant Signal) :
Shall be located at an adequate distance in rear of the stop signal, the aspect of which it
pre- warns.

Automatic Stop Signal :


The normal aspect of an automatic signal is green and is indicated by the double vertical
line, unlike the manual signal where the normal aspect is red and indicated by double
horizontal lines.
1.2.6 Semi-automatic Stop Signal :
An illuminated A marker distinguishes a semi automatic signal from a fully automatic
signal. Letter A against black back ground is illuminated when working as an automatic
stop signal and letter A extinguished when working as a manual stop signal.

1.2.7 Gate Signal :

The Gate stop signal shall be provided with G marker. Letter G in black on a yellow
circular disc.A semi-automatic stop signal interlocked with a level-crossing gate shall be
provided with G marker disc and an illuminated A marker. The A marker shall be lit
only when the gates are closed and locked against road traffic.

1.3 Microlok-II System:

Microlok II interlocking control system is a multi-purpose monitoring and control system
which is designed for rail mass transit wayside interlocking functions such as switch
machine and signal lamp control, track circuit occupancy monitoring and non vital code
line communications.
1.3.1 System Components
The Microlok II interlocking control system is a multi-purpose monitoring and control
system designed for railroad and rail mass transit wayside interlocking functions such as
switch machine and signal lamp control, track circuit occupancy monitoring, and nonvital code line communications.
The Components Listed Below:
o The system card file
o CPU PCB board
o Vital inputs and output PCB
o Non-vital I/O PCB
o Power supply PCB
o VCOR Relay


Address Select PCB

Surge Suppressor

2.1.1 Introduction
In railway signalling, an interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents
conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or crossings.
The signalling appliances and tracks are sometimes collectively referred to as an
interlocking plant. An interlocking is designed so that it is impossible to display a signal to
proceed unless the route to be used is proven safe.

Fig-2.1 Interlocking
An interlock is a device used to prevent undesired states in a state machine, which in a
general sense can include any electrical, electronic, or mechanical device or system. In
most applications an interlock is used to help prevent a machine from harming its
operator or damaging itself by stopping the machine when tripped.

2.1.2 Types of Interlocking Mechanical interlocking
In mechanical interlocking plants, a locking bed is constructed, consisting of steel bars
forming a grid. The levers that operate switches, derails, signals or other appliances are
connected to the bars running in one direction. The bars are constructed so that, if the
function controlled by a given lever conflicts with that controlled by another lever,
mechanical interference is set up in the cross locking between the two bars, in turn
preventing the conflicting lever movement from being made.
In purely mechanical plants, the levers operate the field devices, such as signals, directly
via a mechanical rodding or wire connection. The levers are about shoulder height since
they must supply a mechanical advantage for the operator. Cross locking of levers was
effected such that the extra leverage could not defeat the locking (preliminary latch lock).
The first mechanical interlocking was installed in 1843 at Bricklayers' Arms
Junction, England.

Fig-2.2: Mechanical interlocking
Electro-mechanical interlocking
Power interlockings may also use mechanical locking to ensure the proper sequencing of
levers, but the levers are considerably smaller as they themselves do not directly control
the field devices. If the lever is free to move based on the locking bed, contacts on the

levers actuate the switches and signals which are operated electrically or electropneumatically. Before a control lever may be moved into a position which would release
other levers, an indication must be received from the field element that it has actually
moved into the position requested. The locking bed shown is for a GRS power
interlocking machine.
Relay interlocking
Interlockings effected purely electrically (sometimes referred to as all-electric) consist of
complex circuitry made up of relays in an arrangement of relay logic that ascertain the
state or position of each signal appliance. As appliances are operated, their change of
position opens some circuits that lock out other appliances that would conflict with the
new position. Similarly, other circuits are closed when the appliances they control become
safe to operate. Equipment used for railroad 6ignaling tends to be expensive because of its
specialized nature and fail-safe design.
Interlockings operated solely by electrical circuitry may be operated locally or remotely
with the large mechanical levers of previous systems being replaced by buttons, switches
or toggles on a panel or video interface. Such an interlocking may also be designed to
operate without a human operator. These arrangements are termed automatic
interlockings, and the approach of a train sets its own route automatically, provided no
conflicting movements are in progress.
GRS manufactured the first all-relay interlocking system in 1929. It was installed in
Lincoln, Nebraska on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad.
Fig-2.3: Relay interlocking Electronic interlocking

Modern interlockings (those installed since the late 1980s) are generally solid state, where
the wired networks of relays are replaced by software logic running on special-purpose
control hardware. The fact that the logic is implemented by software rather than hardwired circuitry greatly facilitates the ability to make modifications when needed by
reprogramming rather than rewiring. In many implementations this vital logic is stored as
firmware or in ROM that cannot be easily altered to both resist unsafe modification and
meet regulatory safety testing requirements.
Fig-2.4: Electronic interlocking

At this time there were also changes in the systems that controlled interlockings. Whereas
before technologies such as NX and Automatic Route Setting required racks and racks of
relays and other devices, solid state software based systems could handle such functions
with less cost and physical footprint. Initially processor driven Unit Lever and NX panels
could be set up to command field equipment of either electronic or relay type; however as
display technology improved, these hard wired physical devices could be updated with
visual display units, which allowed changes in field equipment be represented to the
signaller without any hardware modifications.

Forms of Locking

Electric locking

The combination of one or more electric locks or controlling circuits by means of which
levers in an interlocking machine, or switches or other devices operated in connection
with signalling and interlocking, are secured against operation under certain conditions.

Section locking

Electric locking effective while a train occupies a given section of a route and adapted to
prevent manipulation of levers that would endanger the train while it is within that

Route locking

Electric locking taking effect when a train passes a signal and adapted to prevent
manipulation of levers that would endanger the train while it is within the limits of the
route entered.

Sectional route locking

Route locking so arranged that a train, in clearing each section of the route, releases the
locking affecting that section.

Approach locking

Electric locking effective while a train is approaching a signal that has been set for it to
proceed and adapted to prevent manipulation of levers or devices that would endanger
that train.

Stick locking

Electric locking taking effect upon the setting of a signal for a train to proceed, released
by a passing train, and adapted to prevent manipulation of levers that would endanger an
approaching train.

Indication locking

Electric locking adapted to prevent any manipulation of levers that would bring about an
unsafe condition in case a signal, switch, or other operated device fails to make a
movement corresponding with that of the operating lever; or adapted directly to prevent
the operation of one device in case another device, to be operated first, fails to make the
required movement.

Check locking or traffic locking

Electric locking that enforces cooperation between the Operators at two adjacent plants in
such a manner that prevents opposing signals governing the same track from being set to
proceed at the same time. In addition, after a signal has been cleared and accepted by a
train, check locking prevents an opposing signal at the adjacent interlocking plant from
being cleared until the train has passed through that plant.

2.2 Track Circuits

Track circuits are electrical circuits that are formed including the running rails. They are
set up in such a way that when a train is on the tracks that are part of the track circuit, the
circuit is altered in some way (usually, by current that normally flows in the track circuit
being shunted through the conductive body of the train), thereby activating a detector
which may then be used, e.g., to set signals at danger for the section.

Fig-2.5:Tracking Circiut
Track circuits help with interlocked operation as they allow signals to be pulled off only if
the section of track they control is safely clear of any vehicles. They also remove the
human element of needing to scrutinize the track for the presence of trains that may be
out of view of the signalling staff or cabin men.
Each circuit detects a defined section of track, such as a block. These sections are
separated by insulated joints, usually in both rails. To prevent one circuit from falsely
powering another in the event of insulation failure, the electrical polarity is usually
reversed from section to section. Circuits are powered at low voltages (1.5 to 12 V DC) to
protect against line power failures.


All over the world Railway transportation is increasingly used, as this mode of transport
is more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than road transportation. Trains
move on steel rail tracks and wheels of the railway vehicle are also flanged Steel wheels.
Hence least friction occurs at the point of contact between the track & wheels.

Need of Signalling:

There are basically two purposes achieved by railway signalling.

1 To safety receive and despatch trains at a station.


2 To control the movements of trains from one station to another after ensuring that the
track on which this train will move to reach the next station is free from movement of
another train either in the same or opposite direction. This Control is called block
working. Preventing the movement from opposite direction is necessary in single line
track as movements in both directions will be on the same track.

The essential components of railway signalling:

The fixed signals provided by the side of the railway track with indication in the form of
colour lights are the actual authority to a driver to get in to the portion of the track beyond
the signal. At stations the trains may be received on any one of the platform lines. To take
the train to any specific track, points are provided.


Trains run on dedicated line .A line consists of two rails running parallel to each other.

Fig-2.6:Basic Track Sturcture

This is also called Track. The width of the track is 56in Broad gauge (B.G) In station
yards there will be more than one track for receiving and dispatching trains. Points are
provided to divert the running trains from one track to another. The points have movable
switches which can be operated electrically by a point machine.


Fig-2.7: Track With Point Machine


Clearance of track:

Since a train cannot be received on the portion of track where another train is standing on
same portion of the track, the signal before it is cleared for the movement of a train has to
ensure the track clearance. There are equipments used in Railway signaling to achieve the
above safety condition.

Signal is a medium to convey a particular pre-determined meaning in non-verbal form.


Multiple Aspect Color Light Signal (MACLS):

Multiple means more than 2 indications .They may have 3 or 4 different aspects or
indications to be given to the driver. These signals have longer range of visibility and
Improved reliability.



Classification of CLS:

Fig-2.8 Classification of CLS Manual Stop Signal :
Each aspect of the signal is represented by a circle. A horizontal line inside the circle
indicates Red aspect, an inclined line the yellow aspect and vertical line the Green aspect.
The normal aspect of the signal is shown by double line.


Fig-2.9:Manual Stop Signal


Table-1.1: Manual Stop Signal

Permissive Signal (Distant Signal) :

Shall be located at an adequate distance in rear of the stop signal, the aspect of which it
pre- warns.
The normal aspect of permissive signal is Single Yellow where 2 distant signals are
provided to pre- warn the stop signal, the outer most signal, to be located at an adequate
distance from the first stop signal, shall be called the distant signal and the other called
the inner distant signal, with the distant capable of displaying attention or proceed aspect
To distinguish between stop signal and permissive signal P marker board (letter in black
on white board) is fixed to the permissive signal.

Automatic Stop Signal :

The normal aspect of an automatic signal is green and is indicated by the double vertical
line, unlike the manual signal where the normal aspect is red and indicated by double
horizontal lines.

Fig-2.10:Automatic Sgnal

An automatic signal has an A marker plate fixed to the signal post to distinguish it as an
automatic signal. Letter A in black on white circular disc.

Semi-automatic Stop Signal :

An illuminated A marker distinguishes a semi automatic signal from a fully automatic

signal. Letter A against black back ground is illuminated when working as an automatic
stop signal and letter A extinguished when working as a manual stop signal .

Gate Signal :

The Gate stop signal shall be provided with G marker. Letter G in black on a yellow
circular disc.
A semi-automatic stop signal interlocked with a level-crossing gate shall be provided with
G marker disc and an illuminated A marker. The A marker shall be lit only when the
gates are closed and locked against road traffic.

Fig-2.11:Gate Signal

Routing Indicator :

Where two are more lines diverge, information is to be given to driver that he is being
received on diverge line. Hence route indicators are provided. Route indicators are fixed
on the first stop signal and starters.
If the route indicator on a signal is not in working order, the relevant signal shall also to
be treated as defective signal.

Route indicator is denoted as (UG).

Route indicator are of three types.:

Junction type route indicator :

Used where the speed is above 15KMPH
It is having a provision of indicating six diversions and a straight line.
When taken off it shows a row of five white lines.
Multi lamp route indicator :
Used where the speed is less than 15 KMPH.
It can exhibit nine numerals and alphabets.
Stencil type route indicator :
Normally fixed on starter signal.

Subsidiary Signals

Signals are used for reception of trains in to a station and despatch of trains out of station.
Signals used for movement of trains within the station section at restricted speed and for
special purpose are called Subsidiary signals. In MACL signalling Shunt signals and
Callingon signals come under subsidiary signals.

Shunt signal:

It is of position light type, The lights shall be white in colour. Shunt signals control
shunting movements. A shunt signal may be placed on a post by itself or below a stop
signal other than the first stop signal of a station. When a shunt signal is taken OFF , it
authorizes the driver to draw ahead with caution for shunting purposes although stop
signal, if any, above it is at ON. When a shunt signal is placed below a stop signal, it
shall show no light in the ON position.


Calling-on signal:

A Calling-on signal has no independent location and displays no aspect in ON position.

A calling-on signal where provided, shall be fixed below a stop signal governing the
approach of a train with C marker board fixed to the signal post. A calling-on signal
when taken OFF it displays a miniature yellow light.
Under approved special instructions, a calling-on signal may be provided below any other
stop signal except the last stop signal.

Fig-2.12: Calling on Signal

When placed below a stop signal, it shall show no light in the ON position. A calling-on
signal under main signal above it cannot display OFF aspect at same time.

Every stop signal by its indication to the driver controls the movement of train upto the
next stop signal as the next stop signal will control the movement beyond it. Hence the
track between the stop signal and the next has to be clear and the points have to be
correctly set and locked before a movement is permitted by it. However due to any
unforeseen reasons like with sudden brake inadequacy the driver may not be able to stop
at the next stop signal. So an extra safety margin of the track beyond the next stop signal
is also to be kept free so that if the train overshoots the next signal, he will be able to
bring the train to stop within that margin. This safety margin is called overlap. Similarly

we have to ensure that when a train moves on the track the other rail vehicles from the
adjoining track should not roll down and infringe with the movement. To prevent this
isolation between adjoining lines is required.
Overlaps are referred to as ADEQUATE distance. Overlaps are of two types:
1) Block Over Lap (BOL)
2) Signal Over Lap (SOL)

Block over lap : It is the extra length of track in advance of the FSS (First Stop
Signal) of a station, which must be kept clear, before Line clear can be given to
the station in rear.


Signal over lap : The length of track in advance of a stop signal of station, which
must be kept clear, before the signal next in rear could be taken OFF.

The term isolation denotes the condition in which line for a particular movement of a
train is separated from all adjoining lines connected to it in such a manner that it cannot
be fouled or interfered with by any movement taking place on the adjoining lines.


For any station whether a wayside or a junction, the Engineering department prepares a
plan depicting all the lines, points, Level Crossings if any, Foot-over Bridge (FOB), Subway if any coming within the station section, Bridges if any, gradient etc. This plan is
called as the "P-way Plan". This plan is studied by the Signal Engineers and based on this
a Signalling Plan is prepared indicating the following:

All gradients with in the station limit on either side upto 2.5 Kms.


Kilometer and class of level crossing gate within the station limits, whether interlocked

or not.
Up & Dn direction, Name of important junction and immediate station on either side.
Location of signals, with reference to point and level crossing gate.
Marking of signals, points and level crossing gates.
Inter signal distances and distance between warning boards & signals
Type of Block working with adjacent station and location of Block instrument.
Type of turnouts.
Description of siding.
Restriction on dead end sidings.
Crank handle details.
Details of Axle counters / Track circuits.
Signalling Over lap.
Holding capacity of all running lines and sidings.
Note regarding telephone communication provided between ASM and Level crossing

with in and out of station section.

Reference to approved engineering plan on which the signalling plan is based.
CRSs dispensation for deviation from G&SR / SEM, if any.
Aspect sequence chart for CLS.
Name of the station, Standard of station.
Class of station, Centre line with kilometers, North point.
Names of the stations with distance on either end of the station.
Panel position / SMs control, with spare knobs / slides.
Detection table.


Electrical key transmitter is used for the purpose of controlling a signal apparatus such as
points, LC gates & signals etc by SM by retaining key of the controlled apparatus (which
is normally locked) and issuing the same key for releasing the apparatus when required.

Relay is an electromagnetic device which is used to convey message electrically from one
circuit to another circuit through a set of contacts (back or front contacts) and works on
the principle of electromagnetism.


Track circuit is a vehicle detection device in which the running rails form part of an
electrical circuit. The boundaries of track circuit are marked by insulation joints on the
rail and rails are bonded at rail joints for better conductivity.

Uses of Track Circuits:

For detecting the presence of vehicles or absence of vehicles within the limits of the

track circuits.
For locking the point when train is on the point.
Trolley protection circuit for axle counter to ensure wheels of easily removable trolleys
are not counted.

2.11.1 Closed Track Circuit :

In this type current is always flowing through the relay. When train comes over the track,
the supply to the relay is shunted and the relay de-energizes. The smallest closed track
circuit provided is of 26 meter length. The longest workable track circuit depends on the
Ballast Resistance (i.e., Resistance across rails offered by the stone chips placed below
the rail to support track), This ballast decides the leakage current. In other words ballast
resistance appears across or in parallel with relay coil resistance.


2.11.2 Open Track Circuit:

Open track circuit is one in which the track relay is normally de-energized and picks up
only when train comes on the track. In this track circuit any disconnection with train on
the track will drop the relay and failure on unsafe side will take place, as the relay will
show track is clear under occupation. Hence this track circuit can be used for short length
only i.e., 26 Mts. Now a days open track circuits are not used.

Fig-2.13:Open Tracking Circuit

2.11.3 Fed over track circuit:
It is a sub division of track circuit. This is generally adopted when it is not possible to
work a long track due to inability to maintain prescribed parameters like ballast resistance
for fail safe working of track circuit.


Instead of dividing it in to independent track circuits, the first track circuit is fed by the
usual battery and relay arrangement. The feed to the second track is taken through the
front contact of the track relay which controls the first track and so on. The last track
relay can serve to indicate occupancy or clearance of the portions of all track circuits.

Fig-2.14: Fed over tracking Circiut


An electrical point machine is an electrically driven motor used for operation of points in
railway yards. The rotary motion of the motor is transmitted through the reduction gears
and transmission assembly and converted through linear movement of a toothed rack
through a pinion. The gear rack drives switch rails to unlock, change the position from N
to R or R to N and lock the switch at the end of the stroke.
Sequence of point machine operation:

Opening of the detection contacts.

Unlock the points.
Move the points to the desired position

Lock the points.

Close the detection contacts.


2.13.1 Comparison with track circuit:

To detect the presence of vehicle within a prescribed distance is the role of track

Dropping of track relay is due to shorting of rails by the axles of a vehicle train.

2.13.2 Features of Axle counter:

It works on magnetic flux variation on a ground device for counting the axles and
electronic circuits to evaluate in-count and out-count. To detect the presence of wheel.

Means an arrangement of signals , points and other appliances, operated from a pane or
from lever frame, so interconnected by mechanical locking or electrical locking or both
that their operation must take place in proper sequence to ensure safety.

2.14.1 Electrical Lockings

Route locking:

After a route is set (that is, the points in the route are operated to the position as required
for the route), it is electrically locked before the signal is cleared. By this we mean the
points in the route are electrically locked and they cannot be operated for any other route
till such time the route that is locked is released and the points become free for operation.


Route molding:

Once a route is set, locked and the signal is cleared for a train, it must be held till such
time the train is received on the berthing track or the route is released by an emergency
route release operation.

Track locking:

It is an electrical locking on a point which prevents the operation of the point when a train
occupies the track circuit provided over the point.
When a train is on 51 AT or 51BT, the respective track relay will be de-energized. Under
this condition, it is not possible to operate the point either by route initiation or by
individual operation. We say the point is track locked.

Indication locking:

It is an electrical locking so provided as to ensure that after the reception of the train on
the berthing track the route is not released unless it is proved that the signal which was
cleared for receiving the train has gone back to danger and all the signal control relays
have de-energized.

Approach locking:

It is an electrical locking effective while a train is approaching a cleared signal and

adopted to prevent releasing of the route when the train is within a Pre-determined
distance from the signal.

Fig-2.15: Approach Locking

For the purpose of providing approach locking on the signal, a track circuit called
Approach Track (AT) needs to be provided to a length of 1-2 kms

Dead approach locking:

It is seen that for providing approach locking, a track circuit for a length of 1,2kms. Need
to be provided. Provision of such a long track circuit for the purpose of approach locking
is a costly proposition. Therefore, the approach locking is provided without the approach
locking becomes effective the moment the signal is cleared irrespective of the position of
the train in the approach.

Back locking or route locking:

It is an electrical locking effective when a train has passed the signal and adopted to
prevent releasing of the route while the train is within the limits of the route entered.

2.14.2 Relay based Interlocking

Relay Interlocking is a system of implementing principles of interlocking for safe train
operations at a Station with the help of electrical circuits wired through electro-magnetic
relay contacts and coils.
Parts of Sub-Systems of a Relay based Interlocking:

Indication-cum Operation Panel:

This panel shows the miniature lay out of the yard with controlling knobs/buttons for
operating various functions mounted on the panel. This also gives indications about the
status of the functions i.e., Points, Signals, Routes, Gate Control, Track Circuits, etc. This
panel is operated by the Station Master who is in-charge of the Train Operations at that

Relay Room :

This consists of racks which are wired and on which the relays are mounted. This is the
interlocking Centre of the Station. This relay room on one side is connected to the panel


to receive commands from the panel for operation of the functions and also to give
indication to the panel to show the status of the functions which are controlled by the
interlocking. On the other side, this relay interlocking takes inputs from the field like
position of signals, points, track circuits, etc., and gives output to outdoor functions to
drive them.

Power Supply Room :

This consists of Power Supply units as under:

Battery Charges
Voltage Stabilizers
Transformers for Stepping down the voltages

Power Panel :

This is for connecting the different sources of power i.e., Traction, Commercial Supply,
Generator Supply, etc.

Outdoor Cable Terminations :

Since controls originate from relay room and go to the outside functions like Points &
Signals and their status are repeated to relay room, signalling cables are laid from the
Relay Room to the functions.
2.14.3 Two-Hand Operations
1. To ensure that any Signalling gear is operated only by an authorized person, the panel
has got a locking arrangement. The key is with the ASM on Duty. When he leaves the
panel, he has to lock the panel and take the key with him. Once the key is out, no
function can be disturbed by any outsider.
2. To ensure that only a deliberate action by the ASM operates a signal or a point and no
inadvertent placing of hand on any button will lead to the operation of the function, the
operation of the panel requires both the hands. In other words in the Push Button
system where an accidental placing of one hand can operate the button for any

function, i.e., signal or point, two buttons are to be pressed. The buttons are so placed
that with a single hand, the two buttons will not be pressed.
The various safety aspects such as interlocking of conflicting routes, requirements of
points for each route, the track circuit controls for the points, the route holding
requirements such as approach locking and back or route locking and other controls such
as crank handle controls, gate controls, block control and overlap release etc. are first put
in a table called control table. Or selection table and this table is used in the
preparation of circuits.
In the preparation of the control table, the following points should be kept in view: When
a route is set and locked, it should lock all other conflicting route may be.
A. Directly conflicting route: Route which require all its points in the same position as
that of the route which is set and locked.
B. Indirectly conflicting route: Route which require at least one of its points in a
different setting from the points of the route which is set and locked.
2.16 Points control table
The route wise control table does not show the points controlled. Each point is controlled
by the point track circuits for track locking so that if any train is moving over the points,
the track locking will be effective and the points cannot be operated under the wheels.
This aspect is illustrated separately in a points controlled table.


2.17.1 Button relay circuits
We have studied in Chapter No.7, the various features provided in the Control cum
Indication Panel. Every main and shunt signal has a button provided at the foot of the

signal symbol on the panel. The route buttons are provided in the middle of the track
configuration for each route. These buttons are also known as exit buttons or destinations
buttons. Point buttons are provided at the point configuration. The various common
buttons such as WWN, EWN, EGGN etc. are fixed on the top of the panel. All these
buttons are differently colored for easy distinction.
The various buttons are grouped as follows and the button relay circuits are provided

Signal button relays

Route button relays

Point button relays
Common button relays

2.17.2 Common button relay circuit:

The following common buttons for the entire station are grouped in this circuit.


CO GGN - Calling on signal button

EUYN - Emergency Route Release button.
RRBUN - Super Emergency Route Release Button
GRN - Common (General) Slot Return button.
GBN - Common (General) Slot button
EOVN - Emergency overlap Release button.

2.17.3 Route Selection:

The energisation of GNR & UNR energizes the route selection relay (LR), provided that
no conflicting route is set. Thus the basic interlocking is ensured at this first stage itself.
1 LR is designated after the signal number & with route alphabet, if the signal has

more than one route.

LR is normally down & picks up when an operation to clear a signal is performed


& when the interlocking permits.

LR picks up only when the conflicting LRs are not energized.
Energization of LR operates the points to the desired position..
LR front contact is used in route checking (UCR) & signal control (HR) circuits.


2.17.4 Point Operation

A point can be operated from normal to reverse or vice versa, as per requirement by any
one of the following methods:
1. As a part of route setting for a signal that needs to be cleared.
2. Individual operation of point under normal condition (i.e., Track Circuit
Controlling the point is energized).
3. Individual operation of point when track circuit has failed to energize.

2.17.5 Route Checking Relay UCR

The route checking relay (UCR) checks that all the points involved in the selected
route are correctly set and locked at the site. It also proves that the route set is for the

signal route initiated including isolation and overlap.

One signal will have one UCR & will be designated by the signal number.
It will have parallel paths depending upon the number of routes to which the signal

UCR is normally down.
UCR front contact will be proved in HR Ckt.
UCR back contact will be proved in ASR ckt.

2.17.6 Track Stick Relay (TSR)

The TSR is controlled by the track circuit ahead of the signal.

Normally, one TSR is provided for each signal controlled by the first track circuit after

the signal.
Sometimes, two or three conflicting signals have a common track circuit ahead, a

common TSR is provided for these signals.

The TSR is normally energized relay under the control of the first track relay. Once it
picks up it is kept energized by a stick feed through its own front contact.

Once a train passes the signal and drops the first track relay, the stick feed is cut off and
TSR drops. This causes LR, UCR and signal control relays to de energize and prevents

automatic re clearance of the signal.

Subsequently, when the train clears the first track, the track relay picks up. TSR picks
up proving that the UCR and the signal control relays have dropped and sticks.

2.17.7 Emergency Route Release

After the signal is cleared it is required to cancel the route. When the train is approaching
the signal, emergency route release is done. This is done in two stages. In the first stage,
the signal is cancelled by pressing GN and EGGN. This operation throws the signal to
danger immediately. In the second stage the route release is initiated by pressing GN and
EUYN. But the route release can take place only after a time delays of 2 minutes to
ensure that the train has come to a stop at the foot of the signal. But, if the train has
passed the signal before 2 minutes time delay and occupied the track circuits ahead, the
back locking on the route will be effective and the route cannot be released unless the
train clears all the back locking track circuits and arrives fully on the berthing track. In
this case the route is released automatically.

2.17.8 Super Emergency Cancellation of Route

After the reception of the train on the berthing track, if any of the back locking track
circuits fail and the track relay does not pick up, the ALSR relay cannot energize and the
route cannot be released. The points remain locked in the route and other routes over the
points cannot be set. The route can be released only after the track circuit.
Failure is rectified and the ALSR is energized. This may take considerable time and the
train traffic will be held up. To avoid delay to the traffic a provision has been made on the
panel to release the route even under the back locking track circuit failure condition. This

is an unsafe provision in the sense that the SM may release the route even when the train
is actually moving over the back locking track circuits. Once the route is released the
points become free and can be operated under the wheels which may cause derailment.

2.17.9 Overlap Locking And Release

For locking the overlap points OVSR relay is provided. This is also a normally
energized relay like ALSR. When ALSR drops, OVSR also drops and locks the
overlap points. This relay can be provided individually for the overlaps. Where 2
or 3 overlaps conflict with one another, a combined OVSR can be provided as
only one overlap can be set at a time.


Indications on the panel, Failure alarms and emergency counters: Signal indications:

Aspects that are exhibited at each signal are indicated in their respective positions. A
flashing indication is given under lamp failure. Track indications:
Track strip indications are lit by a white light when a route is set & locked, through the
back contact of ALSR. Depending upon the point position, corresponding indication
strips are lit. Point indication
Point indications are given by means of two white lights one each at the main ends of
cross over when normal & two white lights on the cross over when set for reverse When
none of the point detections is available either during operation or under failure condition,
these indications are made to flash through NWKR & RWKR down contacts.

31 Failure Indications

The various button relays are grouped function wise and a common button normal
checking relay for each group as GNCR, UNCR and WNCRT provided. When any button
fails or button relay fails the button normal checking relay of that group drops and gives
indication of the panel. Similarly for giving indication and alarm for the failure of the
common buttons or their relays, a relay called GRXR is energized through the back
contacts of these Common button relays. Crank handle Interlocking
When the crank handle is inside EKT, key in contact is made. KLNR picks up proving
crank handle in.
If WLRT, the point is free from any signal locking. If CH1 button and common button
GBN are pressed together, CH1ZYR will pick up & hold through its own front contact, as
buttons will be released.
2.17.11Level Crossing Interlocking
Connected Relays:

LXLR: This relay picks up by proving all concerned ASR/OVSRs of signals in whose
route/overlap the L.C. gate falls are free.(i.e., picked up) and UCRs are de-energized

(i.e., route is not set).

LXRR: It proves that the gate is free to be opened for road traffic (i.e., LXLR is up)
and gate button LXN and common (group) slot release button GBN are pressed. It
proves permission is given from the panel to open the gate. Its repeater at the gate is

LXRPR, the front contact of which gives feed to gate key lock to release it.
KNLR: Proves gate key is in. i.e., gate is closed against road traffic, locked and key is
kept in the place at gate lodge to transfer control to panel at the station. It is the relay in
station, repeating another relay KN_R at gate site. KN_R picks up after key is
deposited at site by gate man.

LXNR: This relay proves control given to the gate has come back to panel and gate can
not be opened. After KNLR picks up, panel operator presses LXN + GRN (Group slot
restoration button) and LXNR picks up.


The entry of train onto the block section is jointly controlled by the entry and exit points
of the block section. The driver is authorized to proceed into block section by the signal
controlling the entry into the section. This working could be the ABSOLUTE BLOCK
system stem or AUTOMATIC BLOCK system.

2.18.1 Essentials of Absolute block :

Where trains are worked on absolute block system
a) No train shall be allowed to leave a block station unless Line clear has been received
from the block station in advance, and
b) On double lines, such line clear shall not be given unless the line is clear not only upto
the first stop signal at the block station at which such line clear is given but also for an
adequate distance beyond it .
c) On single, such shall not be given unless the line is clear of trains running in the same
direction not only upto the first stop signal at the block station at which such line clear
is given but also for an adequate distance beyond it, and is clear of trains running in the
direction towards the block section to which such line clear is given. The adequate
distance referred shall not be less than 180 Mts
d) The whole of the last preceding train has arrived complete; and all necessary signals
have been put back to ON behind the said train.


e) Fig-2.16: System Of Blocking Working

2.19.1 Introduction
Audio frequency (AF) track circuits are used for both train detection and cab signal
application. AF track circuits utilize a unique carrier frequency between 2 kHz and 5 kHz
for train detection for each track circuit which is coded on and off by a low frequency
code rate between 2 Hz and 21.5 Hz. Furthermore, a unique carrier frequency for train
cab signal transmission is coded on and off in the 3 Hz to 21.5 Hz range. These cab signal
carrier frequencies vary throughout the transit property. The actual cab signal speed
command transmitted to the train is determined by six different code rates.


AF track circuits have the unique advantage of eliminating insulated rail joints at track
circuit boundaries, except at interlocking boundaries, and using both running rails for
negative propulsion return.
2.19.2 Operation
AFTC works on the basic principle of short circuiting of two rail signals to detects the
train. The ATFC contain a transmitter, a receiver, two TMUs to detect the train. There is
one-one TMU are present on transmitter and receiver.
Transmitter generate the frequency signal to send to towards the Receiver through rails.
The Timing and Matching units are used to select desired frequency. The current from

transmitter to receiver is continuously flows in condition of there is no train. Whenever a

train approaches on the rails where AFTC is installed because of train the flow of current
breaks because of short circuiting and the train is detected.
2.19.3 Specification
Transmitter O/P in Vrm=22 Vac to 58 Vac
Transmiter Current O/P= 150 mA to 300 mA
Transmitter TMU Voltage= 100 mVac to 110 mVac
Receiver TMU Voltage= 100 mVac to 110 mVac
TMU Frequency 1700hz,2000hz,2300hz,2600hz
Voltage Across AFTC relay= 28.62 (DC)
2.20.1 Introduction
In spite of the installation of AWS over most of the railways main line , there has been a
gradual increase in the number of signals passed at danger (SPADs) in recent years and
some serious collisions as a result.

In an attempt to reduce these, a number of

suggestions were made to reduce the impact (pun intended) of SPADs. One of these is
the Train Protection and Warning System or TPWS.

The idea behind TPWS is that, if a train approaches a stop signal showing a
danger aspect at too high a speed to enable it to stop at the signal, it will be
forced to stop, regardless of any action (or inaction) by the driver. The
equipment is arranged as shown left.
For each signal equipped with TPWS, two pairs of electronic loops are placed between
the rails, one pair at the signal itself, the other pair some 200 to 450 metres on the
approach side of the signal. Each pair consists of, first an arming loop and secondly, a
trigger loop. The loops are activated if the signal is showing a stop aspect.
The pair of approach loops first met by the train at 400 to 200 metres before the signal,
are set between 4 and 36 metres apart. When the train passes over the arming loop, an
on-board timer is switched on to detect the elapsed time while the train passes the


Fig-2.18: Train Protecion Warning System

distance between the arming loop and the trigger loop. This time period provides a speed
test. If the test indicates the train is travelling too fast, a full brake application will be
initiated. In case the train passes the speed test successfully at the first pair of loops but
then fails to stop at the signal, the second set of loops at the signal will cause a brake
application. In this case, both loops are together (see photo - right) so that, if a train
passes over them, the time elapsed will be so short that the brake application will be
initiated at any speed.

Fig-2.19Working of TPWS
2.20.2 Operation
TPWS has certain features which allow it to provide an additional level of safety over the
existing AWS system but it has certain limitations and does not provide the absolute safety

of a full Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system. What TPWS does is reduce the speed
at which a train approaches a stop signal if the driver fails to get the speed of the train
under control to allow him to stop at the signal. If the approach speed is too fast, TPWS
will apply a full brake but the train may still overrun the signal. Fortunately, since the train
is already braking and there is usually a "cushion" of 200 yards (183 metres) between the
signal and the block it is protecting, there will be a much reduced risk of damage (human
and property wise) if the train hits anything. With a possible total distance of 2000 feet
(about 600 m) between the brake initiation and the block entrance, trains "hitting" the first
loops at up to 120 km/h (75mph) could be stopped safely.
TPWS is also provided at many (about 3000) Permanent Speed Restrictions (PSRs) to
ensure that a train does not pass through a restricted section of line (say one with a sharp
curve) at too high a speed. However, there have been a number of issues related to the use
of TPWS in these cases. Drivers have complained that, although they were approaching the
PSR at a speed which would allow the train to run at the correct speed within the
restriction, they still got stopped by the TPWS "speed trap". This has led to some vigorus
discussions between Network Rail, the train operating companies and the HSE.
An add-on to TPWS, called TPWS+ is provided at certain signals where train speeds are
above 100 mph or 160km/h.
The safety effects of TPWS are limited by the fact that it is provided only for stop signals
and that it cannot have any effect at caution signals. This means that there is a range of
speeds at the higher level which will be excluded from full protection. In spite of this, it is
suggested in published data that 60% of accidents due to SPADs will be prevented by the
installation of TPWS at critical locations. This is achieved, it is said, at 10% of the
installation costs of a full ATP system.
TPWS does not replace the existing AWS system. AWS is retained, so the driver will still
get the warnings advising him of adverse signals. The TPWS equipment is designed to
interface with the existing on-board wiring of trains so that it can be fitted quickly.


2.20.3 Parts of TPWS BALISE
A balise is an electronic beacon or transponder placed between the rails of a railway as
part of an Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system. The French word "balise" is used to
distinguish these beacons from other kinds of beacon.
A balise typically needs no power source. In response to radio frequency energy broadcast
by a Balise Transmission Module mounted under a passing train, the balise either
transmits information to the train ('Uplink') or receives information from the train
('Downlink,' although this function is rarely used). The transmission rate is sufficient for a
complete 'telegram' to be received by a train passing at any speed up to 500 km/h.
A balise may be either a 'Fixed Data Balise,' or 'Fixed Balise' for short, transmitting the
same data to every train, or a 'Transparent Data Balise' which transmits variable data, also
called a 'Switchable' or 'Controllable Balise'. (Note that the word 'fixed' refers to the
information transmitted by the balise, not to its physical location. All balises are


Fig-2.20: Balise
A fixed balise is programmed to transmit the same data to every train. Information
transmitted by a fixed balise typically includes: the location of the balise; the geometry of
the line, such as curves and gradients; and any speed restrictions. The programming is
performed using a wireless programming device. Thus a fixed balise can notify a train of
its exact location, and the distance to the next signal, and can warn of any speed
A controllable balise is connected to a Line side Electronics Unit (LEU), which transmits
dynamic data to the train, such as signal indications. Balises forming part of an ETCS
Level 1 signalling system

employ this capability. The LEU integrates with the


conventional (national) signal system either by connecting to the line side railway signal
or to the signalling control tower.
Balises must be deployed in pairs so that the train can distinguish the direction of travel
12 from direction 21, unless they are linked to a previous balise group in which case
they can contain only one (1) balise. Extra balises (up to 8 per group) can be installed if
the volume of data is too great.
Balises operate with equipment on the train to provide a system that enhances the safety
of train operation: at the approaches to stations with multiple platforms fixed balises may
be deployed, as a more accurate supplement to GPS, to enable safe operation of automatic
selective door opening. BTM
TPWS (Train Protection and Warning System), term used by Indian Railways, It applies
to the ETCS Level 1 concepts and the UIC/UNISIG specifications. It does not, in Indian
terms, apply to the UK implementation that is based on different technology.
The TPWS project on Southern Railway installed in the Chennai Central/ Chennai Beach
Gummidipundi section of Chennai division was commissioned on 2nd May 2008 on
4 EMU rakes to begin with. The works on the balance 37 rakes were progressively
completed in the next few months. Presently all the 41 rakes proposed to be provided with
TPWS on-board equipments are functional. The TPWS track side equipments in the
section were fully provided, commissioned and made functional right from the date of


Table:2.2:BTM System


This TPWS project based on the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level-I system
faced many hurdles during the initial installation, proto-type testing, obtaining
the required clearances from RDSO and CRS. The major problems noticed during initial
revenue service included
1. On-Board system not booting.
2. On-Board system going into System failure (SF) during booting.
3. SDMI ( Simplified Driver Machine Interface) going blank.
4. Speed display bouncing on the SDMI leading to braking.
5. Brake application in the rear non-driving motor coach on run.
Corrective Actions Taken by Railways: Intermittent BTM failure: Analysis revealed that there was antenna impedance mismatch. The standing wave ratio
(SWR) was found more than the tolerance limit of 1.2 to 1.4. Interference from EMI was
also suspected. There was problem in communication between the onboard computer
(OBC) and BTM. The corrective actions for these problems included modifying the
existing antenna protection cover and providing copper braided shields for the Tx-Rx
cable between antenna and BTM and for the COTDL and PROFIBUS cable between
OBC and BTM. The BTM configuration files were also modified based on some internal
Error in Train Interface Unit: Analysis revealed that there was problem in communication between some modules of
the OBC and now screened twisted pair cables have been introduced to protect the signals
from external noise and EMI.
Error in Speed Sensor: To improve the performance of the Odometric system, the signal cables between OBC
and speed sensors have been provided with copper braided shield firmly connected to the
coach body. To suppress the noise in the 110V DC voltage derived from the motor coach
battery, a filter has been provided at the input point of the OBC. The traction control relay
has been shifted outside the OBC cubicle to reduce EMI. To improve earthing of the

motor coach body, a 50 sq mm copper cable is to be connected between the EMU body
and its bogie. Back EMF from the EB & EP relay coils: To cover come this problem, the relay coils and EB valve solenoid coils to be terminated
with 180/200V MOVRs and the body of EB & SB relays to be firmly connected to the
coach body.
EB application in rear coach:To overcome the problem of application of EB in the rear coach while running, the brake
interface circuit has been modified to bypass the EB when the TPWS system in the
sleeping mode (SM) i.e., when the cab is not the driving one.
SDMI Blanking:To overcome the problem of SDMI blanking, its software has been upgraded. Apart from
this, the OBC-SDMI communication cable connector cover which was earlier plastic has
been changed to metallic. The OBC-SDMI communication cable and the SDMI power
supply cable have been shielded with copper braids firmly connected to the coach body.
A filter has been provided at the 110 VDC input point of the SDMI to suppress the ripples
in the power supply.




Microlok II interlocking control system is a multi-purpose monitoring and control system

which is designed for rail mass transit wayside interlocking functions such as switch
machine and signal lamp control, track circuit occupancy monitoring and non vital code
line communications.

The Microlok II system provides control and monitoring functions for all elements of
basic railway vital interlocking. Supervision and control of switch machines, switch
locks, signal lamps, searchlight signal mechanisms, and line wire communication circuits
are managed by the vital microprocessor on the system card file CPU board. Standard
vital output boards interface discrete commands from the CPU board to switch machine
relays or other types of vital relays as required. Non-vital bi-polar output boards interface
CPU commands to searchlight signal mechanisms and any other equipment requiring a
non-vital bi-polar voltage output. Vital lamp driver boards enable direct lighting of color
light and searchlight signal lamps. Vital input boards interface various external circuit
inputs back to the CPU board. Typical vital inputs include searchlight mechanism
position, switch machine correspondence, and interlocking OS track circuit occupancies.
The Microlok II system is also capable of interfacing with coded track circuits adjacent to
the controlled interlocking.

The devices included with the system that divide the basic Microlok II interlocking
control function include a vital cut-off relay (VCOR) and an isolation module. The VCOR

relay is controlled by the card file vital outputs such as switch machines and signal lamps.
The microprocessor responds to the failure of a safety critical diagnostics by commanding
the card file power supply board to remove the dc supply to VCOR coil.
The isolation module provides the equivalent of double break protection of the circuit
when the system is controlling vital relays or interfacing with line circuits in a separate
equipment house. The isolation module is also capable of converting a unipolar output to
a bi-polar output.

The main applications and functions of the Microlok II system include the direct control
of wayside signals in which the color light signals and search light signal mechanisms are
handled and are controlled. Apart from these there are many other applications which
involve Microlok- II system to play a vital role in signal conditioning and monitoring of
the track circuits.


System Components

The Microlok II interlocking control system is a multi-purpose monitoring and control

system designed for railroad and rail mass transit wayside interlocking functions such as
switch machine and signal lamp control, track circuit occupancy monitoring, and nonvital code line communications.
The Components Listed Below:

The system card file

CPU PCB board
Vital inputs and output PCB
Non-vital I/O PCB
Power supply PCB
VCOR Relay
Address Select PCB

o Surge Suppressor

Serial Communication Circuits

The serial communications Circuits is used in Microlok II applications that require a vital
serial data link between systems in different equipment houses or cases. This protects the
serial channels from voltage transients. A single, standoff-mounted printed circuit board
on the panel contains the EIA/current loop conversion circuitry. User devices include a
power on/off switch, a fuse assembly, power status lamps, and communications status
lamps for the current loop half of the interface.
The list of Serial Comm. Components as below:

RS Serial Server/Switches
Fiber Optical Cable
Serial to Ethernet Converter
Optical Fiber Modem
Isolator & Converter



System Card File

The Microlok II system card file contains the systems central controlling logic and
circuits that interface this logic directly to external circuits or intermediate units
(Microlok II track interface panels, for example). Logic and interface circuits are
contained on the familiar Euro card format plug-in printed circuit boards. The system card
file contains 20 card slots, although not all slots will be used in every application. Each
installed circuit board plugs into a common backplane motherboard. The backplane
distributes circuit board operating power and enables the CPU board to control and
monitor other boards in the card file.


The specific circuit boards used in each Microlok II system are determined entirely by the
system application, although typical configurations are recommended to optimize
available card file space. No particular slot is restricted to a particular board, however the
code system interface printed circuit board (when used) is typically placed in the far right
slot (slot 20) because of its non-standard front panel width. In addition, the board
configuration must agree with the configuration defined in the application logic software.
To prevent accidental insertion of a board in the wrong card file slot, each board is
equipped with male keying pins.
These pins correspond with keying plugs installed in the associated backplane slot
connector. The keying pins are installed in the field once the board configuration is
determined. Several other restrictions are placed on the installation of the non-vital I/O
printed circuit boards and the local control panel. Refer to service manual SM-6800B for
specific board installation
rules. In order to allow communications between the CPU board and the other boards in
the card file, each board must have its bus address configured in hardware. This is
accomplished by means of a set of six two-position jumpers, mounted at the rear of the
card file in the external cable/connector housing attached to the top connector of each
board. Jumper settings are defined in the application software. Not all Microlok system
card file boards communicate directly with the CPU board through the card file
backplane. Certain boards interface to other board which, in turn, communicates with the


Fig-3.1: Card File

Split Card File:

The split backplane allows two independent CPU and associated circuit boards to be
housed in a single card file, certain Microlok II applications require that redundant
systems be provided. In order to accommodate this requirement a split backplane is
needed. This split backplane has been made from a 19-slot mother board. An additional
power connector is placed on the split side in the space formerly occupied by slot-2. This
reduced the slot count to 18. The copper is separated at the center between slot-10 and
slot- 11 with all traces power and ground planes severed.
A brief schematic of the split card-file is shown in the figure. As discussed above it
consists of two CPU slots and similarly twin slots for other printed circuit boards. It is a
special type of card file which can perform multiple operations at once.

3.2.2 CPU Board

The CPU board contains the central controlling logic and diagnostic monitoring for the
Microlok II system, and provides serial five data ports. Four of these ports are used for
communication with external systems. The fifth port enables the connection of a laptop
PC for software maintenance, diagnostics, and data log downloading. This diagnostic port
is terminated at the 9-pin connector on the CPU board front panel
The four general purpose ports can be used for vital serial communications with another
Microlok II system, a Microlok system, or one of the MicroTrax systems (coded track,
end-of-siding or cab signal controller). For installations where the Microlok II system is
communicating with another vital system in the same house or case, the maximum serial
cable length is 50 ft. A modem is required for cables longer than 50 ft.

The Standard MicroLok II CPU PCB performs a variety of functions such as:
o Monitoring external indications from vital input PCBs and non-vital input PCBs.
o Processing vital external indications and executing logic defined in the Application logic.
o Driving vital output PCBs as required by the Application logic.
o Monitoring and controlling serial communication ports (which are links to other
The four general purpose ports can be used for vital serial communications with another Microlok
II system, a Microlok system, or one of the MicroTrax systems (coded track, end-of-siding or cab
signal controller).


Fig-3.3:CPU Front panel


Fig-3.4:CPU Board


Vital Input Board


Table:3.1:Vital Input Board

Each of the vital input PCBs can accept up to 16 isolated inputs. The specifications for
these boards are as follows:

Fig-3.5:Vitual Input Bard


There are no power connections required through the upper connector. When wiring a
vital input PCB to a relay contact circuit contained in the same house as the Microlok II
card file, the signal battery may be used as the energy source to activate the inputs.
Terminals designated (-) may be connected to battery N12 and B12 switched over relay
When wiring a vital input PCB to a relay contact circuit outside the Microlok II house,
use the isolated source that is part of the power supply. This is consistent with the practice
of confining signal battery to the case in which the Microlok II unit is housed. External
wiring should be protected with equalizer lightning arrestors from line-to-line (US&S part
number N451552-0101) and with high voltage arrestors from line-to-ground (US&S part
number N451552-0201).


Each Vital Output PCB is having 16 inputs.

Each vital input is assigned to the detection of outdoor gear status such as ECRs in
case of signal, WKR in case of points and TPR in case of Track.

Since the inputs are dealing with the detection of outdoor gears they normally
configured with double cutting arrangement.


Vital Output Board

Table-3.2:Vital Outbut Board


Each of the standard vital output PCBs provides up to 16 outputs. The specifications for
these boards are as follows:

Outputs are controlled by high side software-controlled switches. Loads should be

connected from outputs to battery negative. The high side switch is used to connect
battery (+) to the output.
Each output is protected with a polyswitch, which acts like a circuit breaker. When the
over current trip point is reached (approximately 0.75A), the polyswitch switches to a
high impedance. The switch resets to its normal low impedance when the additional load
or short is removed. A short to battery (-) will trip the polyswitch and cause the VCOR
relay to drop, but will not cause any damage. A short to battery (+) will not cause any
damage, but since this condition is equivalent to a false output, the Microlok II CPU will
cause the VCOR relay to drop.


Each Vital Output PCB is having 16 independent 24 V outputs.

Each output is assigned to the final relay which is driving the outdoor signalling

Gears such as HR, DR in case of signal & WNR, WRR in case of points.

Since the output boards are driving outdoor gears, they are continuously monitored by
the CPU and any abnormal voltage present in the output will lead to

System reset / shutdown to ensure safety.


Non-Vital I/O Board

Two versions of the non-vital NV.IN32.OUT32, I/O PCBs are available. The LCP version
(N17000601) is designed for use with the optional Microlok II Local Control Panel (LCP)

N16901301. This version of the board is fitted with a 48-pin connector on the front and
back. The front connector engages the LCP. The remaining I/O (16 inputs and 8 outputs)
are available on the rear connector. The other version of the NV.IN32.OUT32 board
(N17061501) connects each of its 32 inputs and outputs to a 96-pin connector mounted
on the rear of the board. Both boards are treated as the same type of board in the Microlok
II application software.
The NV.OUT32 PCB provides 32 isolated, outputs for control of external devices such as
indicators and relays. The outputs are divided into two groups of 8 outputs and one group
of 16 outputs, each group having a separate bussed common (negative DC) reference
output. Isolation allows switching power from sources isolated from the Microlok II
power supply battery. Outputs are designed to operate at battery voltages between 9.5 and
35VDC. Outputs switch positive battery and are capable of supplying up to .5AMPS.
Nominal voltage drop per output is load dependent and usually less than 2.5volts.
The NV.IN32 PCB provides 32 isolated external inputs. The 32 inputs are divided into
two groups of 8 inputs and one group of 16 inputs, each group having a separate bussed
common (negative DC) reference input. External input voltages between 6 and 35VDC
represent logical 1.


Fig-3.6:Non-Vital I/P Boards



Allow MicroLok II systems to interface most types of non-vital external

devices and circuits.
Ample number of I/O channels meets most application needs.
Isolated (house-external circuit) and non-isolated (house-internal circuit)
versions available.
Separate LEDs show states of all channels, including 32-channel versions.
Bi-Polar version available for bi-polar driver circuits (e.g. searchlight
All boards service-proven on railroad and transit properties.

3.2.6 Power Supply

The N16600301 power supply board provides two regulated output voltages that are
needed for the operation of the card file circuitry. The power supply board performs the
following functions:

Converts the external supply voltage (9.8 to 16.2 Vdc) to regulate +12V and +5 for
outputs to the system card file internal circuits.
Provides an isolated source voltage for external contact sensing.
Supplies energy to the VCOR relay coil under the control of the CPU printed circuit

The power supply board serves a vital role in the fail-safe design of the Microlok II
system. The Microlok II CPU board outputs a 250 Hz check signal to the power supply
board as long as the diagnostic checks performed continuously by the CPU detect no
internal or external system faults. Failure of a diagnostic check results in the removal of
the check signal from the power supply board. The power supply board responds by

removing the hold voltage from the VCOR relay coil (400). This, in turn, results in
removal of power to all vital system outputs. The regulated +12V and +5V power is
distributed to all system card file printed circuit boards through the card file backplane
bus. Both voltages are used to power board components and circuits. The +12V output of
the power supply board is not used as a source for any vital or non-vital outputs. External
battery power is used for this purpose.
The optional Microlok II power-off relay provides a means of reporting a commercial
power failure (serving the battery charger) to the Microlok II system. The output of this
relay can be tied to a non-vital or vital input.

Fig-3.7:Power Supply



To ensure maximum operational safety in MicroLok II-based systems, all vital outputs
(e.g.to switch machines, signals) are routed through a Vital Cut-Off Relay (VCOR),
which is controlled by the systems vital CPU board logic. The VCOR is a key part of
ASTS USA Inherent Fail Safety design concept, which ensures that all signaling
equipment under MicroLok II control is downgraded to the most restrictive state in the
event of a critical fault.
The MicroLok II CPU board performs constant internal and external diagnostics and
generates a System OK check signal as long as diagnostics are satisfactory. While this
signal is present, a Power Supply PCB output energizes the VCOR coil and keeps the
relays power-carrying contacts closed. In this condition, outputs to switch machines,
signals, etc. are supplied their required operating power. In the event of a non-recoverable
system fault, the CUP sends a command to remove the Power Supply PUB output, thus
reenergizing the VCOR coil and cutting off power to the vital outputs. The signaling
system is then reverted to the most restrictive state.
For applications using the standard MicroLok II card file, the VCOR is typically attached
to rack mounting bars and base adjacent to the card file. For applications using the
MicroLok Intermediate or End Point card files, the VCOR is contained inside the card file
in a separate bay next to the PCBs. These card files are already equipped with a built-in
VCOR plug-in mounting base.


Fig-3.8: VCOR Relay

Each card file will have one Vital Cutoff relay (VCOR) to ensure the healthiness of the
VCOR has 6 F/B dependent contacts each rated for 3 Amps.

The VCOR contacts are used to control the power to all card file vital outputs.

The VCOR is controlled by the CUP board.

When the system is healthy the coil receives voltage from PS PCB on the power supply

On failure of a safety-critical diagnostic, the DC supply to the VCOR is removed

thereby opening the contacts that provide battery power to the vital output boards.


EEPROM PCB which is provided on rear side of the CPU connector to configure various
serial communication ports. Keying plugs are provided in the card file to ensure coding to
each type of cards.



3.2.9 Address Select PCB

It is wired in every vital and non-vital I/O boards for cpu addressing. The power supply
PCB does not have an address select PCB connected to it.
It is installed at rear end of connecter assemblies.
The jumper setting of boards can be found by looking at the configuration menu in
MicroLok II maintains tool.
The jumper setting do not depending on the order of boards that happened to appear in
the card file.
3.2.10 Terminals
Phoenix make terminals are used in MicroLok II wiring.

One in two out type terminals are used for connection between non-vital I/O boards to

panel and vital input board to relay rack and serial communication circuits.
Diode type terminals are used for vital o/p board to relay coils.
Two in two out type terminals are used for connection between relay rack to cable

termination rack.
One in one out type terminals are used for relay coil to supply negative and power

Link and fuse terminals are used for power circuit.
3.2.11 Surge Suppressor
230V AC to operator PC and maintenance PC are connected through surge suppressor to
protect the equipment from lighting damages.
3.3.1 RS Communication Ports
RS-485 Serial Ports
Serial ports 1 and 2 are the RS-485 serial ports. Port 1 supports TXD and RTS output
signals and RXD, DCD, and CTS input signals. Data clock signals including transmit
clock (TXC) which may be either an input or an output and receive clock (RXC) which is
an input are present on port 1 but are not currently not supported by the MICROLOK II
executive. These signals should not be connected. These signals may be supported in a
future release of the MICROLOK II executive. Port 2 supports TXD and RTS output
signals and RXD and DCD input signals.

Each RS-485 port signal is transported by a twisted pair of wires labeled as XXX- and
XXX+ (TXD- and TXD+, for example). Outputs labeled with a (-) always connect to
inputs labeled (-) or (A). Outputs labeled with a (+) always connect to inputs labeled (+)
or (B). Differential voltage between (-) and (+) conductors of a pair is typically 1.5 to 5
volts with the (-) conductor negative with respect to the (+) conductor when the signal is
not asserted. (For data lines TXD and RXD, the quiescent or unasserted state is identified
as the MARK state.) In addition, the signal commons (COM) for all ports on an RS-485
communication link must be connected together to equalize potential between signal
commons for the connected units. When two MICROLOK II units powered by the same
battery are serially connected, the connection of serial commons is made through negative
battery and does not have to be made through the serial cable. Note that COM cannot be
connected to frame or earth ground as it is directly connected through the MICROLOK II
power supply to negative vital battery. RS-485 ports should be interconnected using
ONLY twisted pair cable with an over-all shield. For best performance, the
interconnecting cables should not contain extra, unused pairs. Any unused pairs should be
connected together at both ends of the cable and connected to signal common (COM) for
best noise immunity. If connected, the shield should be connected to frame ground at one
end of the cable only. On the units at each end of the communication circuit, 120 ohm,
watt external load resistors should be placed across the TXD and RTS transmitters and
across the RXD and DCD receivers. Any units in-between should simply bridge the
circuit using a bridging stub which is as short as possible. On a multi-drop
communication circuit (a circuit to which more than two units are connected), the DCD
input on the master unit should be biased in its unasserted state. This may be done by
connecting 470 ohm, watt resistors between the DCD- input and 0V and between the
DCD+ input and +5V. The load resistor for the master DCD input should be 240 ohms,

watt (rather than 120 ohms) to maintain the required circuit impedance for the biased
circuit. If the CTS input on any serial port is available but not used, it should be forced to
its unasserted state. To permanently force an unused RS-485 input to its unasserted state,
the (+) input should be connected to +5V and the (-) input should be connected to
COMMON (0V). To force an RS-485 input to its asserted state the (+) input should be
connected to COMMON (0V) and the (-) input should be connected to +5V or +12V. RS-423 Serial Ports
Serial port 3 is the RS-423 serial port. Serial port 3 supports TXD and RTS output signals
and RXD, DCD, and CTS input signals. Data clock signals including transmit clock
(TXC) which may be either an input or an output and receive clock (RXC) which is an
input are present but are not currently supported by the MICROLOK II executive. These
signals should not be connected. These signals may be supported in a future release of the
MICROLOK II executive.
In an RS-423 interface, outputs are referenced to signal common (COM) while inputs
have their own independent common, receive common (RXCOM). Signal outputs are
connected to signal inputs by a single wire as the are in the RS-232 interface but COM on
each end is connected to RXCOM on the other end. As this connection of commons does
not equalize potential between the signal commons (COM) of the two connected units, an
additional connection must be made between COM terminals on the connected units. The
quiescent or inactive state for all signals is between 3.6 and 6 volts. (For data lines
TXD and RXD, the quiescent state is the MARK state.). The active state for all signals is
between +3.6 and +6 volts. RS-423 ports should be interconnected using only multiconductor cable with an over-all shield. The cable should not contain any twisted pairs.
The serial port commons (COM) should be connected using one of the conductors in the
cable (NOT the shield). For best performance, interconnecting cables should not contain
extra wires. Extra wires should be connected together and connected to COM at both ends

for best noise immunity. Note that COM cannot be connected to frame or earth ground as
it is directly connected through the MICROLOK II power supply to negative vital battery.
The cable shield should be connected to frame ground at one end of the cable only. If
CTS is not used, it must be forced to its unasserted state. To permanently force an input to
its unasserted state, the input should be connected to -12V. To force an input to its
asserted state, the input should be connected to +12V.
RS-423 ports may be connected to RS-232 ports by strapping COM and RXCOM
terminals together on the RS-423 end and connecting signals as described under the RS232 connection scheme below.
RS-232 Serial Ports
Serial port 4 is the RS-232 serial port. Serial port 4 supports TXD and RTS output signals
and RXD and DCD input signals. Each RS-232 signal is transported by a single wire and
is referenced to signal common (COM). When any RS-232 signal is not asserted the
voltage level for that signal is between 3 and 15 volts. (For data lines TXD and RXD,
the quiescent or unasserted state is the MARK state.). The asserted state for all signals is
between +3 and +15 volts. RS-232 ports should be interconnected using only multiconductor cable with an over-all shield. The cable should not contain any twisted pairs.
The serial port signal commons (COM) should be interconnected using one of the
conductors in the cable (NOT the shield). For best performance, interconnecting cables
should not contain extra wires. Extra wires should be connected together and connected to
COM at both ends for best noise immunity. If connected, the cable shield should be
connected to frame ground at one end of the cable only. The length of interconnecting
cables should be limited to 50 feet or less. If it is necessary to permanently force an input
to its unasserted state, the input should be connected to -12V. To force an input to its
asserted state, the input should be connected to +12V.



3.4.1 Introduction
Maintenance personnel and application engineers can perform a wide range of Microlok
II system maintenance, configuration and diagnostic functions using the tools provided in
this Maintenance tools program. Following tasks can be performed with this program:
Viewing the current status of the Microlok II equipment and related systems.
Reviewing stored system event and error data.
Reconfiguring and resetting the system when necessary.
The Maintenance Tools program provides these tools as selections on the Microlok II
Maintenance Tools main menu, as shown in fig.
The main menu displays the selection buttons that activate the primary functions of the
These selection buttons are grouped into four categories:
Run-time Monitor
Historical Data
System adjustment/Setup
Other Tools
The Maintenance PC is linked to the Microlok II installation CPU board through an RS232 serial connection.
3.3.1 Powering Up The Microlok II System:
o Before applying power to the system for first time, the entire hardware installation
should be verified for correctness as per relevant instruction manual.



o Once the verification is completed satisfactorily, apply +12 V DC battery power to the
MicroLok II card file.
o Verify that the 5 V ON LED on the card file power supply board is illuminated. If
everything has been connected and configured properly, the Microlok II CPU will
begin to run a series of self-tests and initialization routines. After successful completion
of above procedure, CPU board will assume the on-line mode of operation and the

following card file indications should be present:

The CPU board ON- LINE LED - ON.
The CPU board VPP ON LED - OFF.
The CPU upper 4- character display repeatedly scrolls the phrase US&S
MICROLOK II and the executive version information.
The CPU lower 4-character display scrolls the pre-programmed application name.
The power supply board VCOR LED illuminated.
If all the above indications are present, perform the System test and configuration
procedures as per instruction manual.

3.3.2 Precautions: Electroststic Discharge Precautions:
When working on the Electronic Interlocking System, contact with the system printed
circuit boards cannot be avoided. Hence following guidelines to be observed:
Always stand on an approved conductive floor mat when touching or handling printed

circuit boards.
Always wear a strap grounding device. The wrist strap should have a 1.0 mega ohm
current limiting resistor. Connect the wrist strap grounding connector to suitable

ground connection.
Periodically check each wrist strap for continuity using an approved tester. Continuity
readings must be between 500 k ohms and 10 megaohms. Discard any wrist strap that

does not meet this criterion.

Always handle printed circuit boards by the edges. Do not touch board components.
Keep the work area clean and free of debris. Avoid using non-conductive materials
such as Styrofoam cups, plastic ashtrays, cellophane wrappers, or plastic covered
binders in the vicinity of the cards and modules.


Once removed from the card file/rack, immediately place printed circuit boards into an
anti-static conductive-shielded bag. Wrap the bag in conductive foam to protect the
circuit board during transport and shipment. Modules fitted with batteries may require

special packaging.
Avoid wearing clothing made of synthetic fabric when handling modules. Cotton

overalls are preferred. Packing:
All plug-in modules and cards shall be packaged in anti-static packaging to prevent
damage to Electro-Static Sensitive Devices (ESSD) from electro-static discharge. When
so packed, the modules may be stored and transported without further precaution. Storage:
For storage of Modules and cards following precautions shall be taken:
Must not be in close proximity to magnets, e.g. Automatic Warning System (AWS)

Must be protected from damage due to electrostatic discharge.
Must be protected from the environment including physical handling damage.
If many modules are involved, it is permissible to use conductive card frames or racks.
However bags and wraps are preferred. Transport:
The equipment or modules must not be transported in close proximity to magnets e.g.
AWS- magnets. Handling Lithium Batteries:
Following precautions should always be observed while handling Lithium Batteries. Packaging:
Package all modules with batteries in a non-conductive anti-static bag. An electrically
conductive bag may short the battery terminals causing premature discharge of the
battery. Damage:
The lithium batteries contain very highly corrosive electrolyte. If a battery is damaged:
Ensure unnecessary personnel do not enter the affected area.
Ventilate the immediate area.
Avoid contact with any liquid or internal components by wearing the appropriate safety

Thoroughly wash the affected area with clean water and allow it to dry.

Return the module that may have been in contact with the electrolyte to the firm for
inspection duly packaged with an appropriate safety warning.


3.5.1 DOS:
To avoid possible damage to the diagnostic computer when connected to the
Electronic Interlocking equipment, if the power supply of the diagnostic computer
is connected to an AC power source, isolate the power source from earth ground
by way of a 3-prong to 2-prong adapter.
Before powering up the Electronic Interlocking equipment, ensure that there is no
train entering into the section in both Up and Down Direction.
Observe all Electrostatic discharge precautions while handling any Printed Circuit
Board or board component.
For repair or replacement if any, return the equipment to the firm.
3.5.2 DONTS:
Do not use Radio equipment within the immediate vicinity of Electronic
Interlocking system as Radio transmissions can affect electronic equipment.
Do not make circuit alterations or repairs to the Electronic Interlocking system.
Do not install or remove any printed circuit board with battery power applied to
the system.
Do not attempt to repair any Electronic Interlocking system printed circuit board
or peripheral device in the field.

Microlok II Development System

The Microlok II development system contains the tools necessary to develop and compile
an application logic program, debug the program, and upload the application program to
the Microlok II system hardware. The development system also contains the tools
required for field installation, system configuration, monitoring, maintenance, and
There are three main components of the prototype Microlok II development system:


The text editor is used to create the application source file using a predefined file
structure. Any DOS or Windows-based text editor application can be used for this

The logic compiler is a PC-based tool that checks the application source file for errors
and then generates the appropriate application file for transfer to the Microlok II CPU
board flash EPROMs. The compiler also generates error and program listings, symbol
table information, and installation information. This program is a 32-bit Windows 95

application that runs in a DOS window.

The Microlok II Maintenance Tools program is a PC-based application that is used to
upload an application program to the Microlok II system, configure the Microlok II
unit during system commissioning, obtain system status and historical information
from the system log, user log, and error log, and debug the application logic by
displaying logic states as the program executes. The Tools program is typically loaded
on a laptop PC. The PC is in turn connected by an RS-232 serial connection to the
Microlok II CPU board diagnostic port.
The general process for developing and implementing a Microlok II application is

illustrated in the figure below:

An application engineer reviews the planned Microlok II application and identifies
specific system requirements such as the Microlok II circuit boards to be used, system

interconnects, vital and non-vital I/O requirements, and all required interlocking logic.
The Microlok II system programmer creates a unique application source file based on
the system requirements specified by the application engineer. The programmer uses a
standard text editor to create the source file. The source file is given a file name

extension of .ML2.
The completed application source file is then processed by the Microlok II logic
compiler. The compiler reads the source file and verifies that the content of the file
follows the prescribed format and conventions. The compiler produces an application
file (.MLP file extension) and a listing file (.MLL extension) that contains a summary

of the application program, as well as any errors detected in the source file. Chapter 4

of this manual covers the operation of the Microlok II logic compiler.

Based on the severity and types of errors detected by the compiler, the application
source file may need to be corrected using the text editor and run through the compiler
again. Steps 2 3 are repeated until the compiler produces an acceptable application


Fig-3.11:Process of Application Logic Processing

The compiled application file is transferred to a laptop computer and then uploaded to
the appropriate Microlok II installation during system startup. The Microlok II

Maintenance Tools program is used to do this.

If the proper switch is set in the first line of the application program, the compiler will
also generate a debug symbol file with the extension .MLD. This file can then be
accessed by the Maintenance Tools program.


Differences Between Microlok And Microlok II

The following is a discussion of the differences between Microlok and Microlok II.
In the original Microlok, when a timer bit was assigned a value that required the starting
of a timer, the start of that timer was immediate, and the expiration of that timer was
permitted to happen when it actually expired.

The following demonstrates how the original MicroLok implemented timers:


1. Logic executes and assigns a 1 to the bit named X, and X has a set delay of 500
milliseconds. At that point in time, a 500ms timer is started.
2. Microlok continues to execute other logic.
3. The 500ms timer started in step #1 expires, and X is assigned a 1, and any other logic
dependent on X is also triggered.
In the above example, the amount of time required to complete step #2 is dependent
upon system loading and the amount of logic triggered. If step #2 only required 100
ms, the system would have become stable after step #2, and the outputs would have
been delivered. Approximately 400 ms later, the timer would expire and assign a 1 to
X. If the amount of time required to complete step #2 exceeded 500 ms, the system
would not have become stable, and the output would not have been delivered before
X was assigned a 1.

In Microlok II, the implementation of timers was changed so that a timer cannot
expire within the same logic cycle in which it was started. In the above example,
regardless of the amount of time required to complete step #2, timer X will not be
permitted to expire until the system has become stable.



The following subsections provide guidelines and conventions that must be observed
when creating a Microlok II application source file.

Text File Notation

Microlok II programs are free format and are not case sensitive. Comments, which is text
ignored by the compiler, begin with a % and end with a \. Single line comments may
be identified with //. Additionally, comments may be delimited with /* and */ .


The term <bit> is used to represent a single application logic Boolean bit. The user
specified name consists of numbers and letters. While a name may begin with a number,
it must contain at least one letter. For example: flash, 1TK, NWZ. The term <bit list> is
used to represent a list of Boolean bits. Each bit name is separated by a comma. The bit
list may contain from 1 to the maximum allowable number of bits.

A term enclosed in brackets < > is meant to represent a special type of user defined bit.
For example, in the segment MICROLOK_II PROGRAM <program name>;, the
term<program name> follows the same rules as a <bit>, but the item also has a special
meaning, that being the program name.


Some conventions are used in this document in the definition of the application language
for Microlok II. These are:

All text in this font represents Microlok II program statements.

<name> is a user supplied program value. The valid values are explained near the

Id names can contain letters or numerals. They may start with a numeral but must
contain at least one letter.

<bit list> is a comma-separated list of valid id names that refer to Boolean bits.
<variable list> is a comma separated list of valid id names that refer to numeric

Brackets [ ] are used to enclose optional parts of program statements. The brackets
themselves are not part of the program.

Structures such as [bill] | [george] indicate that either bill or george can be placed in
this location in the program statement.


Structures like [rodger] ... indicate that rodger can be repeated as many times as is
necessary at that point in the program.

Reserved Words

Reserved words are alphanumeric phrases of up to 16 characters that have a special

meaning to the Microlok II compiler. As such, you cannot use reserved words as

I/O Board Designations

The purpose of this section is to define the relationships between the I/O boards specified
in the users application logic program and the board references specified by the Microlok
II system. Specifically, when an error is logged, how is the error referenced back to the
application logic program? Or when the user displays on the CPU board are active, how
do the displays relate back to the actual program and the physical cardfile?
The following program example will be used to describe the cross-referencing of I/O
boards to the application program:
Board: relayin
Type: IN16
input: RI1, RI2, RI3, RI4, RI5, RI6, RI7, RI8, RI9, RI10, RI11, RI12, RI13, RI14, RI15,
Board: lampout
Type: LAMP16
[ADJUSTABLE|FIXED][[16|18|24|25|36]WATT][MODE [0|1]]
Output: L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, L8, L9, L10, L11, L12, L13, L14, L15, L16;


Board: relayin2
Type: IN16
input: RI1, RI2, RI3, RI4, RI5, RI6, RI7, RI8, RI9, RI10, RI11, RI12, RI13, RI14, RI15,
Board: nonvital
Type: NV.IN32.OUT32
NV.Output: NVO1, NVO2, NVO3, NVO4, NVO5, NVO6, NVO7, NVO8, NVO9,
NVO10, NVO11, NVO12, NVO13, NVO14, NVO15, NVO16, NVO17, NVO18,
NVO19, NVO20, NVO21, NVO22, NVO23, NVO24, NVO25, NVO26, NVO27,
NVO28, NVO29, NVO30, NVO31, NVO32; NV.Input: NVI1, NVI2, NVI3, NVI4,
NVI5, NVI6, NVI7, NVI8, NVI9, NVI10, NVI11, NVI12, NVI13, NVI14, NVI15,
NVI16, NVI17, NVI18, NVI19, NVI20, NVI21, NVI22, NVI23, NVI24, NVI25, NVI26,
NVI27, NVI28, NVI29, NVI30, NVI31, NVI32;

Board: relayout
Type: OUT16
Output: RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, RO6, RO7, RO8, RO9, RO10, RO11, RO12, RO13,
RO14, RO15, RO16;
Board: noniso
Output: NIO1, NIO2, NIO3, NIO4;


In this example, six different physical I/O boards are defined: two standard vital input
boards, a lamp driver board, a non-vital I/O board, a vital output board, and a coder
output board. Each identified I/O board has a number and/or a name associated with it.
The number or name is defined by the user and is a reference for the user; however, the
executive software must be able to uniquely identify a board, and the user must be able to
determine which specific board is being referenced.


This section provides a comprehensive procedure for creating a Microlok II application

source file using a standard Windows-based text editor. (If you use a text editor other than
DOS, be sure to save the output file as text only.) This section details the basic structure
and requirements of the program as well as all of the optional features available to the

Program Structure

The program consists of several major sections that are ordered in the source as they are
defined below. A high level view of a Microlok II program looks like:



The history of signalling dates back to as early as 1814, the year of the first practical use
of George Stephensons Steam Locomotive. The first rail cars were pulled by horses and
mules and were used in mines and quarries. Records as early as 1806 show that hand and
arm signals were used to direct the movement of these early trains. Hand signals, flags in
day and lanterns at night were used to signal B & O trains in 1829. In some cases a
mounted flagman preceded the train. This system continued in New York city in West St.
as late as 1920s.


Signalling using fixed track side signals began first in U.S. on New Castle and
French Town Railroad in 1832. This 17 mile railroad used fixed signals, flags at first and
later ball signals to pass information from one terminal to another.


The early trains operation was more or less by schedules and hence train separation
was by time separation. As traffic increased tracks were divided into blocks and trains
separation was by space inte3rval. This is how block 78ignaling began., Various
electrical and mechanical systems were tried, the objective being letting one train pass
into a block and inhibiting the block entering signal from clearing to allow another
train into the block until the first train was reported to have left the block.
Subsequently, systems having permissive feature also came into being which allowed
trains to follow each other into the same block.
From 1851 the telegraph was used to determine the location and progress of trains
along the line and to transmit train orders to expedite traffic.
All the above systems required substantial manpower and had no protection against a
part of a train being accidentally left in a block section between block stations.
On 20.10.1872, Dr. William Robinson invented the closed track circuit which gave
great fillip in Railway 78ignaling. First installed in Kinzua, PA the closed track circuit
quickly proved its worth and other installations involving closed track circuit
followed rapidly. All modern track circuits are based on Dr. Robinsons original
concept, even through their capabilities have been greatly enhanced by modern track
relays, coding and more recently electronic techniques such as audio and high
frequency joint less track circuits.
The next advance in block 78ignaling came in 1911 when Sedgwick N. Wight a GRS
engineer invested APB i.e. absolute permissive block 78ignaling. This allows train to


operate in either direction of single track with full signal direction for both following
and opposing movement.
The first installation resembling interlocking was installed at Bricklayers Arms
Junction in England in 1843 wherein switches and signals were operated by a
switchman with hand levers and foot stirrups respectively. However, there was no
interlocking between switches and signals. Switches were sometimes thrown under
trains and signals cleared over open switches but the advantages of centralized control
were achieved.
In 1856, the first mechanical interlocking incorporating essential interlocking
requirements was developed by John Saxby in England. In United States the first
interlocking was put in service in 1870 at Trenton, New Jersy. Gradually, mechanical
frames were replaced by various types power interlocking, such as hydro pneumatic
and electro pneumatic system. In 1901 the Taylor Signal company commissioned the
first all-electric, dynamic indication interlocking at Eau Claire, Wis., on the Chicago,
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha railway. This system was an immediate success and
thousands of levers were installed some of which are still in service.
The next development, Relay Interlocking, which requires no mechanical locking
between the levers, developed with CTC i.e. Centralised Traffic Control.
On July 25th 1927 the first CTC system, invested by Sedgwick N. Wight (the inventor
of APB), commissioned between Stanley and Berwick, Ohio on the Ohio Division of
New York Central Railroad, This tremendously improved facility and economy in
train operation.
In 1929, GRS commissioned first remotely controlled unit wire all relay interlocking
system on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy at Lincoln, Nebraska.


The first installation of all relay Interlocking with push button, automatic selection of
routes and positioning of switches and signals, the GRS type NX, was made at
Brunswick, England on the Cheshire Lines, in February 1937. The first NX route-type
interlocking in the United States was installed at Girard Jct., Ohio, on the New York
Central in 1937.

Train Control Systems for Increasing Train Intelligence The on-board digital ATC system
capabilities described are certain to become much more advanced and intelligent than the
train control systems that we have had up to now. Further development of digital
processing technology will enable more sophisticated functions and smarter on-board

Fig-5.1:Rail Transportation System

Fig. 5.1 shows a schematic overview of a train control system that can accommodate
more intelligent on-board systems. The track-side system manages all the information
coming from the on-board system (location information, etc.), and transmits whatever

information is needed for safe running to all the trains in the vicinity (stopping positions,
speed limits, etc.). In other words, the system consists of three elements:

The track-side system manages overall safety.

The on-board system exercises autonomous running control within the scope
guaranteed by the track-side system.

Continuous communication is supported between the track-side and on-board

Communication between the track-side and onboard systems will use a number of
different media including rail-based transmission such as the digital ATC signal,
LCX (leaky coaxial) cable, and space wave and other wireless transmission

Trains are able to run autonomously and safely based on their own on-board systems
using route data that is stored in the trains on-board database. Specifically, the onboard system detects and manages the trains own position vis--vis the stopping
position that is sent from the track-side system. The on-board system generates its
own speed check profile permitting safe running by means of sequential computation
based on the route datacurrent position, curves, inclines, branch restrictionsand
controls the speed of the train accordingly. Essentially, this means that each train can
run flexibly in accordance with its own autonomous and line transport requirements
within the scope guaranteed by the track-side system. Moreover, with increasing
track-side-on-board transmission capacity and more advanced functionality of onboard equipment, this will permit more extensive operating support information for
crew members. And at the same time on-board equipment becomes more intelligent,
the dependence of conventional train control systems on wayside signals, beacons,
ground coils, and other track-side equipment will diminish, and this will reduce the

volume and the cost of these track-side facilities. This should also improve the
flexibility and expandability of the system as a whole.

Reserved Words for the Microlok II Compiler











1. http://www.asa.transport.nsw.gov.au
2. http://www.ansaldo-sts.com
3. http://www.wikupedia.org
4. http://www.rdso.indianrailways.gov.in
5. http://www.mlc-rail.com
6. http://www.mmrda.maharastra.gov.in
7. http://www.railway-technology.com
8. http://www.moxa.com
9. http://www.railwaysignalling.eu
10. http://www.edmi-meters.com
11. http://www.pheonixcontact.com