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Graphic History of Architecture #*@eo¢éeeeeeee#e8e¢ée. ponn MANSORIDGE EGYPT THE ARCHAIC | THE OLD KINGDOM. e@hitsts THE MIDDL Epes PERIOD Inter- KINGDOM €.3200 B.C. 2980 2789 2680 2565 2420 2 58 nai 1991 ee fe Union of Upper Capital: Memphis and Lower Egyp Capital: Heliopolis ‘The Age of the Pyramids — > CASPIAN ie a@. ¥ ee, SEA Alexandriz : J ) PERSIA _ GUL INTRODUCTION THE NEW KINGDOM | THE LATE PERI XVIHI XIX XX XXI = 1570 1314 1197 1085 671-663 5 The Egyptian Empire Assyrian in Asia and Nubia invasion Capital : Thebes Egypt was a narrow strip of highly productive soil, 8 to 12 miles wide, along the banks of the Nile, about one-fifth of the area of England and Wales. From pre-dynastic times sun- dried mud bricks were used for houses, but these have not survived: timber was scarce and hence arches were built without centering. There was however an abundance of limestone, sandstone and granite. The planning of irrigation canals and fields, necessitated by the annual inundations of the Nile, demanded a system of geometry (Gk land measuring). Believing in a life after death, the Egyptians thought that the body should be preserved in a lasting tomb; this became a geometric construction of great solidity and permanence. Measurement The Right Angle The ‘Egyptian Triangle’ ‘Temples a, with columns, pane and massive, hi eeered external walls EGYPT Pit graves in desert cemetries: Pit graves transformed into Walls of — Beginning sand heap A surrounded by tombs by brick lining and flat sun-dried of stone circle of stones B over grave C wooden or arched brick roofs brick masonry \, LY t \, ty : rt 473 THE STEP PYRAMID, Saqqara, THE PYRAMID OF MEDUM, Dynasties I-IV Dynasty III: Section looking west Section looking west, reconstructed Built by Imhotep, architect to 1 Centre core. 2 Successive layers added, at about - King Zoser. 75°, each of local stone and cased with limestone. — 1 Begun as a mastaba-tomb. 2-5 ‘Then 3 Enlargement of the pyramid. 4 Steps filled in successively enlarged, in limestone.Set —_ with a facing of limestone. 5 The tomb chamber — within a complex of buildings (p.18) | Stones on sledges. pulled up long earth ramps The Rocker; pulleys were unknown Suggested methods of hauling and lifting stones PYRAMIDS of Cephren, Flat stone Step pyramid, ‘The bent pyramid, Dahshur — Pyramic eae : tomb Saqqara 4 Giza or mastaba ee ae : eee . - 707 ~~ nasty II] | 2680 Dynasty IV__ 2565 B.C. 0 section through King’s Chamber y Subterranean Chamber Vg aint lwe Area: I 2°I acres 755°88 rany Temple THE GREAT PYRAMID, GIZA ‘Tomb of King Cheops, Dynasty IV Built of local stone on a core of rock with casing blocks of Tura limestone. Constructed of some 2,300,000 stone blocks, each weighing approximately 25 tons. It 1s probable that for a period of twenty years 100,000 men were levied annually, during the three months’ inundation of the Nile (July to October), for transporting stone. Also about 4,000 permanent skilled masons and attendant labourers were employed EGYP | THE OLD KINGDOM THE MIDDLE KINGDOM Dynasties I-VI, 2780-2258 B.c. - Dynasties XI-XII, 2134-1786 The Age of the Pyramids The Step Pyramid, Saqqara, set within a complex of buildings < of local stone faced EC, with limestone 9 el Built by |l ) . Imhotep for!) King Zoser, ( reconstructed) The great Pyramid Funerary ‘T’emple of Cheops, f Mentuhotep I, eir-el-Bahari (reconstructed), Dynasty XI Giza, Dynasty IV Pyramid of 4 Neferirkara . Pyramid of Ne-user-ra Pyramids of Abu Sir (reconstructed), Dynasty V COMPARATIVE BUILDINGS & PLANS THE NEW KINGDOM THE PTOLEMAIC PERIOD Dynasties YEMIT- XA, J 5 go-1085 B.C. 332-30 BC. The Age of the great Temples Revival of ‘Temples Mortuary ‘lemple of Amon, Deir-el-Bahari (reconstructed), Dynasty XVIII Designed by Senmut and S built for Queen Hatshepsut ty i The Temple of Horus, Edfu, 237-212 B.C. Begun by Ptolemy II] ‘The Great ‘Temple of Amon, Karnak, Dynasties XVITI-X ANI (Foundations Dynasty XT) The Temple - of Amon, Luxor, Dynasties X VITI-XIX Begun by Amenhotep III and added to by Rameses II ‘The Temple of Hathor, Dendera, Ist cent. B.C. Temple of Seti 1, Abydos, Dynasty ALX "hh ) Great l’emple, Abu Simbel, Nubia, i. Dynasty NIX. Built for Rameses II St Paul’s, London = L ‘ Plans and buildings in black drawn to the same scale a a a HGYP | THE TEMPLE OF KHONSU, KARNAK . Dynasties XX -X XT 1 Avenue of sphinxes 2 Pylons (Gk: a gateway) Open courtyard with colonnade 4 Hypostyle hall (Gk: resting on pillars), beyond which only the king and priests might enter 5 ‘he sanctuary 6 Hall and store rooms | r A garden shrine from a painting a. of Amenhotep III, Island of Elephantine, in a tomb, Thebes, Dynasty XIX Dynasty XVIII (Destroyed a.p. 1822) TEMPLES /\ | nei { O AAA T f : > A bd a yoy = vad P yy ARR TRUS! A Bl; ¢ i he U . é OF — i wd Z Ad i , / 3807 | | Mh — GREAT TEMPLE OF AMON, KARNAK Built of sandstone Begun Dynasty XII 1-4 Dynasty XVIII 5 ay AX 6 Ptolemaic period 7 Temple of Rameses III, Dyy@sty XX 8 Temple of Khonsu, Dynast a 0 PXX-NXXI I | } 7 Hypostyle hall, a-a hall filled with sand and roof-slabs lowered S into position al dnl i [ | — J, “ Fine ry OR od KA o ‘Temple-tomb, Deir-el-Bahari Poftico, Valley ‘Temple built of granite: Rock-hewn tomb, Pyramid of Cephren, Giza. i - Beni- Hasan, | Dynasty IV Dynasty VII Dynasty XIX COLUMN & BEAM PROTO-DORIC COLUMNS ; | Temple, i | Pyramid =» | of Sahura, Abusi r , OS eS —S | | Temple of Isis, Ramesseum, Thebes ¢ Dhilae Dynasty V Dynasty ATX Al ee Dynasty V . Ptolemaic LOTUS COLUMNS PALM COLUMNS ; . ~ Brick arch, Vault of damp mud bricks laid in el ‘Asaseef, Thebes slanted courses without centering COLUMN BEAM & ARCH sb benicar oar necage closed a buds in aisles | ( ih The ¢ | Co con caer f Amon, | oraek. Hype Hall, Mortuary Chapel of Ne-user-ra, Abusir pyrex = oe Dynasty ALA ot ee ‘COLUMNS Temple of Hathor, Denderah, | Ten Fle of sic oe _ Philae Pislsugie. Prolemaic HA'THOR - HEADED COLUMNS - ee “COMPOSITE. - Corbelled-stone ee Co tomb, Aa Ri is Temple -tomb DeiselBehar Tenn» of Seti I; A ee i - Dynasty | AL 2 WESTERN ASIA Assur ASSY RIAN EMPIRE PERSIA A >: Second PERSIAN oman __ Sassanid Sumerian city kingdoms ald Greek os LO eleucid Period Empire | ¢. 4000 B.C. 2900 aa 1275 750 612-538 330 en A.D.226 641 SUMERIAN CITY KINGDOMS Civilization in Western Asia began with city kingdoms in the rich alluvial plain between the lower ‘Tigris and the Euphrates, an area about that of Wales (Map p. 14). "Tower- temples or ziggurats were the centre of city life. “There was no stone and little timber but clay was moulded into sun-dried brick. Buildings were faced with kiln-baked bricks, sparingly owing to lack of fuel. ASSY RIA Assyria was set on a high tableland of lime-stone, harder rock & alabaster, but the Assyrians continued to use sun-dried and kiln-baked bricks. Palaces of warrior-kings were built on large platforms of brick 30-50 feet high. Lower courses of walls were faced with slabs of alabaster g-12 feet high and carved with bas-reliefs or covered with plaster and painted with bright colour. ‘The arch was constructed for gateways, vaults and drains. SECOND BABYLONIAN EMPIRE Nebuchadnezzar (604-561 B.c.) rebuilt Babylon to a regular plan described in Le Histories by Herodotus (484-406 B.c.). Buildings were of kiln-baked brick and bitumen. | PERSIAN EMPIRE Palaces were built at the capital city of Susa, at Pasargadae and Persepolis, being constructed of stone which was abundant in Persia; whilst raised platforms and glazed coloured bricks were adapted from the Assyrians; also influences from Babylon, Syria and Egypt. SECOND PERSIAN—SASSANID—EMPIRE The capital city at Ctesiphon. Buildings were erected of kiln- baked brick, vaults and the earliest domes being built over square compartments, developed by the Byzantines. , sR Ci PTT TTT Stilus, scale and plan of King Gudea of Lagash, ¢.2350 B.C. The Ziggurat, Ur (restored), ¢.2350 B.C. INTRODUCTION - ASSYRIA ———— init i : "| | 4 Sa TY Gaba South-east gateway A GvcelemelekeXen ol@rekererexeroms PALACE OF SAGON II KHORSABAD (restored) 772-705 B.C. Both the platform, about 50 ft high and 25 acres in extent, and the palace built of sun- We dried brick and faced Brick drain” under palace with kiln-baked brick — built without centering 25 WESTERN ASIA — BABYLON ant co a st ge! ue Ly : - , ea. wie : io. AVERT YA'S 4 WRAL 7 *~ (eee ery AA zs ee a ——, : et ' alee ta at ys Ng ete THE CITY OF BABYLON (reconstructed), ee ee : . as rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar, =a ‘ ee | Go 604-561 B.c., during the Second as a = ae Babylonian Empire. ag Palace Pith Described in The Histories of Flerodotust o “Hanging Gardens’ a a i ve do map He = ~. ra ea c 1h DEC a Oe gt eee Is We — s) A \ N Temple a Tower Mard uk PERSIA ay . ae a ead Tniy vi ra = > wt : —" I ewer We Di Palace a eg. ue “tea “ wriL I , me on — ; . y yj a mh ag ) dari us ?ro oyikee verkes PALACES OF PERSEPOLIS. ~ (reconstructed ), Built by Darius (521-485 B.c.) and Xerxes (485 -465 B.C.) Built on a platform 1500 ft by 1000 ft in area, and 40 ft above the plain, part solid rock, part large blocks of stone, without mortar, held by metal cramps. Buildings constructed of sun-dried brick and faced with glazed bricks Columns of stone and flat roofs of cedar wood ‘= 7 , i aaa At CeCe ee he * se i y =° gy a F é > ale pa lala hen ee Cr Ce een Gace Ean rf . ) ON i Assyrian pavilion motits adopted by the Persians WESTERN ASIA VAULTS & = Brick vaulting Bricks were laid to form a base A; against an end wall B wedge-shaped bricks were fixed with mortar C. To ensure adherence these were often laid in sloping courses D. An arch was constructed with little or no centering to complete the vault E. To facilitate work and to reduce pressure, vaults (and domes) had a high oval profile F. When completed vaults were often re-inforced by a second or more courses of brick G. Sassanid Persian buildings, vaults and domes were constructed of kiln-baked bricks laid with a mortar of lime and sand The Persians built domes with little or no centering. A dome is an arched construction both vertically & | The Persians were the first to erect horizontally : each ring of brick or stone once closed _ circular domes on square plans with in cannot fall if it rests adequately on the ring below _ four angular corbelled semi-domes se ee a O The Palace, Serbistan (exterior restored), ¢. A.D.350 ‘DOMES - SECOND PERSIAN EMPIRE s, Ctesiphon, 6th cent. A.D. .D.4.50 ed), cA zabad (exterior re The Palace, Firou GREEK AEGEAN HELLENIC , First Minoan—Crete Olympiad Archaic period 1500 1184 Establishment of Greek city-states along the Mediterranean and Black Sea €. 2000 O Ww oO 8 Mycenaean c¢.82e Homer .582 Pythagoras ¢.c10 e3 Syracuse | 1! 100 miles INTRODUCTION HELLENISTIC 492-479 444-429 334-323 146 31 B.C. War Ascendancy Alexander the Great Greece with of Athens King of Macedon a Roman Persia 431 — 404 province Peloponnesian War 323 Euclid 283 429/8 Plato 347 384 Aristotle 3 32 Macedonia 33.4 | s a *Maracanda ~~ V : ~. Arbela 331 | tT}. <> Saas po oe Baby ne Cee ey ih es usa, : route of —— ree : a ~ a3 ersepois 33 330 Alexander Egypt miles $7 bp 250 The Empire of Alexander the Great The Aegean Period. 1 No records survive of the Minoan sea-kings of Crete except remains of palaces, e.g. Cnossus. 2 The Mycenaeans built massive citadels with Cyclopean masonry and domed tholos tombs on the mainland. The Aegean civilization tell before the Homeric Greeks. The Hellenic Period. “The Greeks called themselves Hellenes (Hellas was called Graecia by the Romans).’They formed numerous small city states in which primitive houses surrounded a citadel and later a temple built on an acropolis or upper city. National unity was achieved by pan-Hellenic festivals held at Olympia, Delphi, Argos and Corinth every few years. The Hellenistic Period began with the Empire created by Alexander the Great when many new cities were founded with monumental buildings. The Greek temple developed from the Mycenaean megaron built of sun-dried brick, stone and timber to house a deity and to be looked at from senda not to contain a congregation within. The arch was known to the Grecks, but they based their temples on the colin & beam. hese developed from the 6th-4th centuries B.c., each with its own ratios of proport- ions established by experience. Columns were often placed closer than necessary to support the entablature in orderto create a repetitive rhythm of solids and voids. Optical refinements displaying an appearance of vitality and strength have been measured in a number of them. Many architects wrote treatises about their buildings, cited by Vitruvius (1st cent. B.c.) who classified their plans and proportions. CNOSSUS, CRETE — c.1800-1600 B.C. The Palace” of King Minos (restored), ¢.1800-1600 B.C, 1 The King and Queen’s apartments 2 Great staircase 3 Hall of the Colonnade 4 Hall of the Double Axes 5 Queen’s Megaron or Hall 6 Construction: A timber framework B sun-dried brick or rubble masonry C gypsum slabs or D_ plaster painted with frescoes E plinth and floor of gypsum or limestone F ceiling beams 7 Cypress columns ; - (Homer) MSCORED) ¢.1.400-1 200 B.C. imestone ridge above the A Wall from 24 to 274t Z” wide ascribed to the He palace built of timber W framework, sun-dried : bricks and columns of wood iMegateway 2 Greater propylacum 3 Lesser propylacum emeén’s Megaron or Great Hall 5 The women’s Hall THE AEGEAN MYCENAE (restored), ¢.1350 B.C. The citadel palace of Agamemnon, Cyclopean walls of boulders weighing 5 to 6 tons were eased into alignment on pebbles MYCENAE, The Treasury of Atreus, 1330-1300 B.C. One of some 40 beehive or tholos tombs on the Greek mainland. Built of corbelling without centering. The door-way flanked by 2 green sandstone half-columns with a relieving triangle above Stone beams of great span are liable to fracture, therefore columns were placed close together tS TIMBER construction, ¢.620 B.c. | Doric temple of Apollo, Thermum. MARBLE construction, ¢.477-438 B.C. | Wooden entablature and columns The Parthenon, Athens | “ MASONRY ine squared ashlar bedded and jointed without cement Stone left undressed , to avoid damage in transport ~P @®@e@eeee@ee@eeaseaseoeee7eees ®e eeeeee2eee34@eneeneneae1~eseseesese ® @9@eeeV4auaeeeaeeeee4@ea8endeeae2 eee @ S@®eeseeeeVnnreeaev@easnaene02e0e800 @ | Frias Lt drawn in black to the same scale x fo 7 S ad i di oe) Ras 7 rad 1 a { tj ; i rrr Ji ting al bts Prttyy eens A TLL 1 i) ae | y TOO bid dds wmegncl om et TTT ” rrr rr) . 4 | Temple oF roe Deal ce ¢.480 B.C. Built of coarse stone faced with marble dust § cement; penned of figures conjectural a= 4 + i? Pe + LJ oh Lo " Ce soe ot PrP UT YT Tir? TYE LIoeereiettie . I ren | (ly +-t++4+-F205 pa) Yr oH zs OTT IiLTIiIiGttrtrttrttrtirrtitittoe ad Per et td ke LD Dh “To | 4 so ae Ili! bho LP sy = Temple ¥ pias Acsina, (> 1 — fo apeen eve seaeeceaiee ; C.490 B.C. The Dorie ‘Temple iH [HE we nce ce ccseel of Athena Alea, Tegea, | 447-432 B.C. s a a C.353 B.C. Ictinus and Callicrates architects, Pheidias | Designed by the sculptor Scopas, the interior master sculptor; built of white marble had 14 Corinthian engaged columns 126 eeeee5ux5#4u0u4<02888e8 8 BERS e eRe ee eee Ba | : ek 8 UL ee | ‘| Ae EET TT be FS, ji sd Sessssensssn/)i" Lk | ‘+= Tonic temple | of Athena Polias, | | Preareiepese’ Wy ——- Priene, ¢.334 B.C. | | of Apollo Bincichis Bassae, eae B.C. architect and sculptor ZY My By Ictinus, architect of the Parthenon, Athens. of the Mausoleum, Halicarnassus, -—— ‘The Corinthian order used for the first time who wrote a book on the temple, since lost. _ Built of fine-grained, brittle grey limestone; All the measurements are in multiples _uetails in marble, roof of thin marble slabs. of the Ionic foot, i.e. 11-587 inches. GREEK & ROMAN y— flutes separated by sharp ‘arrises rts ae C ameter =1 module ri modules. ——-— 23! 7! = 15M 18 Parts— 8! 8-8" Neandria, c.6th cent. B.C. eC yay cee ae Roman e Theseion, Theatre of Athens Marcellus, Rome | Tonic and ~ Corinthian; ; 24 flutes '~ separated Theatre of * Temple of Demeter, Marcellus, es “ Paestum Rome by fillets Thermae of Diocletian, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina Rome CfpitalS angle column a volute THE FIVE ORDERS CORINTHIAN COMPO- ‘TUSCAN ) SITE | wos Poe Fe Pe OP ( AEN KO ) it 2 =aé' cs! = 19M 2 ee a The Tholos. the Winds, Epidaurus,) ji Ah Athens, ¢.334 ¢.360 B.C. =m 7 Greek Roman Roman Roman Temple Fortuna Choragic The Pantheon. Arch of Vitruvius Virilis, Rome __ Monument, Athens Rome — Severus, Rome aoe ‘sie : . ee. “ iS i bisa Oh ] 7 wy r se Ilissus, Athens SUUUL C Ke Ks eh utheum, Athens , i) Ree. im i The Fi -— of . Thi — by Vignola The pieun (A.D. 1509-73) Tem, a ‘Athens, y re Temple of Arch of = Fortuna Virilis, Capitals taken Castor and Pollux, ‘Titus, Rome to Rome, 86 B.c. Rome, A.D. 16 Rome, A.D.81 —— ast =tympanum ‘a, 4 ~ 2 | distyle in antis “~~ 4 prostyle tetrastyle “Ye a, ™~ peripteral hexastyle ~/* (surrounded e, by columng) peripte ral ~ Sk octastyle oY ‘ / dipteral” ~“octastyle “rows of columns) dipteral decastyle ” Classification of columnan arrangement according to Vitruvius (111, 2) TEMPLE T E DORIC bon, OI » as PO a La Ed 1 #2 s Ss on TN gee a =~595s 5s’ 9 FFs oe & w Svssee coSsshas AZo sue a © OF Ste & yoesoy ee 3a Os SSR 088 Re reen yy See SoSSCEBUY ae & Hrs =UTSags5 See ae BSN 5 of Bui ATHENS, Between the Greeks’ defeat of the Persians in 479 B.C. and the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) » Athens rose to her zenith; under the leadership of Pericles buildings were erected on the Acropolis: 1 The Parthenon 2 The Propylaea 3 The Erechtheum (restored) 100 A, entrance to the Acropolis, Mnesicles, architect. Built of marble 437-432 B.C. —E PARTHENON, 447-432 B.c. Doric temple 5 dedicated to Athena. Ictinus and Callicrates, architects; J ma hidias, master sculptor. Optical refinements p. 38 THE ERECHTHEUM, 420-406 B.c. A. Sanctuary of Athena Polias B. Sanctuaries of Erechtheus and Poseidon Possible architect Mnesicles. The caryatids and column capitals may have been designed by Callimachus, inventor of the Corinthian capital. Built on 4 levels, irregular in plan to preserve places sacred to Athens; built of white marble GREEK AEGEAN 3 ‘cities’ of TROY 7 II Prehistoric citadel, ¢.2600-2300 B.c. VI Homeric Troy, 1900 B.c.; sacked ¢.1200 B.C. IX The Roman acropolis, ¢.30 B.c.-A.D. 14. The Telesterion or Hall of the Mysteries, Eleusis Plan of selected buildings, Troy II Prehistoric citadel VI Homeric Troy (restored), PLANS, BUILDINGS AND HOUSES HELLENISTIC Dynamic planning Upper citadel, PERGAMUM, C.241-159 B.C. = mm aALQO Pe | an ttf or = = = —— SSS , a? a ay diane — a FE =| =. og f * ae Se a - / : f ‘ r ff Z be # - J / / / > fs | f Pa a SS \\\ The Agora Ne), )) i Bouleuterion or market 7 CR YY or Council Hall, place, Priene ye WY yg Miletus (restored), (restored) = < ¢.175-164 B.C. 0 PS Of 4 XK? @,%% J rs / OD 2 KK % “b @ - ee? A.C 000lUlUL | Nae ly Saree ee ee, | S07 4 Sreey GREEK REFINEMENTS Parthenon, —_— — —_ = Athens | ee ee ee ee 34 3 a a a i i i ie ilies. | | Paestum 28! gil 1 The Parthenon as seen 3 The front with inclined —_— —- axes of columns and with ere SS ee convex stylobate and Porro entablature producing the result seen at I Increase Tens 2@ In 2 Without optical corrections iN Entasis (Gk: distension) designed to counteract the illusion of the outline of 4 column curving inwards / 77 : y " , ® rise of @3. . = 25 in. rise of ie &S an ees 476 In. | | ALS 9 \6 ol = 228’ (fee St ee Exaggerated diagram of _ a | the rising curvature of the stylobate Angle columns look thinner seen dark and inward inclination of the columns against light and are thickened by 1; in. OPTICAL CORRECTIONS, THE PARTHENON, ATHENS Ilo : 8 Modules based on the lower diameter |_4°4 \djameters!_| 2 & 4 +4 Pycnostyle Systyle Diastyle Araeostyle Proportions of height, thickness & distance apart of columns according to Vitruvius (11,3) ORNAMENT ees mi The Tholos, Epidaurus, ¢.360 B.c. by the sculptor-architecS & | Polycleitus the Younger; ~ f ie built of sandstone and marble Wy, : eal Il The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens, ¢.33.4 B.C. Podium of limestone, upper part white marble, Corinthian order used externally for the first time The Tower of the Winds, Athens, ¢.50 B.C. Clock-tower built of marble ROMAN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC C75 3 B.C. 500 The foundation Etruscan of Rome kings 5 Acer ye 3 oe Carthaginians o 1 200 miles mam Roman territory “———' 500 miles Italy at the beginning The Latin conquest of the Roman Republic, of Italy, ithe Rowen Bevcind ¢.500 B.C. 275 B.C. Early Rome, with its Republican magistrates, town-council (senatus) and town-meetings (comitia), by a series of systematic conquests created an Empire round the Mediterranean consisting of different nationalities accepted as allies. The Roman Empire became a fusion of the practical Western idea of one universal society in which all men might live in conformity with Roman law and the Oriental conception of an Emperor-God with a throne-altar demanding a common worship and loyalty. This union between the West and the East was a continual source of weakness and led to the ultimate division of the Empire. The Romans built roads and bridges for swift communication, military camps with a simple set plan (later incorporated in many city-plans) for speed of construction, and government and civic buildings, which were both useful and symbolic of Roman law and order. Greek Hellenic Period 775! 323 429/8 — Plato —347 384 Aristotle 322 34.2-Epicurus-270 326 ?—Zeno-264? (Stoicism) Hellenistic INTRODUCTION THE ROMAN EMPIRE D 27 B.C. — A.D. 324 During the Republic kiln-baked bricks and _ stone blocks with or without mortar were _used in building. The invention of concrete revolutionised construction in the Empire. Concrete was used with a facing for protec- tion and a surface finish, & there is a sharp distinction between the art of the engineer constructing arches, vaults and domes and the applied art of decoration with columns and pilasters, marbles and mosaics. : 3y AID 106 —— 43 Cidero Marcus 7ol— Virgil +—i19 Aurelius 65 —Horace-+ 8 167— 180 59—Livy +17 46? Plutarch 120? 203-Plotinus-262 29 ALD. 284 324 394 476 A.D. Julius Augustus Nero Trajan Septimus End Caesar 27 14 59-68 98-117 Severus The capital, Rome, ofthe 106 — 44 Vespasian 192——211 moved to Byzantium Western 69—79 Hadrian by Constantine Empire T7135 306 337 enero poten! Movements of barbarians 394 A.D. The Romans invented all possible variations in the plans of buildings which were copied by later architects. Te Ten Books on Architecture by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, a Roman architect and engineer who lived in the 1st century B.c. was widely read in the Renaissance and later. Bes Christianity the official religion of the Empire. 354 St Augustine 430 I 9 2 The Forum Romanum (restored), looking towards the ‘Tabularium Forum and basilica, Silchester, England, ¢.A.D. 50-100 FORUMS, ROME (restored) I Forum Romanum, from ¢.5th century B.c. II Julium, 49B.c.-a.p.14. III Augustus, 28 B.c.-a.D. 14. [IV Vespasian, V Nerva, ¢.A.D. 97. WI Trajan, A.D. 100-117. TEMPLES: 1 Saturn, 44 B.c. 2 Concord, 7 B.c. 3 Venus Genetrix, 49 B.C. 4 Mars Ultor, 14-2 B.c. 5 Minerva, 28 B.c.-a.p. 14. 6 Divus Julius, 8 B.c.-a.D. 14. 7 Castor and Pollux, a.p.6. 8 Peace, A.D. 67-79. 9 Vespasian, A.D.94. 10 Trajan, A.D.100-117. 11 Venus and Rome, a.p. 123-135. 12 Faustina, a.p. 141. 13 Vesta, A.D. 205. BASILICAS: 14 Aemilia, ¢.179 B.c. 15 Julia, 46 B.c. 16 Trajan, A.D. 100-117. 17 Constantine, A.D. 310-313. BUILDINGS: 18 Tabularium, 78 B.c. 19 Curia (Senate House), 49 B.c.-A.D.14.20 House of the Vestal Virgins, ¢.A.D.17.21 Colosseum, A.D. 70-82.2 2 Arch of Septimus Severus, A.D.203. A.D. 67-79. BUILDINGS AND PLANS, ROME Drawn to the same scale 500 The Thermae of Caracalla, Rome, c. A.D. 212-217 Stands on a platform 20 ft high containing store-rooms, furnaces, hypocausts and hot-air ducts; room for more than 1600 bathers 1 Main entrance 2 Apodyteria—undressing rooms 3 Tepidarium—tepid bath 4 Calidarium—hot-air bath s Warm baths S 6 Hot baths 7 Frigidarium— open-air cold bath § Palaestra, peristyles g Lecture halls and libraries The Pantheon, Rome, A.D. 120-124 Palaces of the Emperors on the Palatine Hill, Rome, A.D. 3-212 1 Palace of Augustus, 21 B.C.-A.D. 14 Db Ly 2 Palace of Domitian; YQ 4 A.D. 81-96 NZ a. Triclinium My or Banqueting Hall. Dp (amy ». Peristyle. y ae <. Temi of household gods. | = Ale y Mh Ti a A Re er 41, wiht : tn Viahe d. Basilica or Hall of Justice. Uy BURN 4 wna e. Tablinum or Throne Room , developed the arch as a constructive principle and added the Greek column and entablature as decoration Wooden centering supported on piles Por on the impost I a in meen = ed brick 7 set on wooden "centering to receive concrete | Methods of constructing stone and concrete vaults t “THE ARCH -e od Arches supported on piers: Aqueduct, Pont du Gard, Nimes, ¢.A.D.150 | lig f rTP T TTT: (s } \ ¢ V\ \4 Dil Ly e if F ifs uff | F je i . 5 S Tr) dT Poo et tL ULC dD | 4 f a Pd Stine Al en aan | @ ean mms es ¥ a Thermae of Diocletian, Rome, A.D.302 Brick ribs in concrete cross-vaults CONCRETE used by the Romans from the 2nd century B.C., consisting of sand, gravel, pebbles, chippings of stone, mixed with a cement of lime and water and spread over a temporary wooden or permanent brick centering, to solidify into the required shape -arch, vault or dome. The dead weight rested upon supporting walls or piers without exerting an outward thrust. Pozzolana, a volcanic rock found near Rome, made a concrete of great hardness and durability. Concrete surfaces were faced with stucco, brick or marble for protection and finish. MASONRY The Romans copied the Greek technique, building courses of dressed blocks, held by through stones laid dry without mortar or with iron cramps and dowels set in molten lead. The space between the courses was left empty or filled with undressed stones, earth or concrete. % ST MATERIALS & METHORS aimee eI : ioe A orl a gs inches — timber S ‘ \y sheeting timber - 9 inches Soek wide ‘ =e concrete L Opus testaceum with brick from ¢.78 B.c. \ Cross-vault built of brick ribs brick rib ‘Temple of Minerva Medica, Rome, ¢.a.b. 260 x —— aH) a = eee eee tcces 65 eens The Pretorium,| | The Basilica, Musmiyeh, Shakka, ¢.A.D. 180 ¢.A.D. 175-200 ff Syria: buildings of dressed stone continued in the period of Early Christian architecture in the 5th to 7th centuries ROMAN Construction of dome ;-*. A Brick ribs B Brick Arches C Wooden moulds D Concrete @eeoete#eees? Fh tet a a a = ee - Concealed brick arches | link together 8 massive brick piers supporting the dome 30 2'5 Vv | T The Temple of Vesta, Tivoli (restored), 27 B.C.-A.D.14 ee | Foundations: tufa. Podium and walls: concrete. Columns and door: travertine. Roof: probably a low concrete dome pumice-stone. A.D.70- Foundations: lava. 3 external Doric, Ionic Vaults: ‘aa | 8 rr a wee " \ . "alo y . f az ¥ 4 ] eo Le 2a ‘a \ | = oak) teihike — ‘ F - aS p bt a a =“ - , [aes t J a ri i= ae ai > a brick and tufa. Facade: travertine blocks ~The Colosseum, Rome, Designed for about 45,000 spectators. 80 piers and Corinthian columns. Walls: support 3 tiers of arcading. Decorative use of superimposed orders of eo ee FF | Adit ef S-ldadod AE g bi. yf | | faa [T) f , nm oe. : , wl J == : ; ’ , F ” ; oa r, ay ee i CIRCULAR & OVAL BUILDINGS marble held by metal Columns and seats: De? Semal ' ees ee bs " ht f , J] / re ae es + et “i a im wu Baca : Os Ue . ru / ‘ ' ™ rs 7 i) ‘ Le ™ meal | et - i 4 . f a hl CI J Cs = ‘ ‘ rT , ae.) pena i | | i) aw wm ww ames f dj Noo Fe yy / iif ommowne”! tt 6.A.D.245 : TT | Ts t # ‘TEMPLES 9 3 Temple of Bacchus Temple of Jupiter from ¢. A.D. [20-200 6 local sandstone centuries A.D.; ff (restored), ¢. 1st-2nd i = S + o —_ = a < AS O cs ae es © — oS. = TEMPLES, BAALBEK ow [ ee. Ca i i a ) mf) ST ee BI een | oe tL f ~ . fi Temple of Bacchus th | asa 4S 5, 8 8 SAS ANAS AS SS AE AAAS SSS SS dle ASE aaa EME PLS CS SRA Oh Dee es SP ae — nee SSS TEN. j hs . -_" 4" ae uy 2h SSR SS 777) — = o a - P| 7 - - = — ee 2 WE ee ddddas : MMA - : | | i | J | ad ———— 7A . ae aa << Tle er — SSS —— bh SSE —s = Til —— a oa ee Ti mu MN mL Int = Se [SE ZB Hellenistic <_Z_ theatre, Priene, Asia Minor (restored), ¢.50 B.C. EE —_— The early Greek theatre consisted of an auditorium (simply a hill slope with stone seats), a semi-circular orchestra where the chorus sang and danced, and a wooden stage from which a single actor would hold a dialogue with the chorus. The number of actors was raised to two or three by Aeschylus (525-456 B.c.) and Sophocles (495- 406 B.C.), who also introduced painted scenery and a dressing hut or skene. In the 4th century B.c. a wooden skene A was erected with a proscenium B having a row of columns, usually Doric, 8-12 ft from the skene wall supporting a stage of planks called the logeion or speaking-place C. ‘Three doors in the skene wall were for entrances and exits of actors. At the two ends of the Plan of a Greek theatre based on 3 squares proscenium were the parodoi within the orchestra circle (Vitruvius, v.7) or open passage-ways D. ROMAN THEATRE ‘ «Q on 6 & Gg a O6997nogon0gag0g0 2 QG ee et al VeWENESNSEMENMENE| Ly: i See EIS: WES els | mS T ai Be —=si i Y= SIS The Theatre, Orange (restored), ¢.A.D.50. Designed to seat 7o00.Stage 5 ft high, 23 ft deep. Built up on stone and concrete piers. A Semi-circular cavea or auditorium B Proscenium replaced by a frons scaenag&— C Covered passages—vomitoris a Introduction of a stage curtain} }} -_. 1 r Cd i ~ |= mA eet | i ‘he ‘.. - ; fi: ant =] ial poe ? E SI | “ted # = ee The eee “ : - — ae eee | | $ — eee - Plan of a Roman theatre based on 4 equi- Scan lateral triangles in a circle (Vitruvius v,6) A. Triumphal Arches with one opening Arch of Augustus, Susa, Arch of Titus, Rome, a.p. 70 Piedmont, ¢.a.p. 8 Earliest use of the Composite order. Town gateway with four archways The Porte S. André, Augustodonum (Autun). Tomb of the Julii, An arcaded gallery with Ionic pilasters creates Provence, S. Remy, an antiphonal response with the rise and fall €.30 B.C.-A.D. 14 of the large and small arches below mee Trajan’s Column, Rome, A.D. 114. iG -: ' = | e = c. SN Fd 4 . AL, Fy r 1 7 4 nm F i y " F r F ih Wf ; | A > 4 ff a ee nat A r , WA lll commen s 17 weg LF Ta Ls LY Pls) i < hier | ee ae "> ' ‘a é } = he » AL S ‘| ™ vi ——_ a} i é aaa —e , : ' y : 1 i} og _ : ry: P \ Cd TJ rt ; r r 4 Ls 1 a \e . | o ie Ps Ca ul ay za F \ ~- ’ : , ) es a3 ; \ r, , / . + : _— ~ “ me . 4 | ih Mal Wr H, s, Rome, A.D..200 Petra, ¢. A.D. Pao, One of the 25 rock-cut facades Rock-cut tomb of Khazna, Arch of Septimus Severu a al Arches with three openings. Triumph A.D. 21 Arch of Tiberius, Orange, c. estored ), r | | esus (r ph "ll " aeey 4 ae E, ARCHES AND MONUM both having smooth shafts The Library, ¢.A.D. 115. Lower storey Composite and upper storey Corinthian order, S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, 2B DES tase Basilican church of S. Peter, Rome (restored), A330; Pulled down in the 15th century Syria, ‘ w/~" 5th-6th centuries : churches built of large stone blocks and timber roofs Church, Roueiha (restored), c. 6th century A.D, Baptistery of S. Costanza, Constantine, Rome, Rome, A.D. 330 A.D. 430-440 . a Visigothic before the Moslem invasion, with horse-shoe arch: S. Juan de Bafios, Cerrato, Spain, ¢. A.D. 500-713 Saree COMPARATIVE PLANS plans and sections in black to the same scale 150 war | E aa Prassede, + S. Clemente, Rome, rebuilt 1084-1108 over a 4th-century church Carolingian : Hes. Riquier. _ or Abbeville, f France /) / ar more France, A.D. 806 } @ Germigny-des-Pres, S. Maria de Naranco Spanish-Romanesque : Asturia, Spain, Mozarabic, ‘Arabized Spanish’: S. Vicente de Cardona, A.D, 824-840 S. Miguel de Escalada, Leon, a.b. 913 Catalonia, ¢. 1024-1040 ROMAN BASILICA KARLY Basilica of Ulpia, Rome, ¢. A.D. 98-112: a part of Trajan’s Forum built by the Hellenistic architect, Apollodorus of Damascus TIMBER ROOFS i \ IE = Rafters tend to push walls outwards ea Joints and iron straps y a mets Sw = = = A beam supports rafters at AA and a post at B Ah A tie-beam __B king-post A} Rae C queen-posts D straining-piece os Azz AzJ=> S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome Scientific tie-beam construction : : king-post or suspensory tie B holds up the tie-beam AA TIAN CHURCHES CHRIS supporting L a flat entablature: S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, A.D. 432 supporting semi- circular arches : S. Apollinare in Classes Ravenna, A.D. 5 34-539 5 ae Lyn eo I Aisles in Qu ab — two storeys: Basilican church of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome, a.p. 320; S. Agnese fuori le Mura, burnt down in 1832 and rebuilt to the original design Rome, A.p. 625-638 ROMAN BYZANTINE S. George, Salonika, S. Vitale, Ravenna, SS. Sergius ¢. A.D. 4.00 A.D. 526-547 and Bacchus, The Minerva Medica, Constantinople Rome, ¢.A.D. 260 A.D. 527-553 The Pantheon, Rome, A.D. 120-124 S. Sophia, Constantinople, a.p. 532-537 S. George, aR Ezra, F ce i t . , C-A.D. 510 PERSIA: detail of Palace, Feruz-abad, A.D. 450 74 COMPARATIVE PLANS 150 plans and sections in black to the same scale f. / Holy Apostles, // Salonika, Carolingian cathedral, _ Aix-la-Chapelle, A.D. 796-804 ar f ={ S. Basil, Ga fy Moscow, A.D. 1554-1560 nm E a sei ce | : S. Saviour S. Irene, Constantinople. 3 : y ei b. 740 mee Church, Daphni, nr Athens, —_ Pantepoptes, pak ¢. 11th century A.D. Constantinople, early 12th century | ff - | ae | ee ep oS. _ S. Sophia, Salonika, ¢.6th century A.D. S. Front, Perigueux, France, A.D. 1120 BYZANTINE ae ‘The dome a hemisphere set above pendentives Dome and pendentives parts of one hemisphere To build an arch centering is necessary, LU but a dome can be built Domes on pendentives in successive rings built with bricks of horizontal arches not radiating without centering S. Sophia, Salonika, ¢. A.D. 495 from centre ttle” Metropole Dome™ with drum: Cathedral, © Athens, a.p. 1250 cross-in-square plan tion showing ingles of bricks 3 Bronze rings A, tie-rods B to resist pressure Built for Justinian by two Greck architects, Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. Built of brick; the dome probably erected without centering, with bricks _ about 24-27 inches square and 2 inches thick laid in deep mortar] ¢ and covered with } inch lead; the dome supported on 4 piers, the thrust being taken by 2 semi- domes and 4 massive buttresses; the interior lined throughout in coloured marbles and mosaics ROMANESQUE plans and elevations to the same scale fee 200 ITALY a & ae Oo S. Riquier, S. Philibert, Tournus, / nr Abbeville ¢.950-1120 & later (restored), ¢.799 1156 Abbaye-aux- Hommes (S. Etienne), Caen, 1066-1077 GERMANY S. Cyriakus, Gernrode, 961 and later SPAIN Be Ae a es ¢ / Santiago de €}Compostela, Ripoll Abbey, ¢. 1075-1121: pilgrimage church similar in plan Catalonia, 1020-1032 to Tours, Limoges, Conques and ‘Toulouse PLANS & ELEVAT im Campanile. Pisa, 1174; belfry 1350 Baptistery, Pisa, 1153-1278, 4 Gothic additions 14th century Angouléme Cathedral, 1105-1128 and later > (restored),1088-1131 (elevation reversed VA to show the apse) Nt IS GP ’ 4 wie eth 1105-1128 and [ater GERMANY BENGLAND ,. t6we _ (Norman) gts 1240 A, ¢.1422 1290 Zehir yt rl rf o ie j be M, "4 “ns AR . ee AA Ie ons fi Ds a * tye? o | we a. a Ks Mg * ; a8 : Facide ~ ‘e* a .* oe ee } | ed 33 « 1M 3 oe } “Durham Cathedral, 1093-1133 Peterborough Cathedral, 1177-1190 ROMANESOUVE ih a scale for g. BARREL VAULTS sections “4 S. Madelaine, V ézelay, 5. Savin-sur-Gartempe, S. Sernin, Toulouse 80-1096 ¢. 1104-1132 ¢. 1060-1115 --\ centering 3 of ‘| mounded groin stones 1,2 joint moulds 1a, 2b plans timber centering wt Pd =e Sere STONE VAULTING a 5 = je sia Sy l/h ie ‘ < ra if 2 cv * | * re. al . wT ee ot i == ‘jeans fee) is =| ee ‘ ae TP Pasa - pes Set oe re , HI ives ie = - a a we ‘a AS ge ear insert blocks - to remove \ centering r = (fa Durham Cathedral : nave 1093-1133 la |] ~_ at = | | i _— ff / domical vault, 1251-1310 UO = YU — ant S v ‘= > ae Y cD) ie _ re ENGLAND York Cathedral, 1261-1324 Salisbury Cathedral, 1220-1258 St Peter’s, Rome, begun 1506 ii dome added by AMIN. Brunelleschi PLANS & ELEVATIONS Siena Cathedral, 1245-138 Burgos Cathedral, 1220-1500 for laity B Crossing C ‘Transept D Choir aisle FE Sacristry E Chancel G Choir for ~ dean & chapter H Presbytery ‘i * ae a ne “4 > : — rn. a Se = = , / EF > ) a a os SSS D\ A Say, S ‘ —: Me Ss Co = 77 Hoes ats . va Bt as et: Cs M ! ry J ar * =e f/ te Se fe ip a —<——- q 4 ’ 4 , . a Ny a) DP TT) , ) ’ al i = 4 ne al ‘ A ps I Cathedra or bishop’s throne K High altar L Reredos M Retro- choir N Principal shrine O Ambulatory P Lady chapel ANE! § central | 1] s . ! coo buttr — = a i en Ts ai ne TT f Lew ees Se Re Aes hom \. | timber roof eas ae GOTHIC SHE PARTS OF A CATHEDRAS A245 => a} oo . —s 53 ee —* “Wey — SS => 4 i meneniiemmmnmnetel elie ae 4 I mat Fal FF “ >. (a'= a aaa tt LAN Mea . /j _ ‘i ey, | al 'T a , ff. (7 &\— a a d ™! - 7 | « i 3, a r Pn, , an | a — ee he ra | 4 a if « Ww . ai iat H | | \e 4 EE ot be os J 4 | a 1, es AHNTONTIAAHANADN = Notre Dame, Paris, 6.1200-1250 | ¥ * Wells Cathedral, ¢c.1220-1242 THE WEST FRONT N f£— | J A EK | | i if . * d { . ; id / ¥.\ af eV Paw’, MATS elk Yer ry ‘hy | meee St) | | RTO hs “a, bes Peterborough Cathedral, ¢.1235 ENGLAND. STONE VAULTING F | \ ee ee ae FX \ > \ ZT AV, AY axe Introduction of liernes or small ribs Fan vaults: all ribs "// of equal span with shorter web courses and the web carved from the same stone _ Winchester Norwich King’s College Chapel, Henry VII's Chapel, Cathedral nave, Cathedral nave, Cambridge, Westminster Abbey, 1371-1460 1463-1472 1446-1515 1502-1512 a i = : She we Es ; es a aS hy - =e 4 = Se it fe ae = oe : a= nt = ‘ ay = 7 ¥, = oe eet " ; ra J A tee i Shs a ees i ‘ , : fi See Sept a EL oe — p= : if . 5 at crass es , ‘ c as Ne - i ne es a sh Sy - alls a =) a J =. oa a 3 is P Sl = a = Se te Se | r e — r a ww ees | — er pier es as ‘| Be oe. | oe ; Se ees Se PS ee ; | Tee 3 Vesa nee 4 za ih Ss Bi 5 = =~ -e a a i “ ri i. ‘ 4 | Eth i= writers se = ae i - Ee = i ed a . i, a t ] ie PE hes tt : A - == ca ¢ et i ; ; = ew ee i, oe ok) ee Te a hid Tent fe rf : : a Se r = ree '> = ‘ae = Se = poe 2 : : : tes a S : i 5 F ni i ip 4 . al th or E ee Nel eilks-v1 . fer A Stra Lap ee: : vets Se Caro tee + : 7 aa rea + = ’ =e | ee aN = igs eee Ry Fat os mi - er 1 4 a ee =e) oe joer ake res lik eee reat ae ih i a = ae i in ae Qe | —! bey a oe " ue a oe 7 “-— * f : Dy a? ate Ean c ) Se sitee! ae ae ioe 7 s ae for ~ ee | ne 1 ae a ; Sag na He i, ay te 47 ye . a ais hes 7. ie, 2 Pa a . = : - in * u Sea : eas Oye h ey ED? a ™ oo) gee 7 g as atl 4 ie =e eels Ht rf 2. ail — ee nl Sel orl = e — tee a == (ee, ee an . dre f Arable i F pers hE ime att 5 eo ee fH} Pie ea “J | = q : pare r eke =< ié : es We 2 See a mae, eee Tipe) =: : a | a) aoe =) =a al Ey F 2 eo. 57 ol =| sally a Now =e = 2 , Seog Mes - — pel ee = sion = . anaes 13) sa ane +S See SS eg ee iy Regs Sak [ : ule Aer ee, RT i Een oe we ee Tie e ee Bs ai d pm Se Mt ao | _. a Pi ie Lee oo ere SS . = = 4 = a a} 7) . 4 ‘~ a sbt=. ! ] av , a = Ete : ee Ail ss af = an am = iis l : be te th T™ stele et a a= = Sey Ge healt? =aial' ae = 7 ‘ | " : is s te = ii, i Zs i alt ps i a * 4 eat ae We Pl S ia Eyl | rie sete | ms . t earl ss 4 a ‘ - i Sees: eat ay) Se cae ae 7 ee . ro a a ey v A as ; ee aa P . wird 4 i ie es ; aay, ty: rt . r i it ji i Bal = =! H| om ~= eye = I = eae ; om m8 ad > , e oe = ae ee a é h pa er i VEe ae See Eat Balbese Pa | ZA Z , — i 4 : , ’ ie | === 1 Ie , ——_— — aie! SS = _ rt Ir a es as ; 7 > = ae ee _ oe el mel ero Sc ——- aS ed elo ee ne west front cs | = , == = ta _ 7: = =. - 2A > "eal L Freiburg Cathedral, ¢.1268-1288: al c CS 5 4 Vv a & Ww o fA = NY v & Y o aa —& Y "s oy 7 = a v = "S — cr vo Ce © WN Oo os ae) = ow v > oS = west front on Co Q 1 or) or Q S 2p ml Q Ke = oo aod v 8 ea Wy the many having the Chorin Abbey, ¢.1273-1334: ee a —— . ——— oo —a — = a i 2 FF —_ er > —_— SS }\) oI Ie — a : eo == ~~» Sharer ; = ee, ee , Sa i — SL TT one of 1400 The Turks take Constantinople 145 & block trade with the Orient: this leads to maritime discoveries eerie rane’ The Empire o and his son Spain Spain united 1497 1519—Charles V—1556— Philip If of Spain—1598 Italy Florence: the Renaissance Rome: temporal power of the Popes Venice: trade lost France Franco-Spanish rivalry in Italy 1515—Francis I—1547 Italian influence Holland 15668 Revolt of the England 1485—Henry VII—1509—Henry VIUI—1547-~ 1558—Elizabeth I—1603 War of the Roses _ Italian influence Mary I marries ey I] of Spain Germany head of some 300 states 1483—Martin Luther—1 54 14 Invention Protests (hence Protes nts Internal ea of printing against the Romany rf 1 a¥5e3@) Mainz, ¢.1450 leads to the oe Pr oC Reformation 140g brought Protestant gag “of the Roman I49g9° d "4 | the revival Catholic = o Church ae the te " \and spread Greek AK Council of of Latin Moslem Cg rent 1545-63, and Greek SS ~~ aided by texts 14.99-S. Ignatius Loyola-1556 founded the Society of Jesus opernicus 147 3 THE RENAISSANCE the Roman Empire — | 1547 1564—Bruno-1600 | The Renaissance (Florence) High Renaissance (Rome) Mannerism 1400 1500 Fel Ne 1600 Renaissance churches were centralized and of the Divine Proportions (pp.118-119). designed on the drawing-board. The increasingly dramatic movements of ‘They were inspired by classical architecture, | High Renaissance and Mannerist buildings as interpreted by Vitruvius (above all, by became, especially in the ‘theatrical’ churches Roman temples, arches, domes & the Five of the Counter-Reformation, an interplay Orders (pp.116-117)), & obeyed the canon of forces. (This required the drawing of IN'FRODUCTION 1700 1750 English Ws Fane Nig atch giry Spanish CO af 61750 Portuguese lial YER the | qt eA Industrial Prowstane ES Cseholi@E *Révolution 1614—30 Years’ War—1648 Conflict for colonies and overseas trade to new Atlantic seaports. Domination of Spain in Italy ends 1710 1610-Age of the Cardinals-1643-Ascension of France: Louis XIV-1715—Louis XV—1774 Netherlands from Spain 1648 Republic of the United Provinces James I-1625~ Charles 1649+ 1660-Charles 1I-1685,-89 1702-Anne-14-George 11727 Divine Right of Kings Commonwealth James IT Colonial Expansion Impoverished by the 30 Years’ War Kingdom of Prussia 1701 Frederick the Great 1740*85 Discours de la Methode 1637 ol THE BAROQUE argque Rococo 1600 Newton Daa 1700 1750 three-dimensional elevations and curved The architecture of each European country details by means of projective geometry, was a reaction to that of Italy, modified by which had been developed by the new its own native characteristics. science of dynamics.) France (pp.1 30-133), Germany & Austria This Baroque style was finally resolved into (pp.134-135), Spain (pp.1 36-137), the lighter curves of the Rococo. England (pp.1 38-159). eee NUE mua Florence Cathedral : Brunellescht (1377- 1440) (pp. 109, Bramante (1444-15 chute 1506 ee 2 Raphael (148 waa pe fo [515-2 2 Sangallo the Younger (1485-1544) | 1539 Nol 4 Michelangelo (147 4644 3 re vy gz” “ also designed he done, _ completed’1585-90 gs Giacomo della Porta (p.122) Lit T- “1604 ) and Domenico Fontana (1543-1007); ci 5 side cupolas added 1564, B= =f) a by Vignola (1507-73) Te rns 6 : C i Maderna (1556-1629) lengthened 5. Maria della Consolaz- = nave to form a Latin cross lone, 1508, SBramante & added the facade 1606-12 ” & Cola di Caprarola St Peter’s, Rome, 1506-1612 (pp..93, 124) Z a niga Ne Vi