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PATTERNMAKING

FOR FASHION DESIGNERS


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LORI A. KNOWLES

The Practical Guide to Patternmaking


for Fashion Designers

The Practical Guide to Patternmaking


for Fashion Designers
Juniors, Misses, and JiIlOmen

Lori A. Knowles

Fairchild Publications, Inc.


New York

Assistant Acquisitions
Development
Associate

Editor: Jaclyn Bergeron

Editor: Jason

Development

Production
Associate

Moring

Editor:

Manager:

Ginger Monaco

Production

Editors:

Copy Editor: Donna

Frassetto

Photography:
Interior

Matt Knowles,

Design:

Suzette Lam

Elizabeth

Aesthetic

Marotta

and Beth Cohen

Design and Photography

Mary Neal Meador

All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright


fom1 or by any means-graphic,
information

Library of Congress
ISBN:

electronic,

or mechanical,

storage and retrieval systems-without

Catalog

1-56367-328-2

GST R 133004424

Card Number:

hereon may be reproduced

including

written permission

2005920035

photocopying,
of the publisher.

or used in any

recording,

taping,

or

vn
xv

Extended Contents
Preface

CHAPTER

1
2

Taking Measurements,

CHAPTER

Drafting the Sloper Set

CHAPTER

Draping the Sloper Set

CHAPTER

Dart Manipulation for Bodices, Sleeves, and Skirts

CHAPTER

Collar and Neckline Theory and Development

105
135

CHAPTER

Sleeve Theory and Development

163

8
9

Dart Equivalents As Stylelines, Gathers, Pleats, and Release Tucks

187

CHAPTER

Added Fullness and Flares, and Added Ease

225

CHAPTER

10

The Torso Sloper and Its Uses

257

The Jacket Sloper and Its Uses

289

CHAPTER

11
12

The Coat Sloper and Its Uses

CHAPTER

13

The Dartless Jean Sloper and Its Uses

315
333

CHAPTER

14

Special Body Forms, Live Models, and Contoured Styles

351

CHAPTER

Patterns for Fabric Used on the Bias Grainline

CHAPTER

15
16

369
389

CHAPTER

17

Patterns for Fabrics That Shrink

CHAPTER

18

Linings

415
423

CHAPTER

19

Knockoff Pattern Techniques

439

CHAPTER

20

Production Pattern Techniques

447

ApPENDIX

Quarter-Scale Sloper Set for Misses' Size Twelve

455

ApPENDIX

Metric Conversion Chart

461

ApPENDIX

Fractions of Inches to Decimal Point Chart

462

ApPENDIX

French Curve

463

ApPENDIX

Sample Pattern Chart

ApPENDIX

Sample Specification Sheets

464
.465

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

Introduction to Pattern making


Body Forms, and Live Models

Patterns for Fabrics That Stretch

1
19
43
81

Glossary

467

Index

477

xv

Preface

xv

Acknowledgments

CHAPTER

Pattern making for the Fashion Industry


Objective

Key Terms

Fabric Grainlines

Pattern Grainlines
Marker

Pattern Labeling

Seam Allowance

Hem Allowance

10

Pattern Marking

12

Grading a Size Range

13

Tools and Equipment Used in Pattern making


Notions

16

Questions

17

Taking Measurements, Body Forms, and Live Models

Introduction
Objective

14

16

Summary

CHAPTER

Introduction to Patternmaking

Introduction

19
19

Checklist for Taking Measurements


Preparing the Body Form
Preparing Live Models

21

Upper Torso Measurements


Arm Measurements

20

20

23

28

Lower Torso and Leg Measurements

30

Size Charts for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes


Summary

32

Questions

33

Learning Activities

33

32

19

CHAPTER

Introduction
Objective

43

Drafting the Sloper Set


43
44

Checklist for Drafting the Sloper Set


General Instructions

44

44

Drafting the Bodice for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes

45

Drafting the Fitted Set-In Sleeve for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes
Drafting the Two-Dart Skirt for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes

56

Drafting the One-Dart Skirt for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes

60

52

Drafting the Two-Dart Trouser for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes

62

Drafting the One-Dart Trouser for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes

68

Test Fitting the Sloper Set and Creating the Two-Dart Front Bodice
Summary
Questions

75

Learning Activities

CHAPTER

75

81

Draping the Sloper Set

Introduction
Objective

70

75

81
81

Checklist for Draping the Sloper Set


General Instructions
Preparing the Body Form
Blocking Muslin

81

82
82

82

Two-Dart Bodice for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes


Two-Dart Skirt for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes
Checking the Trued Bodice and Skirt Drapes on the Form
Transferring the Trued Drapes onto Paper

83
94
101

102

Final Truing of Bodice and Skirt for Junior's, Misses', and Women's Sizes
Summary

103

Questions

103

Learning Activities

CHAPTER

Introduction
Objective

103

103

105

Dart Manipulation for Bodices, Sleeves, and Skirts


105
107

Style 0501: Front Bodice with Shoulder Tip Dart and Center Front Waist Dart
Style 0502: Front Bodice with Two Waist Darts

110

Style 0503: Back Bodice with Neck and Waist Darts

112

Style 0504: Front Bodice with Converging Center Front Darts


Style 0505: Sleeve with Two Elbow Darts
Style 0506: Front Skirt with Inverted V Darts

114

116
119

Style 0507: Front Skirt with Horizontal Side Seam Darts

120

107

Style 0508: Curved Dart Dress

722

Pattern Chart for Style 0508


Specification
Summary
Questions

Sheets for Style 0508

734
734

135

Collar and Neckline Theory and Development

Introduction
Objective

732

734

Practice Problems

CHAPTER

737

735
737

Recreating the Proportions

of a Design Sketch

737

Style 0601: Bateau Neckline, Bodice with Intersecting

Curved Darts

Style 0602: Funnel Neckline, Bodice with Neck Darts

. 740

Style 0603: Tie Collar, Bodice with Center Front Darts and Placket
Style 0604: Straight

Neckline, Bodice with Contoured

Style 0606: Sailor Collar with Asymmetrical


Pattern Chart for Style 0606

Questions

752

Bodice

755

767

762
762

Sleeve Theory and Development

Introduction

763
763

Sleeve Theory
Objective

Button-Front

Darts

748

767

Practice Problems

CHAPTER

744

Rolled Collar, Bodice with Zip Front and French Darts

Style 0605: One-Shoulder

Summary

738

763

Dartless Sleeve Sloper

764

Style 0701: Petal Sleeve

766

Style 0702: Dropped Shoulder

Sleeve and Bodice

768

Style 0703: Long Sleeve with Upper Cap Combined with Bodice
Style 0704: Square Armhole
Style 0705: Modified

Sleeve and Bodice

Kimono Bodice with Gussets

Style 0706: Dolman Sleeve, Dartless Wraparound


Pattern Chart for Style 0706
Summary

785

Questions

786

774
776
Top

779

785

Practice Problems

CHAPTER

Introduction
Objective

Dart Equivalents As Stylelines, Gathers, Pleats, and Release Tucks ...


787
788

Style 0801: Bodice with Square Neckline and Release Tucks

788

187

Style 0802: Bodice with Armhole

Princess Styleline, Sweetheart

and Cap Sleeves

Neckline,

192

Style 0803: Bodice with Yoke, Gathers, Shawl Collar, and Short Sleeves

196

200

Style 0804: Bodice with Stand Collar, Bare Shoulders, and Bust-Level Styleline
Style 0805: Bodice with Front Yoke, Back Pleats, Raglan Sleeves, and Convertible
Style 0806: Skirt with Gathered Waist, Kick Pleat, Waistband,
Style 0807: Skirt, Princess Line, Overlapped Waistband,

Collar

204

209

and Back Zipper

Back Zipper, and Slit

211

Style 0808: Trouser with Stitched Pleats, Fly Front, Front Insert Pockets,
Back Double Piping Pockets, and Cuffs
Pattern Chart for Style 0808
Summary
Questions

Introduction
Objective

222

222
223

Practice Problems
CHAPTER

215

223

225

Added Fullness and Flares, and Added Ease


225
225

Style 0901: Top with Two Layers, Flared with Uneven Hem

226

Style 0902: Blouse with Gathered Front, Buttoned Placket, and Short Puffed Sleeves
with Control Lining

229

Style 0903: Blouse with Long Full Gathered Sleeves, Flared Cuff Flounces, Peplum,
and Collar

233

Style 0904: Flared Skirt, Waist Finished with Inside Facing


Style 0905: Circle Skirt and Waistband
Style 0906: Half-Circle Skirt

239

241

244

Style 0907: Pant, Pull-On with Low Crotch and Double Elastic Waistband
Style 0908: Jumpsuit,

Double-Breasted,

Pattern Chart for Style 0908


Summary
Questions

10

Introduction
Objective
Torso Sloper

Wide Flat Collar, and Inverted Box Pleats

248

255

255
25fj

Practice Problems
CHAPTER

246

256

257

The Torso Sloper and Its Uses


257
257
257

Style 1001: Shirt with Box Pleats and Sleeve Placket

262

Style 1002: Shirt, Oversized, with Hidden Button Placket, Buttoned Tabs, Belt,
and Inseam Pockets

267

Style 1003: Vest, Fitted, with Flat Collar

271

Style 1004: Skirt with High Waist and Insert Pockets

273

Style 1005: Dress with Short Kimono Sleeves and Empire Waist

277

Style 1006: Dress with Modified Cape Collar, Low Waist, and Handkerchief
Style 1007: Traditional

Kimono

282

Hem

278

Pattern Chart for Style 1007


Summary
Questions

286
287

Practice Problems

CHAPTER

11

Introduction
Objective

286

287

289

The Jacket Sloper and Its Uses


289
289

290

Jacket Sloper: Front, Back, and Sleeve


Jacket Sloper, Separate Bodice, and Skirt
Style 1101: Bolero with Leg-of-Mutton

293

Sleeves

293

Style 1102: Portrait Lapel Jacket, Panel Stylelines,

and Front Ties

297

Style 1103: Bomber Jacket, Hidden Zipper Closure, Elastic-Cased Waist, Epaulets,
and Pouch Pockets with Flaps
Style 1104: Single-Breasted

302

Jacket with Low Notched Lapel, Two-Piece Sleeves,

Welt Pockets, Vents, and Bound Buttonholes


Pattern Chart for Style 1104
Summary
Questions

CHAPTER

12

Introduction
Objective

306

314

314
314

315

The Coat Sloper and Its Uses


315
315

Coat Sloper: Front, Back, and Sleeve

315

Style 1201: Long Coat, Patch Pockets, Button Tabs, Back Vent,
and Modified

Shawl Collar

Style 1202: Pea Coat, Double-Breasted,


and Adjustable

Back Belt

Style 1203: Cape with Over-the-Shoulder


Summary
Questions

CHAPTER

13

Introduction
Objective

318

Modified

Design with Flared Back

323
Yoke, Knife Pleats, and Loose Hood

330
331

333
333

Dartless Jean Sloper

334
338

Style 1302: Capri Pants with Low-Rise Waistline

341

Style 1303: Jeans with Slim Fit, Five Pockets, Tapered Legs, and Zippered Ankles
Style 1304: Sailor Pants

Questions

333

The Dartless Jean Sloper and Its Uses

Style 1301: Runner's Shorts

Summary

326

350
350

347

343

CHAPTER

14

Introduction
Additional

351
Measurements

Objective

Needed for Contoured

Style 1402: Gown, Flattened


on Skirt

Bra Cups

Bust with Boning

Tiers

and Padding,

Skirt

360

364

Questions

365

369

Patterns for Fabric Used on the Bias Grainline

Introduction
Objective

in Bodice, and Three Separate

Pleated Collar, Boning

with Godets and Train


Summary

352

354

Style 1403: Gown, Off-the-Shoulder,

15

Styles

351

Style 1401: Halter Top with Contoured

CHAPTER

351

Special Body Forms, Live Models, and Contoured Styles

369
370

Flat Patterned

Bias Torso Sloper

Draped Bias Torso Sloper


Style 1501: Bias Camisole

371

373
with Separate

Cowl Front

376

Style 1502: Bias Top with Cowl Collar, Short Cowl Drape Sleeves, and Hip Band
Style 1503: Bias Skirt with Trumpet

Hem

Style 1504: Bias Slip Dress with Low Back and Crisscross
Summary

16

Straps

383

388

389

Patterns for Fabrics That Stretch

Introduction

389

Objective

391

Knit Torso Sloper Flat Patterned:


in Width,

Only

Front, Back, and Sleeve, for 50-Percent

in Width,

Only

Style 1602: Knit Shirt with Raglan Sleeves, Shoulder

Knit Full-Length

Bodysuit

Bodysuit
in Width

Stretch

Fabric

395

Pads, V Neck, and Cuffs

395
Sloper Draft: Front, Back, and Sleeve

for 1OO-Percent Stretch


Knit Full-Length

Fabric

391

Style 1601: Classic Tee Shirt with Crew Neck in Ribbing

in Ribbing

Stretch

391

Knit Torso Sloper Drape: Front and Back, For 50-Percent

Fabric in Width

and Length

397

Sloper Drape: Front and Back for 100-Percent

and Length

Style 1603: Mid-Thigh-Length

Sloper Flat Patterned:


in Width and Length

Stretch

Fabric

401

Bodysuit

and Empire Seam


Knit Legging

Spaghetti

387

Questions

CHAPTER

378

382

with U-Front

Neck, Racer Back,

404
Front and Back for 100-Percent

405

Stretch

Fabric

Style 1104: Single-Breasted Jacket, Including Lining, from Chapter 18


Pattern Chart for Style 1104
Summary

447

452

453

ApPENDIX

Quarter-Scale Sloper Set for Misses' Size Twelve

455

ApPENDIX

Metric Conversion Chart

461

ApPENDIX

Fractions of Inches to Decimal Point Chart


French Curve

462
463

ApPENDIX

D
E

Sample Pattern Chart

464

ApPENDIX

Sample Specification Sheets

465

ApPENDIX

Glossary

467

Index

477

Preface

I have had the good fortune of finding a


career in the fashion industry that suited
my abilities, offered challenges and excitement, and introduced me to many fine,
hard-working people. While a student at
the Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising in San Francisco, California, I
discovered that patternmaking
was my
area of expertise. After a few years of working full-time in the fashion industry as a
patternmaker,
I began teaching patternmaking courses at West Valley College in
Saratoga, California, working concurrently as a professional
patternmaker
for
Marian Clayden Ine. My students appreciated the handouts I created to supplement my classes and suggested that I write
a patternmaking textbook. I discussed the
contents of the proposed book with students, other instructors at the college, and
professional
patternmakers,
and, with
their input and my own knowledge and
experience as a pattern maker and instructor, undertook the project.
This textbook demonstrates how to
draft, drape, and flat pattern an array of
garment styles in a variety of textiles for
Misses', Junior's
and Women's
sizes.
Fashion styles are ever changing; therefore, whenever possible, classic styles are
shown in this text rather than up-to-theminute, trendy styles that will become
dated after one season. The styles shown
represent a range of pattern work, from
beginning to advanced.
The content in this book is organized
differently from other pattern books on
the market. I felt it was important to provide the theory of pattern making along

with detailed drawings of the patternmaking process. Going through the steps
toward completing a pattern is effective
only if the student
understands
the
process, and how all of the pieces work
together in a finished garment. Most of
the styles are shown complete, including
facings and closures. This approach reinforces the fact that the patternmaker must
consider how garment pieces such as
bodice, sleeves, collar, and facings work
together as a unit, as well as how the garment is put on. Fitting tips are given for
several styles to correct fit problems before
the first sample garment is cut. Emphasis
is placed on the marking and labeling of
pattern pieces, and the listing of the pieces
and notions on pattern charts. Students
indicated that this approach was the most
effective, enabling them to understand the
pattern making process and apply what
they learned to patterns of their own
design. To further enhance students' education, learning activities, practice problems, and a glossary are provided.
Women's bodies come in all different
shapes and sizes, and an effort has been
made to accommodate this variety with
detailed size charts and measurement
tables so that students are not limited to
designing for the "perfect" size-8 figure.
While preparing this book, I conducted
exhaustive research on the body measurements of women of different weights,
heights, ages, and ethnicities. With this
information, I developed size charts that
reflect the average proportions of today's
women. These charts should be helpful
for pattern makers and manufacturers try-

ing to fit the modem-day publie. The garment styles are shown on drawings of a
Misses' size-12 body form, instead of an
elongated fashion figure, to give students
a more accurate idea of the actual proportions of the finished garment in an average sIze.
My goals in writing this textbook are
to:

Explain the techniques of patternmaking and make them easy to understand.


Include tips for improving fit.
Include considerations
turing process.

of the manufac-

Include a wide variety of textile uses,


styles, and sizes.
Help students attain their goals as professionals in the fashion industry.
I hope I've achieved these goals and that
this book serves as a useful guide to those
seeking, or already possessing, careers in
the fashion industry as pattern makers.
Happy pattern making!

Acknowledgments
I would not have written this book without the encouragement of many students
at West Valley College and my co-workers
at Marian Clayden Ine. Some of the
more vocal advocates include Justine Ly,
Trang DeHaesleer,
Ginna Macaraeg,
Anu Godsey, Laura Brosius, Tina Bui,
LaRhonda
Harris, Debbie Lewis, and
Maria Luisa Castillo De Gulick. I wish to
thank all of my students at West Valley
College, who peppered me with questions

that required me to come up with answers;


as well as those whose designs challenged
my skills, and those who shared their own
expertise from careers in the fashion
industry in other countries.
Sally Aitken and Kaee Min of the
Fashion Design and Apparel Technology
Department at West Valley College have
been very encouraging during my time as
an instructor, and they helped convince
me to write this book. Thank you for your
support, advice, and friendship, without
which I could not have completed this
project!
Thanks are also due to Marian and
Roger Clayden, who employed me for so
many years and provided a family atmosphere in which their employees could feel
comfortable and flourish. I learned so
much while under their wings, a great deal
of which went into this book. I can't
thank them both enough.

I wish to thank my wonderful husband, Matt Knowles, whose professional


photography helped to illustrate this text,
and whose computer knowledge helped
me learn the programs necessary to complete this textbook. Thank you, too, for
putting up with me during this very long
process!
I consider Mr. Hector Edward Lopez
to be my patternmaking
and teaching
mentor. He was one of my instructors at
the Fashion Institute
of Design and
Merchandising in San Francisco, California. I have tried to emulate his patternmaking prowess and his engaging, professional manner as an instructor-but
I
don't think I'll ever be as suave as he is!
Fairchild Books has given me the
honor of having my work published, for
which I cannot thank them enough. Olga
Kontzias, Executive Editor, has been a
supporter since I first contacted Fairchild

and was instrumental in seeing this project to fruition. Olga also put me in touch
with Beth Cohen, Joseph
Miranda,
Elizabeth Marotta, and others at Fairchild
who have been there to keep me going,
help me stay organized, and pull me
through the most stressful times. Thank
you, all! Reviewers selected by the publisher were also velY helpful. They include
Missy Bye, University
of Minnesota;
Betty Davie, Kent State University; and
Elaine Zarse, Mount Mary College.
To my family, friends and models,
thank you for your continued interest in
my project, for participating in size measurement research, and for listening to my
book updates with eagerness instead of
boredom. From now on I'll be able to
converse on a variety of topics rather than
just the contents of this and my menswear
book.

Introduction to Patternmaking

Patternmaking = pattern drafting, pattern draping, and flat


patternmaking

Figure 1.1

Pattern drafting is a design process that


involves taking measurements from a person's body or a body form, adding ease to
these measurements
(usually), and then
transferring these measurements
onto a
paper pattern. This is done using pencils,
tape measures, rulers, curves, scissors, and
tape. The finished paper pattern is placed
on top of fabric as a guide to cutting out
garment pieces.

Figure 1.2

Pattern draping is a design process that


involves pinning and marking pieces of
fabric that have been placed on a body
form, or a human body, into the desired
shape. These "draped" pieces of fabric are
then corrected and transferred onto paper
using tracing wheels, pencils, rulers,
curves, scissors, and tape. The finished
paper pattern is placed on top of fabric as
a guide to cutting out garment pieces.

Figure 1.3

Flat patternmaking is a design process in


which a base block, or sloper, is used to
create a pattern for a new style. The sloper

front bodice
sloper
size 12

is traced, then set aside. The traced copy is


transferred into a new style using one or
more pattern making techniques. These
techniques include adding fullness, contouring, pivoting, and slash and spread.

Figure 1.4

Patternmaking has come a long way since


people first started cutting shapes out of
fabric instead of just wrapping large sections of it around themselves. As people
made clothing that conformed more closely to the human body, they found that fabrics that do not stretch need to be shaped
by placing darts, pleats, gathers, or stylelines at strategic areas, thus enabling the
fabric to ftt smoothly over the body's contours. This is especially true of the adult
female form, which has many convex
(outward) and concave (inward) curves
throughout its three-dimensional shape.

Pattern making for


the Fashion Industry
Patternmaking
techniques
have developed over the centuries to convert fabrics
and animal skins into clothing to cover the
human body. In the previous and current

centuries, machines have been used to


create patterns. Before the advent of computers, patterns were always made by
hand. The introduction of body scanners
to record minute detail about individual
body shape may revolutionize the way
clothing is produced. In the future, an
individual's measurements
may be sent
directly to a clothing manufacturer, where
they will be used to create a custom pattern that will guide the cutting of the garment-ail done by computer.
Currently, the majority of clothing
worn by people in industrialized nations is
mass produced in third world countries.
Clothing manufacturers
often produce
garments offshore to reduce costs to the
manufacturer, which in turn reduces the
retail cost to the consumer. The fashion
industry has had its share of bad press
about the conditions
under which its
products are made. Manufacturers should
do their utmost to ensure that their workers and contractors are treated fairly and
with respect, as demonstrated by reasonable compensation and hours, and decent
working conditions.
The patternmaking
process starts
with the fashion designer's idea. A ftrst
pattern is drafted, draped, flat patterned,
or created on a computer. Next, a ftrst

sample of the new style is cut and sewn.


The first sample is fitted to a body form or
a live model. Changes are almost always
made to the first pattern, either to perfect
the fit or to adjust the style of the garment.
A second sample is then cut, sewn, and fitted. Further changes may be made, and
more sample garments may be cut and
sewn, until the designer, patternmaker, or
in-house merchandiser
and company
owner are satisfied. At this point, more
samples are made for in-house salespeople
and sales representatives who show the
garments to prospective buyers for retail
establishments; or, the manufacturer may
sell directly to the public. Once a style is
deemed worthy of going into production,
the pattern is sent to the production patternmaker, who prepares the pattern for
grading into a size range. The production pattern must be as perfect as possible
so that errors are not transferred into production garments, which number into the
hundreds or thousands for large companies. This is only one way of producing
patterns; each company has its own system. In smaller companies, fewer employees may be responsible for more than one
part of the production process. Some
companies are so small that the designer
does all of the pattern work, and sometimes even the cutting and sewing!

Objective
This chapter introduces the student of
fashion design and patternmaking to the
industry terms, tools, and equipment.
Basic information about the type of paper
used for patternmaking,
fabric grainlines, pattern labeling, seam allowance
and hem allowance, pattern marking,
grading a size range, and the names of the
body form parts prepare students to proceed through the rest of the chapters.
Students who have an extensive knowledge of sewing using commercial patterns will find that the fashion industry
has its own standards for widths of seam
allowance, pattern marking (such as
notches and punch holes), and timesaving construction methods. For example,
the seam allowance depth on the neckline
of a pattern produced by a fashion manu
facturer is narrow, usually 1/4 inch, to eliminate the need to "grade" the seam
allowance by cutting the seam allowance
layers with scissors. A knowledge of

sewing techniques is very valuable for a


patternmaker, but the beginning student
can be successfully taught patternmaking
and sewing simultaneously ifhe or she has
an aptitude for working with the hands
and is able to visualize patterns and garments three dimensionally.

You will need to be familiar with several


terms before you start the lessons in this
book. Terms included in the glossary
appear in boldface type at the first text
mention. Additional terms may require a
longer explanation or a visual example to
be fully understood. The explanation of
these terms comprises the rest of this
chapter.

Figure 1.5

It is important to understand and use fabric grainlines correctly, otherwise your garments will hang improperly and will twist.
Have you ever bought a garment that had
sideseams that twisted toward the front or
back? Well, a good guess is that the garment was not "cut on grain." When fabric
is woven on a loom, the first yarns placed

edges of the fabric is featured at hems. A


fabric hangs differently if cut on the cross
grain, especially if there are gathers or
pleats. The gathers or pleats do not lay
flat; instead they puff out away from the
body. This is usually acceptable in skirts
but should be kept in mind when designing with borders.

pattern grainlines
are always placed
parallel to the straight
grain and selvages

Bias Grainline

Another way to cut garments out of fabric


is to use the bias grainline. If a perfect
cross grain (torn edge or pulled thread) is
laid on a perfect straight grain (torn edge
or pulled thread), you will have a diagonal fold that is a perfect 45-degree angle
to the straight or cross grain. This 45degree angle line is called true bias. A
garment that is cut with the true bias running up and down on the body stretches
and clings to the body. This is one way to
make a garment size fit a wider range
of figure types, as knits do, but it uses
more fabric per garment and can be difficult to sew without ripples or stress lines
on the seams.
on the loom are called the warp yarns or
warp grain. Another name for these yarns
is the straight grain. These yarns run the
length of the fabric, so if you have 3 yards
of fabric, the warp grain yarns are 3 yards
long. The warp grain has the most
strength in a woven fabric and the least
amount of stretch, because there is tension
on the yarns when they are set in the loom.
In garments made of woven fabric, the
warp or straight grain usually runs up and
down the body. Garments hang well when
cut out of fabric this way as long as the pattern pieces have been made correctly.
Cross Grainline

After the loom has been set with warp


yarns, the next step is to add or weave the
weft yarns or weft grain. Another name for
these yarns is the cross grain. These yarns
run across the width of the fabric from side
to side or "selvage to selvage" and are at a
90-degree or right angle to the straight
grain. The selvages are the tightly woven
edges that run along the outer length of a
bolt of fabric and are parallel to the
straight grain.
Occasionally a garment is cut with the
weft or cross grain running up and down
instead of around the body. This might be
done when a border design on one or both

Figure

1.6

Grainlines are drawn on pattern pieces to


ensure that they will be placed on a fabric
in a way that enables the garment to be
cut properly. The grain line is drawn as a
straight line that runs from edge to edge
of the pattern piece. It includes arrows to
distinguish it from other lines on the pattern. The grainline can be drawn in various places on the pattern, depending on
whether the garment is to be cut on the
straight, cross, or bias grainline. When
placing the pattern on a piece of fabric,
the grain line drawn on the pattern piece is
always laid parallel to the straight grain
and selvages of the fabric.

Figure

1.7

Most fashion manufacturers expect to


make multiple copies of their designs,
and the patternmaker must remember
what goes into the production of such
garments. The fabric probably will be
stacked in several layers or "ply" (one
layer = 1 ply), with a marker on top. A
marker is a piece of paper the same width
as the fabric from edge to edge (selvage

,=~..
~'j
2.004
,0

to selvage) onto which pattern pieces


have been traced. The pattern pieces are
placed in such a way as to use the least
amount of fabric per garment. When you
draw grainlines on pattern pieces, be sure
the lines go from edge to edge. Then
when the pattern piece is placed on
marker paper, the grainline can easily be
lined up with the grid of letters and numbers on the paper.
When fabric is stacked in several layers with a marker on top and with pattern
pieces close together, cutting can be difficult. Special electric tools or computerized cutters are used to cut through the
layers. Because of this, you should refrain
from making patterns with very odd
shapes, extremely
sharp points,
and
cutouts that would make the production
process difficult if not impossible.

Pattern Labeling
Pattern labeling helps the people who use
your patterns. Each pattern should have a
style number, which usually consists of 4
or 5 digits. These digits generally have
some significance; for instance, the first
number may indicate the year or season
for which the pattern is made; the second
number, whether the garment is a dress,

- ~1

!
I

top, or jacket; and the last two or three


numbers, the style itself.
When creating first patterns, it's best
to write the name of the pattern piece,
such as "bodice front" or "collar," on the
pattern for easier recognition. You should
also indicate the size of the garment, usually a number such as "12" with a line
under it, which means "cut." Beneath this,
you should note the number of pieces to
be cut, such as "1," followed by the word
for the type of fabric, such as "self." The
garment industry uses words such as "self'
or "lining" to designate different fabrics
without having to write the whole name of
the fabric, such as "wooljersey,"on
each
pattern
piece. Usually manufacturers
make up stamps with these words on them
for use in labeling pattern pieces. Each
pattern should be accompanied by a pattern chart, also called a "pattern card" or
"face card," which acts as a legend or key
explaining these words. The pattern chart
also lists the individual pattern pieces so
that someone using the pattern knows
what they are and whether any are missing. Pattern charts usually list the notions
a garment requires and provide a sketch of
the garment to identify it. There are many
examples of completed pattern charts
throughout this book. You will also find a

1002
back shirt \
12
1- self on
the fold ~
.0

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OJ C
.:.:
.o C

OJ

Q.Q.

shirt may have a black collar and black


belt. Even if the grey and black fabrics
are from the same mill and have the same
fiber content, they are still different colors on different bolts. The pattern pieces
to be cut from the grey fabric (self)
would be labeled "self' and the pattern
pieces to be cut from the black fabric
(contrast) would be labeled "contrast."
The word "contrast" is usually written in
blue ink. If another fabric were used on
the outside of the garment, such as a
white necktie, that pattern piece would
be labeled "contrast 2," and patterns cut
from the black fabric would now be
labeled "contrast 1" to indicate the use of
more than one contrasting fabric on the
garment. The words "contrast 2" can be
written in brown ink.

1002
front shirt

12
2- self

0-0
-0 0

~.

OJ CD

co -

1002
scarf
all sizes
2- self

;::+
en ~

.-

1002
sleeve
12
2-=5elf

1002
riqht back belt

12
2- self

1002
left back belt

12
2- self

I- .~ -

button
tab
stitchline

c~

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N:JO

aco.
-IDID

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1002
collar tab
all sizes
2- self
1- int'!

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blank pattern chart in Appendix E that


may be copied for your own patterns.

Self
Figure 1.8

To help the people who work with patterns, a color code system is used by some
manufacturers. This helps to differentiate
the pattern pieces that are cut from different fabrics. The fabric from which most of
the outer garment is cut is called "self' fabric, and these pattern pieces are usually
labeled in black ink.
Contrast
Figure 1.9

If more than one fabric is used on the


outside of the garment, the other fabrics
are called contrast. For example, a grey

Lining and Interfacing


Figure 1.10

Lining is any fabric used on the inside of a


garment that hides construction.
Alternately, it may be used to reduce bulk in a
garment, such as under the collar or on
the back in the vest style shown here.
Lining pattern pieces should be labeled
in red ink with the word "lining." You
might use a stiffener fabric called interfacing inside pieces such as the collar or
the front to give them more body and
help them retain their shape. Pattern
pieces that are to be cut in interfacing fabric should be labeled in green ink with the
abbreviation "int'f."
Interlining and Underlining
Figure 1.11

Some garments have an inner layer oflining, called an interlining, that is sandwiched between the self fabric layer and
the lining on the inside of the garment. An
interlining might be used to add extra
weight and stability to the garment and
provide a layer to which boning is
attached. Or, it might be used as insulation in cold weather wear, such as batting
in a ski jacket. The word "interlining" is
color coded in orange ink. An underlining fabric layer might also be used in some
garments to add stability to a flimsy self
fabric, or to provide a layer to which interfacing is hand sewn in a tailored jacket.
The word "underlining" is color coded in
yellow ink.
Fashion manufacturers
have developed their own systems for labeling and

0'

n:

1002
back shirt
12
1- self on
the fold

1002
front shirt
12
2- self

_
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OJ
C

-D 'c
o
Cll
0..0..
o

1002
scarf
all sizes
2- contrast 2

1002
12
right back belt 2- contrast 1

1002
le!t back belt

, I

12
2-COntrast 1

button
1002

1002
collar tab
all sizes
2- contrast 1
1- int'!

tab
stitchline

sleeve tab ~
all sizes
4- contrast 1
2- int'f

1003

12
2-imIng

1003

~2-liiiiii9

1003
upper
collar

~
2- contrast
2- int'f

12

the fabric layers


of this bodice
are as follows:
outermost layer = self
2nd layer = underlining
3rd layer = interlining
with boning sewn
on seams
4th layer = lining, which
is the layer that goes
next to the model's skin

Figure

color coding pattern pieces. A color code


is provided below. You may customize
your own color code system.

Standard Color Code System

Self

First patterns or original drafts are usually drafted onto a lightweight paper that
creases easily for truing darts or pleats.
First patterns may be "half' patterns, as
shown in the sketch. In this example, you
would draft one sleeve but write "2-self'
to cut a right and a left sleeve, and then
draft one half of a front bodice and write
"I-self on the fold." The sketch shows the
fabric folded with selvage edges together
and the front bodice pattern piece placed
with the center front against the fabric
fold. This results in a full front bodice
with right and left sides attached in the
center. To indicate this type of cut layout,
draw a foldline against center front.

black ink or pencil

Contrast #1

blue

Contrast #1

Contrast #2

= brown

Contrast #2

Contrast #3

purple

Contrast #3

Contrast #4

= pink

Contrast #4

Lining

1.12

Lining

red

Interlining
Underlining

= orange
= yellow

Interfacing

#1

= green

Interfacing

#2

light green

Figure

Interlining
Underlining

=
=

Interfacing

#1

Interfacing

#2

1.13

To enable garment pieces to be sewn


together,
excess fabric, called seam
allowance, is provided beyond the stitchlines. Seam allowance varies in width
depending
on how the seams are finished. Most fashion manufacturers
use
1/2 inch for average seams on garments.
Seam allowance of lj4 inch is used at
enclosed seams or very curvy seams such
as necklines and facings. The patternmaker might allow a 3/4 inch seam

L~
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ca

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0)
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1004
back skirt
12
2- self

"

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u
c
<1l

;;:

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ca
E
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"

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allowance to make it easier to sew in a


zipper. Seam widths vary according to
both the type of machine used and the
type of fabric.

Figure 1.14

If a garmen t is sewn together


using a five-thread overlock
machine, the patternmaker
might add 1/2 inch or 3/8
inch seam allowance. The
reason for this variance is
that the five-thread machine
sews a 3/8-inch wide seam
but it also has a blade that
trims fraying edges beyond
3/8 inch. The garment may
need 1/8 inch of fraying
threads trimmed while the
garment is sewn.

Figure 1.15

Garments that are sewn with three threads


on an overlock machine produce seams
that are 3/16 to 1/4 inch wide, so the patternmaker will probably leave 1/4 inch seam

seam allowance shaped


to be pressed back

allowance on edges to be sewn with this


type of machine. Three-thread overlock
seams are commonly used on knits. Knits
do not ravel, therefore, the raw edges do
not need to be trimmed by the blade.
Seam Allowance at Pattern Corners

squared
seam corners

dress, or pants, hem allowance is added


beyond the finished edges of the garment. There are many different types of
hem finishings, and the measurement
of the hem allowance can vary accordingly. Following are just a few types of
hem finishes.
.

The seam allowance shape at pattern corners can be determined by different factors:
Figure 1.16

1. To simplify the cutting process, seam


allowance shapes in the corners may
be extensions of the curves of the pattern. The tool used to cut the garment
can continue its course.
Figure 1.17

2. To simplify the sewing process, seam


allowance corners may be folded and
shaped in the direction the seam will
be pressed or ironed.
~)
Figure 1.18
~,

3. Another option to simplify the sewing


process is to square the seams. In
some instances, this will show the
depth of the seam allowance, reducing the need for seam allowance
notches. This method also matches
seams that sew to each other, from the
stitchline out to the edge of the fabric.

To finish the raw edges of fabric at the


outer edges of garments, such as the
bottom edge of a blouse, jacket, coat,

Figure 1.19

The narrowest hem finish is the roll hem,


which can be sewn with three threads
on an overlock machine by setting the
stitches very close together and tightening
the tension of the upper looper. Some
machines, such as those made by Merrow,
are designed to produce this type of decorative overedge or pearl edge. Unless the
fabric frays, only 1/8 to 3/16 inch is used in
the hem depth. Fraying necessitates trimming with the blade of the machine. With
sheer and very lightweight fabrics, roll
hems produce a ripple effect if the fabric is
stretched while being sewn.

Figure 1.20

Baby hems, which are also very narrow,


use from 3/16 to 1/4 inch in the hem depth.
They can be sewn using a straight-stitch
machine and a special presser foot
attachment, which rolls the fabric as it is
sewn. Like roll hems, baby hems can also
produce a ripple effect in sheer or lightweight fabrics if the fabric is stretched
while being sewn.

Figure 1.21

Figure 1.23

Rolled hems that are 1/4 and 1/4 inch or


1/2 and 1/2 inch are often used on casual
clothing, especially at the bottom of
shirts, full skirts, or jeans (1/2 and 1/2
inch). These hems are sewn on a straightstitch machine and can be used on lightto heavy-weight fabrics.

To produce a more
expensive look for
a hem, use a blindstitch machine or
hand sew the hem
so that you do not
see stitches on the
outside of the garment.
The
hem
depth should be 1
to 2 inches.

Figure 1.22

Knit fabrics may have hems that range in


depth from 1/2 to 2 inches, depending on
the style and type of the garment. Usually
the raw edge of the fabric is folded to the
desired depth and then stitched. A coverstitch machine is used, which shows two
or three rows of straight stitches on the
outside of the garment and has an overcast
of stitches on the inside of the garment,
finishing off the raw edge.
Another way to finish knit fabrics is
to use a three-thread overlock machine
on the raw edges, turn up the hem the
desired depth, and use a straight-stitch
machine with woolly nylon thread in the
bobbin (so the stitchline will stretch).
This produces a similar effect to a CQverstitch machine.

free
hanging
lining
used on:
coats,
capes,
dresses,
~ pants,
~ skirts
3

Jacket and
Coat Hems
Figure 1.24

A jacket that has


a lining attached
should have a llj2Figure 1.24
to 2-inch deep hem,
and the lining should finish 1/4 to 1/2 inch
shorter than the outer fabric. A coat,
cape, dress, pant, or skirt with a freehanging lining should have a 11/2- to 2inch deep hem, and the lining should
finish 1/2 to 1 inch shorter than the outer
fabric.

Note: For full skirts with curved


hems, use shallow hem folds.
Otherwise, puckers will form
because the raw edge is too full to
lay flat.

.....

-6.

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\
back
patch
pocket

"0

I>-

0807

0807

0807

0807

back
skirt

side
back
skirt
12
2- self

side
front
skirt
12
2- self

front
skirt
12

R
2-self

"c-

1:seif
on the
fold

1303
back pant

12

punch holes
marked 112"
from dart points

apex or
bust point

2- self

~
;:;:

punch holes
marked l/s"
from stitchlines
at center of
double ended
darts

Figure 1.26
Figure 1.25

The fashion industry uses nonverbal communication, in the form of notches, on


garments. Notches are clips or slices into
the seam allowance on a pattern or on a
garment piece. They tell the person
sewing the garment whether the garment
piece is intended for the front or back. If
several garment pieces look alike, notches
can indicate which pieces match together
and in what order (indicated by the addition of one more notch to each seam
going around the body).
Notches also mark the intake of a
dart, pleat, or tuck and can be used to control where gathers are placed. Notches
may be used to indicate seam allowance
width; however, not all manufacturers use
them for this purpose. It can be costly to
have several notches on each pattern
piece. Although one notch is cut through
all the layers at once, there is the danger of
the notches being cut too deep, so use
them sparingly.

Punch holes are tiny holes that may be


used to indicate pocket or dart placement.
They are marked in the fabric using an
awl. Because it is a hole in the garment,
the punch hole needs to be placed where it
will be hidden inside the garment. To
mark the placement of a pocket, draw the
pocket outline on the body piece and
mark punch holes 1/8 inch inside the pocket
outline. Punch holes are marked on pattern pieces with a screwpunch, which cuts
out a tiny hole.
To mark a double-ended dart, the
middle section of the dart intake or dart
excess is marked with punch holes lj8 inch
from the dart stitchlines (or with one
punch hole 1/8 inch from the stitchline
and one punch hole at the dart's center).
The ends of the dart taper to sharp points
and are marked with the punch hole lj2
inch from the dart point. You must circle
the punch holes to differentiate them from
other dots or marks that may be on your
pattern.

Grading

a Size Range

Figure 1.27

Grading patterns makes it possible to offer a range of sizes to


your customers. Patterns can
be graded using a see-through
ruler.
Figure 1.28

A grading machine may also


be used to grade a size range.
It is faster and more exact than
the ruler method.
Figure 1.29

Some companies
use computers to grade patterns. Of
course this is much more
costly, but many manufacturers have computer systems to
perform this function.

I~('

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20

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It
14

1:
23
'"

1. Heavy paper (manila paper) for slopers and production patterns


2. Muslin
3. Clear tape approximately lj2 inch wide
4. Straight metal rulers of various lengths: 36,48, and 60 inches
5. Pattern paper: solid paper in white or other light colors
6. Tissue paper: lightweight, pliable paper used to test the fit of
patterns
7. Pattern hole punch, which makes a 3/4-inch diameter hole
through which a pattern hook is put
8. Tape measure
9. Straight pins, size #17
10. Ninety-degree-angle
metal ruler or L-square, the longer the
better
11. Hip curve, of metal or plastic, also called "vary form curve rule"
12. See-through plastic ruler, 18 by 2 inches, with a lis-inch grid
spacmg
13. Pattern hooks, on which a completed pattern is stored, with a
pattern chart in front
14. Needlepoint tracing wheel
15. Awl, used to make tiny holes through fabric when marking
punch-hole placement

16. Screw punch, used to make tiny punch holes in paper patterns
when marking punch-hole placement
17. Pushpins
18. Weights, used to hold pattern pieces while being traced or to
keep markers in place
19. Marker paper: white paper having a grid printed on it with
letters and numbers; also called dot paper
20. Notcher
21. Hard pencils, which leave a finer line than soft ones
22. Pattern snips, used to cut heavy pattern paper
23. Rotary cutter: used with a surface that can be cut on, such as
lj16-inch thick sheet of Styrene
24. Colored pencils or pens for color coding and marking corrections on patterns
25. Fabric scissors: to be used only for fabric so that blades stay
sharp longer
26. Paper scissors: to be used only for paper, which dulls the
blades more quickly than fabric
27. Circle template, for drawing button or snap placement on patterns
28. Plastic curves in various shapes
29. Triangle marked with degree angles

Figure 1.31

A body form or a person to act as a fit


model is necessary for patternmaking.
It
is easier to work with a body form rather
than a live person. You can't poke pins
into a person, and their arms can't be
removed to make certain patterns easier
to draft or drape. However, a live person
can tell you if something is uncomfortable and can sit, walk, bend over, and
raise the arms-all very helpful when test
fitting a garment to see whether someone
can move in it. If you want to design a
dress or bodice that pushes the breasts
up and flattens them, then you'll need
a live fit model. Most dress forms cannot
flatten at the bust. Chapter 14 covers
special body forms and live fit models
for contoured styles. It is best to use a
body form that has legs so you can make
pants, bodysuits,
and other garments

that cover the lower limbs. If a body


form with legs is not available, you
will need to find a live model to fit
these styles.
Parts of the Body Form
Figure 1.32 shows the front of the body
form and Figure 1.33, a side view. Figure
1.34 shows the back of the body form.
Pattern Paper

Some pattern makers use marker paper


for first patterns. A solid paper in white
or any other light color may also be
used. A lightweight paper that enables
you to see marks through the paper
when it is folded is preferred.
Tissue Paper

This paper is very


the fit of a pattern
in fabric. Because
over curves almost

handy when testing


draft before it is cut
it is so pliable, it fits
like fabric.

Figure 1.31

shoulder
tip
+-armhole

.2

plat

upper chest

Q;

+- bust level
(largest part
of upper torso)

n.
n.
::J

shoulder tip

bottom of
armhole
plate
Q;
n.
-+
n. bust level
::J
(largest
part of
upper
torso)

(J)

~.

0-

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'l>l"3
(Jl

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(J)

(J)

Q;
;;:

Q;
;;:

+- hip level
(largest part
of lower torso)

.Q

+-apex or
bust point
+-rib cage
level
+-waist level
(smallest part
of torso)

.8

.Q

+- hip level
(largest part
of lower torso)

J'

crotch
level

in
'3"

III

+-mid-knee
level

Q
(Jl

a:
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l>l
'3"
(Jl

calf

+- shoulder
blade level

.8

.8

mid-knee
level

Q;

n.

+-

bust level
(largest part
of upper torso)

::J

.8
(J)

Q;
;;:

.Q

.-

hip level
(largest part
of lower torso)

Button Diameter Size in Inches and Line Number (1 line = .025")


Note: There are differences between button vendors in line sizes.

7Q 0 0 0

1/2h 5/Qh 3Q

(10 line) (12/13 line) (14/15/16 line) (18

r )

1/2 I~ch
(20 line)

Ine

000
11/16 inch
(27/28 line)

3/4 inch
(30 line)

13/16 inch
(32/33 line)

9/16 Inch
(22 line)

7/8 inch
(35/36 line)

5/8 Inch
(24/25 line)

15/16 inch
(37/38 line)

straight grain and cross grain. It is used


as a substitute for the fabric that will be
used in the final garment (fashion fabric), to drape or test fit. Several
weights of muslin are available, to represent various weights of woven fabrics, but it cannot substitute for very
soft fabrics, especially when used on
the bias grainline. If your fashion fabric is one that stretches, such as a knit,
muslin cannot be a substitute.

Buttons and zippers are some of the


notions used on garments. Figure 1.35
illustrates different types and sizes of
buttons.
Figure 1.36 shows several
types of zippers.
Summary

1 inch
(40 line)

1 1/16 inch
(42/43 line)

~
dome

M
V

O
o

11/8inch
(45 line)

~O

quarter ball

half ball

1 3/16 inch
(47/48 line)

000
Heavy Pattern Paper

This paper has several names, including


manila paper, tag board, oak tag, and
hard paper. It comes in various widths and
weights, similar to a manila folder. It is
durable, with stiff edges that are easy to
trace around. I t is used for slopers and
production patterns, which are traced to
make markers.
Muslin

Muslin is a lOO-percent cotton fabric with


a weave that is easily seen, on both the

The information in this chapter will


help prepare you as you begin your
training as a patternmaker.
As you
work through the chapters in this text,
you will take what you've learned in
this chapter and apply it to the pattern
styles you create. Because each chapter
and each pattern style in this text
builds on previously learned material,
you should not skip chapters.
An important aspect of patternmaking involves "what" or "who"
serves as your fit model. A patternmaker must have a full-scale body
form or a live fit model readily available for fitting patterns. The patternmaker's choice of fit model is crucial in
determining the garment's end use. To
become a custom dressmaker, he or she
may use a potential customer (live
model) as a fit model and may wish to
work with a variety of body shapes. If the
patternmaker wishes to work for a fashion
manufacturer
that produces
standardsized clothing, a fit model should be chosen with measurements
that match a
standard sample size so the garments fit as
many people as possible.
The size charts included in Chapter 2,
Table 2.1, can help guide you in picking a
body form or a live model that reflects
realistic proportions
for to day's average
woman. People have continued to grow
larger over the centuries, particularly in
the past few decades. Women also wear
different undergarments
than they did in

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00

s
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years past, when pointy bras and waistcinchers or girdles were the norm. The
supposed "ideal" proportions of 36-inch
bust, 26-inch waist, 36-inch hip may be
pleasing to the eye but they do not reflect
today's average figure. Some women measure their hips across their "hip bones."
However, the largest circumference of the
hips and buttocks is often lower on the
body. You will need to find the largest cirClt7Tiference of the lower torso for the correct
hip measurement.
Questions
1. When using
ment pieces,
parallel to
marker half
from selvage

a marker to cut out garis the fabric folded in half


the selvages, and the
the width of the fabric
to selvage?

E
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(/)

2. What does the word "ply" refer to?


3. How may fabric that does not stretch
and that is cut with the straight grain
running up and down the body be
made to fit closely and smoothly over
the contours of the adult female body?
4. Will a fabric that does not stretch on
the straight grain, stretch at least a
small amount on the bias grainline?
5. Does the cross grain of a piece of fabric
run parallel or at a 90-degree angle to
the selvages?
6. Does the grainline drawn on a pattern
piece run parallel or at a 90-degree
angle to the fabric's selvages when it is
laid out to be cut?

Taking Measurements, Body


Forms, and Live Models

The ability to take accurate measurements from body forms and live models
is an important skill that all patternmakers must learn_ Working with a body
form is less complicated
than working
with a live model. Body forms can be
pinned into, drawn on, are always available, and never gain or lose weight. Live
models must be treated gently, their
modesty needs to be respected, and they
may gain or lose weight; however, your
final garment is produced for a live person to wear. Live models are velY valuable as fit models because they can move
about, sit, walk, bend, and tell you verbally if the garment you have made is
comfortable and practical.
U sing the instructions in this chapter,
you will be able to measure fit models of
any Junior's, Misses', or Women's size.
The designs shown in this textbook are
drawn from a Misses' size 12 set of measurements. However, some of the styles
shown may be appropriate for Junior's or
Women's sizes. The instructions in this
textbook will give you the knowledge to
proportion the pattern styles to the size
you are working with. Several charts of
measurements are included in Chapter 3
to help you draft or drape the size of your
choice. If your model's
size is not
included in the charts, just look at the
increments between sizes and add or subtract these to arrive at the measurement
for the size you need. Look at the size
charts included
later in this chapter
before selecting a body form or live fit
model with which to work. If you wish to

be able to grade a range of average sizes


from your sample size, pick a fit model
that closely resembles one of the sizes in
the charts mentioned.

Note: For grading purposes, it is


best to work with a sample size
closest to the middle of the size
range you wish to offer. If you wish
to make custom clothing for a
client or for yourself, it doesn't
matter what size your model is.

A professional pattern maker must have a


full-scale model for fitting patterns and
garments. The pattern maker must take
very precise measurements
from the fit
model and record them for future use.
These measurements are used to draft or
drape very basic pattern pieces called
slopers, which are the subject of Chapters
3 and 4. The slopers and the fit model
measurements are then used to make flat
patterns
for almost unlimited
styles.
Some styles or the textiles used to make
them require pattern draping, which is
covered in selected chapters. Measurements must be taken from a body form or
live model carefully, so mistakes will not
be transferred into the patterns, causing
fit problems. If you wish to make patterns to fit yourself, have someone else
take your measurements, because it is difficult to take your own measurements
accurately.

Checklist for Taking


Measurements
1. Select a body form or live model as
your fit model. You will need a body
form with legs if you wish to make patterns for such garments as pants,
shorts, swimsuits, and bodysuits, or
find a live model to measure for fitting
these items.
2. To prepare a body form for measuring,
you will need the following items:
straight pins, narrow ribbon or twill
tape, an accurate flexible tape measure, and rulers that are 48 to 60 inches
long or a carpenter's level (to check
horizontal levels).
3. To prepare a live model for measuring, you will need the following:
straight pins, narrow elastic, thread
for tailor tacks or chalk, an accurate
flexible tape measure, and rulers that
are 48 to 60 inches long or a carpenter's level (to check horizontal levels). Your live model should wear
appropriate
undergarments
(a bra
and underpants that give the wearer a
natural shape for everyday clothing),
with either a full bodysuit or one that
reaches to mid-thigh, which may be
marked and sewn with elastic.
4. A copy of the measurements from this
chapter, to be filled in and saved for
future use. These measurements will
be referred to throughout the textbook.

Note: Because panty hose or tights


usually have tight waistbands and
distort the waistline measurement,
your model should not wear them
during the measuring process.

Preparing the Body Form


Figure 2.1

1. Place a pin 1 inch below the armhole


plate at the side seam to mark the
underarm/side
seam intersection.
Leave this pin in the form for reference.
Figure 2.2

2. Place a pin at the edge of the shoulder


tip/armhole intersection. This point is
located at the shoulder seam where
the shoulder tip just begins to curve
downward toward the armhole plate.
I t is not at the top edge of the armhole
plate, which is usually placed about
1/4 inch below the curve of the shoulder tip.
3. Place a pin directly across from the
screw in the armplate, measured 1/4
inch into the fabric away from the
plate-on the front, only-to mark the
front mid-armhole point.
Figure 2.3

4. Establish the bustlevel. On the front of


the form is the apex or bust point posi-

tion. This is marked along the princess seam on the right and left sides of
the form at the fullest part of the bust
mound or curve, which is at the largest
circumference of the bustline. Place
pins at each apex/bust point and leave
them in the form. Be sure both pins
are the same height from the floor.
Next, take a length of narrow ribbon
or twill tape and pin it from apex to
apex without slack. Pin the ribbon
completely around the form, parallel
to the floor, to establish the bust level.
5. Establish the waistline. On most body
forms, the waistline is marked by a
woven tape. If your body form is not
marked, measure the form to find the
smallest circumference
between the
bust and hips, and pin ribbon or tape
around the form at this level. Waistlines are not necessarily perfectly parallel to the floor. On adult females,
the waistline may dip a little at center
back. This is normal; however, you
should check that the waistline at the
side seams measures an equal distance
from the floor on the right and left
sides. The waistline seam is measured
at the center of the waistline tape.
6. Establish the hip level. Find the largest
circumference
of the hips and buttocks by measuring at several levels of
the lower torso. Once you've found
the level of the largest circumference,
mark it with ribbon or tape parallel to
the floor to establish the hip level.
This level will not necessarily touch
the "hip bones"; it may be lower,
nearer to the crotch level.
Preparing

Live Models

Your model should wear a bra and underpants under a full bodysuit that can be
marked, pinned, and sewn with elastic to
establish the bust level, waistline, and the
hip level. Panty hose and tights have snug
waistbands that distort the waist measurement and should not be worn.
Figure 2.4

1. Place a pin, or use chalk or a tailor tack


(thread looped through fabric with
both ends sticking out) to mark a spot
1 inch below the model's underarm
along her body. The model should not
lift her arm when you mark this position and also when measuring to this

point, because the underarm hollows


out as the arm lifts, which will distort
the measurement.
2. Place a pin below the model's underarm on her arm. This placement is used
for measuring the arm. The pin placement for the arm is dropped less from
the underarm than the pin placement
for the body to enable the sleeve cap
area to fit into the armhole with the
correct amount of ease. Many women
have a large biceps circumference in
proportion
to their bust circumference. To fit a sleeve with the correct
amount of cap ease, the cap height
must be shortened at the underarm
area. Only on models with slender
arms or large bustlines, or both, may
the underarm mark on the arm match
the underarm mark on the body. For
average-sized women (see Table 2.1,
page 34), measure pin placement lj4
inch below the underarm
on the
model's arm.
Figure 2.5

3. The model's shoulder/armhole


intersection is found by pressing with your
thumb or a finger in this area to find a
dip between the bones. Mark this
point on the model's bodysuit with a
pin, chalk, or a tailor tack. This position should be at the top of the shoulder curve. If you cannot feel the dip
between the bones, try to envision
where the armhole seam would naturally meet at the model's shoulder and
mark this point.

Figure 2.6

4. Have the model raise her arm about 45


degrees from the floor and swing it
slightly toward the center front until a
crease forms, which marks where the
front mid-armhole will be. Mark this
point with a pin, chalk, or a tailor tack.
Figure 2.7

5. Establish the bust level. The apex or


bust point position is at the nipple.
The apex marks the fullest portion of
the bust mound. Mark the apexes
with chalk, tailor tacks, or pins. The
apexes should be the same height
from the floor. Pin a length of narrow
elastic from apex to apex without
slack. Continue pinning the elastic
around the model, keeping an equal
distance from the floor, to establish
the bust level. Sew the elastic onto the
model's bodysuit so this position does
not change for future fittings. Elastic
stretches as your model removes the
bodysuit.
Figure 2.8

6. Establish the waistline. Have your


model bend to the side at the waist.
A crease will form at the natural
waistline. Check that her underwear
is not creating a false waist position.
Mark the waistline first with a pin or
chalk, then pin narrow elastic around

the model's body. The waistline may


dip down in the back, which is normal for women. Sew the elastic onto
the bodysuit for future fittings.
Figure 2.9

7. Establish the hip level. Find the largest


circumference
of the hips and buttocks by measuring at several levels on
the body. Once you've found the level
of the largest circumference, mark it
with elastic parallel to the floor to
establish the hip level. Sew the elastic
onto the model's bodysuit for future
fittings.
Figure 2.10

8. Establish the center back neck position. This is found by pressing with
your thumb or a finger in this area to
find a dip between two prominent
bones, which are vertebrae. Mark with
chalk, a tailor tack or a pin.
Figure 2.11

9. To mark the crease in the back midarmhole, leave your model's arm hanging down. First, establish the shoulder
blade level on the model. Measure the
center back from the neckline down
to the waist =
_
then divide this measurement
by 4:
_____

-t =

Using this final measurement,


measure from the neckline down along
the center back and place a pin or
tailor tack at this point. A line
going through this point parallel to
the floor is called the shoulder blade
level. The back armhole seam runs
along the crease formed between
your model's body and arm with

mark this intersection with a pin, tailor tack, or chalk. This point should
line up in the center of the underarm
on the model's upper rib cage and
should intersect with the pin that is
placed 1 inch below the underarm.
Figure 2. 14

the arm hanging down. The intersection of the shoulder blade level
and the armhole is called the back
mid-armhole.

12. Establish the side seam/waist intersection. Again, keep in mind that the
side seam of your model's body suit
may not be in the correct position.
Visualize a straight line (or use a long
ruler) going halfway between the
front and back of the model's leg and
continuing straight up to the waist,
and mark this point.

Figure 2. 12

10. Establish the shoulder/neckline


intersection. Visualize where the curve of
the neckline seam would be if your
model were wearing a collar that
hugged the neck. (The collar in this
photo is set too far from the natural
neckline seam; thus, the pin mark is
on the collar itself.) This position
should also intersect at the top of the
shoulder curve.
Figure 2.13

11. Establish
the underarm/side
seam
intersection. The side seam of your
model's body suit may not be in the
correct position, so you will need to

Upper Torso Measurements


Avoid pulling the tape measure tightly
over the body as this will distort the measurements. Be gentle. Do not let a live
model hold in her stomach or stand in an
unnatural position. The following steps
are shown on a body form, but the same
measurements are needed if using a live
model.
#1 (Figure 2. 15)
Total shoulder girth level =

Measure all the way around the upper


arms and body with tape measure parallel
to the floor. If your body form does not

have arms, see Table 2.1 (page 34) to find


the shoulder girth measurement that corresponds with the shoulder width and
biceps circumference of your model.
#2 (Figure 2. 16)
Total upper chest level =

Measure all the way around the upper


chest under the arms. The tape measure
may dip down a little in the back.
#3 Total bust level =

Measure all the way around the smallest


circumference of the torso. The waist level
may dip in the back.
#6 (Figure 2. 18)
Shoulder seam =

Measure from the high neck point out to


the shoulder/armhole
intersection along
the top of the shoulder.

Measure all the way around the largest circumference of the bust, with the tape
measure parallel to the floor.
#4 (Figure 2. 17)
Total rib cage level

#5 Total waist level =

Measure all the way around the rib cage


directly under the bust mound, parallel to
the floor.

#7 (Figure 2. 19)
Half the front neckline

Measure from the high neck point around


to the pit of the neck.
#8 (Figure 2.20)
Center front neck to shoulder tip

Measure from the pit of the neck to the


shoulder tip.

Note: Some body forms have a


high center front neck position.
Check Table 2.1 (page 34) for a
neckline circumference measurement that corresponds with your
model's size. Measure your
model's total neckline circumference to see if the center front neck
needs to be dropped, and adjust it
before filling in #7.

Measure straight out from center front to


the mid-armhole point at the pin.
#10 (Figure 2.21)
Half the front upper chest =

Measure straight out from center front to


the side seam at the underarm, parallel to
the floor.
#11 Half the front bust level

Measure straight out from center front,


over the bust point to the side seam, parallel to the floor.
#12 Half the front rib cage level

Measure straight out from center front,


directly under the bust mound to the side
seam.
#13 (Figure 2.22)
Bust span =

Measure from center front waist over to


the side/waist intersection.
#16 (Figure 2.23)
Half the back neckline =

Measure from the high neck point around


to the center back neck.
#17 (Figure 2.24)
Center back neck to shoulder tip =

#18 Halfwav across shoulder blades = __

#19 Half the back upper chest

Measure from center back to the side seam


at the underarm. The tape measure may
dip down a little in the back.
#20 (Figure 2.25)
Half the back bust level

Measure straight out from center back to


the side seam, parallel to the floor.

Measure from apex to apex for #13, then


divide by 2 for # 14.

#15 Half the front waist =

Using the one-fourth measurement, measure down from the neck and mark at
center back for the shoulder blade level.
Obtain
the "halfway across shoulder
blades" measurement by measuring from
center back over to the edge of the armhole plate or the pin on your live model.

The shoulder blade level is found using


one-fourth of the center back measurement from the neckline to the waistline.

measure straight
across waist
circumference

Figure 2.26

#21 Half the back rib cage level =

Measure straight out from center back to


the side seam at the rib cage level, parallel
to the floor.
#22 Half the back waist =

#24 (Figure 2.28)


Side seam length =

Measure from the pin placed 1 inch below


the underarm/armhole
plate down to the
waistline.

Measure from center back waist over to


the side seam/waist intersection.

#25 (Figure 2.29)


High neck point to front side seam

#23 (Figure 2.26)


Dart placement =

Measure from the high neck point down


the front to the underarm/side seam intersection, which is marked with a pin.

Measure out from center front


princess seam on the body foml.

dart placement for live models


forms without princess seams,
straight (not curved) across the
from side to side (diameter) =
and divide this number
. Then use
below:

Add 3/8 inch if #5 total waist level is less


than 25 inches =
_
Or, add 1/2 inch if #5 total waist level is
between 26 and 30 inches =
_
Or, add 5/8 inch if #5 total waist level is
between 31 and 35 inches =
_
Or, add 3/4 inch if #5 total waist level is 36
inches and up =
_
Use this final measurement in the space
for #23 where it says "Dart placement =

"

to the

Figure 2.27

To find
or body
measure
waistline
______
by 4 =
the chart

= __

#26 (Figure 2.30)


High neck point to back side seam

= __

Measure from the high neck point down


the back to the underarm/side seam intersection, which is marked with a pin.
#27 (Figure 2.31)
Center front length

Measure from the pit of the neck down the


front to the waist over the tape between
the bust mounds.
#28 Front total length =

"

Measure from the high neck point over


the bust to the waist. Do not contour the
tape measure in under the bust.
#29 (Figure 2.32)
Shoulder tip to center front waist

Measure from the shoulder tip, over the


bust, and down to the center front waist.
Do not contour the tape measure in under
the bust.

#32 (Figure 2.34)


Center back length =
#31 (Figure 2.33)

Bust radius

Measure from the apex along the princess


line to just under the bust mound at the
rib cage level.

Measure from the back neck down to the


waist.
#33 Back total length

Measure from the high neck point down


the back to the waist.

#34 (Figure 2.35)


Shoulder tip to center back waist =

Measure from the shoulder


tip, over
the back, and down to the center back
waist.

the bottom of armhole plate and the


underarm along the arm allow some ease
under the arm. If a sleeve is cut in fabric
that does not stretch and it reaches all
the way up to the underarm, it will be
very uncomfortable
to wear.

Check Your Measurements

Add #10 (half the front upper chest)


and #19 (half the back upper chest)
together:
+
_
_____
. Now multiply by 2:
______

This number should equal #2 (total


upper chest level):
. If not,
check your measurements again.
Add #11 (half the front bust level) and
#20 (half the back bust level) together:
------

______
_____

+ -------

. Now multiply
x 2=

by 2:

. This

number should equal #3 (total bust


level):
. If not, check your
measurements again.
Add # 12 (half the fron t rib cage level)
and #21 (half the back rib cage level)
together:
+
_
_____
. Now multiply by 2:
_____
x 2=
. This
number should equal #4 (total rib cage
level):
. If not, check your
measurements again.
Add #15 (half the front waist) and
#22 (half the back waist) together:
______
______

. Now multiply
x

2 =

by 2:

This number should equal #5 (total


waist level):
. If not, check
your measurements again.

The total arm length may seem short,


but sloper sleeves only reach to the wrist
bone as a landmark. As you use this
sloper to draft other sleeve styles, you
can add length to the sleeve so it falls
onto the hand if necessary. If you are
using a body form that does not have an
arm, check the instructions in Chapter 3
(see Table 3.1, page 77) to find a size that
matches your body form. The armhole
plate on the body form represents the
point where the arm connects to the
body. The marks that were dropped from

#35 (Figure 2.36)


Total arm length =

Measure from the shoulder tip down the


arm and around the elbow tip to just
below the wrist bone with the arm slightly
bent, hanging naturally.
#36 (Figure 2.37)
Underarm length =

Measure from the pin that is 1/4 inch


below your model's underarm, down to
just below the wrist bone with the arm
held straight.

ifJ~

#37 (Figure 2.38)


Forearm length =

Measure from just below the wrist bone


up to the elbow tip with the arm bent.
#38 (Figure 2.39)
Biceps circumference

Measure the biceps at the largest circumference, high up under the arm with the
muscle flexed, which will enlarge the circumference.
#39 (Figure 2.40)
Elbow circumference

Measure the elbow at the widest part with


the arm bent.
#40 (Figure 2.41)
Wrist circumference

Measure around the wrist joint.

Note: Some female body forms are


too long waisted, so compare both
measurements.

#42 (Figure 2.43)


Total hip level =

Measure all the way around the largest


circumference of the hips and buttocks
with the tape measure parallel to the
floor.
#43 Hip depth at center front =
#41 (Figure 2.42)
Hand circumference =

Measure around
circumference.

Measure from center


down to the hip level.

front waist level

the hand at the largest

Lower Torso and Leg


Measurements
These steps are shown on a body form,
but the same measurements are needed if
using a live model. The live model
should not wear shoes for these measurements. If you are measuring
a body
form, it will not have feet, and it may not
have legs. Check Table 2.1 (page 34) to
find the lower torso and leg measurements that correspond
to your form's
size and height. Use your form's center
back length and high shoulder point to
bust level as a gauge to determine the
body form's total height.

#44 (Figure 2.44)


Hip depth at side seam =

Measure from the side/waist down to the


hip level along the side seam.
#45 Hip depth at center back =

Measure from center


down to the hip level.
#46 (Figure 2.45)
Half the front hip =

back

waist level

Measure from center front over to the side


seam at the hip level.
#47 (Figure 2.46)
Half the back hip

Measure from center back over to the side


seam at the hip level.

#52 Inseam to ankle


#48 (Figure 2.47)
Outseam/side seam to floor =

Measure from the side/waist along


side seam to the floor (no shoes).

the

#49 Inseam to floor =

Measure from the center of crotch down


to the floor (no shoes).
#50 Crotch depth

Measure from the center of the crotch


down along the inner leg to just above the
ankle bone.
#53 (Figure 2.49)
Crotch length =

Measure from center front waist down


between legs and up to center back waist.
Do not pull tightly between the buttocks.

Find the difference between #48 and #49,


which gives you #50, the crotch depth. To
check this measurement
with your live
model, have her sit up straight on a flat
surface, and measure from the surface (at
her crotch level) up to her waist level along
her side seam.
#51 (Figure 2.48)
Outseam to ankle

Measure from the side/waist down to just


above the ankle bone.

#54 (Figure 2.50)


Total thigh circumference

#57

Measure all the way around the largest circumference of the upper thigh.
#55 Total calf circumference =

Measure the largest circumference


upper calf.
#56 Knee level from waist

of the

Measure from the side/waist down to the


middle of the knee.

Size Charts for Junior's, Misses',


and Women's Sizes
The measurements
shown in Table 2.1
(page 34) reflect results of research the
author conducted by measuring women
of different ages, ethnicities, weights, and
heights. Size charts from garment manufacturers and mail-order companies and
measurements taken for scientific studies
published on the Internet were also compared. Obviously,
it is impossible
ta
develop a set of measurements that will fit
every woman's body perfectly, because
each woman has an individual shape.
However, after compiling research and
developing size charts, the author found
that she was able to match mast individuals with a size that fit reasonably well.
Misses' sizes are usually graded in
total circumference
for the bust, waist,
and hips as follows: 1 inch between each
size from size
up to size 10, then 11/2
inches between each size from size 10 ta
size 16; after that there is a 2-inch grade
between each size from size 16 to size 18
(or up to size 26 for some manufacturers). However, not all manufacturers
grade with these increments,
which is
part of the reason that size measurements
vary so much from one company ta
another. It should be noted that commercial clothing pattern companies
have
their own size charts, which often vary
considerably
from those for ready-towear clothing sold in stores.

Measure from the middle of the knee


down to just above the ankle bone.
Note: The crotch depth measure#58 Total ankle circumference

Measure the smallest circumference


ankle just above the ankle bone.
#59 (Figure 2.51)
Foot circumference =

_
of the

Have the model point her toes, then measure around the widest part of her heel.

ments may seem long; this is


because they are measured from
the side seam over the curve of
the hip, not from the center front.
This measurement corresponds
with the pattern drafts of the pants
and activewear included in this
textbook.

Check Your Measurements

Add #46 (half the front hip) and #47 (half


the back hip) together:
+
_____
.Nowmultiply by 2:
x 2 =
________
. This number should
equal #42 (total hip level):
_
If not, check your measurements again.

Taking precise measurements from a body


form or a live model can be time consuming but is well worth the effort. These
measurements are used in Chapter 3 ta
draft a sloper set-a very basic set of pattern pieces from which numerous other
styles are flat patterned. The accuracy of

these measurements will directly correlate


to the fit of the sloper set. Any errors
should be corrected when test fitting the
sloper set, so the errors will not be transferred to the rest of the styles flat patterned
from the sloper. The care you take when
recording these measurements will be
rewarded by better fitting patterns, saving
you time and hassle in future. It is imperative for pattern makers to be detail orientated. Always check your work so mistakes
won't get by you.
Questions
1. How do you find the bust point or
apex on a female body form?
2. How do you find the shoulder/armhole intersection on a live model?
3. Why isn't the underarm/side
seam
intersection marked directly at the
underarm on a live model or at the
bottom of the armhole plate on a body
form?
4. Is the widest area of the lower torso
always measured at a point touching
the front hip bones?
5. Does the waist level for an adult female

body form or live model usually dip


down in the front or the back?
6. How do you find the waistline on a
live model?
7. How do you find the waistline/side
seam intersection on a live model?
Learning Activities
1. Try taking the measurements of an elderly woman. How do this person's
proportions compare with those of
"average" adults? Ask her how she
feels about the way clothing fits. How
can the fashion industry better serve
this customer? Which aspects of the
market are the most important for this
customer: fit, comfort, color, style,
price, quality, or availability?
2. Try taking the measurements of a
woman before and also during pregnancy. Besides the obvious, how does
her body change? How can the fashion industry better serve this customer? Which aspects of the market
are the most important for this customer: fit, comfort, color, style, price,
quality, or availability?

Table 2.1

Body Measurements and Sizes


A. Junior's Average Sizes for 5'5" Height
Size

1-JA

3JA

5-JA

7-JA

9-JA

llJA

13JA

15-JA

17JA

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

32"
25"
35"

33"
26"
36"

34"
27"
37"

35"
28"
38"

36"
29"
39"

37.5"
30.5"
40.5"

39"
32"
42"

40.5"
33.5"
43.5"

42"
35"
45"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point
to bust level
Bust span, point to point

15.375"
16.5312"
16.5312"
9.875"

15.5"
16.6875"
16.8125"
10.125"

15.625"
16.8437"
17.0937"
10.375"

15.75"
17"
17.375"
10.625"

15.875"
17.1562"
17.6562"
10.875"

16"
17.3125"
17.9375"
11.125"

16.125"
17.4687"
18.2187"
11.375"

16.25"
17.625"
18.5"
11.625"

16.375"
17.7812"
18.7812"
11.875"

6.5625"

6.6875"

6.8125"

7.0625"

7.25"

7.4375"

7.625"

7.8125"

Upper chest circumference


Rib cage circumference
Bra size
Panty size

31.5"

Across shoulders, shoulder


tip to shoulder tip
Shoulder seam,
neck to shoulder tip
Shoulder girth

6.9375"

27.5"
32AA
4

32.25"
28.5"
32A
5

33"
29.5"
32B
5

33.75"
30.5"
34B
6

34.5"
31.5"

14.5"

14.75"

15"

15.25"

4.8125"

4.875"

4.9375"

5"

37"
34.5"

38.25"
36"

39.5"
38"

34B
6

35.75"
33"
36B
7

36C

38C

40C

15.5"

15.875"

16.25"

5.0625"

5.1875"

5.3125"

16.625"
5.4375"

17"
5.5625"

38.125"

39"

39.875"

40.75"

41.625"

42.75"

43.875"

45"

46.125"

Biceps circumference
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
C.b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wrist
Wrist circumference

10.75"
22.375"
29.625"

11.125"
22.5"
29.875"

11.5"

11.875"

22.625"
30.125"

22.75"
30.375"

12.25"
22.875"
30.625"

12.75"
23"
30.9375"

13.25"
23.125"
31.25"

13.75"
23.25"
31.5625"

14.25"
23.375"
31.875"

6.125"

6.25"

6.375"

6.625"

6.75"

6.875"

Outseam, waist to
floor at side seam
Inseam, crotch to floor
Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth
Crotch length, c.f.
waist to c.b. waist

41.25"

41.375"

41.5"

41.625"

41.75"

41.875"

42"

42.125"

42.25"

31"
10.25"

31"
10.375"

31"
10.5"

31"
10.625"

31"
10.75"

31"
10.875"

31"
11"

31"
11.125"

31"
11.25 "

25"

25.5"

26"

26.5"

27"

27.625"

28.25"

28.875"

29.5"

Waist to mid-knee
at side seam
Waist to ankle at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

22.875"

23"

23.125"

23.25"

23.375"

23.5"

23.625"

23.75"

23.875"

38.25"
20"
13.625"

38.375"
20.75"
14.0625"

38.5"
21.5"
14.5"

38.625"
22.25"
14.9375"

38.75"
23"
15.375"

38.875"
24"
16"

39"
25"
16.625"

39.125"
26"
17.25"

39.25"
27"
17.875"

13.125"
7.875"

13.5"
8.125"

13.875"
8.375"

14.25"
8.625"

14.625"
8.875"

15.125"
9.125"

15.625"
9.375"

16.125"
9.625"

16.625"
9.875"

Neckline circumference

14.5625"

14.875"

15.1875"

15.5"

15.8125"

16.125"

16.4375"

16.75"

17.0625"

5.875"

6"

6.5"

B. Junior's Petite Sizes for 5'1" Height


Size

I-JP

3-JP

5-JP

7-JP

9-JP

II-JP

13-JP

15-JP

17-JP

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

32"
25"
35"

33"
26"
36"

34"
27"
37"

35"
28"
38"

36"
29"
39"

37.5"
30.5"
40.5"

39"
32"
42"

40.5"
33.5"
43.5"

42"
35"
45"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point to
bust level
Bust span, point to point

14.375"
15.5312"
15.5312"
9.375"

14.5"
15.6875"
15.8125"
9.625"

14.625"
15.8437"
16.0937"
9.875"

14.75"
16"
16.375"
10.125"

14.875"
16.1562"
16.6562"
10.375"

15"
16.3125"
16.9375"
10.625"

15.125"
16.4687"
17.2187"
10.875"

15.25"
16.625"
17.5"
11.125"

15.375"
16.7812"
17.7812"
11.375"

6.0625"

6.1875"

6.3125"

6.5675"

6.75"

6.9375"

7.125"

Upper chest circumference


Rib cage circumference
Bra size
Panty size

31.5"

Across shoulders, shoulder


tip to shoulder tip
Shoulder seam, neck to
shoulder tip
Shoulder girth
Biceps circumference
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
G.b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wrist
Wrist circumference

6.4375"

34B
6

35.75"
33"
36B
7

37"
34.5"
36C
8

38.25"
36"
38B
8

39.5"
38"
40C
9

15.5"

15.875"

16.25"

16.625"

17"

27.5"
32AA
4

32.25"
28.5"
32A
5

33"
29.5"
32B
5

33.75"
30.5"
34B
6

34.5"
31.5"

14.5"

14.75"

15"

15.25"

4.8125"

4.875"

4.9375"

5"

7.5"

5.0625"

5.1875"

5.3125"

5.4375"

5.5625"

38.125"

39"

39.875"

40.75"

41.625"

42.75"

43.875"

45"

46.125"

10.75"
20.875"
28.125"

11.125"
21"
28.375"

11.5"
21.125"

12.25"
21.375"
29.125"

12.75"
21.5"
29.4375"

13.25"
21.625"
29.75"

13.75"
21.75"

28.625"

11.875"
21.25"
28.875 "

30.0625"

14.25"
21.875"
30.375"

6.125"

6.25"

6.375"

6.625"

6.75"

6.875"

5.875"

38.75"
Outseam, waist to floor
at side seam
29"
Inseam, crotch to floor
9.75"
Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth
24"
Crotch length, c.f. waist
to c.b. waist

6"

6.5"

38.875"

39"

39.125"

39.25"

39.375"

39.5"

39.625"

39.75"

29"
9.875"

29"
10"

29"
10.125"

29"
10.25"

29"
10.375"

29"
10.5"

29"
10.625"

29"
10.75"

24.5"

25"

25.5"

26"

26.625"

27.25"

27.875"

28.5"

Waist to mid-knee
at side seam
Waist to ankle at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

21.375"

21.5"

21.625"

21.75"

21.875"

22"

22.125"

22.25"

22.375"

36.25"
20"
13.625"

36.375"
20.75"
14.0625"

36.5"
21.5"
14.5"

36.625"
22.25"
14.9375"

36.75"
23"
15.375"

36.875"
24"
16"

37"
25"
16.625"

37.125"
26"
17.25"

37.25"
27"
17.875"

13.125"
7.875"

13.5"
8.125"

13.875"
8.375"

14.25"
8.625"

14.625"
8.875"

15.125"
9.125"

15.625"
9.375"

16.125"
9.625"

16.625"
9.875"

Neckline circumference

14.5625"

14.875"

15.1875"

15.5"

15.8125"

16.125"

16.4375"

16.75"

17.0625"

Table 2. 1 (canL)

Body Measurements and Sizes


C. Misses' Average Sizes for 5'6" Height
Size

2-MA

4-MA

6-MA

8-MA

10-MA

12-MA

14-MA

16-MA

18-MA

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

32.5"
24.5"
35.5"

33.5"
25.5"
36.5"

34.5"
26.5"
37.5"

35.5"
27.5"
38.5"

36.5"
28.5"
39.5"

38"
30"
41"

39.5"
31.5"
42.5"

41"
33"
44"

43"
35"
46"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point
to bust level
Bust span, point to point

15.875"
17.0312"
17.0312"
10.125"

16"
17.1875"
17.3125"
10.375"

16.125"
17.3437"
17.5937"
10.625"

16.25"
17.5"
17.875"
10.875"

16.375"
17.6562"
18.1562"
11.125"

16.5"
17.8125"
18.4375"
11.375"

16.625"
17.9687"
18.7187"
11.625 "

16.75"
18.125"
19"
11.875"

16.875"
18.3125"
19.4375"
12.1875"

6.6875"

6.8125"

6.9375"

7.1875"

7.375"

7.5625"

7.75"

8"

Upper chest circumference


Rib cage circumference
Bra size
Panty size

31.5"
27.5"
32A
4

Across shoulders, shoulder 14.625"


tip to shoulder tip
4.875"
Shoulder seam,
neck to shoulder tip
Shoulder girth circumference 38.375"

7.0625 "

37"
34.5"

38.25"
36"

40"
38"

34B
6

35.75"
33"
36B
7

36C

38C

40C

10

15.625"

16"

]6.375"

16.75"

17.125"

5.375"

5.5"

5.625"

32.25"
28.5"
32A
5

33"
29.5"
32B
5

33.75"
30.5"
34B
6

34.5"
31.5"

14.875"

15.125"

15.375"

4.9375"

5"

5.0625"

5.125"

5.25"

39.25"

40.125"

41"

41.875"

43"

44.125 "

45.25"

46.5"

11.125"
23"
30.4375"

11.5"
23.125"
30.6875"

11.875"
23.25"
30.9375"

12.25"
23.375"
31.1875"

12.75"
23.5"
31.5"

13.25"
23.625"
31.8125"

13.75"
23.75"
32.125"

14.5"
23.875"
32.4375"

6.125"

6.25"

6.375"

6.5"

6.625"

6.75"

Biceps circumference
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
C.b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wrist
Wrist circumference

10.75"
22.875"
30.1875"

Outseam, waist to floor


at side seam
Inseam, crotch to floor
Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth
Crotch length, c.f. waist
to c.b. waist

41.75"

41.875"

42"

42.125"

42.25"

42.375"

42.5"

42.625"

42.75"

31"
10.75"

31"
10.875"

31"
11"

31"
11.125"

31"
11.25"

31"
11.375"

31"
11.5"

31"
11.625"

31"
11.75"

26"

26.5"

27"

27.5"

28"

28.625"

29.25"

29.875"

30.875"

Waist to mid-knee at
side seam
Waist to ankle at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

23.125"

23.25"

23.375"

23.5"

23.625"

23.75"

23.875"

24"

24.125 "

38.75"
20"
13.625"

38.875"
20.75"
14.0625"

39"
21.5"
14.5"

39.]25"
22.25"
14.9375"

39.25"
23"
15.375"

39.375"
24"
16"

39.5"
25"
16.625"

39.625"
26"
17.25"

39.75"
27.5"
18.125"

13.125"
7.875"

13.5"
8.125"

13.875"
8.375"

14.25"
8.625"

14.625"
8.875"

15.125"
9.125"

15.625"
9.375"

16.125"
9.625"

16.75"
10"

Neckline circumference

14.5625"

14.875"

15.1875"

15.5"

15.8125"

16.125"

16.4375"

16.75"

17.1875"

5.875"

6"

7"

D. Misses' Petite Sizes for 5'2" Height


Size

O-MP

2-MP

4-MP

6MP

8MP

lO-MP

12MP

14-MP

16-MP

18-MP

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

31.5"
23.5"
34.5"

32.5"
24.5"
35.5"

33.5"
25.5"
36.5"

34.5"
26.5"
37.5"

35.5"
27.5"
38.5"

36.5"
28.5"
39.5"

38"
30"
41"

39.5"
31.5"
42.5"

41"
33"
44"

43"
35"
46"

14.75"
15.875"
15.75"
9.375"

14.875" 15"
16.0312" 16.1875"
16.0312" 16.3125"
9.625"
9.875"

15.125"
16.3437"
16.5937"
10.125"

15.25"
16.5"
16.875"
10.375"

15.375"
16.6562"
17.1562"
10.625"

15.5"
16.8125"
17.4375"
10.875"

15.625"
16.9687"
17.7187"
11.125"

15.75"
17.125"
18"
11.375"

15.875"
17.3125"
18.4375"
11.6875"

7.1875"

7.375"

7.5625 "

7.75"

8"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point
to bust level
Bust span, point to point

6.5625 "

Upper chest circumference 30.75"


Rib cage circumference
26.5"
Bra size
30A
Panty size
4

6.6875"
31.5"
27.5"
32A
4

Across shoulders, shoulder 14.375" 14.625"


tip to shoulder tip
Shoulder seam, neck to
4.8125" 4.875"
shoulder tip
Shoulder girth
37.5"
38.375"
circumference

6.8125"

6.9375"

7.0625"

32.25"
28.5"
32A
5

33"
29.5"
32B
5

33.75"
30.5"
34B
6

14.875"

15.125"

15.375"

4.9375"
39.25"

5"
40.125"

5.0625"
41"

34B
6

35.75"
33"
36B
7

37"
34.5""
36C
8

38.25"
36"
38C
9

40"
38"
40C
10

15.625"

16"

16.375"

16.75"

17.125"

5.375"

5.5"

5.625"

44.125"

45.25"

34.5"
31.5"

5.125"
41.875"

5.25"
43"

46.5"

11.125" 11.5"
11.875" 12.25"
Biceps circumference
10.375" 10.75"
12.75"
21.375" 21.5"
21.625" 21.75"
21.875" 22"
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist 21.25"
28.4375" 28.6875 " 28.9375" 29.1875" 29.4375" 29.6875" 30"
C.b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wris t
Wrist circumference
5.75"
6"
5.875"
6.125"
6.25"
6.375"
6.5"

13.25"
13.75" 14.5"
22.125" 22.25" 22.375"
30.3125" 30.625 " 30.9375"

Outseam, waist to
floor at side seam
Inseam, crotch to floor
Crotch depth, outseam - inseam = depth
Crotch length, c.r. waist
to c.b. waist

6.625"

6.75"

7"

39.125"

39.25"

39.375"

39.5"

39.625"

39.75"

39.875"

40"

40.125" 40.25"

29"
10.125"

29"
10.25"

29"
10.375"

29"
10.5"

29"
10.625"

29"
10.75"

29"
10.875"

29"
11"

29"
29"
11.125" 11.25"

24.5"

25"

25.5"

26"

26.5"

27"

27.625"

28.25"

28.875" 29.875"

Waist to mid-knee
at side seam
Waist to ankle
at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

21.5"

21.625"

21.75"

21.875"

22"

22.125"

22.25"

22.375"

22.5"

36.625"

36.75"

36.875"

37"

37.125"

37.25"

37.375"

37.5"

37.625" 37.75"

Neckline circumference

22.625"

19.25"
20"
13.1875" 13.625"

21.5"
20.75"
14.0625" 14.5"

22.25"
23"
14.9375" 15.375"

24"
16"

25"
16.625"

26"
17.25"

12.75"
7.625"

13.125"
7.875"

13.5"
8.125"

14.25"
8.625"

15.125"
9.125"

15.625"
9.375"

16.125" 16.75"
9.625" 10"

13.75"

14.5625" 14.875"

13.875"
8.375"

15.1875" 15.5"

14.625"
8.875"

15.8125" 16.125"

16.4375" 16.75"

27.5"
18.125"

17.1875"

Table 2. 1 (cant.)

Body Measurements and Sizes


E. Misses' Tall Sizes for 5'10" Height
Size

4-MT

6-MT

8-MT

lO-MT

12-MT

14-MT

16MT

18-MT

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

33.5"
25.5"
36.5"

34.5"
26.5"
37.5"

35.5"
27.5"
38.5"

36.5"
28.5"
39.5"

38"
30"
41"

39.5"
31.5"
42.5"

41"
33"
44"

43"
35"
46"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point
to bust level
Bust span, point to point

17"
18.1875"
18.3125"
10.875"

17.125"
18.3437"
18.5937"
11.125"

17.25"
18.5"
18.875"
11.375"

17.375"
18.6562"
19.1562"
11.625"

17.5"
18.8125"
19.4375"
11.875"

17.625"
18.9687"
19.7187"
12.125"

17.75"
19.125"
20"
12.375"

17.875"
19.3125"
20.4375"
12.6875"

6.8125"

6.9375"

7.1875"

7.375"

7.5625"

7.75"

8"

Upper chest circumference


Rib cage circumference
Bra size
Panty size

32.25"
28.5"
32A
5

40"
38"
40C
10

Across shoulders, shoulder 14.875"


tip to shoulder tip
4.9375"
Shoulder seam,
neck to shoulder tip
Shoulder girth circumference 39.25"

7.0625"

37"
34.5"

38.25"
36"

34B
6

35.75"
33"
36B
7

36C

38C

15.625"

16"

16.375"

16.75"

17.125"

5.375"

5.5"

5.625"

33"
29.5"
32B
5

33.75"
30.5"
34B
6

34.5"
31.5"

15.125"

15.375"

5"

5.0625"

5.125"

5.25"

40.125"

41"

41.875"

43"

44.125"

45.25"

46.5"

11.5"
24.625"
32.1875"

11.875"
24.75"
32.4375"

12.25"
24.875"
32.6875"

12.75"
25"
33"

13.25"
25.125"
33.125"

13.75"
25.25"
33.625"

14.5"
25.375"
33.9375"

6.125"

6.25"

6.375"

6.5"

6.625"

6.75"

7"

Biceps circumference
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
C.b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wrist
Wrist circumference

11.125"
24.5"
31.9375"

Outseam, waist to floor


at side seam
Inseam crotch to floor
Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth
Crotch length, c.f. waist
to c.b. waist

44.375"

44.5"

44.625"

44.75"

44.875"

45"

45.125"

45.25"

33"
11.375"

33"
11.5"

33"
11.625"

33"
11.75"

33"
11.875"

33"
12"

33"
12.125"

33"
12.25"

27.5"

28"

28.5"

29"

29.625"

30.25"

30.875"

31.875"

Waist to mid-knee at
side seam
Waist to ankle at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

24.75"

24.875"

25"

25.125"

25.25"

25.375"

25.5"

25.625"

40.875"
20.75"
14.0625"

41"
21.5"

41.25"

25"
16.625"

41.625"
26"
17.25"

41.75"

23"
15.375"

41.375"
24"
16"

41.5"

14.5"

41.125"
22.25"
14.9375"

13.5"
8.125"

13.875"
8.375"

14.25"
8.625"

14.625"
8.875"

15.125"
9.125"

15.625"
9.375"

16.125"
9.625"

16.75"
10"

14.875"

15.1875"

15.5"

15.8125"

16.125"

16.4375"

16.75"

17.1875"

Neckline circumference

6"

27.5"
18.125"

F.Women's Average Sizes for 5'6" Height


Size

18-WA

20-WA

22-WA

24-WA

26-WA

28-WA

30-WA

Bust circumference

45"
37.5"
48"

47"
40"
50"

49"
42.5"
52"

51"
45"
54"

53"
47.5"
56"

55"
50"
58"

57"
52.5"
60"

16.75"
18.25"
19.875"
12.5"
8.25"

16.875"
18.4375"
20.3125"
12.8125"
8.5"

17"
18.625"
20.75"
13.125"
8.75"

17.125"
18.8125"
21.1875"
13.4375"
9"

17.25"
19"
21.625"
13.75"
9.25"

17.375"
19.1875"
22.0625"
14.0625"
9.5"

17.5"
19.375"
22.5"
14.375"
9.75"

Rib cage circumference

41.75"
40"

52DD/E

11

48.75"
48"
48D
15

50DD/E

Panty size

47"
46"
46D
14

52.25"
52"

42C

45.25"
44"
44D
13

50.5"
50"

Bra size

43.5"
42"
44D
12

16

17

17.5"

17.875"

18.25"

18.625"

19"

19.375"

19.75"

5.75"
47.75"

5.875"
49"

6"
50.25"

6.125"
51.5"

6.25"
52.75"

6.375"
54"

6.5"
55.25"

15.25"
24"
32.75"

16"
24"
32.9375"

16.75"
24"
33.125"

17.5"
24"
33.3125"

18.25"
24"
33.5"

19"
24"
33.6875"

19.75"
24"
33.875"

Waist circumference
Hip circumference
Center back neck to waist
Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder

point to bust level

Bust span, point to point


Upper chest circumference

Across shoulders, shoulder


to shoulder tip

tip

Shoulder

seam, neck to shoulder

Shoulder

girth circumference

tip

Biceps circumference
Arm, shoulder

tip to wrist

C. b. to shoulder tip,
down arm to wrist

7.25"

7.5"

7.75"

42.75"
30.875"
11.875"

42.75"
30.75"
12"

42.75"
30.625"
12.125"

Crotch length, c.f. waist to c.b. waist

31.875"

32.875"

Waist to mid-knee at side seam

Ankle circumference

24.125"
39.75"
29"
19"
17.375"
10.375"

Neckline circumference

17.625"

Wrist circumference
Outseam,

waist to floor at side seam

Inseam, crotch to floor


Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam

8.25"

8.5"

8.75"

42.75"
30.5"
12.25"

42.75"
30.375"
12.375"

42.75"
30.25"
12.5"

42.75"
30.125"
12.625"

33.875"

34.875"

35.875"

36.875"

37.875"

24.125"
39.75"
30.5"
19.875"
18"
10.75"

24.125"
39.75"
32"
20.75"
18.625"
11.125"

24.125"
39.75"
33.5"
21.625"
19.25"
11.5"

24.125"
39.75"
35"
22.5"
19.875"
11.875"

24.125"
39.75"
36.5"
23.375"
20.5"
12.25"

24.125"
39.75"
38"
24.25"
21.125"
12.625"

18.0625"

18.5"

18.9375"

19.375"

19.8125"

20.25"

depth

Waist to ankle at side seam


Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
Calf circumference

8"

leg straight

Table 2. 1 (cont.)

Body Measurements and Sizes


G. Women's Petite Sizes for 5'2" Height
Size

18-WP

20-WP

22-WP

24-WP

26-WP

28-WP

30-WP

Bust circumference

45"
37.5"
48"

47"
40"
50"

49"
42.5"
52"

51"
45"
54"

53"
47.5"
56"

55"
50"
58"

57"
52.5"
60"

15.75"
17.25"
18.875"
12"
8.25"

15.875"
17.4375"
19.3125"
12.3125"
8.5"

16"
17.625"
19.75"
12.625"
8.75"

16.125"
17.8125"
20.1875"
12.9375"
9"

16.25"
18"
20.625"
13.25"
9.25"

16.375"
18.1875"
21.0625"
13.5625"
9.5"

16.5"
18.375"
21.5"

Rib cage circumference

41.75"
40"
42C

48.75"
48"
48D
15

50DD/E

52DD/E

11

47"
46"
46D
14

52.25"
52"

Panty size

45.25"
44"
44D
13

50.5"
50"

Bra size

43.5"
42"
44D
12

16

17

17.5"

17.875"

18.25"

18.625"

19"

19.375"

19.75"

5.75"
47.75"

5.875"
49"

6"
50.25"

6.125"
51.5"

6.25"
52.75"

6.375"
54"

6.5"
55.25"

16"
22.5"
31.4375"
7.5"

16.75"
22.5"
31.625"
7.75"

17.5"
22.5"
31.8125"
8"

18.25"
22.5"
32"
8.25"

19"
22.5"
32.1875"
8.5"

19.75"
22.5"
32.375"
8.75"

40.25"
28.875"
11.375"

40.25"
28.75"
11.5"

40.25"
28.625"
11.625"

40.25"
28.5"
11.75"

40.25"
28.375"
11.875"

40.25"
28.25"
12"

40.25"
28.125"
12.125"

Crotch length, c.f. waist to c.b. waist

30.875"

31.875"

32.875"

33.875"

34.875"

35.875"

36.875"

Waist to mid-knee at side seam

22.625"
37.75"
29"
19"

22.625 "
37.75"
30.5"
19.875"

22.625"
37.75"
32"
20.75"

22.625"
37.75"
33.5"
21.625"

22.625 "
37.75"
35"
22.5"

22.625"
37.75"
36.5"
23.375"

22.625"
37.75"
38"
24.25"

Ankle circumference

17.375"
10.375"

18"
10.75"

18.625"
11.125"

19.25"
11.5"

19.875"
11.875"

20.5"
12.25"

21.125"
12.625"

Neckline circumference

17.625"

18.0625"

18.5"

18.9375"

19.375"

19.8125"

20.25"

Waist circumference
Hip circumference
Center back neck to waist
Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder

point to bust level

Bust span, point to point


Upper chest circumference

Across shoulders, shoulder


to shoulder tip

tip

Shoulder

seam, neck to shoulder

Shoulder

girth circumference

tip

15.25"
22.5"
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
C.b. to shoulder tip, down arm to wrist 31.25"
7.25"
Wrist circumference
Biceps circumference

Outseam,

waist to floor at side seam

Inseam, crotch to floor


Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth

Waist to ankle at side seam


Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference

13.875"
9.75"

,
H. Women's Tall Sizes for 5'10" Height

Size

18-WT

20-WT

22-WT

24-WT

26-WT

28-WT

30-WT

Bust circumference
Waist circumference
Hip circumference

45"
37.5"
48"

47"
40"
50"

49"
42.5"
52"

51"
45"
54"

53"
47.5"
56"

55"
50"
58"

57"
52.5"
60"

Center back neck to waist


Back total length
Front total length
High shoulder point to bust level
Bust span, point to point

17.75"
19.25"
20.875"
13"
8.25"

17.875"
19.4375"
21.3125"
13.3125"
8.5"

18"
19.625"
21.75"
13.625"
8.75"

18.125"
19.8125"
22.1875"
13.9375"
9"

18.25"
20"
22.625"
14.25"
9.25"

18.375"
20.1875"
23.0625"
14.5625"
9.5"

18.5"
20.375"
23.5"
14.875"
9.75"

Upper chest circumference


Rib cage circumference
Bra size
Panty size

41.75"
40"
42C
11

43.5"
42"
44D
12

45.25"
44"
44D
13

47"
46"
46D
14

48.75"
48"
48D
15

50.5"
50"
50DD/E
16

52.25"
52"
52DD/E
17

Across shoulders, shoulder tip to


shoulder tip
Shoulder seam, neck to shoulder tip
Shoulder girth circumference

17.5"

17.875"

18.25"

18.625"

19"

19.375"

19.75"

5.75"
47.75"

5.875"
49"

6"
50.25"

6.125"
51.5"

6.25"
52.75"

6.375"
54"

6.5"
55.25"

Biceps circumference
15.25"
25.5"
Arm, shoulder tip to wrist
C.b. to shoulder tip, down arm to wrist 34.25"
Wrist circumference
7.25"

16"
25.5"
34.4375"
7.5"

16.75"
25.5"
34.625 "
7.75"

17.5"
25.5"
34.8125"
8"

18.25"
25.5"
35"
8.25"

19"
25.5"
35.1875"
8.5"

19.75"
25.5"
35.375"
8.75"

Outseam, waist to floor at side seam


Inseam, crotch to floor
Crotch depth,
outseam - inseam = depth
Crotch length, c.f. waist to c.b. waist

45.25"
32.875"
12.375"

45.25"
32.75"
12.5"

45.25"
32.625"
12.625"

45.25"
32.5"
12.75"

45.25"
32.375"
12.875"

45.25"
32.25"
13"

45.25"
32.125"
13.125"

32.875"

33.875"

34.875"

35.875"

36.875"

37.875"

38.875"

Waist to mid-knee at side seam


Waist to ankle at side seam
Thigh circumference
Mid-knee circumference,
leg straight
Calf circumference
Ankle circumference

25.625"
41.75"
29"
19"

25.625"
41.75"

25.625"
41.75"

25.625"
41.75"

33.5"
21.625"

25.625"
41.75"
35"
22.5"

25.625"
41.75"

30.5"
19.875"

25.625"
41.75"
32"
20.75"

36.5"
23.375"

38"
24.25"

17.375"
10.375"

18"
10.75"

18.625"
11.125"

19.25"
11.5"

19.875"
11.875"

20.5"
12.25"

21.125"

Neckline circumference

17.625"

18.0625"

18.5"

18.9375"

19.375"

19.8125"

20.25"

12.625"

Table 2. 1 (cont.)

Body Measurements and Sizes

Bra size is determined

by three measurements:

the bust circumference


the upper chest circumference
the rib cage circumference
The number size relates to upper chest circumference,

not to bust circumference.

The letter size or "cup" size relates to the difference between bust circumference
Rib cage circumference

and upper chest circumference.

should also be factored into the bra size, because some women have a wide upper chest with a narrow rib cage.

Bra sizes come in even number sizes only, which means that if the upper chest measures at an odd number, the measurement
in between sizes. To verify which even number
ence compared

will fall

to round off to (lower or higher than the upper chest), consider rib cage circumfer-

with that of the upper chest. Example:

if upper chest circumference

ures from 2.5" to 5" less, select bra band size 32. If upper chest circumference

measures 33" and rib cage circumference

measures 33" and rib cage circumference

same to 2lj4" less, select bra band size 34. However, if upper chest circumference

meas-

measures the

measures 33.75" to 33.875", select bra band size

34, regardless of rib cage circumference.


The difference between bust circumference
Bust circumference
Upper chest
circumference

total

and upper chest circumference

determines

the letter size or "cup" size, as follows:

36.5"

37"

38"

39"

40"

41"

42"

43"

44"

45"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

36"

total

Upper chest smaller


than bust
Letter size or "cup " SIze
Bra size

up to

0.5" 0.5"-1.25" 1.5"-2.25" 2.5"-3.25" 3.5"-4.25" 4.5"-5.25" 5.5"-6.25" 6.5"-7.25" 7.5"-8.25" 8.5"-9.25"

AA

36AA

36A

36B

36C

36D

Panty number sizes do not relate to Junior's


ference grade between each size.
Panty Sizes
Panty Sizes

XS

DD/E

DDD/F

36DD/E 36DDD/F

36G

36H

36r

or Misses' number sizes; they come in even and odd numbers


M

IX

2X

3X

10

4X

5X

11

12

and have a 2" circum6X


13

7X
14

Waist circumference

23"-24" 25"-26"

27"-28" 29"-30"

31"-32"

33"-34"

35"-37"

38"-39"40"-41"

42"-43"

44"-45"

Hip circumference

34"-35" 36"-37"

38"-39" 40"-41"

42"-43"

44"-45"

46"-47"

48"-49" 50"-51"

52"-53"

54"-55"

Hat size

XS
6lj2

XS
65/8

S
63/4

S
67/8

20.5"

20.875"

21.25"

21.625"

Hat size (cont.)

XL

Hat size (cont.)

7lj4

73/8

71/2

22.75"

23.125"

23.5"

Hat size
Head circumference,

Head circumference

where hat sits

(cont.)

7
22"

71/8
22.375"

XL
75/8

XXL

XXL

XXXL

XXXL

73/4

77/8

81/8

23.875"

24.25"

24.625"

25"

25.375"