Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 77

1 | P a g e

http://milestonereview.webs.com

2 | P a g e

Milestone Education Review (2278-2168)


Milestone Education Review (The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social
Transformation) is an online peer-reviewed bi-annual journal of Milestone
Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa (Kurukshetra). For us education refers to any act
or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of
an individual. The role of education must be as an instrument of social change and
social transformation. Social transformation refers to large scale of social change as
in cultural reforms and transformations. The first occurs with the individual, the
second with the social system. This journal offers an opportunity to all academicians
including educationist, social-scientists, philosophers and social activities to share
their views. Each issue contains about 100 pages.
Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Chief-Editor:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-
11, Chandigarh.
Associate Editors: Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Poonama Verma

Editorial Advisory Board:
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong).
Prof. (Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater (Former Vice Chancellor, Singhania University, Rajasthan).
Dr. Dinesh Chahal (Department of Education, Central University of Haryana).
Dr. Manoj Kumar, (P.G. Department of Sociology, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-1,
Chandigarh).
Dr. Sudhir Baweja (University School of Open Learning,, Panjab University, Chandigarh).
Dr. K. Victor Babu (Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam).
Dr. Nidhi Verma (Department of Psychology, C.R.S. University, Jind (Haryana).
Dr. Jayadev Sahoo (Jr. Lecturer in Logic & Philosophy, GM Jr. College, Sambalpur, Odisha).


Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the
individual authors, and not necessary of those of the Society or the Editor.


http://milestonereview.webs.com

3 | P a g e

In this issue..

Title & Author

Page No.

HONOUR KILLING: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCT: Kanika Sharma

GENDER EQUALITY: A KEY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

Reetu Sharma
CHINA AND PAKISTAN: ALL-WEATHER FRIENDS: Kulvinder

21

Singh
MEDICAL TOURISM IN INDIA: Meenu Kohli & Naveen Pandhi

33

ATTITUDE OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO THEIR

40

MENTAL HEALTH: Anuradha Jaidka


STREET CHILDREN IN INDIA: A STUDY OF PATHETIC CONDITION OF

45

STREET CHILDREN IN PANCHKULA: Minakshi Rana

STRESS AMONG PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO

55

THEIR OPTIMISTIC-PESSIMISTIC ATTITUDE: Manoj Kumar


WORK SHIFT DURATION AS A CAUSE OF JOB DISSATISFACTION

60

AMONG POLICE OFFICIALS IN UT CHANDIGARH: Sandeep


Buttola
NEW PUBLICATIONS

69

PROGRAMMES REPORTS

73

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

76

http://milestonereview.webs.com

4 | P a g e

HONOUR KILLING : THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCT


Kanika Sharma
Introduction
Honour Killing, the terminology of the nomenclature declares by itself to be an act
that validates murder in the name of honour. It is very largely construed by most diverse
cultures as a righteous act of killing ones own kith and kin to avenge the dishonour that
had befalls upon the entire family/village/society. The act may be meted out by family
members or in certain distinct cultures the elders or the heads of the villages as a deterrent
punishment in the form of extermination of the liable persons or some other form of
equally appalling action to ensure that the act in question is not repeated by the peers or
consequent generations.
Its been 66 years since India gained independence and yet even today, people not
only have to deal with the pre-existing abuses but have also to wrestle the more appalling
forms of violence that continue to subsist in the society. Honour Killing is becoming
increasingly the most socially sanctioned repercussion and an all-encompassing deterrent
to the rural urban youth, who dare to question the traditional social barriers and further
dare to bring dishonour by exercising their supposed right to marry. Chowdhry (2006)
in Contentious Marriages, Eloping Couples: Gender, Caste and Patriarchy in Northern
India says that to overcome caste and customary rules some couples run away from the
village and get married. Such cases are generally dealt within the close preserve of the
family and/or its kinship network. Yet, some of them spill over voluntarily or
involuntarily into the public sphere and assume a different form, as issues concerning the
sexuality of women, almost entirely confined to the family, are thrown open for
judgment. This public sphere is dominated by two diametrically opposing authorities, one
informal and the other formal. The informal, is under the domination of the wider
community (biradari) acting through the traditional panchayat with no legal standing; the
formal is regulated by the state, based upon modern egalitarian laws.
These cases of Run-away Marriages are bracketed and categorized as Protection
Matters by law. They render a legally absolute and unhinged right to life and liberty to
persons under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The pertinent thing to note is that
Article 21 protects expansively the lives and liberty of the couple, the issue of
determining whether a couple is legally married or not is judged by evaluating the
certainties of majority age and consent of the boy and girl. In this respect, there is
undoubtedly a legal discretion upon the court to adjudicate and decide the issue of
marriage. However, there is a larger undiluted obligation cast upon the court to protect the
paramount rights of life and liberty of persons.
Honour Killing is a phenomenon that from a theoretical perspective is clearly the
final result and a conspicuous consequence of crumbling socially stated patriarchal norms
and their constant tussle with modernity. Tradition is not necessarily detrimental but
when tradition reeks of bias, discrimination and exploitation in the name of honour and
http://milestonereview.webs.com

5 | P a g e

leads to loss of lives of helpless and innocent minority segments of populations, it ought
to be affirmatively uprooted. Redundant traditions which are ought to be imposed by self
styled khap leaders or rigid and supposed righteous parents are actually, outmoded
customary law imposing unreasonable political orthodoxy. At the helm of all affairs, its a
vicious cycle which connects petrified eloping couples who have rebelled against the
social caste/class stratified structure which has resulted in their unfortunate horrific
Honour Killings.
Concept of Honour
Pal (2012) in Honour Killing: Culture, Dilemma and Ritual says that the ideology
of honour is one which directly results from patriarchal gender roles, wherein conformity
to these roles is demanded and a source of status and acceptance within the community;
and where deviance is censured. For males, honour is gained through exerting
dominance and control over females and younger males, and lost through weakness and
failure to control; it can be restored through violent and coercive acts. For females,
honour is preserved through subordinancy, obediency, chastity, endurance and virginity,
and it may be lost through any autonomous acts, particularly those relating to sexuality,
and cannot be restored. Honour in this sense is often a social quality; it revolves around
the public perception of the individuals more than their actual behavior. Causing a
scandal or gossip within the community is often the most significant aspect of an offense
against honour. Ultimately it is those with power within the family and the community
(men and older women who have proved their internalization of the honour code
through the policing of younger women) who decide what acts are honourable or
dishonoourable.
Some actions which are strongly linked with honour based violence are :
Loss of virginity outside marriage
Pre-marital pregnancy.
Infidelity.
Having unapproved relationships.
Refusing an arranged marriage.
Asking for divorce.
Asking for custody of children after children.
Leaving the family or marital home without permission.
Causing scandal or gossip in the community.
Falling victim to rape.
The act of Honour Killing has been traversing on an increasingly steep curve in India.
The phenomenon is rampant in a few north Indian states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh and Bihar. This however by no means signifies that the rest of the India is free
from this social evil. Geographical Division of Honour Killing in a broad manner can be
interpreted as follows:
http://milestonereview.webs.com

6 | P a g e

Hindi Speaking Belt - The trend of the Honour Killings is unique in each region
and state. For instance the system of khaps or village councils is prevalent in the
Hindi-Speaking Belt, which comprises the states of Haryana, Bihar and Uttar
Pradesh. Raman (2010) in Death Sentence in Honour Killing Case: A milestone
says that there are certain codes developed by these caste panchayats which needs
to be followed while two persons are marrying. Caste endogamy, village exogamy
and gotra (sub caste) exogamy are some of the codes made by these caste
panchayats, which they want to implement effectively. Any married couple who
breaks such codes while marrying are punished by the order of khaps. These
panchayats are based on caste groupings and membership to these panchayats is
exclusively for male members of that particular caste. Decisions taken by these
caste panchayats are always patriarchal and casteist in nature. These caste
panchayats have a reputation of giving very insensitive judgments especially for
the backward castes and people belonging to lower economic strata1. The Khap
Panchayats are invoking tradition and customs to justify their crimes.
Underlying this demand is their historic antipathy towards granting property rights
to women in these regions. The reasons behind this renewed vigour and assertion
by Khap Panchayats on the issue of sagotra marriages needs to be understood. A
gotra is like a sub-caste, lineage or clan. It is based on kinship ties. The lineage of
an individual may be traced to a particular gotra or to a combination of gotras.
Male members of a family carry a gotra forward, with females acquiring the gotra
of their husbands family after marriage. The concept of gotra varies considerably
in different parts of the country, hence, it is also difficult to define clearly. In the
case of Khap Panchayats, the objections are not restricted to own-gotra marriages,
but also to bhai-chara marriages, i.e., marriages between inhabitants of a village
or several adjacent villages, including individuals belonging to different gotras
since they are also deemed to be siblings due to proximity of residence. Thus,
marriages between individuals extending up to several villages are alleged to be
incestuous by Khap Panchayats as depicted by Shakil (2010) in Property Rights,
Khap Panchayats and Honour Killings.
Honour Killing in Punjab - On the other hand, in Punjab the concept of Khaps or
the village councils is not very conspicuous. Here the objections are not enforced
by the community collective conscious. It is infact, an act resorted to by the
parents and the extended family of the couples. Their objections can again be
traced to the patriarchal system but at the roots of their extreme antagonism lie yet
again certain fundamental economic reasons. Reputation and rumour play an
active role in instigating honour crimes and killings, for to speak of a womans
reputation is to invoke her sexual behavior. Lees (1997) in Ruling Passions:
Sexual Violence, Reputation and the law says that the social boundaries of the
group are defined by its honour and any act of transgression by the female
members threatens the status quo. Families associate their honour with the

http://milestonereview.webs.com

7 | P a g e

virginity of their unmarried daughters and with the chastity of the married ones.
Female violators of the honor code face a different fate; punishment in some
form is inescapable. Once the violation is made public, the male members of the
family must take immediate action2. This deterrence to the possibility of own
choice marriages can be further understood in the context of rights for women in
land and other parental property in these areas. As such, they assert control over
female sexuality as well as the transfer of property. Their assertion cannot be
separated from the context of neo-liberalism in our country when land, especially
in and around Delhi, Haryana, UP, Punjab has fast become a prized commodity
worth several crores, due to reckless real estate and commercial development. As
the stakes over land are rising, conflicts over ownership rights are getting
manifested in increasingly perverse ways.
UN Special Rapportuer Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy defines the concept of
Honour as especially powerful because it exists beyond reason and beyond analysis.
But what masquerades as honour is really menss need to control womens sexuality
and their freedom. Crimes of honour potentially violate the right to life, liberty, bodily
integrity, the prohibition against torture or cruel, inhuman, degrading treatment, the
prohibition on slavery, the right to freedom from gender-based discrimination and
sexual abuse or exploitation, the right to privacy, the duty to modify discriminatory
practices against women.
There is an imperative need to redefine the social construct within which the
society operates. The modernity that revolves around technology and youth doesnt
identify with the old shackles of conventional diktats and self styled norms. Honour
Killing may be yet another outcome of this continuous tussle between the obsolete
mandates of the rigid society and the progressive propelling youth. There is
undoubtedly a dire need for Human Rights to move forward and put an end to this
abhorrent practice and put in effect the fundamental right to life and liberty for all
persons.

References:
1.) Chowdhry, Prem (2006). Contentious Marriages, Eloping Couples: Gender,
Caste and Patriarchy in Northern India, (New Delhi, Oxford University Press.)
2.) Pal, Arun (2012). Honour Killing: Culture, Dilemma and Ritual, (New Delhi,
Arise Publishers and Distributers.)
3.) Raman, Rohini Rani (2010). Death Sentence in Honour Killing Case: A
Milestone in Pragoti Progress and Struggle, 20 April 2010.
(http://www.pragoti.org/node/3900)


http://milestonereview.webs.com

8 | P a g e

4.) Shakil, Albeena (2010). Property Rights, Khap Panchayats and Honour
Killings in Pragoti Progress and Struggle, 10 September 2010.
(http://www.pragoti.org/node/3900)
5.) Lees, Sue (1997). Ruling Passions: Sexual Violence and the Law. (Buckingham,
Open University Press.)
6.) Coomaraswamy, Radhika (2006). Violence against women and Crimes of
Honour in Welchmann, Lynn and Hossain, Sara (Ed.) Honour: Crimes,
Paradigms and Violence against women (New Delhi, Kali for women.)

http://milestonereview.webs.com

9 | P a g e

GENDER EQUALITY: A KEY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


Reetu Sharma
There is a dual rationale for promoting gender equality. Firstly, that equality
between women and men - equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities is a matter of
human rights and social justice. And secondly, that greater equality between women and
men is also a precondition for (and effective indicator of) sustainable people-centered
development. The perceptions, interests, needs and priorities of both women and men
must be taken into consideration not only as a matter of social justice but because they are
necessary to enrich development processes(OSAGI 2001)
Introduction
Women form nearly half of the world's population and a sustainable development
can not be achieved without equal participation of men and women. Thus gender equality
is not only a goal in its own right but also crucial factor for the sustainable development
of any country. A route to sustainable development can only be achieved by providing
men and women equal opportunities in all the spheres and both's interests should be given
parallel preference while allocating the resources. Women empowerment is imperative
for gender equality which in turn leads to sustainable development. In 1992, the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) made important
provisions for the recognition of womens contributions and their full participation in
sustainable development. Equal participation in decision-making and a balanced
involvement of both men and women in all policy making areas and at all levels of
implementation will ensure that women and men take equal responsibility for the
equitable distribution of resources, over the course of peoples lives and between present
and future generations. Therefore, gender equality should not be discussed only in sociocultural milieu but other dimensions like Economic, Political and environmental should
also be taken into consideration for sustainable development.
Women's Empowerment is not an absolutely a new phenomenon. It has always
been there in almost all societies for a number of reasons throughout history. What could
be considered as new is its increasingly becoming popular in public, the shift took place
from womens welfare and now womens empowerment through the route of
'development'. Now the specific focus is given to the women and girl children and key
issues related to the development of the women's empowerment. What needs to be
addressed further is, women's empowerment as absolutely essential rather than imperative
at not only family and society level but also at national and international level for
development and progress. So there is pertinent need to address this issue by all the
countries of the world not only at the government and non government level but also at
the individual level.
The first ever world conference to address the issue of gender inequality was held
in Mexico in 1975.It was followed by a second world conference on women at
http://milestonereview.webs.com

10 | P a g e

Copenhagen in 1980 and a third in Nairobi in 1985. At the UN Conference on


Environment and Development in Rio United Nations Agenda for Development (United
Nations, New York, 1997), de Janiero (1992), world leaders accepted womens vital role
in achieving sustainable development. At the World Conference on Human Rights in
Vienna (1993), it was also acknowledged that womens rights are human rights. and
headed the evidence of widespread violence against women. At the International
Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (1994), it was stressed that women's
empowerment is an effective way to implement the population policies. At the World
Conference for Social Development in Copenhagen (1995), gender equality was
recognized as a prerequisite for the achievement of productive employment, social
integration and poverty eradication. The fourth world conference on women took place in
Beijing in September 1995 followed by Beijing + 5 held in Geneva in 2000.
All the four conferences held at Mexico(1975), Copenhagen(1980),
Nairobi(1985) and Beijing(1990), the importance of women's empowerment was stressed.
From each of these global conferences emerged a more powerful recognition of the
crucial role played by women in different sectors of society which in turn led to the
progressive strengthening of the role of women in the legal, economic, social and political
sectors. While women have made significant advances in many societies, womens
concerns and issues are still given secondary importance almost everywhere. This can be
illustrated by the Report of the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women,
Copenhagen, July 1980: While Women represent 50 per cent of the world adult
population and one third of official labour force, they perform nearly two-thirds of all
working hours, receive only a-tenth of world income and own less than one per cent of
the world property. The picture is not different in India. Despite development planning,
and the special status accorded to women in the Indian Constitution, there has not been a
substantial qualitative improvement in the position of a large majority of women living in
rural areas
Meaning of Womens Empowerment
Empowerment can be defined as a multi-dimensional social process that helps
people gain control over their own lives. It is a process that fosters power (that is, the
capacity to implement) in people, for use in their own lives, their communities, and in
their society, by acting on issues that they define as important (Page and Czuba, 1999).
There is no doubt that all over world the women form the disadvantage section of society
as compared to men. This disadvantage is apparent in the different spheres of economic,
socio-cultural and political life in all societies. Empowerment in this context means
women gaining more power and control not only over their own lives but also on
economic, political and socio-cultural prevailing in the society. Women empowerment is
an important tool in reaching gender equality.
Gender equality is understood as rights, responsibilities and opportunities of
individuals will not depend on sex of the individual". The expectations from male and
female depend upon the socio-cultural context in which they live. Gender roles are learnt
http://milestonereview.webs.com

11 | P a g e

by each person through socialization processes. This socialization takes place through
social interactions with their families, peers and society at large. On a larger scale,
dominant role of men in the form of gender role expectations are institutionalized through
educational, political and economic systems, cultural, traditional and legislative system.
This can be illustrated by giving an example that depicts gendered division of labour in
everyday life: women continue to play a dominant role as domestic worker in providing
unpaid care to family members and taking care of domestic chores but they play a
subordinate role in political and economic life. As women dedicate most of their time to
unpaid activities, they are often dependent on mens income and less protected through
financial savings, pension entitlements and property in their name. This means that
women are at greater risk of poverty and have fewer opportunities in the labour market.
Therefore, to create a level playing field for both men and women and reduce the
'gender gap' women need to be empowered. According to the United Nations
Population Fund an empowered woman has a sense of self worth. She can determine her
own choices, and has access to opportunities and resources providing her with an array of
options she can pursue. She has control over her own life, both within and outside the
home and she has the ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more
just social and economic order, both nationally and internationally (UNDP, 2008).
Sustainable development
For the first time in the late 1980s the World Commission on Environment and
Development in its report 'Our Common Future' defined the concept sustainable
development as development which "meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus sustainable
development means the continuous and economic use of natural resources by taking into
account the consequences of our actions for coming generations, ensuring that the
resources they will require for their own well-being are not depleted, and that the natural
environment into which they will be born will not be polluted or destroyed.
Basis of sustainable development
Sustainable development is conceptualized as resting on three inter-related pillars:
economic development, social development and environmental protection. A fourth pillar
the preservation of cultural diversity has been proposed. These three areas of
development and cultural diversity should not be dealt in isolation for sustainable
development, Instead, an integrated and holistic approach to socio-culturally responsible,
environmentally-friendly economic development should be taken in to consideration, So
that sustainable development can be revealed as a multifaceted and dynamic process. As
noted in a recent report by the Secretary General, the goal, and indeed the ultimate test,
of sustainable development is the convergence among the three trajectories of economic
growth, social development and environmental protection.
Similarly, it is important to acknowledge that the promotion of gender equality
also requires a cross-cutting and integrative approach. It is important not to understand
http://milestonereview.webs.com

12 | P a g e

womens empowerment and gender equality only in social context alone, but also
economic and socio-cultural development and environmental protection should be taken
in consideration.
Why is a gender-sensitive approach to sustainable development needed?
Because sustainable development can be achieved only with equitable distribution
of resources in a society not only in present time but also in future but prevailing
inequalities are deeply gendered. Equal participation in decision-making and a balanced
involvement of both men and women at all levels of implementation will ensure that
women and men take equal responsibility for todays and future generations. The area of
concern is not only the economic but also educational and political where women are
always at disadvantage position. Understanding this and acting upon it is imperative for
achieving sustainable development.
Economic empowerment: More women than men live in poverty. Economic
disparities persist partly because much of the unpaid work at the domestic front and with
in communities is the responsibility of women and they have to depend economically on
the male members of society. Also if a woman is working, she is paid less as compared to
men and she has longer hours of working as compared to men.
Political empowerment: Social and legal institutions still do not guarantee women
equality in basic legal and human rights, in access to or control of land or other resources,
in employment and earning, and social and political participation. Laws against domestic
violence are often not enforced on behalf of women. Experience has shown that
addressing gender equality and womens empowerment requires strategic interventions at
all levels of programming and policy-making.
Educational empowerment: About two thirds of the illiterate adults in the world
are female. women's education is not only strongly associated with both lower infant
mortality and lower fertility, but also with higher levels of education and economic
opportunity for their children.
Gender Gaps in Major sectors in India
The gender gaps with respect to social sector that involves education and health
sectors, economic and political sector have been discussed as follows
Social Sector
Social sector is divided in to following two sectors:
Educational Sector:
There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates
(age 7 and above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. The census
provided a positive indication that growth in female literacy rates (11.8%) was
substantially faster than in male literacy rates (6.9%) in the 2001 2011 decadal period,
http://milestonereview.webs.com

13 | P a g e

which means the gender gap is narrowing. But as far as school attendance of children is
concerned only two-thirds of girls and three-fourths of boys age 6-17 years are attending
school. The sex ratio of children attending school is 889 girls per 1,000 boys. There is
gender equality in school attendance in urban areas but in rural areas, the females are
disadvantage section of society. School attendance is lower. School dropout is a major
problem for both girls and boys beyond primary education.
In case of adults, Gender disparity in literacy is much greater in rural than in urban
areas and this disparity declines sharply with high economic status. Forty-one percent of
women and 18% of men age 15-49 have never been to school. Educational attainment
remains very low: even among the 20-29 age group, only 27% of women and 39% of men
have 10 or more years of education.
Health Sector:
Health sector is the another area in which women again have a disadvantage
position as compared to men. This is apparent not only in low sex ratio but also in high
maternal mortality among women. According to 2011 census, there are 943 women per
1000 men. This is due to the societal preference for male child as compared to female
child that results in to female foeticide. Social neglect of women and girls, manifested in
less access to nutrition and healthcare that in turn results into high maternal mortality
rate. India is ranked second in maternal mortality rate in the world with a figure of
125,000 deaths due to pregnancy and pregnancy-related illnesses every year. In the rural
areas, condition of women is more pathetic. Here, more than half of girls are married
before the age of 18, and 60% of married girls bear children before they are 19. Almost
one-third of babies are born with low birth weight because of poverty, early marriage,
malnutrition and lack of healthcare during pregnancy. The child mortality rate between
the age group (1-4 years) is 61% higher for girl child.
Ultrasound tests are being widely used for sex selection, the trend of sex selection
being more evident for the wealthiest women than for women in the other wealth
quintiles. Thus, the preference for male child is more evident in well off section of
society. Sex ratios of all last births and last births of sterilized women show clearly that
couples.
Political Sector
Women are invisible in this Women continue to remain invisible and
marginalised in decision-making bodies, leading to lack of a feminist perspective in
political decision-making." It was only with the setting up of the Committee on the Status
of Women in India (CSWI) September, 1971 that the demand for greater representation of
women in political institutions in India was taken up in a systematic way. 73rd and 74th
Amendments to the Indian Constitution in 1992 and 1993, which provided for 33 per cent
reservation for women in panchayats and urban local bodies served as an affirmative
action for major breakthrough towards ensuring womens equal access and increased
participation in political power structures.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

14 | P a g e

Women have, however, not found adequate representation in the Lok Sabha. The
percentage of elected women Lok Sabha members has never exceeded 12 per cent. The
presence of women in the Upper House has been only slightly higher overall, probably
due to indirect elections and nomination of some women members. It was highest in 1990
at 15.5 per cent and shows a declining trend thereafter. Thus gender gap occurs in
political sector in assigning not only the seats but also important portfolios to the women.
This scenario is also typical at the state level. There are only a few instances of women
holding portfolios of finance, industry, etc., and aremainly relegated to what are
considered women specific departments. The source reveals that the highest percentage
of women in the State Legislative Assemblies has been 10.8 per cent in 1957 in Madhya
Pradesh.
Economic Sector
The economic sector of a country can not progress without the involvement of
Women because women form the half of the human capital. So women will need to be
more efficiently integrated into the economy in order to boost Indias long term
competitive potential. The unpaid activities like domestic work is not accurately
identified by the census in India.
Women's a work in home-based industries like bidi and agarbatti-rolling, banglemaking, weaving, etc is not considered equal and not paid equally in comparison to men.
They are also denied the social security benefits. One-third of agricultural workers are
women. On an average, their wages are 30% lower than mens wages. Women find it
difficult to get credit from banking institutions and get smaller amounts of loan. In spite
of legislation of equal right of women in ancestral property, Womens right to land and
other assets is weak. Percentage of women in employment is half as compared to men.
The employment percentage is positive for women in Rural area as compared to urban
area. The employment of women is mainly due to economic necessity. Mostly women
work in agriculture sector as compared to organised sector.
Measures for Empowerment of Women
Government of India has adopted many measures for women's empowerment.
Some of these measures have been discussed as below:
Constitutional and Legal Provisions For the Empowerment of Women
The architect of Indian Constitution was of the opinion that only women can bring
a change in their destiny and for this women should be empowered. The principle of
gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental
Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants
equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive
discrimination in favour of women. Within this constitutional framework, our legal
system, development policies, Plans and programmes have aimed at womens
advancement in different spheres. India has also ratified various international conventions
http://milestonereview.webs.com

15 | P a g e

and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights of women. Key among
them is the ratification of the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women (CEDAW) in 1993. According to the 2001 Census, the percentage of
female literacy in the country is 54% up from increased from 9%1951 to 54% by
implementation of several constitutional and legislative measures, and schemes and
policies.
Constitutional Provisions for Women includes Equality before law for women (Article
14), The State not to discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race ,
caste, sex, place of birth or any of them (Article 15 (i)), The State to make any special
provision in favour of women and children (Article 15 (3)), The State to direct its policy
towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood
(Article 39(a)) equal pay for equal work for both men and women (Article 39(d)), The
State to make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for
maternity relief (Article 42), Not less than one-third (including the number of seats
reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the
total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat to be reserved for
women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat
(Article 243 D(3)).
To uphold the Constitutional mandate, India has enacted various legislative
measures intended to ensure equal rights, to counter social discrimination and various
forms of violence and atrocities and to provide support services especially to working
women. To address the women related issues specifically the Government has given set
up an independent 'Ministry of Women and Child Development', initiation of legislation
that has taken the country closer to complete legal equality for women, gender budgeting
and initiation of programs for greater inclusion of women.
Some acts which have special provisions to safeguard women and their interests are
The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 with amendment in 2005
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
The Maternity Benefit Act, 19 61 (Amended in 1995)
Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971
The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
Commission of Sati ( Prevention) Act, 1987
http://milestonereview.webs.com

16 | P a g e

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.


Apart from these, In January 1992, the Government set up a statutory body named
'National Commission for Women with a specific mandate to study and monitor all
matters relating to the constitutional and legal safeguards provided for women, review the
existing legislation to suggest amendments wherever necessary, etc. 'The Department of
Women & Child Development' in the Ministry of Human Resource Development has
prepared a National Policy for the Empowerment of Women in the year 2001. The
goal of this policy is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of
women. On 8th March, 1996, on the occasion of International Womens Day, the
parliament passed resolution to set up a Standing Committee for the improvement of the
status of women in India and the committee on Empowerment of women was constituted
in April, 1997. Empowerment is now increasingly seen as a process by which the ones
without power gain greater control over their lives. The Cairo conference in 1994
organized by UN on Population and Development called attention to womens
empowerment as a central focus and UNDP developed the Gender Empowerment
Measure (GEM) which focuses on the three variables that reflect womens participation
in society in every aspects. 1995 UNDP report was devoted to womens empowerment.
National Mission for Empowerment of Women:
The National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) was launched by
the Government of India (GOI) on International Womens Day in 2010 with a view to
empower women socially, economically and educationally. The main aim of mission is to
strive for the women's empowerment on all the fronts. The focus is to converge all the
schemes or programmes of all the ministries of Indian governments and state
governments. The government of India stress the need to address this issue at the
grassroots level by involving Panchayati Raj Institution(PRI) in the implementation of
policies. The Mission has been named 'Mission Poorna Shakti', implying a vision for
holistic empowerment of women.
Main focus areas of the Mission
Coverage of all girls in schools from primary to class 12 especially those
belonging to vulnerable groups
Higher and Professional education for girls/women
Skill development, Micro credit, Vocational Training, Entrepreneurship, SHG
development
Gender sensitization and dissemination of information
Access to health, drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities for women
Prevent crime against women and taking steps for a safe environment for
women
http://milestonereview.webs.com

17 | P a g e

National Policy for the Empowerment of Women of India (2001)


Goal and Objectives
To enjoy all the human rights and fundamental freedom equally with male in
political, economic, social, cultural and civil spheres.
To create an environment to enable women to realize their full potential through
positive economic and social policies.
Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political
and economic life of the nation
To eliminate all forms of discrimination and violence against women legal system
should be strengthened.
Equal rights to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and
vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and
safety, social security and public office etc.
Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and
involvement of both men and women.
Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process by building and
strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly womens organizations.
Provisions under twelfth Five Year Plan of India (2012-2017)
Economic empowerment
The Twelfth Plan endeavours to increase womens employability in the formal
sector i.e. secondary and tertiary sector. The focus will also be on improving the
conditions of self employed women. Flexible work hours, reaching out to women in
agriculture and manufacturing sector, financial assistance, and extending land and
property rights to women are the key features of this plan.
Skill development
One of the major drawback of women is lack of skills especially in secondary and
tertiary sectors. So this twelfth five year plan came up with the scaling up of traditional
skills to emerging skills so that women can have employment equally with the men in all
the fields. Training of women as BPO employees, electronic technicians, electricians,
plumbers, sales persons, auto drivers, taxi drivers, masons, and so on will be
incorporated in the skill development programmes. Skill development would not only
improve the lives of women but livelihoods of women making them independent
http://milestonereview.webs.com

18 | P a g e

economically.
Besides the above measures the Government of India and also state governments
came up with the other schemes to give benefits to women Such as, Antyodaya Anna
Yojana(2000),National Rural Health Mission, 2005, Janani Suraksha Yojana,2005, Indira
Sahara,2000, Mukhya Mantri Antodaya Pusthaar Yojana,2009, Rashtriya Mahila
Kosh,1993, Apna Beti Apna Dhan Yojana, Haryana(1994), Kamdhenu Yojana,
Maharashtra, Girls Child Protection Scheme, Andhra Pradesh etc.There are two main
programmes in the Department of Women and Child Development,which aim at
convergence of services delivery at the grass root level. Those are Integrated Child
Develoment Scheme (ICDS),which reaches 85 percent of the villages in the country and
Integrated Womens Empowerment Programme(IWEP), formerly Indira Mahila Yojana,
which extends to 650 blocks operate trough the self help groups of women. In the field of
education, 2180 residential Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya schools have been
sanctioned and are providing elementary education to 1,82,000 out of school girls. Gaun
ki Beti, Kisori Balika Divas Yojana, Ladli Laksmi Yojana, Cycle Praday Yojana etc.
Conclusion
There is no doubt that efforts have been made at national and international level to
empower women. A number of acts and legislation passed to ensure equality to the
women, for example, reservation of seats for women in panchayats and municipal
corporations by 73rd and 74th amendment of constitution, has not much beneficial for
women because they act as dummy only and all the power is vested in the hands of their
brothers, husbands or male members of family, So despite the various measures taken up
, there is not much improvement in the condition of women. This can be reflected in low
participation of women at policy making level, low literacy rate of women as compared to
men, high rate of maternal mortality, female foeticide, dowry deaths, violence against
women all over world, low sex ratio . Overall scenario shows a gloomy picture of women
condition. The ground reality is deprivation, degradation and exploitation of women
specially women from rural areas and those belonging to deprived sections of the society.
The Urban elite class women have no doubt advantageous position as compared to rural
women. The major challenge of 21st century is women are being brutalized,
Commodified, materialized and subjected to inhuman exploitation and discrimination.
Therefore, gender equality should be at the heart of policy-makers. Women form fifty
percent of the human capital in the world. how can one imagine the attainment of
'Sustainable Development' without the active participation of this population? Need of the
hour is to take effective and sincere efforts to make the dream of Sustainable
Development true and practical by making an effort to create awareness among the
women about their rights, Otherwise, all the laws would be in books only without having
any effective and practical implications. Hence, this paper is concluded with the beautiful
lines given by 'Swami Vivekanand"
There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is
http://milestonereview.webs.com

19 | P a g e

improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing.-Swami Vivekananda


References:
United Nations Agenda for Development (United Nations, New York, 1997),
pp.47-49.
Fadia Kuldeep 'Women's Empowerment through Political participation in India',
Indian Journal of Public Administration ,538 / VOL. LX, NO. 3, July-September
2014
Warth Lisa,Koparanova Malinka' Women for Sustainable Development', No.
2012.1 January 2012
Sustainable development as defined in the World Commission on Environment
and Developments report Our Common Future (1987).
UNDP (2005), Human Development Report, p. 61.
OSAGI (2001), fact sheet on Important Concepts underlying Gender
Mainstreaminghttp://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/pdf/factsheet2.pdf.
India Ministry of Human Resource Development (2014). All India Survey on
Higher Education2011-12.
India, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner and UNFPA
(2014). A Profile of Adolescents and Youth in India. Available from
http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/india/drive/AProfileofAdolescentsandYouthinIndia.
pdf
India, National Sample Survey Office (2014). Employment and Unemployment
Situation in India. NSS 68th Round (July 2011- June 2012). Ministry of Statistics
and Programme Implementation. New Delhi.
India, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2015). Millennium
Development Goals India Country Report 2015.Social Statistics Division,
Government of India, New Delhi.
Census of India 2011,Primary Census Abstract, Data Highlights
Global Gender Gap World Economic Forum http.//www. we forum/issues/globalgender-gap john coonral(2011)Top Ten Interventions for womens Empowerment
and Gender Equality International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication,
Vol.3, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2250-3153.
Amtul Waris and, B. C. Viraktamath 'Gender gaps and Womens Empowerment
in India Issues and Strategies'
http://milestonereview.webs.com

20 | P a g e

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) India 2005-06 International Institute for
Population Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai
Butler, S. and Wintram, C. 1991. Feminist groupwork. London: Sage
World Survey on the Role of Women in Development 2014, 'Gender Equality
And Sustainable Development.' by the United Nations as the Report of Secretary
General(2014)

http://milestonereview.webs.com

21 | P a g e

CHINA AND PAKISTAN : ALL-WEATHER FRIENDS


Kulvinder Singh
Abstract
China and Pakistan have shared an all-weather friendship for the last five
decades. Beijing and Islamabad have civilian and military contacts, traded nuclear secrets,
exchanged intelligence, and importantly, cooperated against Indian Territory over 5,180
square kilometers of land in Northern Kashmir and Ladakh. Lastly, the two countries
collaborated on the Trans-Karakoram highway, which is often referred to as either the
ninth wonder of the world or Friendship Highway. In 2011, they commemorated 60
years of diplomatic ties, which was also designated as the China-Pakistan Year of
Friendship. As staunch allies and strategic partners for the past few decades, China and
Pakistan have shared a friendship which has proved of great value in furtherance of their
geo-political and strategic objectives. To understand the evolution of this relationship
from a correct perspective, it is important to have a brief overview of the relationship
between the two countries.
Key words; All-Weather, Geo-Strategic, Gwadar, Karakoram Highway, Nuclear, Aksai
Chin, Stadium diplomacy
Introduction
The China Pakistan relationship stands as one of the most unique and durable
relationships between two sovereign states, where both states have been complementing
each others strategic requirement in spite of different cultures, political systems and
social values. Pakistans relations with China have always been the most important of its
relationships with other countries. Pakistan-China friendship has often been termed as
higher than the Himalayas and deeper than the oceans and of late, sweeter than honey,
is a unique case in the international system we live in, yet the relationship is based on
sound geostrategic and realist calculations. It is based on trust, respect, and mutual
benefit. Over the past 55 years, since the two countries established their diplomatic
relations, this relationship has evolved in a manner to serve the interests of both countries.
What was Chinas mega-strategy at the outset in setting up ties with Pakistan?
According to Mao Zedongs Pakistan was nothing but Chinas easy access to the Atlantic
and the Indian Ocean. Besides Chinas building up of economic and military partnership
with Pakistan, the most significant element in Sino-Pak relations lies in the fact that
China has been using Pakistan as an economic and military corridor to reach the Middle
East and Africa.
Pakistans Geo-Strategic Significance for China
Pakistan holds immense geo-strategic significance for China. Pakistan is
strategically located between the twin forces of competition and collaboration in the
mega-region that embraces Central Asia, South Asia, Middle East, and Caucasus. Central
Asia and South Asia form two contiguous strategic sub-regions of this mega-region.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, these two sub-regions have formed the focus of
http://milestonereview.webs.com

22 | P a g e

international politics as a result of the US-NATO war on terror in Afghanistan, the nextdoor presence of a rising China, a post cold-war resurgent Russia, and the hegemonic
pretensions of India. US war of terror generally was seen in reality as the sole superpower
usurping the strategic void available in Talibans Afghanistan and thus trying to exude the
strategic effects, including containment of China and driving a wedge between China and
Pakistan. Pakistan sits right in the middle of this regional geo-political dynamics. This
dynamic force influences the complexion of both the foreign policy and the national politics of Pakistan. It provides a secure access to Gwadar port which is route to Persian Gulf
and Central Asia. It provides the shortest route to Chinese goods through Gwadar port to
Indian Ocean and Karakoram highway (KKH) providing an easy trade access to Central
and Western Asia. Currently, the most of the Central Asian states export their goods
through Russia via Europe which is the longest route. As the current Gulf of Aden route
is lined with US military bases, Chinas strategic military goals running through to 2025,
includes expanding the role of its Navy in order to mitigate this potential threat, its
presence in Gwadar is therefore strategically important. The Gwadar port would be the
most viable option for these countries helping them to save money and as well as time in
transporting their goods. As far as significance and implications of the Karakoram
Highway (KKH), which runs through occupied Kashmir, for the Indian security are
concerned. No single highway has run through such sensitive territory through an area,
where the borders of Pakistan, India, China, the Soviet Union and Afghanistan come
close together. By traversing these lands, the Karakoram Highway and its associated
routes have posed threats and presented opportunities to all states of the region. China has
used the KKH as a form of stadium diplomacy and simultaneously strengthened ties
with the enemy of its enemy. Although the route has yet to be used in wartime, Pakistan
and China have used it to send strong messages to their rivals and neighbours. China has
economic and strategic interest in Gwadar. Gwadar is expected to play a key role in
Beijings development plans and will serve as a gateway for western China because
Xinjiang lies 4500 kms from Chinas east coast but just 2500 kms from Gwadar. Pakistan
can act as a transit facility giving China access to Central Asian markets and energy
sources. China is much concerned about the possibility of disruptions in the movement
of oil and gas tankers to China from the Gulf and Africa through the Malacca Straits due
to pirates and terrorists attacks. For this reason, China wants to reduce its dependence on
the Malacca Straits and is making eminent efforts to develop alternate routes. Presence in
Gwadar will allow China not only access and basing facilities in the Indian Ocean but
also the chance to control the Straits of Hormuz to ensure smooth energy supplies from
West Asia. This would help China to acquire a strategic presence in this region. Pakistan
has also agreed to let China set up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Gwadar,
exclusively for the use of Chinese industries manufacturing goods for export to Africa.
This would help reducing the manufacturing and transport costs for Chinese goods.
Pakistan can provide China an access to Indian Ocean, where India considers China its
competitor.
Pakistan was the first Islamic country and third non-communist state that
recognised the Peoples Republic of China on May 21, 1950, when the two nations
officially established their contacts thus providing China with a corridor into the nonhttp://milestonereview.webs.com

23 | P a g e

communist world. Pakistan established diplomatic relations with China in 1951 when
China got involved in the Korean War. Pakistan, much against American stand opted to
abstain from voting in a U.N resolution that called China an aggressor. Pakistan provided
China with comparatively cheap raw material like cotton and jute which was of high
military importance during the war and thus helped China in times of her economic
crises. Pakistans chief interests in pursuing a friendly policy towards China was aimed at
countering growing Indian influence in the region. The China-Pakistan relations started
on low ebb as China was disappointed over latters joining of the western military
alliances South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) and Central Treaty
Organization (CENTO). Pakistan had expressed its desire to foster friendly relations with
China even before joining the SEATO. The Bandung Conference 1955 provided Pakistan
the opportunity to dispel Chinese mistrust and to explain Pakistans reasons for joining
western alliances. This dispelled the Chinese governments misunderstanding and the
Chinese Premier conceded that that Pakistans membership of SEATO should no way
become a hurdle to friendly relations between Pakistan and China.
The actual consolidation of relations started in the early 1960s, when Pakistan
changed its previous stand and supported Chinas seating in the UN in 1961. Following
the Sino-Indian War of 1962, Pakistan and China came closer to build common strategic
understanding. Pakistan at that time overtly condemned India as an aggressor. The
American and Soviet aid to India during the war, made China realize Pakistans
significance in counterbalancing the regional and global power configurations. Thus,
realizing Pakistans geo-political importance and its historic enmity with India, China
sought to cultivate and consolidate its friendly ties with Pakistan to balance off New
Delhi. Moreover, the geographical proximity of Kashmir to the disputed India-China
boundary has also contributed as major factor bringing Pakistan into the strategic centre
stage of Chinas South Asia policy.
1962 Sino-Indian War was a major turning point in Pakistans foreign policy.
although President Kennedys promises to Pakistani President Ayub Khan that Pakistan
would be consulted before any military aid was given to India, the United States, along
with the United Kingdom, sent US$120 million of emergency aid to India. As far as Ayub
Khan was concerned, not only had the Americans rescinded their promise to first consult
Pakistan before giving military aid to India but they had failed to link the delivery of arms
with a permanent and acceptable solution of the Kashmir problem. It was in the wake of
Washingtons support for India in the 1962 border conflict that Pakistan began to look
elsewhere for international support, particularly China.
In 1963, the China and Pakistan signed a border agreement that transferred 2,000
square miles of territory in Pakistan-held Kashmir to China, and China began selling
weapons to Pakistan, a practice that continues today. In Pakistan and China signed a
boundary agreement to demarcate the boundary between Chinese region of Xinjiang and
the contiguous areas, over which Indian government strongly protested saying that there
was no common border between Pakistan and the Peoples Republic of China, and
described the decision as a step further in the Chinas aggressive aims towards India.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

24 | P a g e

During the 1965 India-Pakistan War, China gave diplomatic, economic and moral
support to Pakistan and it was the Chinese ultimatum to India to dismantle its military
works on the Chinese side of the China-Sikkim border, which led to Security Councils
urgent call for ceasefire. During the 1971 India-Pakistani conflict, which led to
dismemberment of Bangladesh from Pakistan, China extended it complete diplomatic
support to Pakistan and strongly condemned India as an aggressor. China threatened to
exercise its veto in favour of Pakistan and blocked the entry of Bangladesh into UN in
defence to Pakistans demand of release of 90,000 prisoners of war by India. This goal
was achieved in 1973. In 1974, China had sent Pakistan sixty MiG-19 fighter jets, 150
tanks and other weapons as part of a $300 million economic and military aid agreement.
In 1979, Beijing and Islamabad added a new layer of converging interests to their
friendship when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Beijing and Moscow were in the
thick of the Sino-Soviet split, and the Soviets, in accordance with the 1968 Brezhnev
doctrine, believed that Moscow had the right to intervene in Communist countries
threatened by domestic upheaval. Chinese officials saw this as a veiled attempt at
expansionismthe first step in a broader Soviet plan to achieve complete domination in
Europe and to extend its hegemony into South and Southeast Asia. China feared that if
the Soviets were able to gain control of routes to the Indian Ocean, its own lack of an
early warning system and sufficient naval forces would not be able to match up with
Soviet naval supremacy, and therefore China would be at the Soviets mercy from all
sides.
In 1989 the two countries signed a military cooperation agreement which
envisaged, inter alia, the purchase of military goods, mutual research and cooperation
along with the manufacturing of arms and the transfer of technology. This agreement
was supplemented in 1993 with one that made China the most important military seller
of weapons or systems to Pakistan. The substantial sale of Chinese arms to Pakistan in
1971-2008, which was $9.8 billion compared to US sales to telling only $3.4 billion,
confirms that Islamabad then already was heading towards heavy reliance on one source.
China also helped build two nuclear power plants in Pakistan in the 1990s and signed a
deal in 2009 to build two more.
In the Post-Cold War era, although Pakistan-China relations did undergo a slight
shift, but the overall content and strategic relevance remain as significant as ever. China
still considers Pakistan an important factor that can help it secure its strategic objectives.
Pakistan always supported China on all issues important to Chinese national
interests such as sovereignty over Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Tibet and issues relating to
human rights and democracy. China always appreciated and counted on Pakistans strong
support as a trusted friend over all these issues at international arena.
The year 2006 saw the signing of the bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and
the 5 year Development Program on Economic and Trade Cooperationdirected at
accelerating bilateral trade between Pakistan and China. They were put to force the
Following year in 2007. It set a trade target of 15 billion dollar by 2010; while this target
was not achieved, bilateral tradethat stood at 7 billion dollar in 2006rose to 12 billion
dollar by 2012, which was also a 17.6 % increase on the previous year. In 2006 China
was Pakistans 3rd largest trading partner, accounting for 9.8% of Pakistans import, it
http://milestonereview.webs.com

25 | P a g e

ranked 11th (3%) for Pakistans exports. In comparison, Pakistan was Chinas 54th largest
trading partner (0.13% of Chinas imports) and 33rd largest for exports (0.44%). By 2013,
China was Pakistans 2nd largest trading partner. From 2004 to 2008 exports from China
to Pakistan increased on average55% per annum while exports from Pakistan to China
rose by35%.
The two Countries again set to pursue a trade target of $15bn, this time by the
year 2015. Most likely due to Pakistans long ailing economy, Pakistani officials have
been more expressive in pushing for greater investment trade between the two countries,
eagerly pursuing the $15bn target and inviting and encouraging China to explore more
and more economic opportunities in Pakistan Presently, Pakistan is the only country in
South Asia with a free trade agreement and currency swap agreement with China. The
Agreement contained annexes that included the elimination of import custom duties, tariff
reduction or elimination was set to complete within a five year period, and effectively by
January 2012. In May 2013 China stated it will step up consultation with Pakistan on
second phase tax reduction negotiations. To stimulate trade growth, on 7 May 2013,
State Bank of Pakistan and Peoples Bank of China (PBoC) agreed on a currency swap
arrangement (CSA); implying the two countries can now trade directly without the use of
US dollars as the intermediary trade currency.
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a crucial component of the
Chinese Presidents One Belt, One Road (OBOR) project, which has become an
indispensable element of Chinas foreign policy and one of the Chinese Presidents most
emblematic policy initiatives.
CPEC has been heralded as a game-changer for regional and global geopolitics,
for reasons that go beyond the unprecedented scale of Chinas largest overseas investment
project to date. The project consists of extensive investment in Pakistans transport,
telecommunications and energy infrastructure, with an estimated value of over $46 billion
US$.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

26 | P a g e

Map- China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

Source- https://www.google.co.in/search?q=china-pakistan+economic+corridor
The CPEC belongs to the Silk Road Economic Belt/Maritime Silk Road, which
Beijing has begun to build across south Asia to the Indian Ocean, and across Central Asia
to Europe. The CPEC is a project for a network of railways, roads and pipelines
connecting Pakistan's port city of Gwadar in the province of Baluchistan with the Chinese
city of Kashgar in the landlocked Xuar. It requires infrastructural upgrades to Pakistan's
outdated railway system, road network, pipelines, ports and electricity production, as well
as the stabilisation of Pakistan's security environment. The four main areas of cooperation
between the two countries in this context are transport, infrastructure, energy and
industrial cooperation. The route of the corridor has not yet been finalised, and all that is
certain for the moment is its reach, from Kashgar to Gwadar.
The opening up of the Sino-Pak trade and energy resource corridor assumes an
immeasurably favourable significance in developing the economy of both countries.
Pakistans deepwater harbour at Gwadar overlooks the Indian Ocean in the south, and
faces the Arabian Sea and Red Sea in the west. It is close to Iran in the north, located 400
km away from the Strait of Hormuz. Situated 500 km from Pakistans biggest
economically developed port city of Karachi, the geographical location of Gwadar is
extremely advantageous. Oil pipelines laid from Gwadar port would enter Xinjiang in
China through the northern region of Quetta. It is also close to the Central Asian pipeline.
Besides, if a railway line is laid between Quetta and Gwadar, then this would not only be
a convenient maritime outlet for China, it would also be a vital overland communication
line between China and Pakistan. Its importance is self-evident.
In November 2014, China undertook to invest $45.6 billion in Pakistan over a
period of six yearsout of which $33 billion is allocated for the energy sector and $11.8
billion for developing infrastructure. The proposed projects come within the ambit of the
http://milestonereview.webs.com

27 | P a g e

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which was undertaken by both the countries
in 2013. It is expected that energy projects costing $15.5 billion will generate 10,400 MW
by 2017, with an additional output of 6,120 MW to be added by 2021, at a cost of $18.2
billion. This initiative by China holds immense importance for Pakistan, given that it has
been facing an energy crisis for the last few years. This has hampered industrial growth,
impacting all sectors of the economy. The proposed power projects include, coal fired
power stations as well as projects that would augment the existing hydropower, wind and
solar power production, which are all areas whose share the Pakistan Government hopes
to increase in its energy basket. It is hoped that through the implementation of these
projects, the need to mitigate the acute shortage of electricity, and the need for
improvement of the countrys transmission networks will be met. As energy projects can
be expected to yield high returns, the projects are to be financed on a commercial basis.
Chinese companies which are expected to invest in the energy sector include the Three
Gorges Corporation and China Power International Development Ltd. As the
infrastructure projects would only give returns over a longer period of time, it is expected
that they will be given concessional loans. Chinese companies will be involved in
building infrastructure, and banks including the China Development Bank and Industrial
and Commercial Bank of China would provide financing. Earlier, in February 2014,
China and Pakistan signed agreements to upgrade the Karakoram highway and to build an
airport at Gwadar, as well as to establish research institutes for small-scale hydropower
technology and to set up Confucius Institutes in Pakistan.
Other occasions marking this bonhomie includes the 100,000 pieces of
commemorative coins bearing flags of both countries and inscriptions reading Sixty
years celebrations of the Independence of the Jamhoria China and Long live Pak-China friendship that were issued by the State Bank in Pakistan in 2009 in an endeavour
to express its solidarity with the Peoples Republic of China on the occasion of the latters
60th anniversary. Another example is Year of China--Pakistan Friendship; 2011 was
designated thus in order to Celebrate the 60th anniversary of diplomatic relations between
the two countries.
Defence and Security Cooperation
The two countries agreed to further strengthen cooperation in areas such as joint
exercises and training, personnel training and equipment, technology transfers, and
cooperation in defence technology and production. During his visit, President Xi finalised
a long-promised deal to sell eight conventional submarines to Pakistan for EUR 4.4
billion. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Pakistan is
China's largest buyer of arms.
Nuclear Energy
China has supported the construction of six nuclear reactors with a total capacity
of 3.4 million kilowatts (MK) in Pakistan. The two new plants being built in Karachi,
with a capacity of 220 MW, also benefit from technological and financial assistance from
the China National Nuclear Corporation and Chinese banks.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

28 | P a g e

Afghanistan
Afghanistan's stability has an impact on domestic stability in both China and
Pakistan. The two countries committed to strengthen cooperation to support the Afghanled peace and reconciliation process. China, which shares a 76-km-long border with
Afghanistan in Xuar, has a growing industrial and economic interest in the country and is
discretely stepping up its involvement there. One example is Beijing's offer to help
mediate talks with the Taliban and to support Pakistan in hosting the Fifth Ministerial
Conference of the Istanbul Process.
Major Chinese Economic Projects in Pakistan:
Gwadar Port Project
Estimated cost of project is US$248 million, 198 million to be provided by the
Chinese side (60 million commercial loan, 58 million soft credit, 31 million interest free
loan and 31 million grant). The China has agreed to provide additional financing for new
proposals about construction of Gwadar-I Project. However, the Chinese side informed
that financing of Gwadar-II Project needs deep deliberations.
Chashma-II
Financial contract for Chashma-II has been signed. The Chinese government will
provide US$ 150 million from the Preferential Buyer's Credit Facility of US$ 500. The
Chinese side will also provide a concessional loan of US$ 200 million for the project.
Thar Coal Project
Shenhua Group prepared the feasibility report in consultation with WAPDA.
Shenhua Group in their report stated that the capital expenditure estimate of the project
level at current stage was higher than investment level previously predicted. Negotiations
between the two sides are under way to settle the outstanding issues related to the Project
and to ensure early start of work on the site.
Saindak Copper and Gold Mine Project
Government of Pakistan has leased out Saindak Gold Project to M/S MCC/MRDL
for a period of ten years. The life of the project with present capacity (15810 Metric Tons
(mt) blister copper containing 1.47 tons of gold and 2.76 tons of silver) is 19 years. Due
to recent increase in metal prices in international market, MRDL has proposed 30-40%
enhancement in production capacity of Saindak i.e. from 15810 mt to 24000 mt per
annum. This would require an investment of US $ 20 million approximately. An MOU to
this effect was inked between Chinese MCC/MRDL and Pakistan Mineral Development
Corporation (PMDC), Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources during President's visit
to China.
Jinnah Hydro-power project
The project remained unimplemented because of ECNEC condition calling for
international bidding. ECNEC has recently lifted this conditionality.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

29 | P a g e

Railways Up-gradation
The Pakistan Railways have signed MOUs for purchase of locomotives, carriages,
freight wagons to be financed with Chinese credits. The main issue for signing future
contracts under the existing MOUs will be the term of financing, especially interest rates.
Pakistan facing problems on the railway engines supplied by the Chinese side as some
engines have developed cracks in the main frame. The Chinese Government has given
assurances for repair/replacement of the defective locomotives.
Repairs on the Karakoram Highway
On our request, the Chinese companies have undertaken repair of bridges along
the Karakoram Highway at a cost of US$ 6 million, which may be adjusted against
available Chinese grants.
Raising of Mangla Dam
A Chinese company has been awarded the contract to raise height of Mangla
Dam. There were some difficulties in implementation of the Project at early stage but
now the work is moving forward smoothly.
Chinese Projects in PoK
China involved in the Neelam-Jhelum hydro-electric project in the Pakistan
occupied Kashmir (PoK). The 4,500 megawatt project is installed by the builders of the
Three Gorges Dam which can have dangerous consequences for the ecology of
India. Since Gilgit Baltistan is a disputed area, China has no business to build projects
here. India is objecting to various Chinese-funded projects in PoK namely Neelum
Jhelum project, Diamer Bhasha Dam, Extension of Karakoram Highway, Sost Dry Port
and Bunji Dam to name a few.
In addition, Chinas trade and investment ties with Pakistan have been expanding
since the late 1990s, with Chinese companies investing in Pakistans transportation and
energy-related infrastructure. Chinas strong ties with Pakistan affirm the fears of some
Indians that China is attempting to encircle India. India is especially concerned about
Chinas support for Pakistans military through arms sales and technology transfers.
China is the top exporter of arms to Pakistan. According to the Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), between 2004 and 2015, Pakistan
received $4.1 billion in deliveries of Chinese arms, exceeding the $2.7 billion in
U.S. arms deliveries during that period. Among the platforms and weapon systems
Pakistan procured from China are airborne early warning and control aircraft and
missiles and bombs for the JF-17 combat aircraft. Pakistan also acquired Chinese
JIANGWEI-class frigates and ship borne surface-to-air and anti-ship missiles. All
of these platforms and weapon systems could be used to challenge the Indian
Navy and Air Force in a potential India-Pakistan conflict. China and Pakistan also
have been negotiating the sale of six Chinese submarines. If the deal is realized
and the submarines are armed with anti-ship cruise missiles, the submarines would
significantly enhance the Pakistan Navys ability to hold Indian surface ships at
risk.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

30 | P a g e

China-Pakistan defense-industrial cooperation has supported the development of


Pakistans combat aircraft. The Pakistan Air Force has over 30 JF-17 aircraft,
which the two countries jointly developed, and it plans to procure more than 150
in total. China and Pakistan also are developing a variant with improved avionics
and weapon systems. Pakistan intends for the JF-17 to replace its aging fleet of
fighter aircraft.
China appears to have played a critical role in Pakistans acquisition of nuclear
weapons and ballistic missiles. Beginning in the 1970s, China is reported to have
provided Pakistan with support for its nuclear weapons program, including
nuclear weapon blueprints, weapons-grade uranium, and various components for
the production of a nuclear weapon. In the 1990s, China is reported to also have
assisted Pakistan with the development of its Shaheen-I short-range ballistic
missiles and its Shaheen-II medium-range ballistic missiles. These capabilities
fundamentally changed the India-Pakistan security relationship, because they
provided Pakistan with a deterrent against invasion by the more militarily
powerful India.
China and Pakistan reached a deal in 2013 for China to build two more civil
nuclear power plants in Pakistan, which would supplement the two plants that
China has already built. The Chinese government argues the deal would not
violate its international nonproliferation obligations, but the U.S. and Indian
governments have raised concerns about expanded China-Pakistan civil nuclear
cooperation.
SinoPak Strategic Cooperation and India
Sino-Pak strategic cooperation pins down India, the Chinese analyst expressed the
view that Sino-Pak friendship is a thorn in Indias flesh. It is a saga of unfolding disputes
between India and Pakistan over the issue of Kashmir. In fact, for India the problems are
far from being simple because strategically the further strengthening of Sino-Pak ties goes
so far as China building up railways encircling Asia through Pakistan, and Pakistan is
becoming an important outlet as well as a pivotal corridor for energy resources of China
to the Indian Ocean. All these would contain India with some perception of danger and
would have a chain of reaction on it.
Conclusion
Today, Chinas primary interest in its relationship with Pakistan is to pursue
a classic balance of power strategy, using Pakistan to confront India with the possibility
of a two-front war. Sino-Indian relations were not always hostile. At the time of their
founding in 1948 and 1949, respectively, the Indian and Chinese governments declared a
postcolonial brotherhood. But when China conquered Tibet in 1950, China and India
suddenly shared an un-demarcated border stretching 2,500 miles. To this day, Indian and
Chinese maps of their border do not match. As a result, some disputed territory exists
between China and India concentrated in two places: the Aksai Chin Plateau, which

http://milestonereview.webs.com

31 | P a g e

China controls but India claims, and Arunachal Pradesh, an Indian state that China calls
South Tibet.
Pakistan is important for China because the latters geo-strategic needs in the
region, to an extent, are reliably provided for by Pakistan. Pakistan is conscious of the
fact that China has always displayed a special concern toward its neighbours. Pakistan,
being a vital part of Chinas strategic periphery, is, as always, fully committed to fully
support Chinas peaceful development policies and prevent destabilization of Xinjiang
from within its borders by Uighur-related militancy. Pakistan also recognizes that China
should be afforded a broad-based mutually beneficial opportunity of leveraging
Pakistans geopolitical position to make up for the limitations imposed by its own
geography.
Since the border agreement between the two countries which was the actual
starting point of this unique relationship in modern history, both countries have been
through thick and thin and have supported each other. Although the relationship was
unbalanced as China was stronger and bigger in every aspect yet both countries have been
vital to each other. If China has been a major source of military hardware and financial
assistance to Pakistan, Pakistan was the only window and contact China had with the
outside world. It acted as a bridge between China and the Muslim world. It has supported
Chinese position on the issues of Tibet, Taiwan and the Xinjiang province and stood by it
when the world criticized China for alleged human right violations. Therefore, it would
be appropriate to point that both countries have supported each other and this is why the
relation continues to be higher than the mountain and deeper than the oceans, using the
way most of the leadership of the two countries define it.
References
Burch, Betty B,; Cole, Allan B, (1968) ): Asian Politics System: Reading On
China, Japan, India, Pakistan, Princeton, Van Nostrand.
Challaney, Brahma, (2006) Asian Juggernaut: The Rise Of China, India And
Japan,New Delhi, Haper Collins.
Christensen, Thomas J, (2015): The China Challenge: Shaping the Choices of a
Rising Power.
Do, Vang Ly, (1959): Aggressions by China, Delhi, Siddhartha Pub.
Fang, Tien-Sze, (2014): Asymmetrical Threat Perceptions in India-China
Relations, New Delhi, O.U.P.
Ghani, Owais Ahmed., Alam, Mujahid., Gul, Agha Ahmad, (2013): Regional
Geostrategic Challenges and Opportunities for China-Pakistan Cooperation,
Islamabad, The China-Pakistan Joint Think Tank.
Hao, Yufan; Wei, C.X. George; Dittmer, Lowell, (2013): Challenges To Chinese
Foreign Policy, New Delhi, KW Pub.
Holslag, Jonathan, (2015): China's Coming War with Asia, Cambridge, Polity
Press.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

32 | P a g e

Kaul, H.N, (2003): India China Boundary in Kashmir, New Delhi, Gyan
Publishing House.
Kondapali, Srikant; Mifune, Emi, (2010): China and Its Neighbours, New Delhi,
Pentagon Press.
Lynch, Daniel, (2015): China's Futures: PRC Elites Debate Economics, Politics,
and Foreign Policy, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
Mansingh, Surjit, (1998): Indian and Chinese Foreign Policies in Comparative
Perspective, New Delhi, Radiant Publishers.
Murty, T.S, (1987): India-China Boundary: Indias Options, New Delhi, ABC
Publishing House.
Pande, Ira, (2010): India China Neighbours Strangers, New Delhi, Harper Collins
Publishers.
Pant, Harsh V, (2010): The China Syndrome: Grappling With An Uneasy
Relationship, New Delhi, Harper Collins Pub.
Sakhuja, Vijay (2012): Strategic Transactions: China, India And Southeast Asia,
New Delhi, Pentagon Press.
Santhanam, K.; Kondapalli, Srikanth, (2004): Asian Security and China, 20002010, New Delhi Shipra Pub.
Singh, Jasjit, (2012): Essays on China, New Delhi, KW Publishers.
Singh, Rohit, (2011): China and India in Asia Power Politics, New Delhi Vij
Books.
Singh, S.P, (2011): China - Indian Relations, New Delhi, Sumit Publications.
Small, Andrew, (2015): The China-Pakistan Axis: Asias New Geopolitics, New
York, Oxford University Press.
Trivedi, Ram Naresh, (1977): Sino-Indian Border Dispute and Its Impact on IndoPakistan Relations, New Delhi, Associated Publishing Housing.
Verma, Bharat, (2011): Threat from China, New Delhi, India Defence Review.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

33 | P a g e

MEDICAL TOURISM IN INDIA


Meenu Kohli & Dr. Naveen Pandhi
Abstract
Medical tourism is one of the quickest and largest growing industries in the world
as well as in India. The Indian medical tourism industry is expected to reach $6 billion by
2018. India has much to offer in form of medical tourism like Allopathy medicine,
Ayurveda, Yoga and other alternative medicines including Homeopathy, Naturopathy,
Meditation, Aroma Therapy, Reiki. Another competitive advantage India has in medical
tourism is the cost effectiveness it has to offer to its patients. This industry at present
caters to the requirements of patients chiefly from the West Asia, Middle East Africa and
to some extent US and Europe. The vast pool of medical professionals, growing private
health-care infrastructure, improvement in technical expertise, cheaper medical
procedures are likely to boost the number of medical tourists arrivals in India. In contest
of this, the paper aims to study current status of Medical Tourism in India. The paper
highlights some issues and challenges being faced by this tourism sector. It also suggests
measures to be taken so that India can emerge as the preferred tourist destination for the
patients.
Keywords: Medical tourism, India, healthcare services, tourist
Introduction
The word tourism is generally associated with travel for recreation, leisure,
religious, family or business purposes, usually for a limited duration across the globe or it
may be at some another place within the same country. However over the period of time
the term tourism has gone through tremendous changes as people now travel not only for
leisure and recreation but they move to other countries to get health benefits. The global
demand for healthcare services has been increased in the past few years due to
demographic factors such as increased longevity and rising birth rates, growing health
awareness among people, increasing demand for good quality healthcare services and
ever growing expertise in the field of medicine. People are now willing to travel that
extra mile to receive treatments at affordable prices. This has given rise to the term
Medical Tourism. Around seven million patients are said to be travelling each year to
receive medical care. Rising healthcare costs, rising demand for cosmetic and dental
surgery which are not covered by health insurance in developed countries and availability
of quality and comparatively cost effective healthcare services in developing countries are
the major factors for boosting medical tourism globally. Moreover there are countries in
Africa, South America and Middle East where patients, despite the ability to pay, are
compelled to move to other destinations to avail healthcare services due to lack of
availability. Thus medical tourism is one of the quickest and largest growing industries in
the world.
India has much to offer in the form of medical tourism like Allopathy medicine,
Ayurveda, Yoga and other alternative medicines including Homeopathy, Naturopathy,
Meditation, Aroma Therapy, Reiki. The Indian medical tourism industry is expected to
http://milestonereview.webs.com

34 | P a g e

reach $6 billion by 2018, with the number of people arriving in the country for medical
treatment set to double over the next four years, according to the report by industry lobby
Punjab Haryana Delhi (PHD) Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The current size of
the industry is estimated at a little over $3 billion, with tourist arrivals estimated at
230,000. The report projected the segment to grow at a compounded annual growth rate
(CAGR) of 20% between 2014 and 2018. If we study figure 1, the foreign tourist arrivals
were 5.16 million in year 2009 which rose to 6.57 million in year 2012, while medical
tourists visiting the country were just ranging from only 2.2% in 2009 to 2.6% in 2012.
Figure 1: Total number of Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) and FTAs for medical
treatment in India

Source: India tourism statistics 2012, Ministry of Tourism


India is considered to be among the best in international tourist destinations. India
believes in slogan Atithi Devo Bhava which means that a guest is equivalent to a god
assures service providers to provide end-to-end services. These include speciality
treatment, low cost consultation and treatment, no waiting period for treatment and
availability of advanced equipments at reasonable price. The Indian medical tourism
industry is growing by 30 percent a year. It caters to the requirements of patients chiefly
from the West Asia, Middle East Africa and to some extent US and Europe. In year 2012,
maximum number of medical foreign tourist arrivals from Bangladesh followed by Sri
Lanka (figure 2). According to the Indian High Commission, Indian hospitals received
18,000 Nigerians on medical visas in 2012, 47% of the Nigerians were in India to receive
medical treatment and spent approximately $260 million USD.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

35 | P a g e

Figure 2: Top ten source countries of FTAs in India, 2012

Source: India tourism statistics 2012, Ministry of Tourism website


The leading destinations of medical tourism in the country are Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, New Delhi, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. Chennai alone accounts for
40% of Indias medical tourism inflow and more than six lakh tourists visits per annum.
Better connectivity, MoUs between hospitals and important government initiatives are a
few reasons for high medical tourist inflow. Gujarat announced its medical tourism policy
in 2006, with the developing a medicity as one of the objectives. Non-resident Gujaratis
are now increasingly planning their treatment visits so as to coincide with visits to their
hometowns. In an effort to promote medical tourism in Punjab, the government has
planned a 300 acres medicity at New Chandigarh.
The medical tourism industry in India gets maximum patients for heart surgery,
knee transplant, cosmetic surgery and dental care as the cost of treatment in India is
considered to be the lowest in Asia, much lower than Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and
Hong Kong. A key competitive advantage India has in medical tourism is the cost
effectiveness it has to offer to its patients. A person coming to India for his medical
treatment can save upto 30 to 70 per cent. Even if we consider the ticket expenses and
accommodation expenses along with the treatment cost, the overall expenditure would be
lower than the treatment cost in the UK or the US or many other countries.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

36 | P a g e

Table 1: Cost Competitiveness (US $)


Procedures

USA

India

Thailand

Singapore

South

Mexico

Malaysia

Korea

Costa

UAE

Rica

Heart Bypass

133000

7000

22000

16300

31700

27000

12000

21400

40900

Heart

140000

9500

25000

22000

42000

30000

13400

30000

50600

57000

7020

12700

1200

10600

13900

7500

11400

46000

53000

9200

11500

9600

11800

14900

12000

10700

40200

Face Lift

16000

4800

5000

7500

6600

11300

6400

4900

n/a

Lap,

52000

9300

13000

16500

9300

11000

12700

n/a

n/a

valve

replacement
Hip
Replacement
Knee
Replacement

Gastric

Bypass

Source: http://www.mse.ac.in
It is clear from above table that India has positioned itself as an inexepensive
destination for medical treatment as compared to the US and Europe. Indian private
hospitals have a large pool of skilled doctors, nurses and supporting staff that attract
medical tourists, especially from South-East Asia and the Middle East. Moreover some of
the top Indian hospitals and doctors have strong international reputation. According to
Chief Operating Officer of Apollo Hospitals, the number of international patients visiting
the hospital has been increasing by 20 percent every year. They provide medical care to
400 to 500 people from European countries, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and the
Middle East in a year. Many of the private hospitals are accredited with the National
Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH) and Joint Commission
International (JCI). At present there are 21 JCI accredited healthcare facilities in the
country
Issues and Challenges
The vast pool of medical professionals, growing private health-care infrastructure,
improvement in technical expertise, cheaper medical procedures, health-care
infrastructure of international standards are likely to boost the number of medical tourists
arrivals in India. But there are certain issues and challenges which must be addressed to
earnestly.
Poor and inadequate infrastructural facilities in the country is the big hurdle in
way of country to create an image of most favored destination for medical tourists.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

37 | P a g e

For example Bengaluru is able to attract only around 10-15 international patients a
day due to less favourable flight connectivity and lesser industry initiatives. Goa,
Indias most popular tourist destination, is yet to make a mark as the most popular
medical tourist destination. Lack of direct flights from most parts of the world
along with less experienced private hospitals are the major reasons.
India has a fragmented approach where individual hospitals have been promoting
themselves as the hospital destinations. The medical-value-travel stakeholders in
India need to consolidate their efforts and must work on strategies on how to
leverage the available opportunities.
Marketing and promotion of India as a major medical tourism destination is
critical for the industry to achieve its potential. There is lack of a dedicated
website on which Indian hospitals, tour operators and medical facilitators can be
listed with specialists and doctors which act as a restraint to the growth of medical
tourism. India needs to change its traditional marketing approach to a more
competitive and modern approach. There is a need to develop a unique market
position and the brand positioning statement should capture the essence of the
countrys tourism products: i.e., they should be able to convey an image of the
product to a potential customer.
India does face stiff competition in the segment from countries like Thailand,
Malaysia and Singapore.
Affordable hotels, availability of language interpreters are a few areas which also
need to be given significant consideration to increase medical tourism in India.
Indian medical tourism is still a highly unorganized sector where lots of
middlemen with little or no knowledge and training to manage patient are playing
havoc. A majority of middlemen are touts, fleecing the patients on every single
service required.
Complicated visa regulations for medical tourists is another issue to be addressed.
Lack of adequate budgetary support for promotion and marketing, compared with
competing tourist destination contries, is a major reason for India lagging behind
its competitors. Marketing under the Incredible India campaign helped place
India as a good tourist destination on the global tourism map. India needs to
change its traditional marketing approach to a more competitive and modern
approach. There is a need to develop a unique market position and the brand
positioning statement should capture the essence of the countrys tourism
products: i.e., they should be able to convey an image of the product to a potential
customer
Suggestive measures for mounting Medical Tourism
India has carved a strong niche in the field of Medical Tourism over the years for the
reasons of offering medical services of International standards at the lowest possible cost.
But it has a long journey ahead to be among the top most medical tourism destinations.
Here are the some suggestions to achieve this target.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

38 | P a g e

India needs to invest heavily in improving basic infrastructure such as roads and
airport facilities in the medical hubs to compete with other Asian countries. At
least cities which have potential to become medical hub must have connectivity by
air, road and rail.
The Government of India should simplify the medical visa service.
Proper attention should be given for publicizing India as medical tourist
destination through web, magazines, tourist guide books and such material should
be circulated in target markets.
Special packages should be provided to cater to the needs of wellness tourists,
medical tourists and leisure tourists.
Holistic medical facilities should be publicized among prospective tourists like
yoga, meditation, naturopathy, acupuncture etc.
The government should initiate capacity building programmes to train
paramedical and non-medical staffs of the service providers for cross-cultural
sensitivities.
Conclusion
India has potential to emerge as one of the best medical tourism destination. It has
unique basket of services in the form of yoga, meditation, ayurveda, allopathy and other
medical facilities to attract the medical tourists. The Indian medical tourism industry has
an enormous potential for future growth and development. India needs to work on
increasing efficiency at the immigration to make the travelling experience hassle free for
patients and also better infrastructure in terms of highways and road connectivity would
add to the overall satisfaction of medical tourists. The government should take initiatives
to promote medical tourism at international platforms and support the industry through
investments and liaisons with other countries. The message of cost effective healthcare
facilities needs to be adequately promoted to medical tourists. The need is to launch
online campaigns and other promotion initiatives for the medical tourism industry.
References
Batra, Jasleen Kaur Medical tourism industry in India to reach $3.9B this year
retrieved from http://www.vccircle.com
Benur, Santoshkumar.Medical Tourism: Can it be a new Supernova of Indian
Economy. Asian Journal of Management Sciences 02 (05); 2014; 10-17
Gulf region account for 30% of Apollo patients from abroad, The Economic
Times , July 8,2015 retrieved from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/
Gupta, Sen Amit Medical tourism in India: winners and losers, Indian Journal of
Medical Ethics Vol 5, No 1 retrieved from http://www.ijme.in/index.
India ranks among top three medical tourism destinations in Asia, The Economic
Times , sept.1,2014 retrieved from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/
Mary Rose S. Medical Tourism in India Its Strength, Weakness, Opportunities
and Threats (SWOT) retrieved from http://scholarsworld.net/
http://milestonereview.webs.com

39 | P a g e

Padiya, Jasmin and Goradara, Snehal. Medical Tourism in India, Has it Arrived?
:An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Management Research and
Business Strategy Vol.3, NO.1, January 2014 retrieved from www.ijmrbs.com
Reddy C, Prathap Indias medical tourism advantage The Hindu Business Line
dated October13, 2014 retrieved from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/
Shanmugam, K.R. Medical Tourism in India: Progress, Opportunities and
Challenges retrieved from http://www.mse.ac.in/pub/Monograph%2026.pdf
Singh, Lakhwinder.An evaluation of medical tourism in India African Journal of
Hospitality and Leisure Vol. 3 (1)- (2014) retrieved from http://www.ajhtl.com/
Srivastava, Moulishree India medical tourism industry to reach $6 billion by
2018: report, retrieved from http://www.livemint.com
Swamy, Nagendra. The preferred destination India Today dated March 17, 2014
retrieved from indiatoday.intoday.in

http://milestonereview.webs.com

40 | P a g e

ATTITUDE OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO THEIR


MENTAL HEALTH
Anuradha Jaidka

Abstract
This study was conducted on 100 prospective teachers to find out the relationship
between mental health and optimistic pessimistic attitude prospective of teachers. Mental
Health Checklist developed by Pramod Kumar(1992), and optimistic-pessimistic attitude
scale developed by D.S. Pareshar(1998) were used to assess the mental health and
optimistic-pessimistic attitude of the prospective teachers. Results revealed that there is
variation in the level of mental health and optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective
teachers. There is significant negative correlation between mental health and Optimistic
Pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers of Government College of Education, sector
20, Chandigarh.
Key-words : Mental health, Optimistic-pessimistic attitude and Prospective teachers
Introduction
Mental health plays a very important role in order to avoid stress and strains with
higher frustration levels and help in achievements (both at personal level and professional
level) of prospective teachers. According to World Health Organization (2004) mental
health is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities,
can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able
to make a contribution to his or her community". WHO stresses that mental health "is not
just the absence of mental disorder. The concepts of optimism and pessimismor how
an individual generalizes positive and negative experiences to predict future outcomes
have been under study by psychologists and psychiatrists for more than 2 decades
(Peterson & Seligman, 1984). According to Victoria Ocampo, Optimism is a
tendency to expect the best possible outcome or dwell on the most hopeful aspects
of a situation. The terms good or poor mental health are relative and their meaning
depend to some extent on the cultural context under which they are used.
Optimism/pessimism may affect Prospective teachers true health status. Hence the
investigator felt the need to study the relation between mental health and attitude towards
life-optimistic or pessimistic.
Objectives

To assess mental health of prospective teachers.


To study the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers.
To study the relationship between mental health and optimistic pessimistic
attitude of prospective teachers of Government College of Education, sector
20-D, Chandigarh.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

41 | P a g e

Hypothesis

There is no variation in the level of mental health of prospective teachers.


There is no variation in the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective
teachers.
There exists no significant relationship between mental health and optimistic
pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers of Government College of
Education, sector 20-D, Chandigarh.

Design of the study


For the purpose of present investigation, descriptive survey method of research was
employed.
Sample
The sample of the present study comprised of 100 prospective teachers selected from
Government College of education, sector 20, Chandigarh by random sampling method. A lot
of 100 prospective teachers was selected randomly from 300 prospective teachers.
Tools Used
a) Mental Health Checklist by Pramod Kumar (1992)
b) Optimistic-Pessimistic Attitude scale by D.S. Pareshar (1998)
Statistical techniques used
The data collected will be analyzed by employing descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive techniques- Mean, Median, Mode and Standard deviation were used
to study the general nature of the distribution of the scores with respect to mental
health and optimistic pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers.
Skewness and Kurtosis was used to see the departure of the sample from Normal
Probability Curve.
Co-efficient of Correlation between mental health and optimistic pessimisticscores
was found to determine the relationship between them.
Result and Discussion
Table 1: Percentage of prospective teachers having different level of Mental Health
Level of Mental
Number of prospective
Percentage
Health
teachers
Good
20
20
Average

69

69

Poor

11

11

http://milestonereview.webs.com

42 | P a g e

Table 1 shows the percentage of prospective teachers having good, average or poor level
of mental health which reveals that majority of prospective teachers (69 %) had average
level of mental health while 20 % of prospective teachers had good level of mental health
and 11% of prospective teachers had poor level of mental health.
Hence the hypothesis that There is no variation in the level of mental health of
prospective teachers is not retained.
Table 2: Percentage of prospective teachers having optimistic or pessimistic attitude.
Attitude
Number of prospective
Percentage
teachers
Optimistic
69
69
Neutral

27

27

Pessimistic

04

04

Table 2 shows the percentage of prospective teachers having optimistic or pessimistic


attitude which reveals that 27 % of prospective teachers had neutral attitude while
majority (69 %) of prospective teachers had optimistic attitude and only 4% of
prospective teachers had pessimistic attitude.
Hence the hypothesis that There is no variation in the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers is not retained.
Table 3: Table showing descriptive statistical values for mental health scores of
prospective teachersVariable
Mean
Median
Standard
Skewness
Kurtosis
deviation
Mental Health
20.23
19
5.532
.711
.080
Table 3 shows the descriptive statistical values for mental health scores of prospective
teachers. The values of mean (20.23) and median (19) had a small difference of 1.23. The
value of standard deviation (5.532) represented the scattered scores from the mean
position. The skewness and kurtosis of total sample were.711 and .080 respectively. The
value of Kurtosis showed a slight departure from normal limits level of significance.
Table 4. Table showing descriptive statistical values for optimistic pessimistic
attitude of prospective teachersVariable
Mean
Median Standard
Skewness
Kurtosis
deviation
Optimistic pessimistic
29.31
30.00
3.4398
-.457
.066
attitude
Table 4 shows the descriptive statistical values for optimistic pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers. The values of mean (29.31) and median (30.00) were approximately
http://milestonereview.webs.com

43 | P a g e

same. The value of standard deviation (3.4398) represented the scattered scores from the
mean position. The skewnessand kurtosis of total sample was -.457 and .066 which
showed a slight departure from normal limits level of significance.
Table 5 Co-efficient of correlation between mental health scores and optimistic
pessimistic attitude scores of prospective teachers.
VARIABLES

Mental Health

Mental Health

1.00

Optimistic Pessimistic
attitude
-.204

Optimistic Pessimistic
attitude

-.204

1.00

Table value at 0.05 level of significance = 0.195 at 98 df


Table value at 0.01 level of significance = 0.254 at 98 df
Value of coefficient of correlation was significant at 0.05 level.
DiscussionTable 5 reveals that value of calculated coefficient of correlation between mental health
scores and Optimistic Pessimistic attitude scores of prospective teachers was -.204. As
this value was more than table value of 0.195 at 0.05 level of significance and less than
0.256at 0.01 level of significance, therefore the relationship between mental health and
Optimistic Pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers wassignificant at 0.05 level of
significance. Hence hypothesis There exists no significant relationship between mental
health and optimistic pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers of Government College
of Education, sector 20-D, Chandigarh was not retained at 0.05 level of significance.
This showed that having good mental health does affect the formation of Optimistic or
Pessimistic attitude in an individual. More the pessimistic attitude, lower is the level of
the mental health of prospective teachers.
Findings and Conclusions
From the overall study it can be concluded;

69 % of prospective teachers had average level of mental health, 20 % of prospective


teachers had good level of mental health and 11% of prospective teachers had poor
level of mental health.
27 % of prospective teachers had neutral attitude while majority (69 %) of
prospective teachers had optimistic attitude and only 4% of prospective teachers had
pessimistic attitude.
There is significant negative correlation between mental health and Optimistic
Pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers of Government College of Education,
sector 20, Chandigarh at 0.05 level of significance.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

44 | P a g e

Educational Implications

Though this study prospective teachers will be able to know about their mental health
level and whether their attitude is optimistic or pessimistic
The study suggests to develop optimistic attitude towards life through motivating
lectures and to change the Attitude towards life for better adjustments in case of
pessimistic attitude.
This study will teach prospective teachers to remain hopeful during problems
Prospective teachers will learn to develop positive thinking and stay away from
negative emotions.
Optimism of teacher is a positive attitude which can bring the excellence in their
performance. This can help keep negativity out of the classroom and benefit the
teacher and the students.

References
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanation as a risk factor in
depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91,347-374.
World Health Organization, (2004).Mental Health, Stress and Psychological Well
being of Students. New York: Macmillan.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

45 | P a g e

STREET CHILDREN IN INDIA: A STUDY OF PATHETIC CONDITION OF


STREET CHILDREN IN PANCHKULA
Minakshi Rana
Abstract
We are living in the age of smart phones, online shopping and banking, luxurious
homes and so many amenities which help in making our life super comfortable, but the
darker side of all the development, industrialization and modernization is that some
children are still compelled to live on streets and moreover in the city like Panchkula
where the parks, parking areas, buildings & markets and residential houses all are well
planned & developed. The present study aims to find out with the help of case studies, the
reasons behind the existence of children on streets and to explore the condition of their
life socially, economically and physically.
Introduction
When a city is developed lots of people come from the different places in search
of work to earn better for their life. If they are educated and from a sound family
background, they will manage a decent accommodation and occupation for them in the
cities but if they come in the cities without my educational & financial background, they
get forced to live on footpath, pavements and around the old building and monuments.
Their children then compelled to become street children and started living the distressed
life on streets without adequate food, water, sanitation, clothing & health care. The
existence of life on street is an outcome of inability of the administration to accommodate
the rapid inflow of people into a city.
The Institute of Psychological and Educational Research (IPER), Kolkata studied
5 major cities in India which are Mumbai, Chennai, Kanpur, Bangalore & Hyderabad and
recorded 3,14,000 street children (IPER) 1991. Another study in 1997 estimated 5,00,000
street children in seven large cities (CRIN) . According to a Census of street children in
Delhi by the Institute for Human Development and Save the Children, 50,923 children
below 18 years of age were identified as street children in Delhi during 12 July to 28
August, 2010. The 1991 census recorded 18 million children. The United Nations High
Commission for Human Rights (UNHCHR) in 1993 had reported that India had the
largest population of street children in the world.
Street Children
A child is born with natural potential and innate abilities to grow and prosper. It is
the duty of the society in which the child takes birth to provide for all environmental care
and opportunities for the growth and development of the child. The quest for unlimited
development & financial gains in the present society has resulted into giant social
problems like extreme poverty, unemployment, displacement and migration,
environmental degradation, uncontrolled population growth which collectively gave birth
to circumstances where the children are forced to live on street. The term street children
http://milestonereview.webs.com

46 | P a g e

is hotly debated. Some say it is negative that it labels and stigmatizes children. Others say
it gives them identity and a sense of belonging. It can include a wide range of children
who : are homeless, work on streets but sleep at home; either do or not have family
contact : work in open- air market, lives on the streets, railway platforms with their
families or alone; live in day or night shelters, spend a lot of time in institutions.
(Consortium for Street Children).
According to UNICEF, street children are those for whom the street (in the widest
sense of the word, i.e., unoccupied dwellings, wasteland, etc.) more than their family has
become their real home, a situation in which there is no protection, supervision or
direction from responsible adults.
Categories of street given by UNICEF
1. Children on street: Forming the largest categories these are the children who
have homes, and most return to their homes at the end of the day.
2. Children of the street : These children live on the street only and from streets
only they generate livelihood, friendship, shelter, clothing. They have occasional
or no contacts with their families.
3. Abandoned Children: These children have no families and completely
dependent on themselves not only for daily physical needs but also psychological
needs.
Street children are those minor for whom street has become their habitual abode
and who are without any protection and supervision living on street. But street children
are different from the children of slum dwellers. The most important facts for observing
street children are the existence of their life on street with or without family and their life
is devoid of most of the basic & necessary facilities of life.
If the child takes birth in a normal family, his or her physical, emotional and
educational needs are taken care off from the time of the birth. But in this developing
world, some children are not fortunate enough and they have to manage their livelihood
in the age when they are not even able to speak properly. They are exposed to several
kinds of exploitations and vulnerable to severe kind of diseases. Education, hygiene &
sanitation, clean clothing and nutritious food are alien words for them. If future of the
nation is compelled to live the life distress & marginality, how can us sure about
becoming a developed country. The researcher lives in Panchkula and is very much
impressed with its planned structure consisting of markets, parking areas, parks, schools
and residential accommodation. People also live together in a well connected way and
seems always ready to take step for the social welfare. Many problems are solved due to
timely step taken by the aware & alert residents. The administration is also interested in
keeping the city clean & safe. But what completely shake the researcher up is the life of
the children living on streets in Panchkula and then the researcher decided to explore the
reasons why the innocent children are forced to live on streets in the city like Panchkula
and under what kind of social, economic and physical conditions they are living. The
researcher decided to adopt case study method as wants to reach out to the life of the
children closely and on the other hand to collect data on all the street children in
http://milestonereview.webs.com

47 | P a g e

Panchkula was not possible. Secondary data is also not easily available on the street
children in Panchkula. So case study method is used and the researcher randomly chose
10 different street children living in different areas of Panchkula and tried to collect
qualitative data.
There is interplay of various socio-economic and cultural factors, religious,
cultural and geographical diversity behind the phenomenon of street children. What
makes the life of children on street more distressed and pathetic is that they are not even
aware of missing of their life. When the researcher came to Panchkula, the researcher
quite liked the city and admired the planning behind its development. But what shake the
researcher up is that the city which boasts of its planned infrastructure and facilities is not
capable enough to provide shelter to the innocent children. So the researcher decided to
reach out to the street children to conduct case studies and try to find out why they are
forced to live on streets and under what social, economic & physical conditions they are
living. After considering the above mentioned status of street children, the investigator
decided to conduct a study in Panchkula, a city in Haryana with following objectives:

To find out the reasons of existence of life on streets in Panchkula.

To explore the social economic and physical conditions under which the children
are living.

Methodology
Panchkula is a planned city and the satellite city of Chandigarh but has limited
capacity to provide shelter, livelihood and other services to all the people. This incapacity
has resulted in the existence of street children who are living the life of extreme poverty,
hunger, mental & physical abuse and vulnerability to several kinds of exploitation. Under
the present study, the investigator will randomly roam around the city, find out the
children on street and with the help of interviews, try to explore their life. The
investigator will randomly choose 10 children and focuses to extract more enriched data
from them and their family. The collected data will be then summarized and analyzed to
conclude.
Although, it is difficult to collect true information from the street children as they
used to become very smart in dealing with outside world due to the difficult
circumstances they are living in. Besides it they are very conscious also while coming
into contact with people belonging to well off sections. The researcher tried to establish a
warm relation of faith with them & then asked them about their lives & the reasons why
they live on the street.
Following are the case studies conducted on the street children living on the
pavements & footpaths of Panchkula.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

48 | P a g e

Case-1: Sanjana
Sanjana is 8 year old girl. Her fathers name is Sonu and mothers name is Rashmi.
Sanjana is living on the footpath of Sec-8 Panchkula in front of sec-8 market. The family
consisting of Sanjana, her brother Mahesh, father, mother and an aunty who came along
with the family from the native village. Sanjanas father told me that they came from
Rajasthan, district Jaipur and village Khajuria. They are basically daily wage labourers.
They used to come Panchkula for 3-4 months every year and collect some money by
doing whatever work they get, and then get back to Rajasthan. They used to do work like
packing the stuff (napkins, disposable glasses), making carry bags or whatever comes to
them. Sanjana was quite reluctant to talk. But after insisting, she told me that she loves
playing on the footpath and dont want to go to school. Sanjana was asking me whether I
have brought any eatables and clothes for her as every now and then people used to come
and distribute the stuff like sweets , clothes & medicine etc. The family manages to get
the water for cooking and drinking from the park in sec-6 and preferably in early morning
& late night. They use the open areas for toilet during the late night hours and early
morning.
Case 2: Mahesh
Mahesh is a 12 year old boy. I met him on the red light of sec 9 Panchkula. He was asking
for money to all the cars which were stopped on the red signal. I tried to talk to him and
he agreed. He said, I am not forced by anyone to beg, I do it because I need fast money.
My friends are going to watch a late night show of movie Bajrangi Bhaijan and I also
want to join them.
Mahesh told me that he lives on the footpath near the sec-6 park with his friends. I asked
him about his family and he said I dont know anything about my parent. He told me that
he was a domestic servant in house in sec-6 Panchkula and one day he just escaped
without letting anyone know in the house. He didnt give me the details of the house he
worked and also didnt disclose the reasons behind his escape from the house. He met his
friends on the footpath only. They used to do car wash in sec-6 and sometimes beg for
making easy money. Health and Hygiene seems to be alien words for Mahesh but he was
looking happy and far away from the worldly materialistic desires.
Case 3: Reena
Reena is a 9 years old girl and lives on the pavement near the bus stand sec 10 Panchkula.
Her fathers name is Raju and mothers name is Anjali. Reena has 2 sisters and one
brother. They all live together and one more family from their native place live with
them. Reenas father used to sell cut fruits on the bus stand but do it occasionally. Reena
told that her father earns something only 2-3 days in a week as he is busy in playing cards
with his friends and most of the times in drunken state and not able to speak properly
even in the day times. I observed Raju as a routine drinker and also addicted to tobacco
and Biddi. Reenas mother was earlier used to do cleaning work in a showroom in sec-9
Panchkula but after the birth of his brother, her mother couldnt manage to do work.
Reena was wearing very dirty clothes, had nose & throat infection and broken leg. She
http://milestonereview.webs.com

49 | P a g e

never gone to school and dont want to go. They manage the drinking water from the bus
stand and for toilet purposes, they use the open areas & the washrooms of bus stand also.
Reena asked me if I need a domestic maid as she is ready to be a full time domestic maid.
She is not happy about the living in open without protection from sunlight & rain.
Case-4: Jhilmil
Jhilmil is a 6 year old girl and lives with her uncle and aunt. Her parents are no more in
the world. Her uncle told me that they just came from village Panna, Distt. Kalda,
Madhya Pradesh. They have a Kacha house in the village and that was destroyed in
natural disaster. Some friends in village told them to move and they came to Panchkula.
They are living near the slum area in the front of the entrance gate of the Mata Mansa
Devi Temple. They used to have their meals in the temple campus and now in search of a
work to earn livelihood. Jhilmil is interested in joining a school and his uncle too asked
me whether jhilmil and her cousins can join the school. But he was worried for the job as
he has been searching work from last 2 months but didnt get any job. Jhilmil was
enjoying her stay on the footpath and found it better than the living in the native village.
She promised me that she will definitely join the school if given a chance. Jhilmils
family has got a good bond with the families living in nearby slum area and is able to
arrange for cooking of food & water.
Case-5: Rimjhim
Rimjhim is a 8 year old girl and lives near the local temple of sec-5 MDC Panchkula on
the pavement. She is the single child of her parents. Her father is a daily wage labourer
and mother doesnt work. Rimjhim is a very thin child and from her physical looks, it
seems to me that she is severely malnourished. I asked her mother about the diet of
Rimjhim and she replied that, Rimjhim used to have roti daily. Sometimes her father
manages rice and vegetables also. But they dont have any cooking oil and sometimes
dont have fuel for cooking the food. They manage the drinking water from the temple
but bathing & cleaning clothes cant be done from that water as only 2 buckets are
allowed. Rimjhim told me that her father drinks daily and used to fight a lot with her
mother and sometimes beat her. Rimjhim wants to go to school like other children, who
live in the nearby residential societies. But she is not sure whether it will be possible in
future or not. Her mother told me that Rimjhim has fainted many times while playing but
we didnt make her see the doctor and really scared of any severe disease.
Case-6: Vikas
Vikas is a 15 year old boy and living on the pavement near the market in sec-20
Panchkula. He is living there with his four sisters. His father died few years back in a
road accident. His father used to run a roadside shop of hair cutting. Vikass sister Batheri
and Seema work in the nearby showrooms. They do the work of washing and mopping
the floors. Vikass mother Naina used to take care of his younger sisters and doesnt
work. Vikas earns livelihood by pulling rickshaw. He brought the second hand rickshaw
by selling the stuff of his fathers shop and also borrowed money from a nearby shop
owner. In the age of 15 he used to smoke and drink. All the family members were
http://milestonereview.webs.com

50 | P a g e

wearing very dirty clothes and they told me that bathing & washing clothes are done only
for 2-3 times in a month. Rain makes the number increase and sometimes if not get a
change or denied by local people for supplying water to them, they used to carry on
without bathing & washing. They cook food in the open and sleep on the pavement only.
They belong to Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh but Vikas and his siblings didnt go to the
native place for a single time as they have no money to afford the transportation.
Case-7: Vikas
Vikas is a 10 years old boy and lives nearby Rimjhim. But his condition is completely
different. Although his father sells fruits on the footpath but earns that much that they
have managed a shed at the backside of the temple. They managed a cooler, television, a
bed and two single chairs. His mother was cooking food when I reached their home and
she offered me tea also. She told me that Vikas has two brothers and they all stay outside
during the day and come to home only in the night to sleep. She used to stay at home &
takes care of the daily routine of cooking, cleaning and washing. All the three brothers
help their father in the work of picking fruits from the Mandi in sec-26 Chandigarh,
arranging them on the pavement, dealing with the customers and taking care of the stuff.
They dont want to join school and even their father is also not interested. They are from
Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. They found a better life here than their native place and never
want to go back. They dream of taking a home on rent in a better location preferably in
Bhainsatiba a village in Panchkula near Mansa Devi Temple.
Case-8: Akash
Akash is a 6 years old boy and I met him inside the campus of Mata Mansa Devi Temple.
He was asking for money and when I asked him why he needs money than he just fled
away. I followed him and found out that he lives on the backside of a Jaat community
center in sec-6 Panchkula. He is living with his family consisting of father (Mahipesh),
mother (Laldevi), sisters Mamta and Neetu and brother Suresh. They came from Bihar.
Their villages name is Sarsa and it is in district Kamaldoh. They came here in search of a
better livelihood. Akashs father is working from the last 2 months in the Saketri
Gaushala and used to earn Rs. 1500 pm. Akashs mother cannot work as she has to look
after the twin daughters (Mamta and Neetu). They are just 3 months old. Akash just roam
around here and there the whole day and whenever feel hungry used to eat food at the
lungar in the Mata Mansa Devi Campus. They have no ideas regarding schooling & even
dont want to go to school.
Case-9 : Ashu
Ashu is a 11 year old boy and lives on the area lie vacant in between two showrooms in
sec-5 MDC Panchkula. Her mother is running a tea stall. Ashu has 3 sisters and one
brother. Brother Anil lives in Delhi with his uncle and sisters live with him. Ashu and the
3 sisters help their mother in the task of making & serving tea, washing cups and
delivering the tea order nearby. Ashu told me that my mother is planning to make some
snacks also on the stall so that earnings can be increased. Ashus mother Manbhar
desperately wants her daughters to get a domestic work and even asked me to help her
http://milestonereview.webs.com

51 | P a g e

out. When I insisted on the schooling of the children, she replied schooling is not
important at all. Schooling will not give us livelihood. She told me further that she will
take care of the daughters till they attain the age of 14 years and then make both of them
marry. Ashu seems to be interested in studies as I observed him holding the newspaper. I
asked him, Is he interested in reading? He replied, yes is I do. But we cant afford to go
to school. My mother cant manage the stall alone.
Case-10: Raksha
Raksha, a 8 year old single girl child of Rupesh a vegetable vendor in sec-7 Panchkula.
They live on the pavement near the park in sec-7 and also sell the vegetables from the
same place. They came here in panchkula from Madhya Pradesh. They live on pavement
only because they dont want to spend the precious money they earn on rent of the house.
They found the rented accommodation unreasonable also. Rakhas mother Ganga told me
that her 6 months old boy was died due to a severe disease and she couldnt able to recall
the name of the disease. After the death of six months boy, she didnt conceive. They take
good care of Raksha and I also found Raksha a clean & healthy child. I asked about her
schooling so Rupesh replied that Rakhsa used to go to sec-6 primary school but she fell
seriously ill after having the meals served in the school and I just took my daughter out.
We cant afford to loose our daughter, they said. Rupesh is planning to return to the
native place after having collected some money so that he can do his own business in
village. They didnt like the living here at all. They found the system fake & exploiting.
After conducting the above mentioned case studies, the investigator analyzed the
collected data and came to know the reasons behind the existence of like on streets in
Panchkula and the economic, social and physical condition under which the street
children are living in Panchkula. These can be summarized in following manner.
Poverty
Due to intense poverty, families have chosen to live on street. Most of the families
have migrated from Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. But they are
finding living on streets in Panchkula better than living in Kacha houses at their original
places. In search of a livelihood, they came to Panchkula & then started living on streets.
They earn a living by whatever means come in their way. The nature of work ranges from
selling vegetables, packaging to begging. They are living in very unhealthy, unhygienic &
pathetic condition on street.
Unemployment
The families of the children on streets have decided to move to Panchkula from
their original place in search of employment. Most of the parents of the children belong to
labor class. They keep on migrating in between different states for seasonal works and
that is the main reason behind non-schooling of the street children. The street children
used to join the work of their parent in very early age & continue it ahead.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

52 | P a g e

Illiteracy
A single literate person is not being founded during the whole study in the
families of street children. They were not able to understand that Govt. is running schools
for poor children & providing uniform & food in the school itself. They were completely
unaware of the any scheme running by Govt./local bodies. Besides awareness, they are
not finding the schooling of their children useful.
Malnutrition
90% of the children studied were severely malnourished. They are having throat
infection, broken bones, lean bodies, untidy hair and nails etc. They have not got
vaccinated. Polio drops they have taken. All the diseases & injuries are used to get
naturally healed and their parents are not bothering to visit doctors and hospitals.
Most sought after work
The most sought after work among the street children especially girls is domestic
work. Although Mahesh had escaped from the house where he worked as domestic
servant but he didnt disclose the reasons and he dont want be a domestic servant
anymore. Boys on the street prefer to work on their own like selling vegetables, fruits,
peanuts, tobacco etc. rather than do work under any other person. Tea stall & Tobacco
shops are found to be well earning business.
Mental Distress
Children on the street live the life of stress, abuse, inadequacy and violence. They
struggle daily to earn and dont have a relaxed night sleep as they used to sleep on
pavements in the noise of traffic. They see their parents fighting with each other, they
have no neighborhood to support, they have to bear the exploitation in the form of child
labor and most importantly they have no shelter where they can feel safe and protected.
As they grow older, their thinking and analyzing capacity gets shrinked & they get
trapped into the life on streets.
The investigator after understanding the reasons behind the existence of life on
street and the economic, social and physical conditions of life of street children is
suggesting following recommendations for improving the condition of street children in
Panchkula.
Alleviate Poverty
Poverty is playing the major role behind the existence of life on streets. Some
families migrate from their native places and move to the big cities in search of livelihood
but the search end up with life on streets. Sometimes the children intentionally left their
families after got fed up by the poor economic condition of their parents. They come to
cities and start living on street & lead the life as they want or as the life come. The Govt.
has to increase and wide the poverty alienation programs so that families are not
compelled to leave their home towns & live on streets in big cities.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

53 | P a g e

Employment Generation
Employment generation has direct effect on poverty reduction. If the people can
find employment locally they will not move from their places and can lead a better life.
The Govt. should also look into the matter of minimum wages and should consider
whether the wages are sufficient to run a family. Employment schemes should cover all
the skilled & unskilled manpower. Training programs to impart technical skills should
also be organized to enhance employment chances of the people.
Mapping of people coming in cities from all around the country
The administration of the big metropolitan and satellite cities should do mapping
of the people coming into the cities from the different states. The accurate data relating to
the number, gender, education & culture of the migrants can be proved very helpful in
planning welfare schemes for them. The administration should provide enough night
shelters homes & they should be in clean & safe condition, clean public toilets, drinking
water and safe environment.
Provision of health care, shelter and education
The children on streets should be provided with a good public health care as they
are in age which needs utmost care & protection. Some diseases can be proved very
harmful for their future life. Efforts should be done to provide shelter to the children so
that they can be protected from all kind of dangers. Most effective way to direct their
future is providing education to the children. Street children should be enrolled in Govt.
schools on priority basis and all measures should be taken to retain them.
Promoting social values and humanity
Social values like respecting each other identity, sharing, human welfare, devotion
& dedication, charity without self-interests should be promoted as most as possible so that
people cant tolerate another persons pain, agony and hunger. Every person should come
forward to help each other to come out of the giant social problems like poverty,
illiteracy, unemployment etc.
CONCLUSION
We are very proud of the development we have achieved in all spheres of life. All
of us try hard to get good education and job so as to arrange all the luxuries in our life.
But there is a kind of life existed in this developed and techno savvy world, in which the
basic necessities of life are denied and the matter of comfort & luxury is completely out
of question. The children on the streets are living this marginalized life where they are
denied of food, clothing, shelter, education, love & care. They are vulnerable to
exploitation & sufferings. They are compelled to live a miserable life as their parents are
poor, uneducated & unemployed. We as the responsible citizens of a democratic country
and our Govt. should really take strong steps to include these children in our developed
and modern society. They deserve their share of economic growth & development of
country. Sustainable development can be achieved only when these children which
http://milestonereview.webs.com

54 | P a g e

constitute a substantial population are provided a normal social life of care, protection &
safety. Only then a bright future of our country can be assured.
REFERENCES:
Aptekar L. (1992) Are Colombian Street Children Neglected? The Contributions of
Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Approaches to the Study of Children Anthropology
and Education Quarterly 22(4), p.326 http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se de
Bentez T.S. (2007).State of the world's street children, Consortium for Street
Children.

Aptekar, L. (1994), Street children in the developing world: a review of their


condition, Cross-Cultural Resources 28: p.196

Census on street children by Institute for Human Development and Save the Children
2011

Patel S. (1990), Street Children, hotel boys and children of pavement dwellers and
construction workers in Bombay - how they meet their daily needs, Environment
and Urbanization2(2), p.11

Report Study on Child Abuse: India 2007, p.60

Report by United Nations High Commission for Human Rights 1993

Study by Institute of Psychological and Educational Research 1991

Study by Consortium For Street Children

UNICEF (2012), The State of The World`s Children 2011, p.13

UNICEF (2012), The State of The World`s Children 2011, p.4


http://milestonereview.webs.com

55 | P a g e

STRESS AMONG PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS IN RELATION TO THEIR


OPTIMISTIC-PESSIMISTIC ATTITUDE
Manoj Kumar
ABSTRACT
The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between stress and
optimistic pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers. The sample for the study
comprised of 100 prospective teachers selected randomly from Government College of
Education sector 20, Chandigarh. Stress scale developed by Lakshmi (2005) was used to
assess stress of prospective teachers and Optimistic-Pessimistic Attitude scale by Pareshar
(1998) was used to assess their optimistic pessimistic attitude. The findings of the study
revealed that there was variation in the level of stress and optimistic-pessimistic attitude
of prospective teachers. There was no significant correlation between stress and
optimistic pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers.
Keywords: Stress, Optimistic-pessimistic attitude and prospective teachers.
INTRODUCTION
The term stress was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye (1936) to identify
physiological responses in laboratory animals. Morgan, King, Weisg & Scholper
(1993)defines stress is an internal state which can be caused by physical demands on the
body (diseased conditions, exercise, extremes of temperature and the like) or by
environmental and social situations which are evaluated as potentially harmful,
uncontrollable or exceeding our resources for coping life events and pressures of everyday
life. The concepts of optimism and pessimismor how an individual generalizes positive
and negative experiences to predict future outcomeshave been under study by
psychologists and psychiatrists for more than 2 decades (Peterson & Seligman, 1984).
According to Victoria Ocampo, Optimism is a tendency to expect the best possible
outcome or dwell on the most hopeful aspects of a situation. The prospective teacher
has to be optimistic during life imbalances. This is essential on the part of prospective
teacher as he is the role model for the coming generations in the era of technology and
value deficient scientific world. Hence the investigator looked upon the relation between
stress and optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To assess the level of stress among prospective teachers
2. To study the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers
3. To study the relationship between stress and optimistic-pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

56 | P a g e

HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY


1. There is no variation in the level of stress among prospective teachers.
2. There is no variation in the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of prospective teachers.
3. There is no significant relationship between stress and optimistic-pessimistic attitude
of prospective teachers.
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of present investigation, descriptive survey method of research was employed.
SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
The sample of the present study comprised of 100 prospective teachers selected from
Government College of Education, sector 20, Chandigarh by random sampling method. A
lot of 100 prospective teachers were selected randomly from 300 prospective teachers.
TOOLS USED
1. Stress scale by Lakshmi (2005)
2. Optimistic-Pessimistic Attitude scale by Pareshar (1998)
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED : The data collected was analyzed by employing
descriptive and inferential statistics.
1. Descriptive techniques- Mean, Median, Mode and Standard deviation were used to
study the general nature of the distribution of the scores
2. Skewness and Kurtosis was used to see the departure of the sample from Normal
Probability Curve.
3. Co-efficient of Correlation between stress and Optimistic-Pessimistic Attitude scores
was found to determine the relationship between them.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Table 1: Percentage of prospective teachers having different level of stress
Level of Stress
Number of prospective
Percentage
teachers
High
5
5
Moderate

66

66

Low

29

29

Table 1 shows the percentage of prospective teachers having high, moderate or low level
of stress which reveals that majority of prospective teachers (66 %) had moderate level of
stress while 5 % of prospective teachers had high level of stress and 29% of prospective
teachers had low level of stress. It might be inferred that the majority of prospective
teachers are able to lead stress free life.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

57 | P a g e

Hence the hypothesis that There is no variation in the level of stress among prospective
teachers is not retained.
Table 2: Percentage of prospective teachers having optimistic or pessimistic attitude.
Attitude
Number of prospective
Percentage
teachers
Optimistic
69
69
Neutral

27

27

Pessimistic

04

04

Table 2 shows the percentage of prospective teachers having optimistic or pessimistic


attitude which reveals that 27 % of prospective teachers had neutral attitude while
majority (69 %) of prospective teachers had optimistic attitude and only 4% of
prospective teachers had pessimistic attitude.
Hence the hypothesis that There is no variation in the optimistic-pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers is not retained.
Table 3: Table showing descriptive statistical values for stress scores of prospective
teachersVariable
Mean Median
Standard
Skewness
Kurtosis
deviation
Stress
16.25
16.00
4.26964
.422
-.338
Table 3 shows the descriptive statistical values for stress scores of prospective teachers.
The values of mean (16.25) and median (16.00) were approximately same. The value of
standard deviation (4.26964) represented the scattered scores from the mean position. The
skewness of total sample was .422. The kurtosis of total sample was -.338 which showed
a slight departure from normal limits level of significance.
Table 4: Table showing descriptive statistical values for optimistic pessimistic
attitude of prospective teachersVariable
Mean
Median Standard
Skewness
Kurtosis
deviation
Optimistic pessimistic 29.31
30.00
3.4398
-.457
.066
attitude
Table 4 shows the descriptive statistical values for optimistic pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers. The values of mean (29.31) and median (30.00) were approximately
same. The value of standard deviation (3.4398) represented the scattered scores from the
mean position. The skewness of total sample was -.457 which indicated that scores were
negatively skewed. The kurtosis of total sample was .066 which showed a slight departure
from normal limits level of significance.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

58 | P a g e

Table 5: Co-efficient of correlation between stress and optimistic and pessimistic


scores of prospective teachers.
VARIABLES
Stress
Optimistic
pessimistic
attitude
Stress
1.00
-.146
optimistic pessimistic attitude

-.146

1.00

Table value at 0.05 level of significance = 0.195 at 98 df


Table value at 0.01 level of significance = 0.254 at 98 df
Value of coefficient of correlation was not significant at 0.05 level and 0.01 level of
significance.
Table 5 reveals that value of calculated coefficient of correlation between stress and
optimistic pessimistic attitude scores of prospective teachers was -.146. As this value
was less than table value of 0.195 at 0.05 level of significance and 0.254 at 0.01 level
of significance, therefore the relationship between stress and optimistic pessimistic
attitude of prospective teachers was not significant. Hence hypothesis There is no
significant relationship between stress and optimistic pessimistic attitude of
prospective teachers was retained. Also stress scores and optimistic pessimistic
attitude scores were negatively correlated.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
From the overall study it can be concluded;
1. 66 % prospective teachers had moderate level of stress while 5 % of prospective
teachers had high level of stress and 29% of prospective teachers had low level of
stress.
2. 27 % of prospective teachers had neutral attitude while majority (69 %) of prospective
teachers had optimistic attitude and only 4% of prospective teachers had pessimistic
attitude.
3. There was no significant correlation between optimistic-pessimistic attitude and stress
among prospective teachers.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
1. Though this study prospective teachers will be able to know about their stress level
and optimistic-pessimistic attitude.
2. Prospective teachers will be able to make realistic goals which they can achieve and
can reduce their stress level.
3. This study suggests that teachers must be given conducive environment where they
can work efficiently so as to minimize the level of stress among them.
http://milestonereview.webs.com

59 | P a g e

4. The curriculum in training programme (B.Ed) must be effectively planned so that


prospective teachers do not feel stressed while managing time between school
experience programme and theory.
5. As there is effect of diet and exercise on stress, so physical education period must be
taken into its true spirit in training programme to make prospective teachers aware
about exercises that can reduce stress and its ill effects.
6. This study will teach prospective teachers to remain hopeful during problems
7. This study suggests the need for prospective teachers will learn to develop positive
thinking and stay away from negative emotions.
8. Attitude towards life of prospective teachers must be changed or boosted for better
adjustments in case of pessimistic attitude.
REFERENCES

Morgan, C.T., King, R.A., Weisg, J.R. and Scholper, J. (1993). Introduction to
Psychology, 7/E. Tata McGraw-Hill. New Dehli. 321.

Peterson, C., & Bossio, L. M. (1991). Health and optimism. New York: Free Press.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanation as a risk factor in


depression:Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91,347-374

Selye,H.(1982).The Nature of Stress. The Best of Basal Facts -1976-1987,from


www.icnr.com/articles/thenatureofstress.html -41k

http://milestonereview.webs.com

60 | P a g e

WORK SHIFT DURATION AS A CAUSE OF JOB DISSATISFACTION AMONG


POILCE OFFICIALS IN UT CHANDIGARH
Sandeep Buttola

Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of long working hours
on job satisfaction among police officials. The study was carried out at eleven Police
Stations in Chandigarh. An analysis was carried out on 329 respondents, comprising 11
Inspectors, 76 Sub-Inspectors, 51 Assistant Sub-Inspectors and 191 Head Constables.
Findings revealed that long working hours have a close bearing on the level of
satisfaction among police officials. Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were used to collect information. Findings further
indicate that most of the police officials do their work more than eight hours and in shift
duties. It is recommended that Police department should pay a great deal of attention to
effect needed changes in working hours to improve the level of job satisfaction among
the police officials.
Keywords: Chandigarh, work, hours, shift, duration, satisfaction
Introduction
Police have existed since times immemorial, in fact, ever since human beings
began to organise themselves into groups. Police can be regarded as an agency which
seeks to regulate the behaviour of the members of a society. Even among the most
primitive forms of society or community life, the need to maintain social order among its
members was felt. Hence, all societies evolved certain rules and regulations to ensure the
proper peaceful and smooth conduct of the people .After evolving sets of rules, it was
inevitable to create an agency which would enforce those rules and regulations. As
societies grew, this agency also grew and concept of police was conceived and executed.
Police as the most important protective arm of the society, have not only to function as
break - waters against the forces of lawlessness and destabilisation, but also to create a
sense of safety and confidence among the members of the society. The police are
responsible for the prevention of repression of criminal activity, the protection of life and
property, the preservation of peace, and public compliance with countless laws.
The Indian Police have a long past and have reached the present state, after
having undergone political and cultural changes. The existing police system in India
appears to be a unique and peculiar amalgam of various features of the Ancient, Mughal
and British police and policing systems. The present police system structurally and
functionally owes its existence to the various Acts and Enactments framed by the colonial
rulers. The Indian Police Act, 1861 is the basic foundation of the present day Indian
Police. Police in India primarily belong to the State List of the Constitution and,
therefore, police, policing and various police matters basically fall into the jurisdiction of
the respective state governments. Police organizations are identified by the name of the
http://milestonereview.webs.com

61 | P a g e

State to which they belong, and even their nomenclatures are given after the names of the
respective States, i.e. Rajasthan Police, Assam Police, Bihar Police, Kerala Police etc.
The police are organized, maintained and directed by the states and Union Territories of
the Indian Union. The Indian Police System is horizontally stratified like military forces
and is organized into various cadres.
Rank Structure in State Police Force
Home Minister / Home Secretary

Director General of Police


Or the Inspector General of Police (in a union territory)
(Head of the State / office or the chief office

Deputy Inspector General of Police


(Head of the range office)

Superintendent of Police
(Head of the district police office)

Deputy Superintendent of Police


(Generally called the Sub Divisional Officer)
(Head of the sub divisional office)

Inspector of Police
(Head of the circle office)

Sub Inspector
(Head of the Police Station, generally called the Station House Officer)

Asst. Sub Inspector

Head Constable

Constable
This investigation seeks to draw attention to the long working hours vis--vis
employees job satisfaction. Employees
working hours
impinge upon their
performance and general demeanour. Therefore the author focused on the level of job
satisfaction in the context of the employees long working hours.
Review of the literature
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the standard weekly working
hours (excluding overtime) cannot exceed 48 hours per week and eight hours a
http://milestonereview.webs.com

62 | P a g e

day. According to the ILO, "the imposition of hours limits was intended to ensure a safe
and healthy working environment and adequate rest or leisure time between shifts".
Reiss (1967) reports that Low salaries, over-extended working hours, a low
chance of promotions, supervisory problems and the lack of public respect are discovered
to be major factors that influence police job satisfaction. The reasons for stress are
negative working environment, long working hours, lack of time for family, irregular
eating habits, need to take tough decisions, sleepless nights, poor living conditions,
torture by seniors, disturbed personal life and the dwindling public confidence in the
police force (Malach- Pines and Kienan, 2007 and Water and Ussery et. al, 2007). Work
shift in a fixed/scheduled time is good but when there is no fixed time of the work shift,
this creates several problems for an employee .Potential causes of the fatigue of the
officials are shift rotation schemes, excessive mandatory or otherwise overtime
assignments, and frequent off duty court appearances (Vila et al., 2002). Territo and
vetter (1981) have stated that a police officials daily involvement in long working hours,
scattered weekends, excessive overtime, frequent court appearances, and the constant
presence of a gun are the factors which affect them.
Methodology
Unit of Analysis:
The unit of analysis consisted of the police official including Inspector, SubInspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector and Head Constable at eleven police stations of the
union territory of Chandigarh. All these officials are involved in direct public dealing.
For the present study 11 Inspectors, 76 Sub-Inspectors, 51 Assistant SubInspectors and 191 Head Constables were included in the sample. In all 329 police
officials formed the subject matter of this study.
Techniques of Data Collection
Keeping in mind the nature of the study a structured interview schedule was used
to collect information. The structured part of the interview schedule included questions
related to socio-cultural profile of the police officials, reasons for opting for this
profession, work place environment and relations with colleagues, subordinates, superordinates. Additionally, Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) were used to collect information. Both these scales were modified,
keeping in mind the purpose of the study.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI) was developed by Smith et.al (1969) and it has become the
most popular facet scale among organizational researchers. It contains 72 items, which
assess five facets of job satisfaction, namely, work, supervision, pay, co-workers, and
promotional opportunities.
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was developed by Weiss et.al
(1967) to measure the employees satisfaction with 20 different facets or aspects of the
http://milestonereview.webs.com

63 | P a g e

work environment. These are activity, independence, variety, social status, supervision
(human relations), supervision (technical), moral values, security, social service,
authority, ability utilization, company policies and practices, compensation, advancement,
responsibility, creativity, working conditions, co-workers, recognition, and achievement.
Each of the MSQ items consists of statements about various facets of the job and the
respondents were asked to indicate their level of satisfaction. The questions were rated on
a 5-point Likert scale.
Tabulation of Data After collecting the data, using code design, cross tables were made.
Collected data was coded and analysed using (statistical package for social
sciences).Statistical analysis was done to arrive at conclusions.
Main Objectives of the Study:

To study the socio-economic profile of the police officials in U.T Chandigarh.

To examine the working hours of the respondents

To examine the impact of the working hours upon the level of job satisfaction of
the employees

Findings
In this section we provide a brief description of the data . In this section we
provide a brief description of the data, since our first objective is to study the socio
economic profile of the respondents. Therefore table no. I depicted the socio- economic
profile of the respondents, table no. II shows the working hours of the respondents and
table no. III depicts the impact of the working hours upon the job satisfaction level of the
respondents.
Socio-economic profile of the respondents
This table explores the socio-economic profile of the respondents by analyzing
their social, economic, religious and family background. Through these variables, it is
easy to know the attitude, behavioural pattern, socialization, life style , life opportunities
and how an
individual perceives the society. Socio-economic variables help an
individual in forming his/her belief towards the life .Therefore, these socio economic
variables should be adequately studied before analysing the data. The present study has
been carried out to know the job satisfaction level of the police officials in
Chandigarh. The level of job satisfaction is influenced by various variables such as age,
education, marital status etc. Therefore, it is pertinent to get acquainted with the
respondents socially and economically.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

64 | P a g e

Table no. I
Category wise distribution of the respondents on the basis of socio-economic profile
Designation
Age (Yrs)
Head Constable

ASI

Sub Inspector

30-35

(1.00%)

35-40

14

(7.30%)

Above 40

175

(91.6%)

51

(100%)

(1%)

(2%)

189

(99%)

50

(98%)

Hindu

139

(72.8%)

Muslim

15

Sikh
Christian

Inspector

(1.30%)
-

75

(98.7%)

11

Total

(0.90%)

14

(4.30%)

(100%)

312

(94.80%)

(0.90%)

Marital status
Never Married
Married

76

(100%)

11

(100%)

326

(99.10%)

39

(76.5%) 53

(697%)

(63.6%) 238

(72.3%)

(7.9%)

(9.8%)

(9.2%)

27

(8.2%)

36

(18.8%)

(13.7%) 15

(19.7%)

62

(18.8%)

(0.5%)

(1.3%)

(0.6%)

Reserved

38

(19.9%)

10 (19.6%)

15

(19.7%)

(18.2%)

65

(19.8%)

General

153

(80.1%)

41 (80.4%)

61

(80.3%)

(81.8%)

264

(80.2%)

Religious background

(36.4%)
_

Caste background

Educational qualification
Matriculation

30

(15.7%)

(1.3%)

31

(9.4%)

Senior Secondary

68

(35.6%)

20 (39.2%)

16

(21.1%)

104

(31.6%)

Graduation & Above

93

(48.7%)

31 (60.8%)

59

(77.6%)

11

(100%)

194

(59%)

Total

191

(100%)

51

76

(100%)

11

(100%)

329

(100%)

(100%)

http://milestonereview.webs.com

65 | P a g e

Results reveal that most of the respondents age is above 40 years and most of the
respondents are married. It shows that a majority of the respondents follow the Indian
standard of marriage. Further results reveal that majority of the respondents are Hindu
and followed by Sikh. Hindu religion is the most dominant religion in Chandigarh
followed by Sikh.Minority groups include Buddhist, Christian, Jains and Muslims. The
preponderance of the Police officials adhering to the Hindu and the Sikh religious
communities, may be due to their higher representation in the population of the
Chandigarh. Results also indicate that most of the respondents are belong to general
category while most of the respondents are graduate and post graduate.
Shift duties
In addition to travelling , police officials also have constraints of shift duties.
Many studies have confirmed that shift work has a negative effect on physical and
mental health and affects the level of job satisfactions (Demerouti et al.2004). Potential
causes for the fatigue of the officials are excessive mandatory or elective overtime
assignments, shift duties and frequent off duty court appearances (Vila et al., 2002). All
the 329 respondents reported that they work in shift duties.
Duration of shift
Results reveal that all police officials irrespective of their designation have to
work in shift duties.Selokar D. et al.(2011), had discussed in their study that most of the
Police officials i.e. (82.4%) were working more than eight hours daily. Although they
were working in periodic shifts, their working hours exceeded 12 hours daily. Long
working hours appear to be an important factor leading to stress among police
personnel.It is in this context attempt has been made to find out the duration of shift
duties.
Table No. II
Distribution of the respondents showing association between designation and
duration of the work shift
Duration of shift
Head Constable
Up 8 hours
Up to 10 hours
Up to 12 hours
More than 12 hours
Total

30

(15.7%)

63

(33%)

69

Designation
Sub Inspector

ASI
_

Inspector

(5.3%)

(9.1%)

(9.1%)

(5.9%)

(9.2%)

(36.1%)

17

(33.3%)

23

(30.3%)

29

(15.2%)

31

(60.8%)

42

(55.3%)

(81.8%)

191

(100%)

51

(100%)

76

(100%)

11

(100%)

http://milestonereview.webs.com

66 | P a g e

2= 87.442,df =9,P < .05, significant


Table no. 3.6 reveals that a majority of the Head Constables i.e. 15.7 percent
who reported that their shift duty lasts for 8 hours.There were also most of the Head
Constables i.e. 33 percent who reported that they work up to 10 hours. Majority of the
Head Constables i.e. 36.1 percent who reported that shift duty last upto 12 hours. Further
data revealed that majority of the Inspector i.e. 81.8 percent rank officials who reported
that they work for more than 12 hours per shift.A majority of the respondents have
reported that they work for more than 12 hours in a shift. The most cited reason is the
shortage of employees in Police. There were others who reported that police officials
have long working hours because Police men are performing the job of forest guard, fire
man etc. Whenever there is a distress call like snake or wild animal enters any house
people call the police or fire breaks out people call the Police.A few respondents
reported that those who perform shift duty upto eight hours are those who have political
patronage. The value of chi square came out to be significant indicating thereby a close
association between designation of the respondents and duration of work shift.The results
coincide with the findings of Selokar D. et al. (2011)and who reported that most of the
Police officials are working more than eight hours daily and upto 12 hours shift.
Duration of shift and level of job satisfaction
Work shift in a fixed/scheduled time is good but when there is no fixed time of the
work shift that creates several problems for an employee . Potential causes of the fatigue
of the officials are shift rotation schemes, excessive mandatory or elective overtime
assignments, and frequent off duty court appearances (Vila et al., 2002). The reasons for
stress are negative working environment plenty; long working hours, lack of time for
family, irregular eating habits, need to take tough decisions, sleepless nights, poor living
conditions, torture by seniors, disturbed personal life and the dwindling public confidence
in the police force (Water and Ussery,2007). Reiss (1967) reports that Low salaries, overextended working hours, a low chance of promotion, supervisory problems, and lack of
public respect are found to be major factors that influence police job satisfaction. An
attempt has been made to know the influence of the duration of the work shift upon the
level of job satisfaction.
Table no. III
Distribution of the respondents showing association between work shift duration
and job satisfaction
Work
duration

Level of job satisfaction

shift
Lowly satisfied

Up to 8 hours

25

(11.8%)

Moderately
satisfied
8

(9.4%)

Highly satisfied
Total
2

(6.1%)

35

(10.6%)

http://milestonereview.webs.com

67 | P a g e

Up to 10 hours

47

(22.3%)

21

(24.7%)

(18.2%)

74

(22.5%)

Up to 12 hours

68

(32.2%)

27

(31.8%)

14

(42.4%)

109

(33.1%)

More
hours

71

(33.6%)

29

(34.1%)

11

(33.3%)

111

(33.7%)

211

(100%)

85

(100%)

33

(100%)

329

(100%)

Total

than 12

2=2.489,df-6,P>.05, not significant


Results reveal that the respondents who work for more hours in a shift were less satisfied
as compared to those who work for less hours in a shift.Reasons for more hours could be
nature of work such as VIP visit, festival arrangements which requires extra time and
becomes a cause of job dissatisfaction. Most of the respondents i.e. 11.8 percent who
works upto 8 hours in a shift were lowly satisfied. Amongst those respondents who work
up to 12 hours in a shift, 32.2 percent respondents were lowly satisfied, 31.8 percent
respondents were moderately satisfied and 42.4 percent respondents were highly satisfied
.Further findings show that among 111 respondents who work for more than 12 hours,
33.6 percent respondents were lowly satisfied,34.1 percent respondents were moderately
satisfied and only 33.3 percent respondents were highly satisfied .Most of the
respondents are lowly satisfied who work for more than 12 hours a day .It is possible that
long working hours do not allow respondents to attend to their family obligations and
no spare time for any
recreational activities Statistical analysis did not indicate
significant association between the two variables. No statistical association was found
between the work shift and job satisfaction. Findings of the results coincide with the
findings of the Vila et al., (2002), Reiss (1967) , Water and Ussery,(2007) who reported
that long working hours one of the decisive factors of the job satisfaction.
Recommendations & conclusion
These recommendations emanate from the findings of the research carried out
with a view to improve the level of job satisfaction among police officials . It is revealed
that majority of the employees who do their duties for more than 12 hours in a shift were
lowly satisfied. The reasons could be shortage of the employees and failure of the
policies in managing the working hours of the police officials in a way that they do not
become oppressive and tortuous. Police department is one of the most fundamental
departments of the State administration and needs more sensitive and sympathetic
handling. But the State government fail to resolve this issue of long working hours which
causes a lot of disquiet among the police officials. Chandigarh is comparatively small in
area, less dense and peaceful among other states and UTs in India. Police department
must formulate an appropriate policy to resolve the working hours related issues and
means of enhancement the level of job satisfaction of the police officials.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

68 | P a g e

References:
Demerouti, E., Geurts, A.S., Bakker, B. A and Euwema, M. (2004). The Impact
of Shiftwork on Work-Home Conflict, Job Attitudes and Health. Ergonomics,
Vol. 47, No. (9), pp.987 1002.
Malach-Pines, A. and G. Keinan.(2007). Stress and Burnout in Israel Police
Officers during Palestinian Uprising (Intifada).International Journal of Stress
Manage, Vol.14, No.(2),pp. 160-174.
McCann D, (2005). Working time laws: A global perspective: Findings from the
ILO's Conditions of Work and Employment Database, ILO. Available
at:http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/ilo-bookstore/orderonline/books/WCMS_PUBL _9221173232_EN/lang--en/index. htm .
Reiss, A.J. (1967). Career Orientations, Job Satisfaction, and the Assessment of
Law Enforcement Problems by Police Officers. In Studies in Crime and Law
Enforcement in Major Metropolitan Areas. Vol. 2. Washington, DC: Government
Printing Office.
Selokar Det.al. (2011). Occupational stress among Police Personnel of Wardha
City,
India.
AMJ
Vol.
4,No.
(3),
114-7.retrieved
from
http:www.dx.doi.org/10.4066/AMJ.2015.562
Territo, L. & Vetter, H. (1981). Stress and Police Personnel. Journal of Police
Science and Administration, Vol. 9,No.(2),pp.195-207.
Vila, Bryan, Morrison, Gregory B., and Dennis J. Kenney. (2002). Improving
Shift Schedule and Work-Hour Policies and Practices to Increase Police Officer
Performance, Health, and Safety. Police Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. (1), pp. 4-24.
Waters, A. and William Ussery. (2007). Police Stress: History, Contributing
Factors, Symptoms, and Interventions. Policing: An International Journal of
Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 30,No. (2), pp.169 188.

http://milestonereview.webs.com

69 | P a g e

NEW PUBLICATIONS



The Religious-Philosophical Dimensions
Editor: Dr. Merina Islam
ISBN: 978-81-922377-5-6
First Edition: November 2015
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone
Education Society (Regd.), BalmikiDharmashala, Ward No.06, Pehowa
(Kurukshetra)-136128 (Haryana) Website: http://positivephilosophy.webs.com ,
Email: cppiskkr@gmail.com
Released at Geeta Jayanti Mahotsava-2015 (20th December, 2015)
Link:
https://cppispublications.wordpress.com/2015/12/24/the-religious-philosophical-
dimensions-book/






http://milestonereview.webs.com

70 | P a g e






http://milestonereview.webs.com

71 | P a g e






http://milestonereview.webs.com

72 | P a g e


For details of other publication, visit to our new website:
Shandanjali : Our Publications
http://cppispublications.wordpress.com

http://milestonereview.webs.com

73 | P a g e

PROGRAMMES REPORTS
Report on World Philosophy Day Celeberation-2015
The Departments of Philosophy and Hindi, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11,
Chandigarh celebrated World Philosophy Day on 19th November, 2015. Dr. Anita
Kaushal, the Principal of Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh
gave a floral welcome to the speaker. Dr. Anita Khosla, Head, Department of Hindi
introduced the distinguished speaker. She mentioned that the present year being
celebrated as 125th Birth Anniversary of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and such kind of lecture is a
valuable step towards introducing students about the life and philosophy of Dr. B.R.
Ambedkar.


Prof. Subhash Chander (Department of Hindi, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
delivered his lecture on Social Philosophy of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. In his lecture he said
that Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is one of the most eminent intellectual figures of modern India.
He remained in the forefront of all social, economic, political and religious efforts for
upliftment of the lowest stratum of the Indian society known as untouchables, women
and other backward classes. He was a great scholar who made outstanding contributions
as an economist, sociologist, legal luminary, educationist, journalist, parliamentarian and
above all, as a social reformer and champion of human rights. He developed a socio-
ethical philosophy and steadfastly stood for human dignity and freedom, socio-
economic justice, material prosperity and spiritual discipline. Dr. Ambedkar had also
given lot of emphasis on getting education. He said that, Educate, Organize and
Agitate. Here he had given prime importance to education. He further added that the
backward classes have come to realize that after all education is the greatest material
benefit for which they can fight. We may forego material benefits of civilization but we
cannot forego our rights and opportunities to reap the benefits of the highest education
to the fullest extent. That the importance of this questions from the point of view of the
dalits and backward classes who have just realized that without education their
existence is not safe. Dr. Ambedkar suffered a lot due to this caste system. Still in that
system of discrimination, he succeeded to well educate himself. He showed the
enlightening path for Indian society via his ideals of freedom, equality and fraternity and
made India a democratic country. The role Dr. B.R. Ambedkar played has left its imprint
on the Indian society and is still shaping the social, educational, political affairs and
http://milestonereview.webs.com

74 | P a g e

motivating our lives. Perhaps none of this would have been possible if it was not for the
constant struggle Dr. Ambedkar waged and the vision he embedded in the Constitution
of India. We should try to read, think and work according to the noble ideas of Dr. B.R.
Ambedkars ideas.


In this program, a poster published by the The Positive Philosophy Society of the
college and following three lectures published by the Centre for Positive Philosophy and
Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) Pehowa (Kurukshetra) were released by the Principal
and distinguish guests:

1.

Values and Society: Value and Society: Re-discovering the Primacy of


Cultural Context by Prof. Geeta Manaktala
2. Values with reference to Sikhism by Dr. Paramvir Singh
3. Our Environment, Our Responsibility by Dr. Sudhir Baweja

All the above-mentioned lectures were delivered in ICPR Periodical Lectures
organized by Departments of Philosophy and Hindi held on 11 th February 2015.
This programme had an interactive session in the end and students discussed on various
concepts related to the lecture like casteism, reservation, Indian society and got
clarification from the speaker. In the end of the program Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant
Professor, Department of Philosophy has expressed the vote of thanks and pointed out
that the present lecture is a significant step to teach and acquaint students with the key
concepts of the social philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. About 60 students and faculty-
members of the college have attended this lecture.

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal
November 23, 2015
Download publications from here:
https://cppispublications.wordpress.com
http://milestonereview.webs.com

75 | P a g e

Short Report on One-Day Faculty Development Programme on Dr, B.R.


Ambedkar, Indian Constitution and Indian Society

20-01-2016: Department of Philosophy and Post Graduate Department of Public


Administration of PGGCG-11,Chandigarh organised an One-Day Faculty
Development Programme under RUSA on the theme Dr, B.R. Ambedkar, Indian
Constitution and Indian Society. Several aspects of the philosophy of Dr.
Ambedkar were discussed in the three sessions. More than 100 participants from
Chandigarh and nearby states participated in the seminar. Dr. Ganga Sahay
Meena from JNU, New Delhi was the keynote speaker. Dr. Lallan Singh Baghel,
Chairperson, Deptt. of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh was the
Chairperson for the inaugural session. The first session on Socio-Political
Philosophy of Dr. Ambedkar chaired by Dr. Ashutosh Angiras from S.D. college,
Ambala Cantt. The second session under the theme Dr, B.R. Ambedkar and
Women Empowerment was chaired by Dr. Emannuel Nahar, from Ambedkar
Study Centre, Panjab University. Professor Binoo Dogra, Dean and Dr. Rama
Arora, Vice Principal were also present on the occasion. Ms. Shashi Joshi
proposed a vote of thanks. The programme was successful due to its vastness of
content and deliberations by the resource persons and participants.






http://milestonereview.webs.com

76 | P a g e

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

Ms. Kanika Sharma, Junior Research Fellow, Centre for Human


Rights and Duties, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Ms.Reetu Sharma, Asstt. Prof. In Sociology, S.B.S.B.M.U. College,
Sardulgarh (Mansa).
Mr. Kulvinder Singh, Senior Research Fellow (SRF), Deptt of
Defence & National Security Studies, Panjab University,
Chandigarh.
Ms. Meenu Kohli, Assistant professor, P.G. Dept. of Commerce,
Hans Raj Mahila Maha Vidyalaya, Jalandhar.
Dr. Naveen Pandhi, Assistant Professor, Govt. College of
Commerce and Business Administration, Sector -42,
Chandigarh.
Ms. Anuradha Jaidka, Research Scholar, Department of
Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Ms.Minakshi Rana, Research Scholar, Department of Sociology,
Panjab Univeristy , Chandigarh.
Mr. Manoj Kumar, JRF, Research Scholar, Department of
Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Mr. Sandeep Buttola, Assistant Professor (Sociology), Panjab
University Constituent College.








http://milestonereview.webs.com

77 | P a g e

http://milestonereview.webs.com

Оценить