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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bioproses

ERT 206: Thermodynamics


Exercise 3 Solutions
1)
(a) Given x1 = 0.33 and T= 100 C, find y1 and P.
BUBL P Calculation
Calculation:
Step 1: Find P1sat & P2sat using Antoine equation.
ln Pi sat / kPa = A

B
T / C + C

ln P1sat / kPa = 13.7819

2726.81
100C + 217.572

= 5.195
sat
Thus, P1 = 180.45kPa

ln P2sat / kPa = 13.932

3056.96
100C + 217.625

= 4.3076
sat
Thus, P2 = 74.2597kPa

Step 2: Find P.

P = x1 P1sat + x2 P2sat

= x1 P1sat + (1 x1 )P2sat
= 0.33(180.45kPa ) + (1 0.33)(74.2597 kPa )
= 109.3025kPa
Step 3: Calculate y1 using Raoults law.

yi P = xi Pi sat
y1 = x1 P1sat P = 0.33(180.45kPa ) 109.3025kPa = 0.5448

(b) Given y1 = 0.33 and T= 100 C, find x1 and P.


DEW P Calculation:
Step 1: Find P from Raoults Law assuming
P=

sat
1

y1 / P

x
i

=1

1
+ y 2 / P2sat

1
0.33 / 180.45 + (1 0.33) / 74.2597

= 92.156kPa

Step 2: Find x

yi P = xi Pi sat
x1 = y1 P P1sat
= (0.33)(92.156 ) (180.45)
= 0.1685
(c) Given x1 = 0.33 and P= 120 kPa, find y1 and T.
BUBL T Calculation:
Step 1: Start with =1, find P2sat
P2sat =

P
120
=
= 120kPa
x1 + x 2 (0.33)(1) + (1 0.33)

Step 2: Find T using Antoine eq & substitute P2sat obtained in step 1


T=

B
C
A ln P2sat

3056.96
217.625
13.9320 ln 120

= 116.67C

Step 3: Find new by substituting T


* find the expression for first
ln P1sat / kPa = 13.7819

- ln P2sat / kPa = 13.932

2726.81
T / C + 217.572

3056.96
T / C + 217.625

ln P1sat / P2sat = 0.1501


ln = 0.1501

2726.81
3056.96
+
T / C + 217.572 T / C + 217.625

2726.81
3056.96
+
T / C + 217.572 T / C + 217.625

* substituting T=116.67C in the equation;


2726.81
3056.96
ln = 0.1501
+
116.67C + 217.572 116.67C + 217.625
= 0.8362

= 2.3076
Step 4: Repeat step 1 by using new until similar value of is obtained
2nd iteration:

= 2.3076
P2sat = 83.8277 kPa
T = 104.0507C
new = 2.3985

3rd iteration:
= 2.3985
P2sat = 82.10714kPa
T = 103.3502C
new = 2.40387

4th iteration:
= 2.40387
P2sat = 82.00765kPa
T = 103.3094C
new = 2.4042

5th iteration:
= 2.4042
P2sat = 82.00kPa
T = 103.307C
new = 2.4042

Thus, T = 103.307C
Step 5: Find P1sat & find y1 using Raoults law
P1sat = P2sat
= 2.4042(82.00kPa )
= 197.144kPa

y1 = x1 P1sat P
= 0.33(197.144kPa ) 120kPa
= 0.542

(d) Given y1 = 0.33 and P= 120 kPa, find x1 and T.


DEW T Calculation:
Step 1: Start with =1, find P1sat
P1sat = P( y1 + y2 )

= 120[0.33 + 0.67(1)]
= 120kPa

Step 2: Find T using Antoine eq & substitute P1sat obtained in step 1


T=

B
C
A ln P1sat

2726.81
217.572
13.7819 ln 120

= 85.595C

Step 3: Find new by substituting T


ln = 0.1501

2726.81
3056.96
+
T / C + 217.572 T / C + 217.625

ln = 0.1501

2726.81
3056.96
+
85.595 / C + 217.572 85.595 / C + 217.625

= 2.5527
Step 4: Repeat step 1 by using new until similar value of is obtained
2nd iteration:

T = 111.7005C
new = 2.34215

3rd iteration:
= 2.34215
P1sat = 227.9091kPa
T = 108.8766C
new = 2.36250

4th iteration:
= 2.36250
P1sat = 229.5446 Pa
T = 109.1563C
new = 2.3604

5th iteration:
= 2.3604
P1sat = 229.3807kPa
T = 109.1284C
new = 2.3606

= 2.5527
P1sat = 244.8347kPa

Step 5: Find x1 using Raoults law


y1 = x1 P1sat P
x1 = y1 P P1sat

= 0.33(120kPa ) 229.3807kPa
= 0.1726

2) Assuming the validity of the De Priester charts, make the following VLE calculations
for methane(1)/ethylene(2)/ethane(3) system:
(a) BUBL P, given x1 = 0.10, x2 = 0.50, and T = -60 F
Component

xi

Methane
Ethylene
Ethane

0.10
0.50
0.40

P = 200 psia
Ki
yi=Kixi
5.600
0.560
0.700
0.350
0.445
0.178

P = 250 psia
Ki
yi=Kixi
4.600
0.460
0.575
0.288
0.380
0.152

P = 215 psia
Ki
yi=Kixi
5.150
0.515
0.650
0.325
0.420
0.168

SUM = 1.088

SUM = 0.900

SUM = 1.008
(close enough)

Thus, BUBL P = 215 psia


(b) DEW P, given y1 = 0.50, y2 = 0.25, and T = -60 F
Component

yi

Methane
Ethylene
Ethane

0.50
0.25
0.25

P = 190 psia
Ki
xi=yi/Ki
5.900
0.085
0.730
0.342
0.460
0.543
SUM = 0.971

Thus, DEW P = 210 psia

P = 200 psia
Ki
xi=yi/Ki
5.600
0.089
0.700
0.357
0.445
0.562
SUM = 1.008
(close enough)

(c) BUBL T, given x1 = 0.12, x2 = 0.40, and P = 250 psia


Component

xi

Methane
Ethylene
Ethane

0.12
0.40
0.48

T = -50 F
Ki
yi=Kixi
4.900
0.588
0.680
0.272
0.450
0.216

T = -60 F
Ki
yi=Kixi
4.600
0.552
0.570
0.228
0.380
0.182

T = -57 F
Ki
yi=Kixi
4.700
0.564
0.615
0.246
0.405
0.194

SUM = 1.076

SUM = 0.962

SUM = 1.004
(close enough)

Thus, BUBL T = -57 F

(d) DEW T, given y1 = 0.43, y2 = 0.36, and P = 250 psia


T = -40 F
T = -50 F
Component
yi
Ki
xi= yi /Ki
Ki
xi= yi /Ki
Methane
0.43
5.200
0.083
4.900
0.088
Ethylene
0.36
0.800
0.450
0.680
0.529
Ethane
0.21
0.520
0.404
0.450
0.467
SUM = 0.937
Thus, DEW T = -45 F

SUM = 1.084

T = -45 F
Ki
xi= yi /Ki
5.050
0.085
0.740
0.486
0.485
0.433
SUM = 1.005
(close enough)