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378(075.8):517.521.3
22.16173
14

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:
.., , ..-.. ..,
, ..-.. .., ..

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.., ..
14

: : .
. .: . .. ( 05899
24.09.2001 .); , 2008. 528.
ISBN 9785894073354
ISBN 9785317024642

, , . , ,
, , .

( 220) ,
;
( 640, ).
. . .
, ,
.
378(075.8):517.521.3
22.16173


2008

ISBN 9785894073354
ISBN 9785317024642


. .. , 2008
.., .., 2008

.., ..

2.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
. . . . . . . . 73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.2. , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2.5. . . . . . . . . . 23
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.1. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.3.3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.3.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.4. , . . . . . 31
1.5. () .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . 41
2. :
,
2.1. , . . . . 53
2.2. .
2.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.3. .
2.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

3.
3.1. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
3.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.5.2. , ()
. . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

. . . . . . . 112
4.
4.1. 1- 2-
. () .
4.1.1. 1- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.1.2. 2- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.2. . (
).
4.2.1. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.2.2. ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.3. ()
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.6. .
4.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.7. . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.7.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.7.2. 1- ( ) . . . . . . . 157
4.7.3. 2- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
4.7.4. 3- ( ) . . . . . . . . 162
4.7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

4.7.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
4.7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
4.7.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
4.7.9. () . . . 174
4.8. , . . . .181
4.9. .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
7. - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
. . . . . . . 185
5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.4. .
5.4.1. , , . . . . . . . . . . .198
5.4.2. , , . 207
5.4.3. , ,

F ( x, y ) = 0 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

5.5. .
5.5.1. , , . . . . . . . . . . . 217
5.5.2. , , . 224
5.5.3. , ,

F (r , ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

. . . . . . . 227
6.
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
6.3. . .
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
6.3.2. . . . . . . . . . 251
6.3.3. . . . . . . . 253
6.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . 255
6.3.5. . . . . . . . . 258

.., ..
6.3.6. . . . . . . . . . . 259
. . . . . . . .260

7.
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
7.3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
7.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
7.5.
7.5.1.
Ox Ox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
7.5.2.
Ox Oy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
7.5.3. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
7.6.
7.6.1. . . 299
7.6.2. . . . . 300
7.6.3. = 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
7.6.4. . . 303
7.6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
. . . . . . . 309
8.
8.1. . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
8.2. 1- 2- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
8.5. . . . . . .322
8.5.1. Ox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
8.5.2. Oy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
8.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

8.6. . . . . . . 338
8.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
8.6.2. , . . . . . . . . 340
8.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
. . . . . . . 344

9.
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
9.2. ,
.
9.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
9.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
9.3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
. . . . . . . 366
10.
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
10.2. .
10.2.1. . . . . . . 370
10.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
10.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
10.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
10.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
10.5. .
10.5.1. . . . . . . 379
10.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
10.5.3. . . . 381
10.5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
. . . . . . . 385
11.
11.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
11.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
. . . . . . . 399
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

,
, ,
, .
, , , (., , ). ,
() . , , ,
.
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,
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() , . , , , - ,
. , , , . , -, , ,
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, .
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, .
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(1),
(2); (3).
(4)
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( , , )
, .

.
:
, (5); (6);
, (7);
(8).

(9).
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( , , ..

10

.., ..

(10))
( (11)).

.
(
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,
. , , (
), (..
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.

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1.

1.1.


. .
(VIV ..) ,
. XVII .
, . , 2500 ,
. ,

n > 0 . ,
,
.
,
, ,
. a , a
b ,
ab . XVIIXVIII ,
XIX XX .
, (1598
1647)
. XVIIXVIII . , (16161703)
.
, , , .
1665 . .
(16081647),

12

.., ..

(16231662) .
. (1643
1727).
, , , XIX . , , , .
XVII , XVIII .
(1646
1716). , (16611704), (16541705) (16671748) ,
,
(17071783), . ,
, , .
(16981746).
.
, , , ,
, ( ) .
,
1

(x 1)dx = ln 2 ,
ln x

, ,
+

sin x
dx
x
0

(, -

x (1 x )
m

dx -

x n dx ).

177778 . .
. (17361813)
(17171783). XVIII . . .
. 1743 . . .
XIX . , , .

13

.., ..

14

(17891857). ,
, .

1.2. 1

1.2.1.

f (x )dx ,

(17681830).
.
1779 . . . ,
.
, , (1826
1866), (18751941) . . .
, , , . . ( ), ( )
.
XIX . . , ..
( ), (1845).
n -

(n 1) -. -

[ a , b]

(a < b ) .

a = x 0 < x1 < ... < x n = b

(n N ) .

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } () [a, b],

T T , T T (..

T , T , , , -).
T T1 T2 ,
T = T1 U T2 .
. T = T1 U T2 , T T1 , T T2 .
T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } . -

k - x k = x k x k 1 , k = 1,2,..., n .
T = max x k T .

1 k n

[ x k 1 , x k ]

[ a , b] . T ,

V , T (V ) .
f ( x ) [ a , b] .

(V ) = (T , ) = f (1 )x1 + K + f ( n )x n = f ( k )x k
k =1

k : x k 1 k x k .

V = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n }

.. (17921856). .. (1804
1889)
b
b

f ( x )g ( x )dx f

a
a

(x )dx g (x )dx ,
2

.
.. . .
..
. , .. ,
XVIII .
.

.

() f ( x ) ,
V .
I
f ( x ) [ a , b] , ( ), .. > 0 = ( ) > 0 ,
1

V [a, b] V < , :

(18261866).

15

2 ( ).
f ( x ) [a, b] . f ( x )

I (V ) < I f ( k )x k < .
k =1

[ a , b] .

I = f ( x)dx . f (x )dx a

.., ..

16

f ( x ) , x

, [ a , b] () .
a , b .
f ( x ) a ,

( ). , f ( x ) -

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }

A=

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx .
f ( x ) , ,
( , ) [ a , b] . : f ( x ) R[ a, b ] .
.
1 ( ).
I 1 , I 2 , ,

I1 = I 2 .
I 1 I 2 . ,
I 2 I1
> 0 . , , I 1 < I 2 , =
2
, = ( ) > 0 , V [ a , b] , V < , ( ).

I 1 (V ) < , I 2 (V ) < . ,
I 2 I 1 = I 2 I 1 I 2 (V ) + I 1 (V ) < 2 = I 2 I 1 .

f (

k =1, k r

[a, b] ,

[ xr 1 , xr ] , f ( x ) . M > 0 ( ) , 1 , K, r 1 , r +1 , K , n
, k [ x k 1 , x k ] .

f ( x)dx = 0 .
a < b f ( x )

>0
T < .

[ a , b] .

)x k .

f ( x )

[ xr 1 , xr ] ,

M+A
. , x r
M > 0 > 0 V = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n }

r [ xr 1 , xr ]

, f ( r ) >

[ a , b] , V < , ,

(V ) f ( r )x r

f (

k =1, k r

) x k >

M+A
x r A = M .
x r

,
V < ,

(V ) , -

> 0 . -

. .
. [ a , b]
.
1.2.2. ,
..
,
,
. , , , .
, f x a, b .

( )

[ ]

17

.
n
a = x 0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n = b .
, , , a, b . . , .
k -

[ ]

x k 1 , x k , k = 1,2,..., n ,
, .. x k k , .
n

f ( )x
k

k =1

, , ( V 0

18

.., ..

(T , ) =

f ( )x
k =1

f ( k )x k -

x k f ( k ) .
.

y
B

,
y=f(x)

f()
,

a, b
A

, ..

S
x
:
xn-1 xn =b
a=x0 x1
x x
b
+1
S = f ( x )dx .

[ ]

n + ):

f ( x )dx = lim

n +

f ( )x
k =1

.
1.2.3.
, AB y = f x , a, b Ox ,

()

1.2.4. 2

[ ]

x = a x = b .

a = x 0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n = b


n , k = 1,2,..., n ,
[xk 1 , xk ] k

.
f ( x ) [ a , b] .
M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x) ,
a x b

a x b

M k = sup f ( x) , mk = inf
xk 1 x xk

xk 1 x xk

f ( x) ,

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] .
() f ( x ) [ a , b] , -

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } ,
n
n

S (T ) = M k x k s (T ) = mk x k .
k =1
k =1

(18421917).

19

3. T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] ,

I = inf {S (T )} ( I = sup{s (T )} ) ()
T

f ( x ) [ a , b] ( T
[a, b] ).
.
1. V [ a , b]
:
s (T (V )) (V ) S (T (V )) .
.

k [ x k 1 , x k ] , k = 1,2,..., n ,

m k f ( k ) M k , , x k

n

x m
k =1

k ,
n

k =1

k =1

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; x1 ;K; xl } T .
S (T ) S (T ) , s (T ) s (T ) ,

S (T ) S (T ) l (M m ) T , s(T ) s(T ) l (M m ) T .
. T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; x } , x [ x k 1 , x k ] .

k-

S (T )
M k x k = ( x k x k 1 ) sup f ( x) ,

xk 1 x xk

S (T ) :

( x x k 1 ) sup f ( x) + ( x k x ) sup f ( x) ;

1 .
2. T [ a , b] :

sup f ( x) M k , S (T ) S (T ) . ,
S (T ) S (T ) M k x k (( x x k 1 ) sup f ( x) +
xk 1 x x

+ ( x k x ) sup f ( x)) ( M m)x k (M m ) T ,

V (T )

x x xk


V , T .
. T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }

M k M ,

[ a , b] .

M k = sup f ( x) ,
xk 1 x xk

k [ x k 1 , x k ] , f ( k ) > M k

f (
k =1

) x k > M k x k
k =1

ba

x
k =1

sup f ( x) M k ,

xk 1 x x

x x xk

S (T ) = sup{ (V )} , s (T ) = inf { (V )} ,

> 0.

x x x k

xk 1 x x

x k f ( k ) x k M k .

V (T )

.., ..

20

ba

= S (T ) ,

. , > 0 V [ a , b] , (V ) > S (T ) .

(V ) S (T ) V .
, S (T ) = sup{ (V )} .

1 ,

. 2 .

sup f ( x) m , sup f ( x) m . , -

xk 1 x x

x x xk


M m T . l

)
l (M m ) T

(
).
.
3 .

T1 , T2 [a, b] .
s(T1 ) S (T2 ) .
. T3 = T1 U T2 . T3
T1 , T2 . , s (T1 ) s (T3 ) S (T3 ) S (T2 ) ( 4.

1).
4 .

21

5. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,
I

I ,

T [ a , b] :

s (T ) I I S (T ) .
. . , M :

f ( x ) M x [a, b] . T

.., ..

22

M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x ) .
a x b

a x b

M = m , f ( x ) = M = m x [a, b] .
T :
S (T ) = M (b a ) = I ,

M > m . > 0 . I = inf {S (T )} ,


T

[a, b]
n

k =1

k =1

s (T ) = mk x k M x k = M (b a ) .

. I = inf {S (T )} ,
T

I S (T ) . s(T ) I . , I I . ,

I I
> 0 . T1 2
I + I

[ a , b] , S (T1 ) < I + =
,
2
I + I
T2 [a, b] , s (T2 ) > I =
.
2
s(T2 ) > S (T1 ) , 4. , -

, I I . 5 .
6. () ()
:

I = lim s(T ) ( I = lim S (T ) ),

>0

T 0

T 0

= ( ) > 0 , T
[ a , b] , T < , :
s (T ) I < ( S (T ) I < ).

..

. , I = lim S (T ) .
T 0

= {x ; x ;K ; x } , S (T ) < I +

, , ,
.
.

2( M m)(k 1)

, k
T , ).
(,

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b]

T < . T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K ; x n ; x1 ;K; x k1 }

T ( T T ). 3
:

0 S (T ) S (T ) (k 1)(M m ) T < (k 1)( M m) =

. (1)
2

T T ,

5 I S (T ) S (T ) . ,
T , :
0 S (T ) I S (T ) I < 2 .
(2)
(1) (2), ,

0 S (T ) S (T ) + S (T ) I < .
, , > 0
= ( ) > 0 , T [a, b] , -

T < , : 0 S (T ) I < .
, , I = lim S (T ) .

T 0

.
6 .

23

lim ( S (T ) s(T )) = 0 . , -

1.2.5.

T 0

3 ( ).
f ( x ) [ a , b] . f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

>0

T [ a , b] ,

S (T ) s (T ) < .
. f ( x ) [ a , b] .
1) . f ( x ) [ a , b] . ,
, > 0 = ( ) > 0
, V [ a , b] , V < ,
: I (V ) <

I = f ( x)dx ).

s (T ) I +

, I

S (T ) I +

S (T ) s(T ) 2 3 < .
.
2) .

>0

T [a, b] , S (T ) s(T ) < . s (T ) I I


S (T ) ( 5), I I < . ,
,

, I = I . I = I = I .

I = lim s(T ) , I = lim S (T ) ( 6), ,


T 0

T 0

V [a, b] , V < . ,
I = lim (V ) . , f ( x )


V 0

[a, b] I = f ( x)dx . .

1. f ( x ) [ a , b] .

f ( x ) [a, b] .
. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,
( ). > 0
. = ( ) > 0 , , [ a , b] , < , :

f ( ) f ( ) <

S (T (V )) ( 5), (4) , I (V ) <

1.3.1. ,

( ,
).
,

(4)
s (T (V )) I

V ,

S (T (V )) s (T (V )) < .
s (T (V )) (V ) S (T (V )) ( 1)

1.3.

T < . s (T ) = inf { (V )} , S (T ) = sup{ (V )} (. 2),

(3)

>0

= ( ) > 0 , T [ a , b] , T < , : S (T ) s (T ) < . ,


V [ a , b] , V < , :

< (V ) < I +

(3) ,

.., ..

24

ba

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] ,

T < .

k , 1 k n , M k mk <
( f ( x )
ba
[ x k 1 , x k ] ,
, , k , k [ x k 1 , x k ] ,
f ( k ) = M k , f ( k) = mk ). ,

25

f ( x ) ,

T ,
n

S (T ) s (T ) = ( M k m k ) x k <
k =1

ba

Tm < . T = U Tm

x
k =1

=.

, ( x , x ) x ,

[a, b] . f ( x ) [a, b]
, f ( x ) .
. M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x ) .
a x b

M = m , f ( x ) = M = m x [a, b] , f ( x )
[ a , b] ( 1).
M > m . > 0 . ( x1 , x1) ,,
(xl , xl) , f ( x)

( x k x k ) <

(,

x1 < a , xl > b ).

2( M m )
l
r

I = [ a, b] \ U ( x k , x k ) . I = U I m , I m [ a, b]
m =1
k =1

, r l + 1 . f ( x )
I m m, 1 m r , f ( x ) I m .
, m > 0 , , k =1

Im ,

f ( ) f ( ) <

ba

< m ,

= min m , Tm I m ,
1 m r

[a, b] .

:
n

S (T ) s (T ) = ( M k mk )x k =
k =1

x (x , x ) .

X ,
> 0 , X ,
,
2. f ( x )

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } ( T ). , T , -

1.3.2. ,

[a, b] ,

m =1

,
, f ( x ) [ a , b] . .

a x b

.., ..

26

(M

m k ) x k

k
[ xk 1 , xk ][ a , b ]\ I

(M

[ xk 1 , xk ] I

xk +
2(b a ) [ xk 1 , xk ] I

k =1

xk xk = b a ,

[ xk 1 , xk ] I

m k ) x k +

+ ( M m) ( x k x k ) <
(

( x x ) < 2( M m) ,

k =1

k =1

M k M , mk m ). , f ( x )
[ a , b] . .
1. f ( x ) [ a , b] , [ a , b] .

( )

()

2. f x g x
,
[ a , b] , ,
b

f (x )dx = g ( x )dx .
a

, ,
, . ,
, , , ,
(., , 14).
2, (
42).
:
, ?
3 .

27

.., ..

28

1.3.3. ,

< ( f ( x k ) f ( x k 1 )) = ( f ( x1 ) f (a) + f ( x 2 )

X ( ),
> 0 , X ,
.
, ( ).
3 ( ). f ( x )

f ( x1 ) + K + f ( x n 1 ) f ( x n 2 ) + f (b) f ( x n 1 )) =

[ a , b] ,
.
, , [1] (
VIII, 7).
. ,
. , , , 3.

4. f ( x )

[a, b] . .
[ a , b] (, f ( x ) , -

[a, b] , f ( x ) . f ( a ) < f (b) .

>0

. T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }

f (b) f (a )
[ a , b] , T < .
n

k =1

k =1

( f (b) f (a) ) = .
f (b) f (a )
, f ( x ) [ a , b] .
.
1.3.5.
, f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

C > 0 , -

x1 , x 2 [a, b] :
f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) C x1 x 2

( C ).
1. , f ( x )
5. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x) . ( y ) a x b

a x b

. , f ( x ) -

[ a , b] , .

1.3.4. ,

). f ( a ) = f (b ) , f ( x ) = f ( a ) = f (b )

k =1

S (T ) s (T ) = ( M k mk )x k = ( f ( x k ) f ( x k 1 ))x k <

[ m, M ] .

( f ( x )) [a, b] .
. > 0 . f ( x ) -

[a, b] ,

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [a, b] , S (T ) s (T ) <

, S (T )
C
s (T ) f ( x ) , T , C
( y ) . M k = sup f ( x) , mk = inf f ( x) ,
xk 1 x xk

xk 1 x xk

M k = sup ( f ( x)) , mk = inf ( f ( x)) .


3

, ,
(, ). , .

xk 1 x xk

xk 1 x xk

1 , 2 [ x k 1 , x k ] :

( f (1 )) ( f ( 2 )) ( f (1 )) ( f ( 2 ))

29

C f (1 ) f ( 2 ) C ( M k mk ) .

1 , 2

, -

k =1

k =1

=,

( f ( x )) . , ( f ( x )) , T ,
. , [a, b] . -

k =1

.
.

a x b

[ m, M ] .

(t1 ) (t 2 ) < 1 ,
, < 1 .

> 0.

C = max (t ) .
m t M

(t )

> 0,

t1 t 2 < . ,

f ( x ) [ a , b] , -

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] , S (T ) s (T ) < ,
2

S (T ) s (T ) f ( x ) , T .

M k = sup f ( x) , mk = inf f ( x) , M k = sup ( f ( x )) ,


xk 1 x xk

kB

. -

x k ( M k mk )x k ( M k mk )x k = S (T ) s (T ) < 2 ,
kB

kB

k =1

x
kB

< .

b a + 2C
[m, M ] ,

k B

( f ( x )) -

[ a , b] .

+ ( M k m k ) x k 1 (b a) + 2C x k .

B :

M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x ) . (t ) -

k A

kB

6. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

( f ( x )) .
n

1 =

S (T ) s (T ) = ( M k mk )x k = ( M k mk )x k +

S (T ) s (T )

S (T ) s (T )

S (T ) s (T ) = ( M k m k )x k C ( M k m k )x k < C

a x b

(t ) : M k m k 1 . k B ,

, , M k m k 2C .

, M k m k C ( M k m k ) .

.., ..

30

xk 1 x xk

xk 1 x xk

mk = inf ( f ( x)) . {1; 2;K; n}


xk 1 x xk

k A , M k mk < ;
k B , M k mk . k A -

A B :

S (T ) s (T ) 1 (b a) + 2C < 1 (b a + 2C ) = .
, ( f ( x )) , T , . ,
[ a , b] , .
2.

0, x = 0
, x [0,1] ;
1, x 0
x
0,
f ( x) =
, x (0,1] ; f (0) = 1
1 / n, x = m / n

. ,

( x) =

( f ( x ) .

M = 1, m = 0 ).

0, x
x
1,
. , ( x ) R[0,1] (

( f ( x)) =

31

.., ..

32

). f ( x )

[0,1] (. 17). [0,1] (. 19).

1.4. ,
4
1. .
1.1. f ( x ) g ( x )

n
n

k f k (x )dx = k f k (x )dx .
a
k =1
k =1

1.
.
, f ( x ) -

[a, b] ,

g ( x ) . , f ( x ) + g ( x )
[a, b ] . g ( x )

[a, b] . ,

, 1.1, g ( x ) -

( f ( x) g ( x))dx = f ( x)dx g ( x)dx .


.
V = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n } [a, b] :
n

( f (
k =1

k =1

k =1

) g ( k ))x k = f ( k )x k g ( k )x k .

.
1.2. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,
c f ( x ) ( c R )

[a, b] ,
b

cf ( x)dx = c f ( x)dx .

cf ( k )xk = c f ( k )xk .
k =1

k =1

.
f k ( x ) ,

k =1

g ( x ) = ( f ( x) + g ( x )) f ( x ) .

f k ( x ) [a, b]

k R , k = 1,2,..., n , ,

[ ]

a, b . .
2. , , .
, ,

1, x ,
f (x ) =
0, x ,
1, x ,
g (x ) =
0, x .
f ( x ) + g ( x ) 0 , , [a, b ] , ( ) .
2. .

f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b ] , f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b ] .
. , , f ( x )
2
[a, b ] , , f ( x ) . ,
f ( x ) [a, b] , ( x) = x 2 , ,
[ m, M ] , M = sup f ( x) ,
m = inf f ( x )
a x b

, ,
2, .

(x

( f ( x)) = f 2 ( x)
.

a x b

y 2 max{m , M } x y . ,
2

[ a , b] 5

33

.., ..

34

f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b] .

= S (T ) s(T ) +

1
( f ( x) + g ( x)) 2 ( f ( x) g ( x)) 2
4
1.1 , ( f ( x ) g ( x )) -

). , , f ( x ) [c, d ] .

.
3. , , :
.
,

f ( x) g ( x) =

1, x ,
f (x ) = g (x ) =
1, x .

() ()

f x g x 1 , ,
, .
4. ,
, ,
.

1, x ,
f (x ) =
g (x ) 0
0
,

.
3. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

[c, d ] [a, b] (a c < d b ) . f ( x )


[c, d ] .
. > 0 .
T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] , S (T ) s (T ) < .
a = x0 < x1 < K< xl c < xl +1 < K < x m < d x m +1 < K < x n = b ;
T = T U {c; d } T .

S (T ) s (T ) S (T ) s (T ) < .
, T = {c; xl +1 ;K; x m ; d } [c, d ] ,

S (T ) s (T ) S (T ) s (T ) < ( S (T ) s (T ) =

(M

mk )x k -

k
[ xk 1 , xk ][ c , d ]

4. .

c

f ( x ) -

[a, c] [c, b] ,

[a, b] ,
b

f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx = f ( x )dx .

(1)

. . T [ a , c ] [c, b ] , -

> 0 . T

S (T ) s(T ) < 2 , S (T ) s(T ) < 2 .


T = T U T . , T [a, b] ,
S (T ) s (T ) < . , f ( x ) R[ a, b] .
(1). V = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n } [ a , b] , c
x k .
, ,

f (
k =1

) x k =

f (

[ xk 1 , xk ][ a , c ]

) x k +

f (

[ xk 1 , xk ][ c , b ]

) x k .

,
b

f ( x)dx

( ); -

f ( x)dx ,

f ( x)dx .
c

.
. f ( x ) R[ A, B ] a, b, c

[ A, B ] (, ).
c

f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx = 0 .

5. (1) ,

35

[a, b] (, c [a, b] , f ( x ) [a, c ] ).


6. f ( x )
[a, c] [c, b] ,
, .. [a, b ] .

36

.., ..

x + x [ a, b] ( x = a
F ( x ) , x > 0 , x = b : x < 0 ).
x + x

F ( x + x) F ( x) =

x0
x + x

f (t ) dt

f ( x ) [ a , b] , x 0 [ a, b] .

x [ a, b] . .

x 0

f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

x0 [a, b] . f ( x ) [a, b] ,

x0

F ( x) =

f ( x )
[ a , b] .
.

: f ( x ) g ( x ) [ a , b] , f ( x ) g ( x )

x [ a, b] ,

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx .

(. 2, . 2.1, 2).
F ( x ) .
1. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,
x

x0 [a, b] . F ( x) =

f (t )dt [a, b] .

x0

. f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

A > 0 , f ( x) A
x [ a, b] . x [a, b] . x -

. ,

Adt = A x .

F ( x + x) F ( x) 0 , .. F ( x )

2.

f (t )dt (a x b) ,

x0

F ( x) =

x0

f (t )dt

( 5 . 2.1 2). ,

1.5. () .

x + x

x + x

x0

f (t )dt f (t )dt =

f (t )dt

x0

F ( ) = f ( ) .

. > 0 .
f ( x ) [ a, b] , > 0 ,

f ( ) f (t ) f ( ) + t ( , + ) .
b . x , 0 < x < , , [ , + x ] [ a , b] .
+ x

f ( )
dt
x

+ x

f (t )
dt
x

+ x

f ( ) +
dt .
x

f ( )
F ( + x) F ( ) f ( ) +
x .
x

x
x
x
,

x > 0

F ( + x) F ( )
[ f ( ) , f ( ) + ].
x

37

a , x ( , 0) , [ + x, ] [ a , b] . -

. x1 , K , x k

+ x

x ( x j 1 , x j ) . F j ( x j 1 ) = F j ( x j 1 + 0) , F j ( x j ) = F j ( x j 0)

f ( )
F ( ) F ( + x) f ( ) +
( x )

( x ) ,
x
x
x

F ( + x) F ( )
[ f ( ) , f ( ) + ].
x
F ( + x) F ( )

, , lim
x 0
x
f ( ) ( = a , F ( + x) F ( )
= b ). lim
= F ( ) .
x 0
x
..

4 ( , ). f ( x ) [ a , b] .

f (t )dt = (b) (a) ,

f (t )dt

() -

( x ) () f ( x )

[a, b] .

[ ]

3. -6 a, b
() 7 .

F (x ) f ( x )
[a, b ] , F ( x ) F ( x ) , f ( x ) ( ).

( )

[ ]

f x - a, b , 1-

x1 , K , x k .

. F ( x) =

f (x )

... , k + 1 , [a, b] . , , f ( x )
[a, b ] .

f ( x ) [a, b] ,

x0

]
[

~
F j ( x ) = F j ( x) + F j +1 ( x j ) F j ( x j ) , x x j 1 , x j , j = 1, K , k + 1 .
~
, F ( x ) = F j ( x ) , x x j 1 , x j , j = 1, 2,..

f ( x ) [ a , b] .

f ( x ) ( x j 1 , x j ) ,

j = 1, K , k + 1 , ,
f ( x ) , .. F j ( x ) , F j ( x ) = f (x ) ,

x0 [a, b] , F ( x) =

a = x 0 < x1 < K < x k < x k +1 = b .

f (t )
f ( ) +
f ( )
dt
dt
dt .
x
x
+ x x
+ x

.., ..

38

f (t )dt .

f ( x )

[a, b] , 2 , F ( x ) = f ( x ) x [ a, b] . , ( x ) f ( x ) [ a , b] F ( x ) =

= ( x ) + C .

F (x ) f ( x ) [a, b ] , :
1) F ( x ) [a, b ] ; 2) F ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( x ) .
7

39

.., ..

40

sgn xdx = x

f (t )dt = F (b) = F (b) F (a) = ((b) + C ) ((a) + C ) = (b) (a)

( ,

f (t )dt = f ( x ) .

2. ,
(x)

f (t , x )dt , f (t, x )

(x)

(x ), (x )

(x )

x , -

d
f (t , x )dt = f ( ( x ), x ) ( x ) f ( ( x ), x ) ( x ) +
dx ( x )
(

(x ), (x )

(x )

f (t , x )dt (2)

(x)

f (t , x ) f x(t , x ) .

, ).
2

1.

sgn xdx .

F ( x ) = x -

f ( x ) = sgn x ( : F (x ) [ 1,2] , ,
x = 0 , , f ( x ) ), ,

= 2 1 = 1.

sec 2 x
0 2 + tg 2 x dx ; )

dx
1 x ; )

dx arctg x dx .

1 x
( x = 0 . ) -,

), .. -

1. , ( x )
.

2. , :

F (a) = f (t )dt = 0 ).

.
. ()

f (t )dt = f ( x ) ,

. ,

ln x ,

,
.
)
x =

x=

3
2

[ 1,1]

x = 0 ).

1 cos 2 x

2 + tg 2 x

, .

1 cos 2 x
=1, [0,2 ] . lim
3 2 + tg 2 x
x ;
2 2

tgx
arctg
1-
2
2

. .
) arctg

1
( )
x

1- x = 0 . . ,
1,1 .
3. ,

, , . ,
, , , , , (.
54).

41

[ ]


1
,
..
1.

(T , )

[1,2] ,

f ( x ) = x -

, n + .

2. , f ( x ) = 1 + x [ 1,4]

, ( )
4

I=

(1 + x )dx .

3. , :

dx
x
2
3
(0 < a < b) ; )
) e dx ; ) sin xdx ; ) x dx ; ) x dx ; )
x
1
1
0
a
0

dx
1 x 2 .

s(T ) S (T )
f ( x ) , n ,
4.

x [ 2,3] ; ) f (x ) = 2 x , x [0,10] .
5. f ( x ) , ) f ( x ) = x ,
3

,
()?
6. ( , ) , 1,1 ,
().

( T

= max k ):
1 k n

lim S (T ) = lim s(T ) .

T 0

T 0

10.

[a, b] , , [a, b] .
9. , f [a, b] ,

7. f a, b .
.
8. ) ,
f , .
) , f , -

k
) x k = 1 + , k = 0,1,..., n ; ) x k = 2 n , k = 0,1,..., n ,
n

.., ..

42

1, x ;
D(x ) =
0, x ,
[ 1,1] ,
(

k ), -

, 4 .
11. a, b -

[ ]

f ,

[a, b] , > 0 ?

12. ,
:
) a, b ;

[ ]
) [a, b ] ,

;
) a, b ;

[ ]

[a, b] ;
) ( f ( x )) , f ( x )
[a, b ] , M = sup f ( x ) , m = inf f ( x ) , ( y ) a x b
a xb
[m, M ] .
)

43

13. () , 1,2 .

sgn (sin ( x )), x (0,1];


14. , f ( x ) =
x = 0,
0,
[0,1] .
1

15. ,

f (x )dx = 0 ,
0

[ ]

f (x )dx = 0 .
a

17. ,

1 n, x ( x = m n; m 0);

(x ) = 1, x = 0 ;
0,
x

( m Z , n N , m, n ) [a, b] .
18. , f ( x) = ln(2 + sgn x ) [ 1,1] .
19. , a, b .

[ ]

20. , , 0 1 , , 0,1 , , .

( )

n 1

k =0

?
22. f

[a, b] ,

f ( x ) M . ,

T [a, b] , T < (M (b a )) , (T , )

21. > 0
)

k [x k , x k +1 ]

f (x )dx (T , ) < .

16. f a, b , , , , .
,

[ ]

x k = x k x k 1 , 0 = x 0 < x1 < ... < x k < ... < x n = 3 ,

x [0,1 2) U (1 2 ,1];
x = 1 2.

0,
f (x ) =
1,

.., ..

44

T < ( T -

sin (50 x )dx sin (50 k )xk < ( > 0 ),

[ ]

( )

23. , f x a, b ,
.
24. f x a, b ,
, ,
. , f x

[ ]

( )

( )

[a, b] .

25. ,

f ( x ) -

[a, b] , .
f ( x ) [a, b] ,
26.
M = sup f ( x ) , m = inf f ( x ) . (t ) a x b
a xb
[m, M ] . , ( f ( x )) [a, b] .

( )

[ ]

27. , f x a, b ,
( ).
28. , , ?
29. ,
, ?
30. , f x a, b ,

[ ]
[c, d ] , [c, d ] [a, b ] .
( )

45

f ( x )
a, b, c , a, b, c ,
31. ,

32. , f g
b

f g ,

( f (x ) g (x ))dx = f (x )dx g (x )dx .


f ( x ) [a, b]
c , cf (x )
33. ,

,
b

a x b

[m, M ] . ,
( f ( x )) [a, b] .
f ( x ) [a, b] ,
41.
M = sup f ( x ) , m = inf f ( x ) . (t ) a x b
a xb
[m, M ] . ,
f (.. ( f ( x )) ) [a, b] ?
42. , [a, b ]
f ( x ) g ( x ) ,
, [a, b ] ,
b

34. , f

[a, b] ,

g , f + g

[a, b] .

35. , f g

[a, b]

, , f + g
.
36. , f x g x a, b ,

( )

cf (x )dx = c f (x )dx .

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx .


[a, b] ()

f ( x ) [a, b] ,
M = sup f ( x ) , m = inf f ( x ) . (t ) 40.

a xb

:
b

.., ..

46

[ ]

()

f (x ) g ( x ) [a, b] .
37. ) , f g
[a, b] , , f g

.
) a, b , .
38. , , , .
39. , , , ,
.

[ ]

f ( x )dx = g ( x )dx ,
a

. ,
f x a, b , , -

[ ]

( )

[ ]

f ( x )

a, b ,
?
43. , f x a, b ,

( )

[ ]

f (x )dx = 0
2

f ( x ) = 0 f ( x ) , [a, b ] .
44. , f [a, b] ,
f .
,

f [a, b] ,
, f 45. ,

47

46. f

[A, B] . ,

f :
[a, b] ( A, B )
b

47. f
,
1

[0,1] . -

1 n k
1
f = O .

0
n k =1 n
n
48. f [a, b] ,
f ( x ) 1 x [a, b] . , T :
f ( x )dx

a = x0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n = b ,


T

1
,
ba

f (x )dx f ( k )x k
k =1

) lim

(nx + k )(nx + k + 1)
k =1

n2

n +

(x > 0) ;) nlim
+

1
n

1

2

k [x k 1 , x k ) . , .

2
2
2
+
+ ... +
n +1 n +1 2
n +1 n

2
1
n 1
1
1
1
+ 2 + ... + 2 ; ) lim
+
+ ... +
;
2
n

+
n+n
n
n
n
n +1 n + 2
1 n
k
n
n
n
) lim 2
;
)
;
...
lim
sin
+
+
+

2
2
2
2
2
n +
n + n
n
n +2
n +n
n +1
k =1
1 p + 2 p + ... + n p
1 n
k

( p > 0) ;
1
+
;
)
) lim
lim

n + n
n +
n
n p +1
k =1

) lim
n +

ba
1 n
n
1
) lim f a + k
, f ( x ) R[ a, b ] ;) lim sin
;

n + n
n

+
n
n k =1 2 + cos(k n )
k =1

1
1 1
+ + ... + ln n
n
2 3

.
1

51.

U n = x n e x + 1 dx . 0

, , .
()
52. , f

[a, b] ,

F ( x ) = f (t )dt [a, b] .
a

53. f ( x )

[a, b] . ,

f (x )dx = F (b) F (a ) ,


49. ,
:

n
n

2
n

50. , x n = 1 +

lim f ( x + h ) f ( x )dx = 0 .
h 0

.., ..

48

()

[ ]

F x f ( x ) a, b ( ).
54. f ( x ) -

[ ]

a, b ? , ,
? ,
,
?
55. f a, b . -

[ ]

f (t )dt , [c, d ] [a, b] ,


c

F ( x ) = f (t )dt .
a

56. ,

49

[a, b]

f -

[ ]

x 0 a, b ,

F ( x ) = f (t )dt , x [a, b] ,
a

x 0 , F ( x 0 ) = f ( x 0 ) .
57. , f

[a, b] ,

F ( x ) = f (t )dt : )
a

[a, b] ;

F
[a, b] .
x
58. f [a, b] . ,
)

F ( x ) = f (t )dt .
a

[a, b] ,
x [a, b] ,

59. , f

f (x ) M

F ( x1 ) F ( x 2 ) M x1 x 2 ,

x1 , x2 [a, b] .
) F ( x ) =

F ( x ) = ln tdt ; ) F ( x ) =
1

) F ( x ) =

x3

( )

cos t

( )

x2

d
1 + t dt ; )
dx
2

x2

x2

x3

dt

1+ t4

x2

( )

63. : ) lim

x +

1 + t 4 dt

lim x

; )

x +0

f (t )

+1

dt ,

sin x

> 0 , f (t ) C[0,1] , f (0) 0 ; ) lim tgx0


x +0

tgt dt
.

sin t dt

[a, b] ,
x

2 sin t
dt ;
t
x

x0 [a, b] , F ( x ) = f (t )dt
a

. ?
65.

x 0,
1,
f (x ) =
x < 0.
1,
x

x2

x3

d
dt
1 + x dx ; )
;

dx x 2 1 + t 2
2

d
; )
4
dt
1+ x

x t2
2
e dt
0 (arctgt ) dt
0 cos(t )dt

0
.
; ) lim
; ) lim x
) lim
2
x

+
x
x 0

+
x
1+ x
2t 2
e dt
x

dt .

d
d
d
sin x 2 dx ; )
sin x 2 dx ; )
sin (x 2 )dx ;

dx a
db a
da a

d
)
dx

dx

62. :

61. :
b

cos x

t3

d
d
dt
cos t 2 dt .
)
; )

2
4
dx sin x
dx t 2 x + t

1
x

x3

64. , f

(x > 0) :

x5

cos(t )dt ;

x3

d
dx
d
dt
d
)
; )
; )

2
2
dx x 2 1 + x
dx t 2 1 + t
dt

60.
x

.., ..

50

x = 0 F ( x ) = f (t )dt 2

, .
66. f
,

[a, b]

x 0 ,

51

.., ..

52

. ,

F ( x ) = f (t )dt x 0
a

, .

C
y=f(x)
x
0

67.
C

f ( x ) (. .),

?

( )

ex
0 e dt ~ 2 x x + .

[0,+) . -

tf (t )dt

(x ) =

0
x

f (t )dt
0

.
70.
x

2t + 1
dt
0 t 2t + 2

1,1 .
71.
x

y = (t 1)(t 2) dt .
2

sin 2 x

72.

arcsin
0

[0,2];

2)

f (0) = f (2) = 1 ; 3) f ( x ) 1 ; 4)

cos 2 x

t dt +

f (x )dx 1 ?
0

f ( x ) f ( x ) = f (t )dt , f ( x )
0

69. f x
,

t2

f (x ) =

1
p
p

lim
f ( x ) dx , f ( x ) C [0,1] .
p +
0

74. f ( x ) , [0,2]
: 1) f ( x )

75. ,

68. :
x

73.

arcsin
0

t dt =

(x R) .

.., ..

54

2.

2. f (x ) g (x )

:
,

[a, b] , f ( x ) g ( x ) x [ a, b] .
b

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx
a

( ).
.

f (x ) g (x ) 0 [a, b]

( f ( x ) g ( x)) R[ a, b] ( ),
,
, (
), .
, .

2.1. , 8

( )

f ( x)dx 0 .

V = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n }


n

[ a , b] .

(V ) = f ( k )x k 0 ,

I = lim (V ) 0 .

1. , , .
, a, b f x

[ ]

( )

f (x )dx 0 ,

, ,

f (x ) 0

x [a, b] . ,

cos xdx = 1 > 0 , , , -

cos x 0

< x .

, ,
1.

[ ]

f (x )dx g (x )dx ,

x [a, b]

f (x ) g (x ) , , (. 1).
3. f (x ) [ a , b] f ( x ) 0
x [ a, b] . , ,

x0 [a, b] ,

v 0

()

k =1

2. , f x g x , a, b , -

1. f (x ) [ a , b]

f ( x ) 0 x [a, b] .

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx = ( f ( x) g ( x))dx 0 .

f ( x0 ) > 0 .

f ( x)dx > 0 .
a

.
,

f ( x0 ) = > 0 . > 0

f ( x) 2 x [ x0 , x0 + ] (

, ).

2 , x [ x0 , x0 + ]
g ( x) =
.
x [ x0 , x0 + ]
0,
, f ( x ) g ( x ) x [ a, b] . , 2,
b

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx = 2 2 > 0 .

55

4. f (x ) [ a , b] , f ( x ) 0

6. f

x [ a, b]

f ( x)dx = 0 , f ( x ) 0 [a, b] .

x0 [a, b] ,

[ a , b] .

f ( x0 ) > 0 . ,

f ( x)dx > 0 ( 3). -

.
5. f (x ) [ a , b] ,
,

f ( x) dx .

x y x y ,

( x) = x

x y -

, 1, .
,

( f ( x)) = f ( x)

[ a , b] . 44 1.

f ( x) f ( x) f ( x) x [a, b] ,
b

[a, b] f (x )dx = 0
c
f ( x ) 0 [a, b] .

(
)
f
x
dx

k
k =1
k =1 a

= f k ( x ) dx .

a k =1
n

[a, b]

. , .
8. f x a, b ,

k =1 a

] [ ]

()

[a, b] .

f ( k ) 0 .

f (x )dx f (x )dx =
k

f ,

[c, d ] ( x0 [c, d ] [a, b] ), f (x ) > 0 . f (x )dx > 0 ,

n b

[ ]
f (x0 ) > 0 .

( ). ,
c, d a, b , f x 0 . -

c, d a, b ,
( ). ,
x0 a, b , f ( x0 ) 0 .

f ( x) dx ,

f k (x ) , k = 1,2,..., n ,

] [ ]

[ ]
I = f ( x )dx > 0 , [c, d ] [a, b ] , f ( x ) > 0 .

.
.

f k ( x )dx =
a
k =1

f (x )dx f (x )dx f (x )dx = 0 .

f ( x)dx

( )

f ( x) )dx f ( x)dx f ( x) dx , ..

7. f

2 :

f ( x)dx

[c, d ] [a, b] : f (x )dx = 0 .

. ,

[a, b] f (x )dx = 0 ,

( ). f (x ) -

.., ..

56

f ( )x
k =1

, ,

T 0 , I , .
I > 0 .

9.

57

.., ..

58

f ( x ) [a, b] -

f (x )dx > 0 (a < b) a

[ ]

f ( x )

[ ]

, -

f (x )dx > 0

f (x )dx > 0 .
b

2) ( ).

f ( x )dx > 0 ,

f ( x ) [a, b] .
f , ,

[a, b] .

2.2.1. .
1 ( ). f (x )
g (x ) [ a , b] , g ( x ) 0

x [ a, b] .

(3)

M = sup f ( x) ,
a x b

m = inf f ( x) , [ m, M ] ,
a x b

g ( x)dx = 0 ,

f ( x) g ( x)dx = 0 , a

g ( x)dx > 0

, .

( g (x ) -

[ a , b] , , ).
b

(3)

g ( x)dx :
a

g ( x) 0

m g ( x)dx f ( x) g ( x)dx M g ( x)dx .

2.2.

,
:

(2)

mg ( x)dx f ( x) g ( x)dx Mg ( x)dx .

f ( x )dx = 0 . , .

( 0)

f ( x) g ( x)dx = f ( ) g ( x)dx .

m f ( x) M x [ a, b] , ,
g (x ) , mg ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x ) Mg ( x ) x [ a , b ] .

(1)

,
(. 2 . 2.1),

[a, b] ,

[ ]

a c < d b , f ( x ) > 0 .

, , f (x ) [ a , b] ,

9 a, b .
. 1) .
f x a, b , c, d ,

( )

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g ( x)dx .

:
b

f ( x) g ( x)dx
a

59

M . =

1
f ( x)dx ( M [ f ] =
b a a
) f (x ) [ a , b] .

f ( x) g ( x)dx
a

g ( x)dx

g ( x)dx

.
1. f x a, b ,

(1) ( g (x ) ) .
g ( x ) 0 [ a , b] ,

g1 ( x) = g ( x) x [a, b] . -

g1 ( x) 0 [a, b] , ,
[ m, M ] ,

f (x ) [a, b] ,
M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x) . [ m, M ] .

A > 0 . ,

1
f (x )dx A .
x 0

f (t )dt +

x + .

x +

> 0 ( ) > 0 : x >


f (x ) A < , .. A < f ( x ) < A + .
x :

(1)

, , f (x ) [ a , b] ,

[a, b] ,

, lim f ( x ) = A ,

a x b

f ( x)dx = f ( )(b a) .

(2) (1) .
.

x +

f ( x)dx = (b a) .

, (1) .

a x b

x +

f ( x ) C [0,+ )

a < x<b

g ( x)dx = ( g ( x))dx = g ( x)dx ,


a

M = sup f ( x ) .

[ ]

. 1) lim f ( x ) = A 0 . -

x +

m = inf f ( x ) ,

lim f ( x ) = A . lim

f ( x) g ( x)dx = f ( x)( g ( x))dx = f ( x) g ( x)dx ,


a

2.
m ba M f M ba ,

3.

[ ]

( )
(a, b ) , M [ f ] = f ( ) .

a < x <b

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g ( x)dx .
1

.., ..

60

f ( x )dx = f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx .

, :
x

f ( x )dx >

( A )dx = ( A )x

+ x + .

(2)

. (1) (2) g ( x ) 1 .

f (x )dx

x + .

61

f (t )dt

0 f (t )dt
0

= lim f (x ) = A .
lim
= lim
x +
x +
x +
x
x
1
x
1
2) lim f ( x ) = 0 . , lim f (t )dt = 0 . x + x
x +
0

.., ..

62

f (x )dx m(d c ) .

= m .
2) ( ).

f (x )dx (d c ) .

x +

lim g ( x ) = 1 . , : lim

x +

x +

1
g (t )dt = 1 .
x 0

1
1
1
1
f (t )dt = lim ( g (t ) 1)dt = lim g (t )dt lim dt =

x + x
x + x
x + x
x + x
0
0
0
0
= 1 1 = 0 , .
d
1
f ( x )dx =
4. f ( x ) [a, b]
d c c
lim

[ ]

f ( x ) , [c, d ] , a c < d b ,
f ( x ) < 0 , , M = sup f ( x ) < 0 .
c xd

f (x )dx M (d c ) < 0 ,
c

f (x )dx (d c ) > 0 .

c, d , a c < d b , f x a, b .
( ). ,
x0 a, b , f ( x0 ) . , , f ( x0 ) > .

[ ]

,
( x0

[c, d ] [a, b] ),

f,

f (x ) > .

[c, d ]

1
f ( x )dx > , . , d c c
.
5. f x

( )

[a, b]

> 0 ,

2.2.2.
2 ( ). f (x )

g (x ) [a, b] .
1) g ( x ) 0 [ a , b] ,

2)

[c, d ] , a c < d b ,

[ a, b] ,

3)

f ( x ) > 0 , x [a, b] . ,
f [c, d ] , m = inf f ( x ) > 0
. 1) .

c xd

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (a) f ( x)dx .

g ( x ) 0 [ a , b] ,

[a, b] ,

1
f ( x )dx .
d c c

x0 [a, b] f ( x0 ) < 0 . ,

[ ]

()

[c, d ] , a c < d b ,

g ( x ) f ( x ) + 1 . , , lim f ( x ) = 0 ,
x

>0

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (b) f ( x)dx .

g (x ) [ a , b] ,

[ a, b] ,
b

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (a) f ( x)dx + g (b) f ( x)dx .

63

O.Bonnet .
. . , g ( a ) = 0 , g ( x ) 0 [ a , b] -

Tn = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n } -

. g ( a ) > 0 .
[ a , b]

n .

M = sup f ( x ) ,
a x b

(g(x
k =1 xk 1

k 1

k =1

xk 1

k 1

x k 1 x xk

xk

k =1 xk 1

xk 1

xk

g(x

xk

xk 1

k =1

k 1

) g ( x) f ( x) dx

dx = M ( g ( xk 1 ) g ( xk ))

M (b a )
( g (a ) g (b)) .
n

ba
=
n

n ,

n n
f ( x) g ( x)dx .

F ( x) = f (t )dt a

. F (x ) [ a , b] (. 1 . 1.5),

. ,
. n , F (x ) :
xk 1

xk

n = g ( x k 1 ) f ( x)dx f ( x)dx =
k =1
a

g(x
k =1

k 1

g ( x k 1 ) g ( x k ) 0 , ..
g (x ) , , F ( x ) F ( )
x [ a, b] ).
, n g ( a ) F ( ) . g ( a ) > 0 ,
F ( )

F ( ) .
g (a)
n :
b
1
F ( )
f ( x) g ( x)dx F ( ) .
(4)
g (a ) a
F (x ) , F ( ) F ( ) , .. [ a, b]
,

1
F ( ) =
f ( x) g ( x)dx .
g (a ) a
,
b

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (a) f ( x)dx .

k =1

( ,

n 1

( g ( x k 1 ) g ( x k )) F ( ) +g ( x n 1 ) F ( ) = g (a ) F ( )

f ( x)dx f ( x) g ( x)dx =
k =1 xk 1

M sup g ( x k 1 ) g ( x)

f ( x)dx .

xk

) g ( x)) f ( x)dx

k =1

k =1

n = g ( x k 1 )

g(x

xk

xk

n f ( x) g ( x )dx =
n

.., ..

64

)( F ( xk ) F ( xk 1 )) =

(5)

1 .
(5) f1 ( x) = f ( x) , g1 ( x) = g ( x) .
, (5)

g1 ( x) = g ( x) g (b)
, g (x ) , g1 ( x) = g ( x) g (a ) ,
g (x ) . .

n 1

. 2 ,
g (x ) (

k =1

) g ( a + 0) g (b 0) :

= ( g ( x k 1 ) g ( x k )) F ( x k ) + g ( x n 1 ) F (b)

:
b

1)

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (a + 0) f ( x)dx , g ( x ) 0 [a, b] ;


a

2)

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (b 0) f ( x)dx , g ( x) 0 [a, b] ;

3)

65

f ( x) g ( x)dx = g (a + 0) f ( x)dx + g (b 0) f ( x)dx , g (x )

[ a , b] .

2.3.
2.3.1.
10
(1859),
.
1 ( ).
f x g x a, b .

( )

66

.., ..

.
, , . .
1 ( ).
a1 , a 2 ,K , a n b1 , b2 , K , bn .

n 2

a
b
ai

i i
i =1
i =1

(1)

(x [a, b], t R ) , ( f (x ) t g (x ))2 dx 0 ,


a

a b

g (x )dx 2t f (x )g (x )dx + f (x )dx 0 .


2

t .
t , , ..
2

b
2 f ( x )g (x )dx 4 f

b
2
(x )dx g 2 (x )dx 0 ,

. .
10

(18041889).

i =1
1/ 2

ai2
i =1
n

i i

bi2
i =1
n

1/ 2

1,

(2). 1 .
,

i =1

i =1

ai bi ai bi , -

( ) a i , bi , i = 1,2,..., n .

i =1

i =1

b
b
b

f ( x )g ( x )dx f 2 ( x )dx g 2 ( x )dx .

a
a
a

2
. ( f ( x ) t g ( x )) 0

1/ 2

i 1 n.

[ ]

()

1/ 2

n 2
(2)
bi .
i =1
a+b
. ,
ab
2
bi2
ai2
, b= n
a b . a = n
2
bi2
ai
n

T = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [a, b] n

. (1)
2

ba
ba n 2
ba
n
n
f ( xi ) g ( xi )
f 2 ( xi )
g ( xi )

n
n i =1
n
i =1
i =1

2

n
n

f ( xi ) g ( x i ) f 2 ( x i ) g 2 ( xi ) ,
i =1

i =1
i =1

67

68

11

2.3.2.

( f ( xi ) + g ( xi )) 2
i =1

2 ( ). a1 , a 2 , K , a n

b1 , b2 , K , bn .

(ai + bi ) 2
i =1

1/ 2

ai2
i =1

1/ 2

+ bi2
i =1

(3)

.
, :
n

i =1
1/ 2

ai2
i =1

i =1

1/ 2

i =1
1/ 2

+ bi2 (ai + bi ) 2
i =1 i =1

1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
n

n
n

ai2 + bi2 (ai + bi ) 2 .


i =1
i =1 i =1

(3) . 2 .

(ai + bi ) 2
i =1

1/ 2

b 2

f ( x)dx
a

1/ 2

b 2

+ g ( x)dx
a

1/ 2

ba
n
f 2 ( xi )

n
i =1

ba
n
+ g 2 ( xi )

n
i =1

1/ 2

2
n
f ( xi ) + g ( xi )
i =1

1/ 2

( )
1

2
2
(x )dx ,

f (x )
g ( x ) [a, b]
, p q , 1, ,
1 1
+ = 1 .
p q
3 ( ).

1/ 2

b
p
p
f ( x )g ( x )dx f ( x ) dx
a

b
q
q
g (x ) dx .
a

, , [1] (. 239) [9]


(. 367).
. p = q = 2 .
2.3.4. 13
. (1896)
.

12

(17891857).

2.
2 .
. f x , -

1/ 2

1/ 2

2.3.3. 12

(4)
. , 1 , [ a , b] n .
:

ba
n
( f ( xi ) + g ( xi )) 2

n
i =1

+ g 2 ( xi )
i =1

f +g f + g .


1/ 2

1/ 2

2 ( ).

11

1/ 2

b
[a, b ] , : f = f

f ( x ) g ( x ) [a , b] . -

( f ( x) + g ( x)) 2 dx

f 2 ( xi )
i =1

(ai + bi ) 2 = ai (ai + bi ) + bi (ai + bi )


n

1/ 2

n
2
( f ( xi ) + g ( xi ))
i =1

1/ 2

.., ..

13

(18591937).
(18641909).

f(

69

.., ..

70

4 ( ).
x g x a, b

[ ]

()

, p 1 .
1

b
p b
( f ( x ) + g ( x )) p dx f

1. ( ) a, b

[ ]

1
p

f ( x ) + g ( x ) p dx f ( x ) p dx + g ( x ) p dx ( p 1) .

2. p = 2 .
3. p = n = 1 (
)

n
p
ai + bi
i =1

1 p

n
p
ai
i =1

1 p

n
p
+ bi
i =1

1 p

4.
f k ( x ) , k = 1,2,..., n , -

[a, b] :

p
b p
f k ( x )dx .

k =1 a

( )

f ( x)dx
a

a+b
f
(b a ) .
2

f x

a+b
f
(b a )
2

f (x )dx
a

(1)

[a, b] ,

f (a ) + f (b )
(b a ) .
2

(2)

. (2) ( (1)
).
1) . , f x -

( )

[a, b] , ,

f (a )(b x ) + f (b )( x a )
.
ba

, :
x1 , x 2 [ a , b] 1 , 2 ,

1 + 2 = 1 ,

1 f ( x1 ) + 2 f ( x 2 ) f (1 x1 + 2 x 2 ) .
bx
xa
, x1 = a, x2 = b , (3).
1 =
, 2 =
ba
ba
: ,
x , -

, [1] (. 240).
f k ( x ) , k = 1,2,..., n , a, b .

[ ]

f (a ) + f (b)
(b a )
2

f (x )

a+b a + b .

p
b n
p


f k ( x ) dx
a

k =1

f ( x ) (
) [a, b ] ,

x [ a, b]

( ):

k =1

2
k

5.

,
, , [1;9].

1
p

f (x )dx .

2.3.5.

p b p
p
p
(x )dx + g (x )dx .
a

1
p

b
b

f k ( x )dx
k =1 a
a

, ,

(a; f (a )) (b; f (b )) ). -

, [ a , b] ,
(2):

:
b

71

f (a )
(b x )dx + f (b ) (x a )dx =
f ( x )dx

ba a
ba a
b

f (a )
x2
f (b ) x 2
f (a ) + f (b )
bx +
ax =
=
(b a ) .
ba
2 a ba 2
2
a
2)

x = (a + b )

2 + t .

(b a ) 2

f (x )dx = ( )

ba 2

(2)

(b a ) 2

(b a ) 2

ba
2

ab

a+b
f
+ t dt =
2

[17] (.153) . q x a, b
X ,
f x . a, b p x .

( )

g (t )dt ,

g (t ) ,

[ A, A] , , g (0) = 0 . -

[ ]

()

p( x )q ( x )dx

fa b

p( x )dx
a

p(x ) f (q(x ))dx


a

p(x )dx


( )

n
pi xi
f i =1n

pi
i =1

a+b
, ,
2

[ ]

()

a + b
f
dt 0 .
2

a+b
a + b
f
dt 0 ,
2
2

(2).

a+b
a+b
2f
dt = f
(b a ) .
2
2

a+b
f t +

a b
2

.
. (2) .
x = a + b 2 + t ,

g (t )dt 0 , ..

A
ba
2

a+b
a + b
f
t + f
+ t dt

(b a ) 2

. ,

f t +

(b a ) 2

a+b

f
z dz +
2

a+b
a+b
+ t dt.
= f
+ t dt + f
2

(b a ) 2
0
z = t (b a ) 2

, ,
, . t = 0 . , -

a+b
f
+ t dt =
2

, :

.., ..

72

p f (x )
i

i =1

p
i =1

f ( x )
[a, b] , xi ; pi (

).

73

, f
,

f ( x ) = cos x [0, 32 ] ; ) f ( x ) = sgn x [ 1,2] ; ) f (x ) = x 2 [0,1] ;


2
[0,2] .
) f ( x ) = sin x sin ( x + ) [0,2 ] ; ) f ( x ) = x
e +1
2. a f ( x ) = ln x
[1, a] ?

8. ,

3. , V0 .

10. ,

[a, b] , > 0 ,
[c, d ] , a c < d b ,

f (x )dx g (x )dx , , f (x ) g (x )

f (x )dx > 0 .
a

12. ,

[ ](

f ( x ) [a, b]

7. , f x a, b a < b
,

f ( x ) g ( x ) -

f ( x )
[a, b] , x0 [a, b] , f (x0 ) > 0 . ,

1
f ( x )dx .
d c c

f (x )dx 0 .

)?
11.

x [a, b] (, -

[a, b] .

6. , f

( )

b
b
b

f ( x )dx g (x )dx f ( x )dx > g ( x )dx .


a
a
a

f ( x ) 0 x [a, b] (,

( ) g (x )
x [a, b] f ( x ) g ( x ) ( f ( x ) > g ( x )) ,

[a, b] ,

[c, d ] , a c < d b , f (x )

7)?
9. , f x

f ( x ) = arctgx .
5. , f [a, b]

f (x )dx 0
a

1
f ( x )dx =
d c c

f ( x ) [a, b] , -

1
f ( x )dx .
x + x
0

x +

f (x )dx > 0 ?
a

1. :

f ( x ) C [0,+ ) lim f ( x ) = A . lim

[a, b]

4.

.., ..

74

f (x )dx = 0 [c, d ] [a, b] , f (x ) 0 [a, b] .


c

f ( x ) [a, b]
[c, d ] , a c < d b ,
13. ,
d

f (x )dx 0 , x [a, b] f (x ) 0 .
c

75

.., ..

76

14. , f ( x ) [ a , b] , f ( x ) 0

21. ,

x [ a, b]

f ( x)dx = 0 , f ( x ) 0 [a, b] .

15. ,

f ( x ) [a, b] ,

f (x )dx f (x ) dx .

16. ,

f k ( x )dx =
a
k =1

[a, b]

f k (x ) ,

22. :
1

n
b

(
)
f
x
dx

k

k =1
k =1 a

f (x )dx f (x )dx =
k

k =1 a

2
x ln xdx ; )

f ( x ) [a, b]

f ( x )dx = 0 . -

[a, b]

. ,

f (x )dx > 0 (a < b) a

, f

[ ]

a, b ( ,

).
b

20. ,

cos xdx ?

ba
dx b a
<
<
, 0 < a < b .
b
x
a
a

k +1

dx 1
< , k N ;
x k

dx
1 1
1
1
1
, k N ;
+ + ... + <
<1 + + ... +
2 3
n 1 x
2
n 1

f ( x )dx > 0 , [c, d ] [a, b] , f ( x ) > 0 .

19. f

x sin xdx ;

f ( x ) [a, b] , -

2 dx ; )

1
<
k +1

f (x )dx = 0 [c, d ] [a, b] .

18. ,

23. , :
b

sin x
0 x dx ; )

= f k ( x ) dx .

a k =1

1
2

17.

a1 + a 2 + ... + a n
,
n

a k (k = 1,2,..., n ) .

k = 1,2,..., n ,
b

a1 a 2 ... a n

128

< sin 10 xdx <

; ) 2 <

x2

dx <16 ;

4
e

e 1
dx
e 1
1
1
dx
; ) <
<
<
< ;
2
3
ln x + 2
2
5 2 1 + x 2x
14
1
)

1
e

x x dx 1 , , x x x = 0 1;
0

1
2
dx
dx

<
<
<
; )
.
) <
2
2
3
5 0 25 x + x
6 0 4 x x
3 11
4 2
1
x2
24. : 1 cos x
ln
, x [0, 2) .
2
cos x
1

77

25. :

) sin 1

cos x
11 + x 2 dx 2 sin 1 ; )

cos

dx
2

x 3 + sin x

xn
dx = 0 .
31. , lim
n + 1 + x
0

3
.
2

sin xdx e

cos x
2
; )
) 2
dx
3
1 x + 2
3

arctgxdx

cos 2 xdx ;

sin x
5

x2 + 2

dx

dx
4 x x
2

33. ,

n+ p

e dx
e 1
0 (x + 1)(2 x ) 2 ;

lim

n +

35.

f ( x ) [a, b] ,
M , > 0 , [ , ]
(a < b )
36.

x e

2 x2

dx

1
;
3

ln(1 + x )
cos x

dx ln 2 ; )
dx 1?
)
2
2
3
4
0 1+ x
0 1+ x + x
1

f (x )dx M

28. , f

f ( x )dx = a 0 f (x ) a

2
3

[0,1] ,

2
3

(a > 0) ,

f ( x )dx a .

100 x

30. , :
2

I=

f ( x ) 0 [a, b] .
37. f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b ] . -

:
2

b
f ( x )g ( x )dx f

dx > 0,04 a (a > 0) .

1+

29.

sin x
dx = 0 ( p > 0) .
x

f (t )dt = xf (x ) . , f (t ) = t (n > 1) .

( )

arctgxdx .

34. , :

e x
2
a x sin xdx ( 0;0 < a < b) ; ) a sin x dx (0 < a < b) .
b

27. :
1

dx
dx
; ) lim f ( x )
, a > 0, b > 0
3
0 1 + x
+0
x
0
a

lim

0 < < 1.

cos 2 xdx

32. : )

sin xdx ; ) x sin xdx x sin xdx ;

x2

?
26. :
1

.., ..

78

(x )dx g 2 (x )dx .
a

38. , ,

x
dx
0 1 + 0,5 cos x ; ) I = 0 1 + x dx .

xe x dx < e 1 .

39. ,

0.78 <
0

dx
1+ x4

< 0.93 .

3.

.., ..

80

, , f (x ) - ( f (x ) ); -

( [ a , b] F ( x ) ,

[ ]


, , .
1:
, , ;
;
.

( ).
. , 1, , f (x )
[ a , b] , ,
f (x ) .
.
, ,
,
(
), , , .
( )
,
( ),
1

1.

F ( x ) = f ( x ) a, b , , , ) .
, .
,
.
( ,
).
f ( x ) a, b F ( x )

[ ]

[ ]

, F ( x ) = f ( x ) a, b , , ,
ci

(i = 1,2,..., p ) a

b , F ( x ) 2.

f (x )dx = F (b 0 ) F (a + 0 ) (F (ci + 0 ) F (ci 0 )) .


i =1

[ci , ci +1 ]
x (ci , ci +1 );
F ( x ),

F 1 ( x ) = F (ci + 0 ),
x =c i ; (i = 1,2,..., p ) ; c 0 = a,c p +1 = b .
F (c 0 ),
x =c i +1
i +1

T : a = x 0 < x1 < ... < x n = b

[ ]

a, b , ci ,

i = 1,2,..., p ,

. , ,
n 1

n 1

(F (x ) F (x )) = F ( )x
k =0

k +1

k (x k , x k +1 ) .

k =0

n 1

= f ( k )x k ,
k =0

F (x ) f (x )

[a, b] .

(1)

3.

81

( ). ,
n 1

(F (x ) F (x )) = (F (c ) F (c )) =
k =0

k +1

i =0

= F 1 (c1 ) F1 (c0 ) + F 1 (c p +1 ) F1 (c p ) +

k +1

p 1

(F (c
i =1

i +1

0 ) F (ci + 0 )) =

= F (b 0) F (a + 0) + F (c1 0) F (c p +0) +
p 1

+ (F (ci +1 0 ) F (ci + 0 )) = F (b 0 ) F (a + 0 ) +
i =1

+ F (c1 0 ) F (c1 +0 ) + F (c 2 0 ) F (c 2 + 0 ) +
+ F (c 3 0 ) F (c3 + 0) + ... + F (c p 0) F (c p + 0) =
p

= F (b 0) F (a + 0) (F (ci + 0 ) F (ci 0 )) .

(2)

i =1

, T , (1)
n 1

k =0

(F1 (xk +1 ) F1 (xk )) = f (x )dx .


0
lim
T

i =1

f (x )dx = F (b 0) F (a + 0) (F (c + 0) F (c 0)) .
i

.., ..

( ) ;
;

(,
);
();
;
;
;
, ..
, :
1. : ch x sh x = 1 .
2. :
2

1 th 2 x =

1
1
2
(x 0) .
, cth x 1 =
2
ch x
sh 2 x

3. :

(2), ,
b

82

.
. F (ci +1 + 0 ) F (ci 0 ) F .
,
, .

3.1.
()

, ,
. , , :

sh2 x = 2 shx chx , ch 2 x = ch 2 x + sh 2 x .

ch 2 x 1
ch2 x + 1
, sh 2 x =
,
2
2
(chx + shx )n = ch(nx ) + sh(nx ) , (chx shx )n = ch(nx ) sh(nx )
(n N ) .
x y xm y
5. : shx shy = 2 sh
ch
,
2
2
x+ y x y
x+ y x y
chx + chy = 2ch
ch
sh
, chx chy = 2 sh
.
2
2
2
2

4. : ch 2 x =

6. :
sh x y = shx chy shy chx , ch x y = chx chy shx shy ,

(
)
th( x y ) =

thx thy
cthx cthy 1
(x y 0) .
, cth( x y ) =
1 thx thy
cthy cthx

7. :

shx chy =

1
(sh(x + y ) + sh(x y )) ,
2

3.

83

1
(ch(x + y ) + ch(x y )) ,
2
1
shx shy = (ch( x + y ) ch( x y )) .
2

chx chy =

1. ,
8

x dx =

1
1

8
3

)
)

1 x2

1 x

) = (arcsin x +

4.

1 x2

1 x

xdx
1

dx

1 x2

3
1.
2

x 4 + x 4 + 2
dx .
x3

. ,
. :

2 1
x + 2
x

dx =
3
x

I=

x2 +
x

1
x 2 dx =

1
dx =
5

x + x
1

) (

2
1
1
dx
1 1 x 1
=

= ln 3 + arctg .
ln
arctgx
0 x 4 1 2 2 x + 1
2
2
0
1

d 1 x2

dx

5.

1 x

dx =

) (
( )(

1+ x

1
3

= ln x 4 = ln 2 + .
16
4x 1

1
1
x2 +1 x2 1
1

.
=
=
2
2
4
2
2
2 x 1 2 x +1
x 1 2 x 1 x + 1

x3 + x 2 + 2x + 3
dx .
0
x2 + 2

x 2 + 2 ,

1
x3 + x 2 + 2x + 3
= x +1+ 2
.
2
x +2
x +2
1

x2
1
x
1

=
arctg
I = x + 1 + 2
dx = + x +
x + 2
2
2 0
2
0
3 1
1
= +
arctg
.
2
2
2
1

1+ x
dx .
1 x

1+ x 0 :

= 11 14 .

. ,
( ) .
:

3.

dx
2. 4
.
x

1
0

1
2

. (
):

1+ x
dx =
1 x

x dx .

, ,
[16], , , ,
([15,1718]).
.

.., ..

84

6.

(2 x + 7 )
0

x 2 + x + 1dx .

. , x + x + 1 = 2 x + 1 ,
:
2

3.
1

((2 x + 1) + 6)
0

85

86

.., ..

x 5
x + 5

2 d sin
2 d cos

1
2
2

=

=
x5
x+5
cos 5

cos
6
6 sin

2
2

x 2 + x + 1dx = (2 x + 1) x 2 + x + 1dx +
0

+ 6 x 2 + x + 1dx =
0

1
x5
x+5 2
=
ln sin
ln cos
=
cos 5
2
2

1
3

= x 2 + x + 1d x 2 + x + 1 + 6 x + + dx =
2
4
0
0
2
=
3

2
=
3

(x

x 1
3
1
+ x + 1 + 6 ( + ) x 2 + x + 1 + ln x + + x 2 + x + 1 =
8
2
0
2 4

1
3
1
x + x + 1 + 3 ( x + ) x 2 + x + 1 + ln x + + x 2 + x + 1 =
2
4
2
0

31
13 9
=
3 + ln 1 + 2 3 .
2
6 4

7.

x 5 x + 5
cos

2
dx
1
2
2

dx =
.
=

x5
x+5
sin x sin 5 2 cos 5
cos
6
6 sin
2
2
x5
x+5
x5
x+5

+ sin
cos
sin
2 cos
1
2
2
2
2 dx =
=
x5
x+5
2 cos 5
sin
cos
6
2
2
x5
x+5

sin

2 cos
1
2 +
2 dx =

=
x5
x+5
2 cos 5
cos

6 sin
2
2

dx

sin x sin 5

sin

x5
1
2
=
ln
x+5
cos 5
cos
2

sin

1
(ln
cos 5

cos

25
2

2+5

1
ln
cos 5

sin

25

ln

cos

cos

sin

65
2

6+5

)=

6+5

2
2
.
2+5
65
cos
sin
2
2
100

8.

1 cos 2 x dx .

100

100

1 cos 2 x dx =

k =0

2 sin x dx = 2

99 ( k +1)

= 2

100
2

sin x dx =
0

sin x dx = 100 2 sin x dx = 100 2 sin xdx =

= 100 2 ( cos x ) 0 = 200 2 .

9.

sin x sin 2 x sin 3xdx .


0

. :

sin x(sin 2 x sin 3 x ) = sin x (cos x cos 5 x ) =


2

3.

87

sin 2 x 1
1
(sin 6 x sin 4 x ) = (sin 2 x sin 6 x + sin 4 x ) .
4
4
4

1 e 4 ln 2 e 4 ln 2
e 2 ln 2 e 2 ln 2
=
2
+ 3 ln 2 =
8
8
2

1
3 ln 2 225
1 16 16
1
.
=
4 + + 3 ln 2 =

8
8
4
8
1024

3
dx
12. 2
.
2
1 sh x ch x

sin x sin 2 x sin 3xdx =


0

1 cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x 2 1


+

= .
4
2
6
4 0 6
2

10.

shx sh2 x sh3xdx .


0

1
(ch( + ) ch( )) ,
2
1
sh ch = (sh( + ) + sh( )) ,
2
sh sh =

.., ..

88

. ch x
2

sh 2 x = 1 ,
:
3

dx
ch 2 x sh 2 x
=
1 sh 2 x ch 2 x 1 sh 2 x ch 2 x dx =

dx
dx
1 sh 2 x dx 1 ch 2 x dx =

= ( cthx thx ) 1 = cth3 th3 + cth1 + th1 .


3

shx sh2 x sh3xdx = 2 sh2 x (ch4 x ch2 x )dx =


0

13. :

n +1

ln[x]dx , n N , [x] x .

1
= (sh6 x sh 2 x sh 4 x )dx =
40

ch12 ch8 ch4 7


ch6 x ch4 x ch2 x

.
=

=
16
8 0
24
16
8
48
24
ln 2

11.

sh

xdx .

.
:

ch2 x 1
ch4 x + 1
2
, ch 2 x =
.
sh x =
2
2
1 ch4 x + 1
1
4
2ch2 x + 1 = (ch4 x 4ch2 x + 3) . sh x =
4
2
8
2

,
ln 2

k , k + 1) , k
n +1

ln 2

1 sh4 x

4
0 sh xdx = 8 4 2sh2 x + 3x =
0

[]

. , y = x 1-
, .
: x k = 2,3,...n . -

= 1,2,..., n , ln[x ] = ln k ,

n k +1

ln[x]dx = ln xdx =
1

k =1 k

k +1

k =1

ln k dx =
1

14.

dx

ln k = ln(1 2 ... n ) = ln(n!) .


k =1

1
1

dx .

1+ 2 x
1
. , F ( x ) =
1
1+ 2 x
[ 1,1] , F ( x ) x = 0 ( lim F ( x ) = 1 , lim F ( x ) = 0 ).
1

x 0

x +0

3.

89


. , F ( x ) , -

]
F (x ),

1,1 .

F ( x ) = 1,
F (x ) + 1,

g (t )dt = G(t (b)) G(t (a)) .

, ,

[ 1,1] ,

. , ,
( ) 1,1 .

dx

1+ 2

g (t ) ).
t (a )

x = 0;
0 < x 1.

dx = F (1) F ( 1) =

t (b )

F ( x ) = F ( x ) x ( 1,0 ) U (0,1) , .. -

g (t ) c, d ( ,

1 x < 0;

F ( x ) ,

.., ..

90

(G (t ( x))) = g (t ( x )) t (x ) x [a, b] . , G (t ( x ))
g (t ( x )) t ( x ) [a, b] ,
b

g (t (x ))t (x )dx = G(t (b)) G(t (a)) .


a

.
1. t -

, g (t )

f ( x ) . ,

1
2
1
= .
+ 1
3 1 + 0,5 3

f ( x )dx

g (t ( x ))t ( x )dx = g (t )dt . -

3.2.

, , . .

t ( x ) -

1 ( t ( x ) ).

2. , t ( x ) . , ,

f (x )dx ,
a

f ( x )dx g (t (x ))t ( x )dx ,


1) t = t ( x ) [a, b ] ,
[c, d ] [a, b] ;
2) g (t ) [c, d ] .
x t :
b

t (b )

f (x )dx = g (t (x )) t (x )dx = ( )g (t )dt .


a

t a

(1)

. G (t )

dx dt .

[c, d ] t = t (x )
E = [min (t (a ); t (b )); max(t (a ); t (b ))] ( E [c, d ] ) (. . 1).

t (x)

x( t)

t (b)

t (a)
c

x
a

b
. 1.

to

T
. 2.

3.
2

91

4
2
x 3x 4 x + 1 dx .

1.

. ,
2

x(3x

x(3x

x
x
4 x 2 + 1 dx = x 4 +
2
2

4 x + 1 dx =
2

(x

)(

(x

)(

xd x x =
3

1
6

( 1 ,

x
[ 1,2] , [ 1,2] 3

( ) ,6 ;

2 3 3

( )

2) g (t ) = t 2 3 3

,6 ).

2 ( x = x(t ) ). -

:
1) x = x(t )

[t 0 , T ]

, c, d t 0 , T ;

2) f ( x ) c, d ;
3)

x(t 0 ) = a , x(T ) = b .

[c, d ] .

G = min ( x(t 0 ); x(T )); max( x(t 0 ); x(T ))

( G c, d )

(. . 2 ).
, .
, ,
.
,

. ,
. ,
. ,
;
. [16] .
(1) (2) (
) . .

dx

1+ x

t = 1 x ?
. . x =

f ( x )dx = f ( x(t )) x (t )dt .

2.

(2)

t0

. F ( x ) f ( x )

t0

x t :
b

f (x(t )) x(t )dt ,

3.
x(t ) , c, d x = x (t ) -

= tdt = 18

= 18 .
1

x 3x 1 dx =
2

1) t ( x ) = x

f ( x )dx = F (b) F (a ) = F ( x(T ) ) F (x(t 0 ) ) =

:
2

.., ..

92

F ( x (t ) )

f ( x(t ) )x (t ) [t 0 , T ] . , F ( x(t ) ) = f ( x(t ) )x (t )

. ,

1
(
t

), :

dx
dt
d ( 1t )

1
=
11 + x 2 11 + ( 1t )2 = 11 + t 2 = arctgt 1 = 2 .
1

, , (!) :

3.

93

dx

1
11 + x 2 = arctgx 1 = 2 .

.., ..

94

, x

[ 1,1] t = 1 [ 1,1] , x
( ,1] [1,+ ) . ,
2 , .
2

3.

dx

1 + 0,5 cos x .
0

. 1- . f ( x ) =

1
1 + 0,5 cos x

0,2 , , .

x
.
2
[0,2 ]

t = tg

1 , x 0,2 -

x m 0 ). x
t = tg

2
[0,2 ] ( x = ).

t ( t

- .
0 x <

< x 2

dx
1 + 0,5 cos x .

1 t2
2dt
x
t = tg . cos x =
, dx =
,
2
2
1+ t
1+ t2

F (x ) =

dx

1 + 0,5 cos x = 4 t

dt
4
t
=
arctg
+C =
+3
3
3

4
3

arctg

tg ( x 2)
3

+C .

C F ( x )

1
[0, ) ( ,2 ] .
1 + 0,5 cos x
x = 1- : F ( + 0 ) F ( 0 ) =
4
=
, F ( x ) f ( x )
3
[0,2 ] . F (x ) F ( x ) f ( x ) [0,2 ] :
f ( x ) =

4
tg ( x 2)
, 0 x < ;
arctg
3
3

2
F (x ) = ,
x = ;
3
4
tg ( x 2) 4
+
, < x 2 .
arctg
3
3
3
( [0,2 ] ,
f ( x ) ). :
2

dx

1 + 0,5 cos x = F (2 ) F (0) = 0 +


0

4
4
0 =
.
3
3

2- . ( ) ,
2

dx
dx
0 1 + 0,5 cos x = 0 1 + 0,5 cos x +

dx

1 + 0,5 cos x

, f ( x )

[0, ]

tg ( x 2)
4
, 0 x < ;
3 arctg
3

F1 (x ) =
2 ,
x = ;
3

3.

95

[ ,2 ]

.., ..

96

2
x = ;
3 ,

F2 (x ) =
4 arctg tg ( x 2) , < x 2
3
3

I = x 2 a 2 x 2 dx = a 2 sin 2 t a 2 cos 2 t a cos tdt =


0

x = , F2 ( x ) ). ,
,

= a 4 sin 2 t cos t cos tdt .

dx

2
0 1 + 0,5 cos x = F1 (x ) 0 + F2 (x ) = F1 ( ) F1 (0) + F2 (2 ) F2 ( ) =
2 4
.
=
0 + 0
3
3
3


,
2

, cos t = cos t t 0,

xdx

5 4x

; )

2
2
2
x a x dx (a > 0) ; )
0

1
32

x 0;
,

) f ( x )dx , f ( x ) = 1 1 x 2
0

x = 0.
2,
. ) t = 5 4 x ( 1 :

5 4 x [ 1,1] ;
[1,3]; ,
1
1
g (t ) = (5 t 2 ) [1,3]), dx = tdt
4t
2
t =

t
1
1
(
5 t 2 )dt = 5t

81
8
3

1
= .
1 6
1 5 4 x
) : x = a sin t , t [0, 2]
( 2 : x = a sin t -

xdx

4 2

4 2

dx
3 1 + 5 x3

I = a 4 sin 2 t cos 2 tdt =

4. , :
1

[ ]

a 2 x 2
[0, a] ; x(0) = 0 , x( 2) = a ). dx = a cos tdt

( F1 ( x ) F ( x ) C = 0 F ( x )

]
f (x ) = x 2

0, 2 , 0, a -

a4
8

a
4

sin

2tdt =

a
8

(1 cos 4t )dt =
0

4
1
2 a
.

t
t
=
sin
4

16
4
0

) ,
1- . ,
,

t = 1 + x 5 . t ( x ) 1
,0 (0,1] , x = 0 t ( x ) ,

32
lim t ( x ) = , lim t ( x ) = + . 3

x 0 0

x 0 + 0

:
1

32

3 1 + 5 x3

= 5

dx

dt

(1 t )

3 2

32

3 2

3 1 + 5 x3

dt

(1 t )

dx

3 2

3 7

=5

dx

1+ x

dt

(1 t )

3 2

+ 5
3

dt

(1 t )

3 2

3.

97

.., ..

98

3 7

3
t
1 (t 1)
2
2t + 1
= 5 3
+
+ ln 3
arctg

t 1 3 t 1 3
3

1
2
x+
1 4
1
1
3
2
arctg

= ln x + +
2 3
2
2
4
3
1
4

3
t
1 (t 1)
2
2t + 1

+5 3
+ ln 3
arctg
=
t 1 3 t 1 3
3 3

) , 2- . f ( x )

f (x )dx =
0

tdt
1 t

1 t

0,1) ).

5. ,

1
3
1
1

+
+
d
x

d
x
d x +
+

1
1
1

2
4 1

1
2
2
1

=
=


2
2
2
2 1
2 1
1
3 2 1
1
3
1
3
x + +
x + +
x+ +
2
4
2
4
2
4

f (cos x )dx ; ) xf (sin x )dx =


0

2 0

f (sin x )dx .

. )

f (sin x )dx

t=

x ( ):

xdx
, : 2
.
x
+
x
+
1
1
1
1

d x +
1 x+
2
2

1 1 2 3
x + +
2
4

f (sin x )dx =

1 1

1
x+

1
xdx
2 2
.
=
dx =
2
2
1
3
1 x + x + 1
1
x+ +
2
4

3
4
2

= (1 t ) 2 2 1 t =
1 t 3
0 3

tdt

1
(ln 3 ln 1) 1 arctg 3 + arctg 1 =
2
3
3
1 ln 3
1

= ln 3

.
+ =
2
2
33 6
2 3
6. , f ( x )
[0,1] , :

1 x 2

tdt

53
1+ 3 7
10
7 53 2 + 5 ln
5 ln 3 2 1
+
8
2
3
23 7 1
10
23 2 + 1 10
arctg
+ arctg
+
.
3
3
3
3

[0,1] . t =

f (sin x )dx =

f sin t d t =
2 2

f (cos t )dt .
0

) I =

xf (sin x )dx t = x (
0

,
):

I = xf (sin x )dx = ( t ) f (sin ( t ))d ( t ) =

= f (sin t )dt tf (sin t )dt .

( t ) f (sin t )dt =
0

3.

I =

99

f (sin t )dt I , I , :

.., ..

100

I=

2 0

f (sin x )dx .

x sin x
dx .
7.
2
0 1 + cos x

f (sin x )

d (cos x )

= arctg (cos x ) 0 =
.
2
2
4
x
2

2 1 + cos
0

( f ( x) g ( x))dx = f (b) g (b) f (a) g (a) . (1), a

. :

sin x

sin x
x sin x
0 1 + cos 2 x dx = 0 x 2 sin 2 x dx = 2 0 2 sin 2 x dx =
1424
3

. .

. , :

f g (n +1) dx = f g (n ) f g (n 1) + ... + ( 1) f (n ) g
n

[ ]

f (x )g (x )dx = f (x )g (x )
a

b
a

ln 2

xe

(n +1)

gdx

xarctgxdx .
0

dx = e x 0 +

dx = e ln 2 ln 2 e x

ln 2

ln x, x [1 e ,1];

ln x, x [1, e];

1 e
ln .
2 2

) ln x =

ln x dx =

1
( ln x )dx + ln xdx = ( x ln x + x )

+ ( x ln x x ) 1 = 2 1 e 1 .
e

f ( x) g ( x) a = f (b) g (b) f (a) g (a) .

. :
( f ( x) g ( x)) = f ( x) g ( x) + f ( x) g ( x) . ,

ln x dx ; )

ln 2

ln 2

g ( x )df (x ) ,

( ).

x
xe dx ; )
0

n +1

1. ,

f (x )dg (x ) = f (x )g (x )

+ ( 1)

f , g [a, b] .

g ( x ) f ( x )dx ,

3.3.
1 ( ). f ( x ) g ( x )
(1- )
a, b . :

ln 2

(1)

f ( x) g ( x) , ,
( f ( x) g ( x)) [a, b] . ,

, .

( f ( x) g ( x))dx = f ( x) g ( x)dx + f ( x) g ( x)dx .

) f = arctgx , dg = xdx , df =
3

dx
x2
g
=
,
:
2
1+ x2

x2
1 x 2 dx 1
0 xarctgxdx = 2 arctgx 2 0 1 + x 2 = 2 2
0
3

(1 + x ) 1 dx =
2

1+ x2

3.

101
3

dx
1
1
2
3
3 1
=
+ arctgx =
.
= dx +

2
2
2 2
2 0 1+ x
2 2 0
3
2
0
3

x
x sin x
2. : ) arcsin
dx ; )
dx .
2
1
+
x
1
+
cos
x
0
0
x
, dg = dx ,
x +1

dx
x
=
, g=x
x + 1
2(1 + x ) x

, , , .. I 1 = 0 .
: I 1

df =
x
1
x +1

I1 =

= x + arctg x =

4
3.
3

) :

x sin x
d (cos x )
= xd (arctg (cos x )) =
dx = x
2
2
+
+
1
cos
x
1
cos
x
0
0
0

I =

= xarctg (cos x ) 0 + arctg (cos x )dx =

, I 1 = 0 ,

I=

2
4

. dg = x

x m (1 x )n 1
B(m, n ) =
m

dx , f = (1 x )

n 1

+
0

dx (m, n N ) .

n 1 m
n 1
n2
x (1 x ) dx =
B(m + 1, n 1) .

m 0
m

(n 1)(n 2) ... (n (n 1)) B(m + n 1,1) =


m(m + 1) ... (m + n 2)
1
(
n 1)!
=
x m + n 2 dx =

m(m + 1) ... (m + n 2 ) 0
(n 1)!
(n 1)!(m 1)! .
=
=
(m + n 1)!
m(m + 1) ... (m + n 2)(m + n 1)

B(m, n ) =

+ I1 ,

I 1 , , arctg (cos x )

2 ;0 ) .
[0, 2] [ 2 , ] -

m 1

n 1

( n ),

arctg (cos x )dx .

B(m, n ) = x m 1 (1 x )

I 1 =

arctg ( cos t )( dt ) = arctg (cos x )dx arctg (cos t )dt = 0 .

( x ) d x = 1 +( x ) 1 d ( x ) =
=
1+ ( x)
1+ ( x )
3

x
3
1
xdx
x

= 3 arcsin
dx = x arcsin
x + 1 0 2 0 (1 + x ) x
2
1+ x

arctg (cos x )dx + arctg (cos x )dx = arctg (cos x )dx +

3. (-)3

arcsin

, , :
3

] [

0, 2 2 , ,
x = t .

. f = arcsin

dx

.., ..

102

(- - )
, ( , ).

3.

103

4. :

) I 1=

(x sin x )

104

.., ..


n .
n = 2k ,

dx ; ) I 2= ( x cos x ) dx .
2

I 2k =

. , , :

I 1+ I 2 = x (sin x + cos x )dx = x dx =


2

I 2 k +1 =

1
1 2
x sin 2 x x sin 2 xdx = x cos 2 x
2
2
0
0
0

sin 2 x
1
cos 2 xdx =
2
4
20
, I 1=

dx = 2 .

n = 2k + 1 ,

I 0 =

I 2 I 1 = x cos x sin x dx = x cos 2 xdx =


2

=
0

I 1 =

sin xdx = 1 .
0

) 6 . 3.2.

(2k 1)!!
(2k )!! 2 ,

Jn = In =
(2k )!! ,
(2k + 1)!!

5. :
) I n =

sin
0

. ) f = sin
,
2

6. I n =

x , dg = sin xdx . ,

I n = sin xdx = cos x sin


n

n 1

2
0

n = 2k + 1.

+ (n 1) sin

n2

x 1 sin x dx =
2

= (n 1) sin n 2 xdx (n 1) sin n xdx = (n 1)I n 2 (n 1)I n ,

n 1
: I n =
I n 2 .
n

xn
1 x2

dx (n N ) .

. x = sin t , t 0, 2 ,

n = 2k ;

xdx ; ) J n = cos n xdx (n N , n 2 ) .


n 1

(2k )!! ,
2k (2k 2 )(2k 4 ) ... 2
I1 =
(2k + 1) (2k 1) ... 3 1
(2k + 1)!!

1
1

, I 2=
+ .
2 3 2
2 3 2
2

(2k 1)(2k 3) ... 3 1 I = (2k 1)!! ,


0
(2k )!! 2
2k (2k 2) ... 2

In =
0

xn
1 x2

dx = sin n tdt (. ).
0

,
, 1.
1

7.

arcsin xdx .
0

. arcsin x

[0,1 ] > 0 , [0,1] . ,


1, -

3.

0,1 ,

> 0.

105

arcsin xdx
0

[ ]

xdx
1

lim
arcsin
arcsin
xdx
=
x
x

0
0 +
0 +
1 x2
0
0


= lim (1 ) arcsin(1 ) + 1 x 2
= 1,
0 +
0
2

arcsin xdx = lim


0

..
1

arcsin xdx = lim arcsin xdx = lim (F (1 ) F (0)) = F (1) F (0) ,


0 +

0+

F ( x ) = x arcsin x + 1 x

arcsin x [0,1] .

. ,
1

arcsin xdx = (x arcsin x ) 0


0

xdx
1 x2

.., ..

I (m ) =

f (x, m)dx ( m

, , I (m ) ), -

( arcsin x 0,1 ),
1

106

+ 1 x2

1
0

I (m ) m :

I (m)dm .

I (m ) , . , . , .

2- , .
, ,
, . ,
.
1

1.

xb xa
0 ln x dx (a > 0, b > 0) .

. f ( x, b ) =

3.4.

.
.
, , I (m ) =

f (x, m)dx ,
a

f x , m .
, I (m ) m ,
, :
b
b df ( x, m )
d
f ( x, m )dx =
dx ,

dm
dm a
a

xb xa

ln x

(1)

xb xa

dx I (b ) b . ln x
0
I (b ) b , (1):

I (b ) =

1
1
xb xa
d xb xa
dx
=
0 ln x
db 0 ln x

1 b

x ln x
dx =
dx =
ln x
b
0

x b +1
1
= x dx =
=
.
b +1 0 b +1
0
1

db

b + 1 = ln(b + 1) + C .

I (b ) = ln (b + 1) + C C . C :

3.

I (b )

b=a

107

ln (a + 1) + C = 0 , .. C = ln(a + 1) . , I (b ) = ln

b +1
.
a +1

,
, ( -).
( , 2- ) .

.., ..

108

x3 : 0 = C ,
x2 : 0 = A + D + C ,
x1 : 0 = D 2 B + C ,
x0 : 1 = A B + D ,
2
1
A = D = , B = , C = 0 .
3
3
,

3.5.
,
, , -, ,
, , ,
.
.
.
,
- .
1

1.

x
0

dx
.
+ 2 x + 3x 2 + 2 x + 1
3

. ,
, .

dx
2x + 1
2
dx
=
+ 2
=
2
2
+ 2 x + 3 x + 2 x + 1 3( x + x + 1) 3 x + x + 1
4
2x + 1
2x + 1
arctg
+C .
=
+
2
3( x + x + 1) 3 3
3
3

, :
1

2
dx
2x + 1
4
2x + 1
0 x 4 + 2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 3(x 2 + x + 1) + 3 3 arctg 3 = 9 3 .
0
1


, ,
, .
3.5.1.
1. T f ( x ) . a, b R

dx
Ax + B
Cx + D
= 2
+ 2
dx .
2
+ 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + x + 1
x + x +1

D . , ,

1 A x 2 + x + 1 ( Ax + B )(2 x + 1) + x 2 + x + 1 (Cx + D ) ,

b +T

a +T

.
b

A, B, C

f (x )dx = f (x )dx .

x + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 = x + x + 1 ,
4

f ( x )dx = f ( x + T )dx =
a

f ( x + T )d ( x + T ) =

b +T

f (x )dx .

a +T

f ( x)
T 0 . a 2.

a +T

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
0

3.

109

( ,
, ).
a +T

(a ) =

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx .
0

(a ) = f (a + T ) f (a) 0 , , (a ) = const .
T

(0) = f ( x)dx f ( x)dx = 0 .


a +T

, (a ) 0 , ..

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx a .
0

.., ..

110

3.5.2. , ()

x = 0 ,

a
2 f ( x )dx,
a f (x )dx = 0
0,

f (t )dt = 0 .
0

. 1) . -

T , F (T ) =

f (t )dt + C = F (0) = C ,
0

f (t )dt = 0 .

t = x ,
:
0

f ( x )dx +

2) .

T +x

F ( x ) = f (t + T )dt + C =
T

= f ( )d +
0

T +x

f ( )d + C =

f ( )d + C = F ( x + T ) .

f ( t )d ( t ) +

= f (t )dt +
0

f (x )dx =
0

f (x )dx = 2 f (x )dx .

) , f ( x ) , .

[ ]

. 1) f ( x ) a, b ,
x =
b

f (t )dt = 0 ,

f ( x )dx =

f : F ( x ) = f (t )dt + C . F T

f ( x ) .

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx ,

f ( x ) ;

. ) f ( x ) .

3. f T . F f ( ) ,

1. f ( x ) a, a , -

f ( x )dx = 2

a+b
,
2

f (x )dx .

a +b
2

[ ]

2) f ( x ) a, b ,

a+b
;0 ,
2

f (x )dx = 0 .
a

2.

(x
2

3 arcsin 51 x + 7 x 4 arctg

( x ))dx .
5

3.

111

.., ..

112

. , ( ), x = 0 .

= bf (b ) af (a )
3

arctg (cos x )dx .

4.

. , arctg (cos x )

2 ;0 ) ,

] [

3.5.3.
. f

[a, b] ,

g f , f ([a, b]) .

F ( x ) = xf ( x )

f (x)

( g) ( y )dy

x
x y , 1+ x
sin 2 y
: g ( y ) =
. , ,
1 sin 2 y

y = arcsin

3
3
sin 2 y
x
3
arcsin
0
arcsin
0
=

dx
arcsin
0
0 1 sin 2 y dy =
2
1+ x

= +

[ ]

F ( x ) = f (x ) + xf ( x ) g ( f ( x )) f ( x ) = f ( x ) .

[ ]
f ([a, b]) -

. f a, b

f (b )

f a

,
:

f (b )

f ( x )dx = F (b ) F (a ) = bf (b ) g ( y )dy af (a )

f (a )

(1 sin y ) 1 dy =
2

1 sin 2 y

1
4
dy = + ( y tgy ) 0 3 =
= + 1
3.
2
3
y
cos

f (x )dx = bf (b ) af (a ) ( g) ( y )dy .
b

[ ]

, 0,3 .

f a

g
:

x
1
= arcsin 1
1+ x
1+ x

y = arcsin

f a, b .
. ,
g ( f ( x )) x ,

x
dx .
1+ x

0, 2 2 , , , . ,
.

arcsin
0

0, .

( g) ( y )dy .

f a

3.

f (b )

f (a )

=
(
)
g
y
dy
f (a )

1.
, :
2

) x + dx ; )
2
0

3
2

x 1dx ; )
2

x 1 1dx ;

3.
2

1 x 2 dx ; )

113

.., ..

114

2x x 2 dx .

2.

x 2 , x < 0
; )
) f ( x )dx , f ( x ) =
x, x 0
1

f (x )dx , f (x ) =

: 1) ;
2) .
3. :

x 2 , 0 x 1;
(
)
,

(
)
f
x
f
x
dx
=

0
2 x, 1 x 2;
x, 0 x t ;
1

) f ( x )dx , f ( x ) = 1 x
0
t 1 t , t x 1.
2

4. :
)

(x 1)
0

1 + cos 2 x
dx =
2

2
3

1
=
= 2 ;
x 1 0
1
2

1
3

4 1
3

sh 2

sh1

dx
1+ x2

[ ]

9. 0,3 y = f ( x ) x = 1 x = 3 y min = 2 y min = 0 , x = 0 x = 2 y max = 4 .


3

f (x ) dx .

10. :
2

dx

(2 + tg x )cos
2

[e ]dx .
0

t < l;
t > l;

dx

1+x

sgn (x x )dx ;
3

. t = tgx ,

d (tgx )
dt
0 2 + tg 2 x = 0 2 +t 2 = 0 .

. x =

6. :

1,
f (t )dt , f (t ) =
0,

dx
=
2
2 + tg x cos 2 x

0,4 ,
.
8.

= 0.

sin x dx , E

5. , ,
( ):

dx .

cos 2 x dx = cos xdx = sin x 0 = 0 ;

4
4
1 3 x dx = 3 1 x dx = x

x sgn (cos x )dx ; ) sgn (sin (ln x ))dx ; ) cos x

dx

7. :

[x]sin

1
,
t

dx
dt
dt
11 + x 2 = 1 t 2 1 + 1 t 2 = 11 +t 2 =

( ( ))

= (arctg1 arctg ( 1)) =

< 0.

3.

d 1

1 + 2 x

dx =
dx

115

.., ..

116

f ( x )
f (a + b x ) = f ( x ) x [a, b] . ,
17.

1
1+ 2

1
x

11.

1
= <0.
3

18.

1
0 x f (x )dx = 2 0 xf (x )dx (a > 0) .
3

x = sin t , t1 ,t 2 : ) 2 ; ) 2 5 2 ; ) 5 2 ? , .
12. (
, ):
2

1 x 2 dx , x = sin t x = cos t ; )

(x

dx
)
, t = tgx ;
2
1
+
sin
x
0

21. :
1

2
x 2x

12

(x + 1) (x 1)
f ( x )dx
11 + f 2 (x ) , f (x ) = x 3 (x 2) .
15. , f ( x ) ,
[a, b] ,
2

f (x )dx =

f (a + b x )dx .

dx
x2 1

1 + 3 x 8 dx .

15

f (x )dx = (b a ) f (a + (b a )x )dx .
0

0 , 75

ln 2

dx

(x + 1)
0

x2 +1

; )

e 1dx ; )
x

(1 x ) dx (n N ) ;
2 n

( x 2)

[ ]

22. , :

dx
2

x 2 10 x + 13

23. :

16. , f ( x ) a, b ,
b

14. I =

dx ; ) x 3 1 x dx ; )

t = sin x .

[A, B ] [a, b] .

d
f ( x + y )dy A a < x < B b .
dx a

f (x )cos xdx

20. f ( x )

6 x + 13 dx , t = x 6 x + 13 ?

m
n
x (1 x ) dx = x (1 x ) dx , n, m R+ .

13.

19. :

x
dx
)
, t = tg ;
12 5 cos x
2

dx

12 5 cos x , t = tg 2 ;
0

a2

1 x 2 dx -

a+b
f ( x )dx .
2 a

xf (x )dx =

1
1

[a, b] ,

dx
; )
x
e +1 x2 +1

)(

24.

dx
0 3 + cos x ; )

x+
0

dx
x2 + x +1

dx
(0 < < ) .
2 x cos + 1

3.

25.

117

[0,+ )

f ( x ) , ,

.., ..

118

[ ]

33. f ( x ) > 0 , f ( x ) < 0 0,1 . ,


1

xf (x )dx 2 f (x )dx .

= f (t )dt

) lim

n +

2
sin (x )dx > 0 .

26. ,

27. , ,
f ( x ) a, a , -

x = 0 ,

f ( x ) .

1
1+ x2
1+ x2

)
dx
1 1 + x 4
11 + x 4 dx , t = x x .

(x

dx
2

+ a2

; )
2

(a

dx
2

x2

) lim

; )
2

a
2

n +

n +

f (x )sin

x (ln x )
m

ln x dx .

cos 2 xdx ; )

(x ln x ) dx .
2

xe x dx
2
1
32.
.

2
5 0 25 x + x
3 11

sin

37.

f (x )sin (n x )dx (a > 0) ;


a

(2n +1)x cos


2

dx (m, n N ) .
2m

x cos 2 n xdx

(n, m N )

.
38. :

n 1
n 1
sin x cos((n + 1)x )dx ; ) cos x sin ((n + 1)x )dx (n N ) .
0

cos 2nx ln cos xdx (n N ) .

39.

31. , :

30. ,

cos(x )dx .

)
e

x
dx .
n +
2n
2n
a
36. n , ) lim

n +

f ( x )sin (nx )dx ; ) lim

I n =

a+x
dx (a > 0 ) .
ax

( )

n
cos x dx ; ) lim

[ ]

29. :
a
2

n +

1-
?
35. f a, b . :

f ( x ) ;

28. :

( )

n
cos x dx ; ) lim

a
a
2 f ( x )dx,
a f (x )dx = 0
0,

34. :


40. , T f ,
b

b +T

a +T

f (x )dx = f (x )dx .

a, b R

3.

119

41. f
T . , F
( ) ,
T

f (t )dt = 0 .

f (x) , < x < + T 0 ,


42. ,

a +T

.., ..

120

a
2 f ( x )dx,
a f (x )dx = 0
0,

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

(x

f (t )dt 0 , f (x ) . x

.
44. f
T . , F ( x ) =

A
x , A = f (t )dt .
T
0

51.

[ T

f (cos x )dx .
0

,
47. , ,
f ( x ) a, a , -

x = 0 ,

f ( x ) ,

f (t )dt

.

52. , f -

g f , f ([a, b]) ,
F ( x ) = xf ( x )

f C [0,1] ,

f (sin x )dx =

2003 x 545 + 2000 x )tg 2 xdx .

2 , T 2] , T . ,

dx
0 sin 4 x + cos 4 x .

2007

sin (sin x + nx )dx = 0 (n N ) .


0

[ ]

46. ,
2

50. ,

a, b ,

45.

f (t )dt

3x )dx ; ) (x
2

a .

x +1

f ( x ) .

48. ,
, .
49. :

43. , ( ,+ ) f ( x )

f ( x ) ;

f (x)

g ( y )dy

f (a )

[ ]

f a, b .
,
b

f (b )

f a

f (x )dx = bf (b ) af (a ) ( g) ( y )dy .

(1)

53.

arctgxdx : 1) 0

; 2) -

3.

121

, (
(1) ).
54. :
1) 52;
2) :
)

e2

arcsin xdx ; b) ln xdx ;

c)

dx

1+

ln 2

2 ln 2

sh( x 2 )
dx ; )
ch 3 ( x 2 )

thx

chx 1

dx ; ) shx sin xdx ;


0

3 ln 2

sh (x 3)ch (x 3)dx .
3

59. :

4 sh 2 x

; )

ln 2

ln 3

2
th xdx ; )

xchxdx .

(chx + shx )n

(chx + shx )

10

61. : )

(chx shx )

57. sh x =
n

(e

e
2n

10

x n

dx .

ch x =
n

x +1 +

(x + 1)

62. : )

(e

+e
2n

1
1
5
3
5
ch3 x + chx , sh 5 x = sh5 x sh3x + shx ,
16
4
16
4
8

: )

; )

5
3
ch xdx ; ) sh xdx .

t
2

x n

(x 2)

3 + (x 2)
ln 5

dx

1
ln 2
3

x +1
3 (x 1)x(x 2) dx ; )
29

0 ,1 ln 2

t 14 dt
x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x11 x 13

+
= arctgx .
+

+
x
0 t 2 + 1
5
7
9 11 13
3

60. : )

2
n
(chx shx )
),
2

dx ; )

t 6 dt
x2 x3 x4 x5 x6

= ln (1 + x ) , x ( 1,+ ) .
+

+
x
0 t + 1
3
4
5
6
2
x

ch 3 x =

ln 3

4
sh xdx ; )

(chx + shx )n = ch(nx ) + sh(nx ) , (chx shx )n = ch(nx ) sh(nx )


(n N ) (
n
n
(
chx + shx ) + (chx shx )
,
ch(nx ) =

ln 2

2
x chxdx ; )

56.

0 ,1 ln 2

chxdx

sh(nx ) =

55. :
ln 1+ 2

58. :

.., ..

122

t 1
2

12

2 2

dx ; )

; )

8
3

ex ex 1
dx ; )
ex + 3

dt

dx

( x + 2 ) ( x 3)

ln 2

dx
x

(x

(arcsin x ) dx .
4

dt
e 1
t

.., ..

124
4.

+ , , + .
x = + ( )
( 1- ).
, f x

( )

[a,+) ,

f (x )dx = f ( x )dx .
a


1 ,
. , , .
,
, .

4.1. 1- 2-
.
()

( , a]

[ A, a ] A < a ):
a

[ )
[a, A] (A > a ) .

1-

[a,+)
+

f (x )dx =
a

A +

f ( x ) -

lim

f (x )dx .

(1)

( )

( ). (1)
, , (,
f x ). ,

( )

f ( x)dx +

lim

f (x )dx

(3)

A +
A A

A + A .
a

f ( x)dx = lim

f ( x)dx + lim

A +

f ( x)dx ,
a

f ( x)dx

, -

.
.
(1) f x

+

f (x )dx < +

, , , (1) ,
f x

[a,+)

f ( x)dx =

(2)

( )

A +

f (x )dx ( A < a ) ,

f ( x ) ( ,+ )

( )

f (x )dx ( )

f (x )dx = lim

f (x )dx =

.
f x a,+ -

f ( x )

4.1.1. 1-

f ( x )

(
+

f (x )dx > ).
a

4.

125

.., ..

126

1. , , ( , ):
+

dx
dx
x (a > 0) ; ) 1 + x
p

; )

dx

1+ x

; )

; )

cos xdx .

dx
dx
1 + x 2 = 1 + x 2 +
+

cos xdx =

1 p

1 p

a
A
= + , ,
). p < 1 lim
A

+
p 1
1 p

a 1 p
, p 1 , p > 1
p 1
( + ).
1

)
1+ x2
A
(
)
[0, A] A > 0 , dx 2 = arctgx 0A = arctgA .
0 1+ x

A + , 2 , -

= .

lim cos xdx = lim sin x 0 = lim sin A .

A +

A +

A +

[ ]

f ( x ) , -

a, b ( , , ), . , ,
0 < < b a a, b

](

, b . b
, ,
, (2- ).
b

dx
+
= ln x a = + , .. .
p = 1
x
a

dx

1+ x

4.1.2. 2-

A1 p
= 0 , , (
p > 1 lim
A+ 1 p

, .

A1 p a 1 p
dx
lim p = lim

.
A+ x
A + 1 p
1 p
a

2 ).

dx
dx

0
= lim arctgx A = lim ( arctgA ) = .
2
1 + x 2 = Alim


A
A
2
A1+ x
0

A1 p a 1 p
dx x 1 p

=
=
a x p 1 p 1 p 1 p .
a

1
. ) p
x
[a, A] ( A > a ) .
p 1
A

dx

1+ x

) :

dx

1+ x

f (x )dx

( )

2-

+0

f ( x ) a

b
b

f ( x )dx = lim

+0

f (x )dx .

(1)

, , , (1) ,
f x a

( )

b ( ). (1) , , , f ( x ) -

. ,
+ , , + .

4.
b

127

.., ..

128

f ( x)dx = lim

+0

f ( x)dx , a .

, ,

a+

[ ]

( )

f (x )dx = f (x )dx .
[a, b]
c1 , c 2 ,..., c m , f ( x ) ,
, [a, b ] -


t =

, . , ,
, a , b , , c , .
:

f ( x ) a b

b 4
c 2

(
)
(
)
+
f
x
dx
f
x
dx
f ( x )dx = lim

1 +0

c + 3
2 +0 a + 1

3 +0
4 +0

, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 .

,
a, A .
(
) ( 2- ,
). ,
.
.

, ,
, f x a, b ,

dx
(b x ) (a < b) ,

1- ( 2- 1- ).

dt
1
1
, x = b , dx = 2 , ,
bx
t
t
b
+
dx
dt
a (b x ) p = 1 (ba ) t 2 p .

1. , :
b

dx

(b x )

1 x2

. )

dx

(a < b ) ; )
(b x ) p

; )

dx
1 x2

; )

dx
1 x2

[a, b ] (0 < < b a )

x b 0 ( x = b ). p 1

, p > 0 ,

dx

(b x )

= lim

+0

dx

(b x )
a

(b x )1 p
= lim
+0
1 p

1 p (b a )1 p
= lim

+0 p 1
p 1

1
. t =
bx
2- b -

b . -

p < 1 ,

lim

+0

1 p
p 1

(b a )1 p

= 0 , , , (

1 p

= + , ,
+0 p 1
1 p
( + ).
b
b
dx
dx
b
= lim
= lim ln (b x ) a = +
p = 1

+
0
bx
bx
a
a

). p > 1 ,

lim

.
, p < 1 , p 1 .

4.

129

1 x
[0,1 ] , 0 < < 1 , x = 1 (
2

) .
,
1

dx
1 x

= lim

+0

dx
1 x

= lim arcsin x 0 =
+0

= lim arcsin (1 ) = arcsin 1 =


+0

)
0

x = 1 :

dx
1 x2

= lim

+0

1+

dx

= lim arcsin x 1+ =
+0

1 x2

= lim arcsin ( 1 + ) = arcsin 1 =


+0

x = 1 :
1
dx
dx

+
= + = .
2 2
1 x2 0 1 x2

)
1

dx
1 x2

4.2.
.
( )
4.2.1. ,

f ( x ) (0,+ ) (0, x ) ,

f ( x ) (0,+ )
x

1
M [ f ] = lim f (t )dt .
x + x
0

130

.., ..

()

. f x = arctgx 0,+ .
. :
x
x
1
1
tdt
x
=
M [arctgx] = lim arctg (t )dt = lim t arctgt 0
2
x + x
x + x
0
0 1+ t

x
1
1 d (1 + t 2 )
=

= lim x arctgx
2

x + x
2
1
t
+
0

1
1
= lim x arctgx ln (1 + t 2 ) =

x + x
2
0

ln 1 + x 2
1
1

= ,
= lim x arctgx ln (1 + x 2 ) = lim arctgx
x + x
2
2 x 2

x+

ln (1 + x 2 )
= 0.
x +
2x

, , lim

. ( 4 2) ,

f (x )

1
f (t )dt = A .
x + x
0

C[0,+) lim f ( x ) = A , lim


x +

4.2.2.
( )
1. 1- .
f x ,+

( )

[A, A], ( ,+) +

. ,

f (x )dx ,

,
+

f ( x )dx = lim

f (x )dx

A +
A A

(1)

A + A . ,
, , -

4.

131

.., ..

132

A = A . (1) (
) 4
+

V . p. f ( x )dx = lim

A +

f (x )dx .

f ( x ) ,
[ A, A] ,
1. , ,

V . p. f ( x )dx = 0 ,

1+ x
1
x


, 2
2
1+ x
1+ x
1+ x2
1+ x
V . p.
dx =
2
1 + x

f (x )dx = 2 f (x )dx .

f (x )dx , f (x )dx . , -

(, , ):
+

V . p. f ( x )dx = 2 f (x )dx .

( )

, f x , , :

(x ) =

f (x ) + f ( x )
f ( x ) f ( x )
(x ) =
,
2
2

, (
).

4
V.p. valeur principale, -
.

= .

( )

f (x )dx , ..

dx

1+ x

f ( x ) a b , ,

2. 2- . a, b f x ,
c
, c . 2-

[ ]

(, f ( x ) = x ).

f ( x ) ,

.

. ,

f (x )dx

V . p. f (x )dx = ( x )dx ,

c 1
f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx ,
1 +0

c + 2
2 +0 a

1 2 . ,
, ,

, . ,
( )
b

f (x )dx
a

b
b
c

V . p. f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx .


+0
c +
a
a

2.

f (x )dx ,
a

. ,
, .

4.

133


. .

.., ..

134

+0 ln(1 ) ~ , ln(1 + ) ~ ,

= 0.
lim ln
+0

1. :
b

dx
(a < c < b ) ; )
)
x

c
a

dx
1 x ln x ; )
2

dx
. )
xc
a

dx
sin xdx ; ) 0 x 2 3x + 2 .

(a < c < b )

dx
+
xc

. ,
+

c + 2

2
. , 1 = 2 ,
,
c

dx
+
xc

dx

bc

x c = ln c a ,

2
1 dx
dx
dx
+
=
V . p.
= lim
+0
x ln x
1 x ln x
1 x ln x
1+
2
2

1 d (ln x ) 2 d (ln x )
= lim ln ln x 1 + ln(ln x ) 2 =
+
= lim

1
1+
+0
2
ln x
ln x +0

1
1+
2

1
= lim ln ln (1 ) ln ln + ln (ln 2) ln (ln (1 + )) =
+0
2

A +

dx

(x 1)(x 2) , 0

: x = 1 , x = 2 (
) x = + .
. , ,
+

V . p.

dx

(x 1)(x 2) =
0

= lim
1 +0
2 +0

1 1

dx
dx
dx
=
+
+
(x 1)(x 2) 1+1 (x 1)(x 2) 2+ 2 (x 1)(x 2)
2 2

x2
= lim ln
1 +0
x 1
2 +0

ln (1 )
.
= lim ln
+0
ln (1 + )

lim cos x A =

= lim ( cos A + cos( A)) = 0 .

dx
0 x 2 3x + 2 =

A +

) ,

sin xdx =

A +

. ,

dx
bc
= ln
.
V . p.
xc
ca
a

A +

c+

sin xdx = lim

V . p.

bc
dx
+ ln 1
= ln
ca
xc
2

,
c 1

sin xdx

A +

11

x2
+ ln
x 1

2 2

1+ 1

x2
+ ln
x 1

2 + 2
A

1 + 1

1 + 1

A2
= lim ln
ln 2 + ln 2 ln
+ ln
ln 2
1 +0
1
1 2
1
A 1
1+ 2
2 +0
A +

1+ 2
A 2
+ ln
= ln 2 .
= lim ln 2 + ln
1 +0
A 1
1 2
2 +0
A +

4.

135

.., ..

136

4.2.3.
,
. , .
, , f x x 0

( )

[0,+) .

[0, x] ,

4.3. ()

f ( x ) [a,+ )
[a, A] (A > a ) .

1.1 ( 1- ).
+

F ( x ) = f (t )dt

( )

A0 = A0 ( ) > a , A, A A0 -

1
F (u )du .
x 0

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx =

f (x )dx < .

1
lim F (u )du = I ,
x + x
0

F ( A) = f ( x)dx . ,
a

, , ( !).
+

sin xdx

f (x ) = sin x ,

F ( x ) = sin tdt = 1 cos x , :


0

1
x sin x
F (u )du = lim
= 1.

x + x
x +
x
0

+ , > 0
A0 = A0 ( ) > a , A, A A0 :

F ( A) F ( A) < . .
, .
1.2 ( 1- ). +

f (x )dx , > 0

, ( ) A0 > a A, A A0 ,

f (x )dx

, F ( A)

lim

f (x )dx , -

, ,
.

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx =

f (x )dx > .

2.1 ( 2- ). b

f (x )dx
a

>0

( b ) -

4.

( ) > 0 , ,

137

138

.., ..

, 0 < <

f (x )dx > .

0 < < ,

A, A > A :

F ( ) = f ( x)dx . ,
a

, F ( ) -

b , > 0
( ) > 0 , , , 0 < <
0 < < , :
F (b ) F (b ) < .

sin x
dx > . , . ,
p
A x

A a n N : 2n > A , A A
2n + 2n

+ 2n

.
.
2.2 ( 2- ). b

f (x )dx ( b ) ,
a

> 0 , ( ) > 0 , ,
0 < < ,

0 < < ,

cos x
a x p dx (a > 0, p 0) .
+

. ,

f (x )dx
a

2 n

sin xdx .

2n, + 2n , sin x
x
, 1- :
p

I = p

+ 2n

sin xdx = 2

, 2n < < + 2n .

2 n

n : p 0 , > 1 , p > 1 , ,
, I > 2 . 2 +
sin x
dx . ,
p
a x

. ,

sin x
a x p dx

f ( x )dx > .

I=

> 0 : A a

f (x )dx < .

> 0 : A a A, A > A :

cos x
dx .
p
a x

4.4.
,
.
, .
a, b , a b , .

[ ]

4.

139

1. .
1.1. f x ( ) -

2. .
f x ( ) -

( )

[a, b] c = const , cf (x )

[a, b] ,

.., ..

140

( )

cf (x )dx = c f (x )dx .
f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b] ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) [a, b] ,
b

k =1

[a, b] f k (x ) k ,
[a, b] ,
b

k = 1,2,..., n , -

n
(
)

f
x
dx
=
k f k (x )dx .

k k
a
k =1
k =1

(. 1.4 1).
1. () .
, f x (

( )

[a, b] , g (x ) . ,
() ( ) [a, b]
. g ( x ) [a, b]
)

() , .
2. . , 1,+

f (x ) =

()

()

f ( x ) [a,+ ) c > a ,

f ( x ) ( ,+ ) , c

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx .

f ( x ) [a, c ] [c,+) , , .. [a,+) .


. (. 1.4 1).
, f x a,+ c > a . f x

( )

f ( x )dx =

f (x )dx +

f (x )dx .
c

f ( x ) [c,+) , , A

A> a.

A + , ,

[a, A]

( )

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx .


a

1
1
g (x ) = .
x
x

, . , f x + g x 0 , , 1,+ .

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx .

f k ( x ) -

( f (x ) g (x ))dx = f (x )dx g (x )dx .


n

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx .

1.2.
b

[ ] [ ] [ ]

a, b , a, c c, b ( a, b, c
). ,

5

lim

A +

f (x )dx .
c

, .

4.
A

lim

A +

f ( x )dx =

f (x )dx + lim

A +

141

3. ( : f x

f ( x )dx .

( )
f (x ) g (x )

f ( x ) [a,+) .

f (x )dx , -

3.

f (x )dx ,

A > a , ,

[a,+) ,

x = + , A > a , -

f (x)dx

f (x )dx ,
a

f ( x )dx =

f (x )dx +

1- .

f (x )dx ,
a

lim

A +

lim

A +

f ( x )dx =

f ( x )dx lim

A +

f ( x )dx =

f ( x )dx

[1,+) .

sin x
x

sin x
x

dx ( , . 4.7.5.), -

1
sin x
dx =

2
x
1

dx 1
1 x 2

cos 2 xdx
1 x ( -

).

f ( x ) [a, b] , f ( x ) , ,

[a, b] .

sin x
,
dx ,
x
1

[a, b] ,
f (x ) g ( x ) , , [a, b] .

1
,
x2

6. 6.

f ( x )dx = 0 .

()

, f ( x ) = g ( x ) =

f (x) g (x) =

1
, g ( x ) 1 .
x2

g x .
, , , , .

5. .
f x g x

( )

[ ]
[a, b] .
, [1,+) f ( x ) =

f (x)dx =0.

. ,
+

4. ( ) a, b -

4.

(., , , , ).

()

f (x)dx .
A

g ( x ) [a, b] ,
[a, b ] ). f ( x ) g ( x ) -

.., ..

142

sin x
x

dx

sin 2 x
1 x dx .
, -

f ( x ) [a, b]

f ( x ) .
b

f (x )dx f (x ) dx .
6
, (. . 4.7.9).

4.

143

: . 1 . 4.7.9.

10.

5. ( : f x -

( )
[a, b ] , f ( x )
[a, b ] ).
7. f ( x ) ( )
[a, b] , [c, d ] [a, b] .
b

.., ..

144

f (x )dx ( [a, b] ). d < b ,


a

f ( x ) [c, d ]
( ). d = b [c, d ] [a, b] ,
, f ( x ) [c, d ] .

f ( x ) [a,+) T > 0 ,

g ( x ) 0

a +T

x + . ()

f (x )dx = 0 , (a

f (x )g (x )dx

a +T

f (x )dx = K 0 ,

f (x )g (x )dx
a

8. .
f x ,+

( )

+
+
2 f ( x )dx,
f (x )dx = 0
0,

f ( x ) ;

f ( x ) .

[0, A]

[0,+) ,

f ( x )

A > 0 , (.

3.5.2 3):

2 f ( x )dx,
A f (x )dx = 0
0,

f ( x ) ;

f ( x ) .

.
9. , :
b

f ( x )dx = f (t )dt .
a

g (x )dx .
a

: .[17] (.XIII, 1, . 478).


, f ( x ) = sin x , 2

T = , [0,+) .

sin
0

sin

xdx =

0.

x g ( x )dx , g ( x ) [0,+)

0 x + , +

g (x )dx . ,
0

1
1
2
0 2 sin x g (x )dx = 2 0 cos 2 x g (x )dx
g ( x ) , [0,+) 0
x + .

( )

11. f x a,+ , , , .
,

( )

x3 + x
[0,+) ( 1 . 4.7.4), , ,

4.

145

.., ..

146

4.5.

6. ( : f x -

( )

[a, b] , ).
12. [a, b] (a < b )
f ( x ) g ( x ) f (x ) g (x ) ,

f (x )dx g (x )dx .

,
.
1 ( ). f x

( )

g ( x ) [a, b] ( g ( x ) , ,
), f ( x ) :
m f (x ) M ,
g ( x ) . f ( x )g ( x ) [a, b]
b


(. 2 2.1 2)
.

f ( x ) [a, b] , x

13.

(a, b )
F (x ) =

f (t )dt
a

x.

x (a, b )
A (a, b ) , x [a, A] ,
f ( x ) , -

f ( x ) [a, b] , x = x 0
(a, b ) f ( x ) ,
14.

F (x ) =

f (t )dt

, F ( x 0 ) = f ( x 0 ) .

2 1.5 1.

f ( x )
[a, b] , m, M f (x )
[a, b] ,
f (x ) :

1 1.5 1.

M.

f ( x )g (x )dx = g ( x )dx ,

f ( x )g ( x )dx = f (c ) g ( x )dx , c [a, b] .


a

. ,

[a, b] .

g ( x )

[a, b] . ,
f ( x )g ( x ) max{m , M } g ( x ) , , f ( x )g (x ) [a, b] (. 2.1 4.7.1
). ,

g (x )dx , [a, b]
a

g ( x ) [a, A]
A (a, b ) . , -

(. 1
2.2.1 2), :

4.
A

147

.., ..

[a,+) [a, A] ( A > a ) . f ( x ) F ( x ) [a,+ ) ,

f (x )g (x )dx = ( A) g (x )dx A (a, b ) ,


a

148

( A) inf f (x ), sup f ( x ) .

a x A
a x A

A b 0 (

),
.
2 ( ). f x

[ ]

f (x )dx = F (x )

f (x )dx = F (x )

f (x )dx = F (x )

[ ]

f ( x )g ( x )dx = f (a + 0 ) g ( x )dx + f (b 0 ) g ( x )dx (a b ) .

. ,
a, b .
. , 1, , f x g x a, b .

[ ]

[ ]

() ()

= F (+ ) F (a ) .

a, b , g x (, ).
f x g x a, b

() ()

( )

()

= F (a ) F ( ) ,

= F (+ ) F ( ) .

.
. A

f (x )dx = F (x )

A
a

= F ( A) F (a ) A > a .


.
+

g (x )dx , -

. ,

[ ]

, a, b .
( 2 2.2.2 2
), : A a, b

[ a, A] ,

A b 0 , . .

4.6.
4.6.1.
( , 1- ). f x

( )

f (x )dx

,
lim F ( A) = F (+ ) .
A +

1. :
+

f ( x )g ( x )dx = f (a + 0 ) g ( x )dx + f ( A) g ( x )dx .

A + . -

sin xdx ; )

x
2

1
sin dx .
x

F ( x ) = cos x
sin x ( ,+ ) , , . ) ,

,
+

sin xdx = ( cos x )

,
cos x x , .

4.
+

1
1
1 1
1
) 2 sin dx = sin d = cos
x
x x
x
2 x
2

149

(1) , ,
(1). .
2.
b, a .
1. :

+
2

.., ..

150

= 1 0 = 1.

4.6.2.

1 ( 1- 2-
1) f ( x )
[ a, b) ( b 1- 2- );
2) x = x (t ) , [ , ) (, , -

, ), , , ;
3) x (t ) [ a, b) ;

. )

= tdt
1
xdx

1 1 x
1

=
0

dt

1 t

(1)

1. , .
. , x = x t t = t x , ( -

()

x(t ) ) [a, b ) . x 0 t 0 , x t (a, b ) ( , ) . ,


,

, :
x0

=
1

t0

f ( x)dx = f ( x(t )) x(t )dt .


a

, , (1), x 0 b . t 0 = t ( x0 ) ,

)
1

arcsin x

dx .

x(1 x )

t = 1 x 2 , x 2 = 1 t 2 , xdx =
1

tdt

1 t

1 t dt =
0

tdt
1 t

d (1 t )
1 t

1 + (t 1)dt
1 t

1 t d (1 t ) =

= 2 1 t +
3

, (
).

()

f ( x)dx = f ( x(t )) x (t )dt ,

4) x ( ) = a , x ( ) = b .

b

; )

1 1 x

). :

xdx

(1 t ) = 4 .
0 3
3

t = x , x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt :

arcsin x

x(1 x )

dx =
0

arcsin t
t/ 1 t

2t/dt = 2 arcsin t
0

= 2 arcsin td (arcsin t ) = (arcsin t )


0

2 1
0

dt
1 t2

2
4

4.6.3.
2.1 ( 1-
). f ( x ) , g ( x ) [ a, + ) , lim ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) .
x +

f ( x) g ( x)dx

f ( x) g ( x)dx
a

4.
+

f ( x) g ( x)dx = f ( x )g ( x ) a
+

151

1
ax
sin bx e
b

f ( x) g ( x)dx .

.
, A > a :
A

f ( x) g ( x)dx =
a

.., ..

152

f ( A) g ( A) f ( a ) g ( a ) f ( x) g ( x)dx .
a

A + , , . .
2- .

> 0,

lim ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) ( lim ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) ). x b 0

xa + 0

f ( x) g ( x)dx

f ( x) g ( x)dx
a

f ( x) g ( x)dx = f (x )g (x )

b
a

f ( x) g ( x)dx .

ax

dg = cos bxdx , df = ae

f =e

I = e
0

ax

=
0

cos bc ae ax dx .
b

ax

arcsin xdx .
0

. arcsin x , . :
1
0

xdx
1 x2

=
1

xdx
1 x2

xdx
1 x2

1
sin bx ( ae ax )dx .
b
0

1 d 1 x2
=
= 1 x2
2
2
2
1 x
1 x
0
xdx

1
0

2- , :

1
cos bxdx = sin bx e ax
b

1
,
b

arcsin xdx = x arcsin x

1
dx , g = sin bx . b

,
+

1
cos bx e ax
b

ax

dg = sin bxdx .

cos bxdx (a > 0, b 0) .

. I .

a 1
cosbx e ax
b b

2.

1.

f = e ax ,

,
.

.
+

+
a1 a
a1 a

I = cos bx e ax dx = I .
bb b 0
b b b
a
.
I : I = 2
a + b2

a
= 0 , I = sin bx e ax dx . b 0

1
df = ae ax dx , g = cos bx
b
+
a
I = sin bx e ax dx =
b 0

2.2 ( 2-
). f ( x ) , g ( x ) [ a , b ] ( [ a + , b] )

= 1.

4.
1

, arcsin xdx =

153

1.


, ,
.
3. , n n N :

(n + 1) =

e x dx

f =x ,

dg = e dx ,

df = nx

n 1

( ) (
). .
4.7.1. .


.
f x , ()

[a,+)

.., ..

154

dx ,

( )

g = e , , , -

F ( A) = f ( x )dx

(n + 1) =

e dx = x e
n

(1) = e x dx = e x
0

x +

+ nx

Aa.

[a, A] ,

e dx = n(n ) ,

n 1 x

= 1 .

(n + 1) = n(n 1)(n 2) ... 2 1 (1) = n!

, , () A .
1 ( 1- +

). 1-

f (x )dx a

F ( A) A -

4.7.
, ,
, ( ).
.
.
1. .
. , .
2. .
, , , , . ,
,
, .

, .. L :

f (x )dx L

A a .

. .

f (x )dx

:
+

0 F ( A)

f (x )dx A a .
a

F ( A) .
. F ( A) , lim F ( A) . ,

A +

f (x )dx .
a

4.

155

2 ( 1- ).
x A a 0 f x

( ) g (x ) ,

156

.., ..

, ( )

(1)

f (x )dx L (L = const ) .

1.
2.1 ( 2- ). > 0 , x b , b (..

f (x )dx ,

(2)

g (x )dx

g (x )dx ,

g ( x)dx , ,
a

>0

A0 = A0 ( ) > 0 ,

A, A > A0 :

f (x )dx ,

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx < .

f ( x)dx . a

. .
+

. ,

f ( x )dx

g (x )dx , ,
a

(1) (2).
2- .
f x a, b

( )

[ ]

x = b ) 2- .

1.1 ( 2-
b

). 2-

f ( x )dx -

(4)

(3)

0 f ( x ) g ( x ) , -

(2) (1).
.

b x )

f ( x )dx

g (x )dx

>0

f ( x )dx g (x )dx .
a

, (4) (3).
2 2- .
+

xdx
.
2
cos 2 x
0
. + . x 0 x
x
,

2
2
1 + x cos x 1 + x 2
+
xdx
0 1 + x 2
.

1+ x

, .
,
. .

4.

157

.., ..

158

4.7.2. ( )

f (x )dx ,

(1- , ).
x a

f (x ) F (x ) .

F (x )dx

f (x )dx

, .
.

f (x)

f (x )dx .
a

. 1- ,
,
.
1. :
+

cos(x 3 )

(1 + x ) dx ; )
1

. )

5 2

arctg 3 x

x 1 :

cos(x

) 1
) (1 + x )

5 2

5 2

<

1
,
x10

dx
1 x10 , , 1- ,

( ).
)

x 2 :

arctg 3 x
x

2
x

2
2

dx
x

, , 1- , (
).
4.7.3.
()

( )

()

lim

x +

f (x )dx , f (x )dx .

f (x )
=k.
g (x )

:
+

0 < k < + ,

f ( x )dx

(1 + x

()

1)

dx .

( )

f x
. ( ) g x , () , x + .

f x .
1 (2- 1- ). f x g x a,+ ,
( )

( )

F ( x ) ,

g (x )dx

;
2) k = 0 ,

3)

g (x )dx

f (x )dx ;

k = + ,

g (x )dx

f (x )dx .

. 1) , k ,

x + ,

,
f ( x) = g ( x)( k + o(1))
1
3
kg ( x) < f ( x) kg ( x) x b (
2
2
x , ,
k
o(1) ). 1- ,
2

g (x )dx f (x )dx , -

4.
+

159

.., ..

160

f ( x )dx . , ,

lim

x b 0

f ( x )dx

g (x )dx .

1)

2) k
f ( x ) = g ( x )o(1) x + , , f ( x ) g ( x) x b . +

g (x )dx

f (x )dx , , b

f (x )dx .

g (x )dx

k = + , g ( x ) = f ( x )o(1) x + ,
, f ( x ) g ( x ) x b .
+

g (x )dx b

f ( x )dx , ,

f ( x )dx . -

.
() 2-

g (x )dx

f (x )dx ;

k = + ,
b

g (x )dx

f (x )dx .

1.
1. :

ln (1 + 2 x )
)
dx ; )
x
1
+

ln(1 + 2 x )
1 3 x 5 dx ; )

ln(sin x )
0 x dx ; )
2

ln (1 + 2 x ) x
= lim ln (1 + 2 x ) = + .
x +
x +
1x
lim

( ).
f x .

( )

2 (2- 2- ). f x ( )

x10 dx .

2- ,

f ( x )
x = b . x b g ( x ) , ()

x2

. .

f (x )dx ,

3)

( )

f ( x )dx

;
2) k = 0 ,

0 < k < + ,

3)

f (x )
=k.
g (x )

lim

x +

ln(1 + 2 x ) x 3
1 x

4
3

= lim

ln (1 + 2 x )

x +

x
+

2- ,

dx

1
3

dx
3

x4

= 0.

4.

161

x = 0 -

1
k (k > 0) :
x
ln (sin x ) x
ln (sin x )
.
lim
= lim
k
1
x

+
0
x +0
k
1x
2
x

,
k < 0

2
:

lim

ln (sin x )

x +0

= lim

(ln(sin x ))

12 k
x

1
=
lim
1 2 k x +0

1
k
2

x +0

= lim

x +0

1
x

k +

1
2

ctgx

x2

x 10 dx , , .

4.7.4. ( )
( ) .

1
f ( x ) = O p
x

e
0

x10 dx = e x x10 dx +
2

p > 1

( ),

e
0

x2

10

x dx

x2

10

1
f ( x ) = O
p
(b x )

1
, ..
bx

p < 1

x dx -

e x x 10
ex
=
lim
= 0 , , 2-
x + 1 x 2
x + 1 x 12
lim

, p 1

( )

f (x )dx ,

p 1 .

. .

f (x )dx

.
2. 2- .
x b 0 f x -

x 10 dx . e x x10 dx
+

1
, ..
x

.
1

x +0 ,
1
k , k < 1 . x
1
k ,
< k < 1 , , 2- , 2
2

( )

dx

(3- , ).
1. 1- .
x + f x

1
0. ,
2

, k >

1
k
k x 2

.., ..

162

1
1
a x p dx (a > 0) a (b x) p dx , p .
. 3- . -

4.

163

() , . , .
+

1.

dx
x +x
3

, I I 1 I 2 ,

:

I=

dx
x +x
3

dx

x +x
3

dx

x3 + x

= I1 + I 2

( A ), ( I ,
I 1 I 2 ).
1)



), ..

1
x +x
3

x +x
3

1
x
~

I 1 . x +0 x >> x 3 ,

I 1 I 2 ,

I .
+

2.

dx

1
1

, -

x3 + x

x3

( -

), , . 3 2 > 1 , , 3- -

I 1 .

. :
= 0 ( 2- ) x = + ( 1- ). -

I 1 I 2 ,
:
+

I=

dx
0 x p =

dx
0 x p +

dx

= I1 + I 2

( A > 0 ), .

I 1 p < 1 p 1 .
2) I 2 p > 1 p 1 .
, p 1 I 1 I 2 -

1)

, , .
p = 1 , , , .
: p .
+

3.

x
0

( -

x 2
. 1 2 < 1 , , 3- 2- , I 1 .
2) I 2 . x +
1
1

1- ,

.., ..

. , I ,
: x = 0 ( 2- ,
) x = + ( 1- ). -

164

. 1) p = q ,

dx
.
+ xq
1
2

dx

, -

, p .

x +0 1
1
1
: f ( x ) = p
= O p ; x + f ( x ) = p
=
q
x +x
x + xq
x
1
= O q , , p < 1 ,
x
q > 1.
3) p > q , ,
p > 1 , q < 1 .
2) p < q ,

4.

, ,

min( p, q ) < 1 , max( p, q ) > 1 .

165

p q ,

.., ..

166

f ( x ) [a, A] ,
K = const : A a
1)

4.
+

xa

dx
p1

x a2

p2

... x a n

pn

f (x )dx K

(a1 < a 2 < ... < a n ) .

x = a k , k = 1,2,..., n ,

1
, ,
f ( x ) O
x a pk
k

x = a k , , p k < 1 , k = 1,2,..., n .

1
x : f ( x ) = O p + p +...+ p
n
x 1 2

p1 + p 2 + ... + p n > 1 .

, ,

, ,

k = 1,2,..., n ,

p
k =1

pk < 1 ,

(1)

, ,
. 2- ,
.

x = + .
( ).

[a,+) , :

f ( x ) g ( x )

(18051859).
. (.).

g ( x ) (
). g ( x ) 0 ,
A0 > a , 0 g ( x ) <

x +

x > A0 . A1 , A2 -

[A1 , A2 ] ,

f (x )g ( x)dx =

f ( x )g ( x )dx ,

> 0.

A1

(1) .
.

A2

4.7.5. 8

2) g ( x ) [a,+ )
x + .

> 1.

( K A );

A0 < A1 < A2 .

g ( A1 ) f ( x )dx <
A1

( )

f (x )dx

A1

f x .
(1).
. , ,
.
1.
+

sin(x )dx .
2

. t = x ,
2

x = t , dx =

dt
2 t

+ t 0 + :
+
+
1 sin t
2
dt .
sin
(
x
)
dx
=
0
2 0 t

4.

167

A 0 [0, A]
f (t ) = sin t :

sin tdt

= cos 0 cos A 2 ,

g (t ) =

1
t

0 t + , , -

, .
2.
+

sin 2 x
0 x dx .

. :
+

sin 2 x
sin 2 x
dx
=
0 x
0 x dx +

sin 2 x
A x dx = I1 + I 2 ( A > 0) ,

sin 2 x
0 , x = 0
1) x +0
x
( ).
, , , I 1 ( , ).
2) I 2 :
+

1
sin 2 x
1 1 cos 2 x
A x dx = 2 A x dx = 2

dx 1
A x 2

cos 2 x
dx .
x
A

( 3- ).
, B A
B

cos 2 xdx =
A

1
1
sin 2 x = sin 2 B sin 2 A 1 ,
2
2
A

1
0 x + . , x

I 2 .
.

168

.., ..

4.

1. :

4.7.6.

, -, ,

f (x )g (x )dx .

(1)

( ). f ( x ) g ( x )

1
x2
0 e cos 2 x 3 + 1 dx ; )
+

. ) ,

1) f ( x ) a,+ ) ( );

2) g ( x ) : L = const : g ( x ) L x a .
(1) .
. . > 0 .
+

f (x )dx , A ( ) > a , A2

0 < e x dx <
2

A1

, g (x ) .
.
g (x) A1 , A2 , A0 < A1 < A2 ,

A2

f ( x) g ( x)dx =

A1

[A1 , A2 ] ,

A2



+
g ( A1 ) f ( x)dx + g ( A2 ) f ( x)dx L
= ,
2L 2L

A1

A1 , A2 ,

A0 < A1 < A2 . , -

, (1) . .
1. , , , .
2. , , , , , .

dx

ln(x + 1)
1

x2

x3 + x

dx ,

dx +

dx =

e
1

x2

dx , 0 < e x dx < 1 ,

(18021829).

1
3
, cos(1 (2 x + 1)) e

( (

))

.
+

dx
x3

dx
x3 + x

, 3- .

1
1
x + : 0 <

ln ( x + 1)
ln( x + 1)
1

. , , .
ln 2
4.7.7.
() 1- 2- ,
.
1 ( 1- ).

f ( x ) , [a,+ )
g (x )
( p > 0) .
x f ( x ) =
xp
: 1) p > 1 g ( x ) c < + ,

f (x )dx ;
a

: cos 1 2 x + 1 1 . , -

f (x )dx < 2 L , L -

x2

a,+ ) , :

A1 , A2 , A0 < A1 < A2 , :

169

.., ..

4.

2) p 1 g ( x ) c > 0 , .
( 2,
4.7.1), -

4.7.8.

170

c
.
xp

1.1 ( 2- ).
a, b (0 < < b a ) f ( x )

, b .
, , b x f ( x )

g (x )
( p > 0) .
f (x ) =
(b x ) p
: 1) p < 1 g ( x ) c < + ,

f (x )dx ;
a

2) p 1 g ( x ) c > 0 , .
(
2.1, 4.7.1),

c
.
(b x ) p

+
+
2 arcsin
2
3
2
cos arctg x + 1
2 cos ( x 1)
x

dx ; )
dx ; )
dx .
)
2
x
x

1
x
1
2
1
2
3
. ) g ( x ) = cos arctg x + 1 1 < +
p = 2 > 1 . , .
2
) g ( x ) = 2 cos ( x 1) 1 > 0 p = 1 1 . ,

))

, .
) g ( x ) = arcsin
.

1. :
1

ln 1 + 3 x
0 e sin x 1 dx ; )

arctgx

(1 + x )

3
2 2

dx .

. ) , x +0 -

0
. , ,
0
. : ln 1 + 3 x ~ 3 x ,
e sin x 1 ~ sin x ~ x ,
1
O 2 . , 2 3 < 1 , 3- ,
3
x

.
) 1- ( x = + ). -

1. :

() (,
) .

, . .

171

))

1
1

p = < 1 , , ,
x 2
2

, .. x + , : arctgx ~

(1 + x )

3
2 2

~ x , 3- -

1 arctgx
1
:
= O 3 , ,
3
x
(1 + x 2 )2 x

3 > 1 , , 3- 1-
, .
b
a2

e x e x2
0

2.

dx .

.., ..

4.

. , x +0 f ( x )
, , ..
. , x = + .
x +
, , ,

. )
x = 0 (, p > 0 ). ,
p . -

172

a2

b2

b2 a2
1
1
+ o 2 = O 2 ,
e x e x =
2
x
x
x
.. f ( x ) x + 1

. 2 > 1 ,
x

, 3- , .
+

x
1 dx

3. x
2.
x
2 x
0e e
. , x = 0 .
x2 x3
x
x
e e = 1 x +

+ o x 3 , :
2! 3!
1
1
1
x
x2

+ o x2 .
2
12
e x e x 2 2 + x 2 3 + o x 2
1
x +0
,
12

( )

( )

( )

.
x + . -

x
0 x + ,
x
e e x
1
2-
. 3x

,
.
4. p :

e x sin x x(1 + x )
dx ; )
0
xp
1

a x + a x 2
0 x p dx (a > 0) .

173

f ( x ) ( ):

x2
x3
1 + x +
+ o x 4 x x 2
+ o x 2 x
2!
3!

=
f (x ) =
p
x
1 3
x3
x3
2
3
x + o(x 3 )
+ o(x )
+ o(x 3 ) x/ x/ 2
x/ + x/ +
1
2!
3!
= O p 3
=
= 3
p
p
x
x
x

( )

( )

.
, x +0
,

p 3 ,

1
.
x

3- 2- ,
p 3 < 1 , .. p < 4 , .
. p < 0 -

[ ]

p = 0 f ( x ) = e sin x x (1 + x ) (0,1] ,
0,1 , () ;
x

, , , .
) f ( x )

x = 0 ( , ) :

e x ln a + e x ln a 2
=
xp

x 2 ln 2 a
x 2 ln 2 a
2

1 + x ln a +
+ o(x 2 ) 2
+ o(x ) + 1 x ln a +
2!
2!


=
=
p
x
x 2 ln 2 a + o(x 2 )
1
=
= O p 2 .
p
x
x
f (x ) =

.., ..

174

4.

, x +0
, p 2 (

1

). 3- 2-
x
, p 2 < 1 , .. p < 3 ,
.

, ,
A

f (x ) dx < .

, ,

f ( x ) [a,+ ) .
+

f (x )dx

f (x )dx

, . 2- .
1 ( , +

f (x ) dx , a

f (x )dx (.. a

).
+

f (x )dx f (x ) dx .

. 1) f ( x ) ( ,

a, A , A > a , f ( x )
).
+

( 4.3.)

f (x ) dx . ,
a

f (x )dx < . ,
+

f (x )dx .
a

2) . A (a, + )
A

f ( x ) dx f (x )dx f (x ) dx .

, ,

f (x )dx f (x ) dx , , ,
A

f (x )

1- ).

A, A

f (x )dx

a,+ ) .

f (x ) dx ,
a

A0 ( ) > a ,

A > A > A0

4.7.9. ()

>0

175

A + ,
.
. ( a, b

[ ]

f ( x ) ).

f ( x ) , ,

2 ( , 1- ). f x

( )

[a,+ ) , g (x ) , f ( x ) g ( x ) , [a,+ ) .

f (x ) g (x ) L f (x ) ,

g ( x ) L , .

.., ..

176

cos ax
0 x 2 + k 2 dx (k 0) .

1
[0,+ ) ,
x + k2
g ( x ) = cos ax , , .
f (x ) =

.
2-
( b ).

4.

sin xdx =

1
0 x + . I .
x

2) .
+

I =

cos B + cos A 2 ,

f (x ) dx ,

x = 0 , 1

sin x

= 1 [0, A] ).
xlim
+0
x

I 2 , B A

1.1 ( ,
2- ).

sin x
dx :
x

f (x )dx .

I =

sin x
sin x
dx =
dx +
x
x
0

2.2 ( , 2- ). f x -

I 1 ( ).

( )

:
+

sin x
)
dx ( ); )
x
0

sin x
dx .
p
0 x

. )
+

sin x
sin x
I=
dx =
dx +
x
x
0
0

sin x
(0, A] ,
x
I 1 ( f ( x ) f ( x ) =

sin x
dx = I 1 + I 2 .
x

dx
( 3- ),
x
A

cos 2 x
dx ( : B A
x
A

sin x
A x dx = I1 + I 2

( A > 0 ).
1) .

1 cos 2 x
= sin 2 x sin x , I 2 :
2
+
+
+
+
+
sin x
1 dx 1 cos 2 x
sin 2 x
sin x

dx =
dx
dx =
dx .

x
x
x
2 A x 2 A x
A
A
A

[a, b] , g (x ) [a, b] , f ( x ) g ( x ) , .
1. -

177

cos 2 xdx = 2 sin 2B sin 2 A 1 ,


A

1
0 x + ). x
, I 2 ,

, .
I , , , , .

.., ..

178

4.

) 1) .
+

sin x
A x p dx = I1 + I 2 .

x +0 : sin x ~ x ,

sin x
1
= O p 1 , , 3-
p
x
x

, I 1 ( )

p 1 < 1 , .. p < 2 , p 2 .
x + . p > 0 I 2
( B A
B

sin xdx =

cos B + cos A 2 ,

1

0 x + ). p 0 I 2
xp
(. 1 4.3 ). I 0 < p < 2 .
2) ( 0 < p
+

I =

sin x
dx =
xp

sin x
xp

< 2 ).

dx -

:
A

I =
0

sin x
x

dx +

sin x

xp

dx = I1 + I 2 .

, I 1 . I 2 .

1 cos 2 x

= sin 2 x sin x 1 , I 2
2

1
1
1
J1 J 2 =
2
2
2
+

sin 2 x
A x p dx

dx 1
A x p 2

sin x
x

1 < p < 2 J 1 , I 2 ,
, , , I 2 , ,
, , I 2 . -,
0 < p 1 J 1 , J 2 (
-,

sin x
sin x
I = p dx = p dx +
0 x
0 x

179

cos 2 x
A x p dx =
+

dx

dx

x
A

= J1 .

B A

1
0
xp

cos 2 xdx 1 ,
A

x + ). ,
I 2 , , .
, 1 < p < 2 ; 0 < p 1 , p 0 p 2 .
2.
+

sin (x q )dx (q > 0 ) .

1
q

1 q 1
. t = x , x = t , dx = t dt q
q

+ p
q

1 q 1
1
t sin t t dt =
q
q
0
I
+
sin t
I = p +1 dt =
0

= 1

p +1
.
q

sin t

sin t

p +1
1
q

dt +
p +1
q

dt =

sin t

p +1
q

1
I .
q

dt = I 1 + I 2 .

1) I .
t +0 : sin t ~ t ,

sin t
1
= O 1 , , 3-

t
x

, I 1 ( )

1 < 1 , .. < 2 , 2 .

.., ..

180

+ . > 0 I 2

( B

sin tdt

= cos B + cos A 2 ,

1
0 t

+ ). 0 I 2 ( ).
I 0 < < 2 .
2) ( 0 < < 2 ).
+
+
sin t
sin t
I = dt = dt 0 t
0 t

:
A

I =
0

sin t

dt +

sin t

dt = I1 + I 2 .

, I 1 . I 2 .

4.

, 1 < < 2 ; 0 < 1 , 0 2 .


1
1
1 dt 1

J1 J 2 =
2
2
2 A t 2
+

sin 2 t
A t dt

sin t
t

cos 2t
A t dt
+

dt

dt

= J1 .

-, 1 < < 2 J 1 , I 2 ,
, , , I 2 , ,
, , I 2 . -,

0 < 1 J 1 , J 2 (
: B A

p +1
p +1
< 2 , .. 1 <
< 0;
q
q
p +1
p +1
0 < 1
1 , .. 0
< 1;
q
q
p +1
p +1
1
0 1
2 , ..
q
q
p +1
p +1
1
1 .
q
q
4.8. ,

59
, . ,
.
1

1. lim x
x +0

1
0 t + ). t
, I 2 ,

, .

cos t
dt .
2
x t

cos t
dt x +0 . 1-
2
x t

:
1

1
cos t
dt

1
x t 2 dt = cos x t 2 = cos t = cos 1 + x ,
x

1,

p +1
.
q

1 < 1

cos 2tdt

= 1

1 cos 2t
= sin 2 t sin t 1 , I 2
2

181

< < 1 . x +0 1 + + , x

1
cos t
. , lim x 2 dt
x +0
x t

.., ..

182

4.

0 . -

1 cos t
cos t
cos x
2 dt
dt
2
1
2

t
t
cos t
x
= lim
x =
lim x 2 dt = lim x 1 = lim
x +0
x +0
x +0
x +0
1
1
t
x
x
x
2
x
= lim cos x = 1 .
1

( )

x +0

f (x )dx

2. ,

, f ( x ) 0

x + ?

sin (x )dx ( ). -

, 0,+ ) ,
+

2
sin (x )dx =
0

1
2

sin t
t

t = x2 ,

dt . A 0

0, A f (t ) = sin t
A

sin tdt

= cos 0 cos A 2 , g (t ) =

1
t

0 -

t + , , , .

( )

y = sin x , , x + .
2) , , ,
2

f (x ) = e + h( x ) , h( x ) ,
1
1

k k 2 , k + k 2 (k = 2,3,...) , x = 2,3,...
x

)(

dx

) (1 + x )(1 + x ) = I

)(

+ I2 .

1
y = ,
x
+
dy
I1 =
,
2
1 + y
1 1+ y

)(

, , I 1 =

dx

(1 + x )(1 + x ) .

, . ,

2 t

I1 + I 2 =

. 1) , , . -

dx
dx
=
+

2
2
1+ x 1+ x
1
x
1
x
+
+
0

dt

.
.
+

dx

(1 + x )(1 + x ) -

3. ,

f (x )dx , f (x ) x + ?

t , dx =

1
1
, k k , k + 2 .
2
k
k

x =

183

(
1

dx
+
2
1 + x 1 + x

dx

) (1 + x )(1 + x ) =

)(

x
1 dx
1
1
=
+
=
+
2

1+ x 1+ x
1 + x
1 1+ x
1 1+ x
.

dx

=
2
1+ x

4.9.
1.
+

sin t
cos t
six =
dt (x 0 ) cix =
dt (x > 0 ) .
t
t
x
x
+

2.

e
0

ax 2

dx =

1
2 a

(a > 0) .

dx

1+ x

.., ..

184

3.
+

1
0 sin x dx = 2 2 ,

( )
2

1
0 cos x dx = 2 2 .

( )
2

ln sin xdx = ln cos xdx = 2 ln 2 .

4.

sin (ax )
5.
dx = sgn a .
x
2
0
+

6.

cos(bx )
ab
0 a 2 + x 2 dx = 2a e ;

ab
x sin (bx )
0 a 2 + x 2 dx = 2 e (a, b > 0) .

4.


4

b

1. 2-

( p ) =

e dx ( p > 0 ) ,

[ ]

( )

f x , a, b , , ,

n 1

f ( )x
k =0

, x k k x k +1 x k = x k +1 x k ?

2.
+

f (x )dx

p 1 x

B ( p, q ) = x

p 1

(1)

(x ) .
+

f (x ) (x )dx ?

dx ( p, q > 0 ) .

(2)

8.

(1 x )

q 1

f (x )dx
a

7. - -
+

185

f (ax ) f (bx )
dx (a, b > 0 ) .
x

. (2), (1) ?
3. f x g x ( -

[ ]

( )

()

) a, b (
) . , : )

( )

f ( x ) , f x ( , ); ) ,
f x + g x ; ) 2

( )

()

() ()

f x g x
.
4. 0,+ :

( )

) f ( x ) = sin x + cos x 2 ; )
2

)
f (x ) =

x sin x .
5. f ( x ) C [0,+ ) f ( x ) A x + .
1

lim

n +

f (nx )dx .
0

.., ..

186

4.

6. :
)

ln(sin x )dx ; ) ln(cos x )dx ; ) a


0

dx
(ab 0) .
sin x + b 2 cos 2 x

12.
, ( ) :

1
x x 2 ln1 +
arctg (ax )
x

dx (a 0) ; )
)
dx ;
n
p
x
x
0
1

7. :
+

1+ x
1 + x 2 dx ; ) arctgxdx ; )

cos xdx .

x 2 dx

(x 1)

; )

(x 1)
1

x 2 dx

x e

; )

5 x

8. , , , :

1+ x
dx ; )
3
x
1
2

xarctgx
1 + x3

cos(ax )
dx (n 0) ; )
)
n
0 1+ x

dx ; )

dx
dx ; )
;
tgx

x
1
0

x
1

dx
2

ln x

; )

x2
0 x 4 x 2 +1 dx ; )
)

cos 2 x
3

1 x

dx

x+ x+ x

dx ; )

x
1

dx
3

x +1
2

dx
dx ; )
)
p
q
0 sin x cos x

Pm (x ) Pn ( x ) ( ) m n .

dx .

cos x
dx (a > 0, p 0) .
p
x
a

sin x
0 x dx ; )

sin x
dx
p
x
0

16. , , 2- , :
+

xm
0 1 + x n dx (n 0) ,

cos(x )dx ;

Pm ( x )
0 Pn (x ) dx ; )

15. p :

dx
) p q ; )
1 x ln x

11. 3- ,
( ):

sin x
a x p dx

10. 1- 3- ,
:
)

1
arccos 2
x

dx .

sin x
a x p dx (a > 0, p > 0) ; )

x2
2

14. ,

1 cos x dx .

cos x e
xp
0

dx

13. , :

9. , , :
+

1
1

dx ; )
x sin x

dx .

187

ln(1 + x )
ln x
0 x n dx ; ) 0 1 x 2 dx .

17. ( ) :
1

xn
1 x4

dx ; ) ( p ) =

p 1 x
x e dx ; )
0

x m arctgx
0 2 + x n dx (n 0) ;

.., ..

188

1 (cos x )
)
xp
0

sin x

18.

dx ; )

4.

30. :

x x 1 dx .

cos(1 x )
0 x p dx ; )
1

f ( x )dx J . , -

cos(1 (1 x ))
0 (1 x 2 )p dx ; )

xdx
20.
.
2
2
0 1 + x sin x

dx
0 e x cos x .

22.

24.

25.

1 + (ln x ) (n N ) .

26.

27.

x 2 + 2
x

dx

ln(sin x )
dx .
x
0

ln(sin x )dx .

x (x + 2)
0 x + 1 dx .

e x dx (n R ) .
n

dx (n R ) .

28.

sin
0


1
x + dx .
x

()

29. :
+

cos x
dx ; )
)
p
0 x

( )

x p sin x
0 x cos e dx ; ) 0 1 + x q dx (q 0) ;
2

cos(x 2 )
1 ln x dx .

x(e
0

1+ x

dx ( p, q > 0) ;

sin x + x
dx .
xp
0

dx
x

ex

; )

Pm ( x )

P (x ) sin xdx ,
a

2
x cos x
dx ; ) sin (sec x )dx ;
x + 100
0

23.

21.

p
2

dx
.
19.
4
2
0 1 + x sin x

sin x arctg q x

31. :

f x x dx J .

189

Pm (x ) Pn (x ) Pn (x ) > 0 , x a 0 .

5.

5.

191

( , ).

P R 2 . P1 P2 , ,
P1 P2 .

5.2.
5.1.
, .
() .

R 2 .

M ( x0 ; y 0 ) R .
2

- M ,
M , ..

U ( M ) = {( x; y ) R 2 | ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 < 2 } .
P R . M P
P , > 0
, U ( M ) P . M
2

P , > 0 , U ( M ) R 2 \ P . M
P , , P .2
P .
2
P R , 2
. P R ,
2
R \ P . P R 2 , R > 0 , P U R (O) , O(0;0) .
,
2

>0

- M

1o . (). P1 P2
,

S (P1 ) = S (P2 ) .
2 . (). P1 P2 P1 U P2 o

S (P1 U P2 ) = S (P1 ) + S (P2 ) .

3 . ( ). ,
, .
, .
F . P , F , Q , F .

P F , Q F .
{S (P )}
P , , Q .

S = sup S (P ) ,
P F

P , , .

( )

S P P .
,
, .3

.. . : 711 . . . 2- . .: , 1991 (. 216).

.., ..

5.

F . F
,
S =0.

. , F .

192

193

{S (Q )} -

2. .

F Q , , ,

3.
.
F R > 0

S = inf S (Q ) ,

F . ,

S S.

F (..
),

S =S .

S = S = S F ( ).
, F , ,

.
(,
, , )
. , ( ), ; (. 4 ).
1. ,
F1 , F2 ,..., Fn

n

S (F ) = S (Fi ) ,
i =1

,
, .
, F , [0,1] [0,1] .
(, , ). ,
S ( F ) = 1 , , F , [0,1] [0,1] ;

FR = U R (O ) I F ( R , FR ). R FR .

Q F

S ( F ) = 0 , F -

S = lim S (FR ) ,
R +

F ( ), S
. 1-
2- (. 57 ).

5.3. .

.
1 ( ).
, F , , .
.
1. F ,
> 0 P F Q F , S (Q ) S ( P ) < .
. . F , S ( F ) = S ( F ) . ,

>0

P F ,

S (F )

< S ( P) S ( F ) .

Q F ,

.., ..

194

S ( F ) S (Q ) < S ( F ) +

< S ( P ) S (Q ) < S ( F ) +

, S (Q ) S ( P ) < .

. > 0
P F Q F , S (Q ) S ( P ) < .

S ( P) S ( F ) S ( F ) S (Q ) ,
0 S ( F ) S ( F ) S (Q ) S ( P ) < .

> 0 ,
F , ,

S (F ) = S (F ) .
1 .
2. F ,
> 0 P F
Q F , S (Q ) S ( P ) < .
. 1, . .
> 0 P F
Q F ,

S (Q ) S ( P ) <

P Q , ,
,

P Q , P P ,

Q Q ,

S ( P ) S ( P ) <
P F Q

S (Q) S ( P ) < S (Q ) +

, S (Q ) S (Q ) <

S ( P) +

<

195

1. P, Q -

S ( F ) = S ( F ) = S ( F ) , , ,
:

S (F )

5.

4
+

= .

1 , F . 2 .

, , P F Q . ,

:
S (Q \ P ) = S (Q ) S ( P ) . 1 , Q \ P
F F (. 1).
. F I ,
. h
. I I h , h .
> 0 . F F
, . ,
h > 0 , F I h , , 32 .
, , , , ,
; ;
,
;
, ,
; , .
, ,
, , , , 8 .
h
. h ( ,
)
I h ,
.
, , ,
I h , ,

32 .

,
I h , F ,
P , P F , P
I h , F F ,
Q , Q F ;

S (Q ) S ( P ) < 32 . 1 .
.
. , , .
2 ( ).
F , , {An } {Bn }, , F F ,

lim S ( An ) = lim S (Bn ) = S (F ) .

n +

n +

[17], X, 2.
1 2.
3 ( ). , , 4 .
. .
3. .
. L ,

2L
n

L . -

n + 1 x0 ,K, x n , L
n

. x j -

. -

, L . , ,

5.

.., ..

196

(.. ) . 6.2
6.

4L
n2

197

(n + 1) . L , n

, L . ,
L . .
3 3 1.
.

F1 F2 F
. F ,
,
4.

S ( F ) = S ( F1 ) + S ( F2 ) .
. F 1
, F F ,
F1 F2 F1 F2 .
S ( F ) = S ( F1 ) + S ( F2 ) . P1 , P2 , Q1 , Q2 , P1 F1 Q1 ,
P2 F2 Q2 . P = P1 U P2 , Q = Q1 U Q2 .
P1 P2 , P : S ( P) = S ( P1 ) + S ( P2 ) . Q1
Q2 , , S (Q )
S (Q1 ) + S (Q2 ) . ,
S ( P) = S ( P1 ) + S ( P2 ) S ( F ) S (Q) S (Q1 ) + S (Q2 ) .
, , F1
F2
S ( P1 ) S ( F1 ) S (Q1 ) , S ( P2 ) S ( F2 ) S (Q2 ) ,
,

S ( P1 ) + S ( P2 ) S ( F1 ) + S ( F2 ) S (Q1 ) + S (Q2 ) .
, S (F ) S ( F1 ) + S ( F2 ) S ( P1 ) + S ( P2 ) S (Q1 ) + S (Q2 ) ,
( S (Q1 ) + S (Q2 )) ( S ( P1 ) + S ( P2 )) =
= ( S (Q1 ) S ( P1 )) + ( S (Q2 ) S ( P2 ))
. , . 4 .

198

5.

.., ..

. , .
1. F , y = y x

()

x = x( y ) , .
2. F 5

, .

5.4.

S (T ) s (T ) < , S (T ), s (T ) y (x ) , T (

).
P Q ,
[ x k 1 , x k ] , [0, inf y ( x)] [ x k 1 , x k ] , [0, sup y ( x)] ,
xk 1 x xk

k = 1, K , n , . , P F Q ,
S ( P ) = s (T ) , S (Q ) = S (T ) . , S (Q ) S ( P ) < , .. F

5.3).

Ox .

>0

y = y( x ) , x = a x = b ,
Ox a b . , Ox ;

1. F , Ox , ,

S ( F ) y ( x)dx < .
a

y (x ) [ a , b]
, , ,
b

1.

y( x ) [a, b] -

(1)

t [T0 , T ] , , : 1) x(t )

y(t )

S ( F ) = y ( x)dx . .

F = {(x; y ) a x b;0 y y ( x )}.

y=f(x)

[a, b] -

S ( F ) = y (x )dx .

s (T ) y ( x)dx S (T ) S ( P ) S ( F ) S (Q ) , ,

F Oxy ,

. , > 0 T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] ,

5.4.1. , ,
1.

. y (x ) [ a , b] ,

xk 1 x xk


.6 .

199

S1

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) ,

; 2) ,
([12], . 441).
6
(., , [18], XVI, 1).

S3
S2

x
b

,
,
,

(.. ) ,
Ox
a b .

.., ..

200

5.

, :

, 1 2.
.

y(x )dx = S

S 2+ S 3

1. ,

y ( x )dx = S1 + S 2 + S 3 ). ,

y( x ) y ( x ) y( x ) -

y = x x = y ( 1) .

.

,

( )
,
Ox -

y=x

.
2.
, ,
a, b y1 x y 2 x , y1 x y 2 x

[ ]

()

201

( )

()

x=y

( )

x [a, b] . Ox ;
F = {( x; y ) a x b; y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x )}.

x
1

y = x , 1,
x [0,1]. (1)

S = ( y 2 ( x ) y1 ( x ))dx .
a

2. , y = ( x 1)

2. Oy .
, Oy , ,

x +1
1
=
(.) .
S = 1 2 x dx = 1 2
+ 1 0 +1
0
1

(2)

[c, d ] -

x = x( y ) , y = c y = d ,
Oy c d .

x2

y2
= 1.
2
. :

x2

S ( F ) = x( y )dy .

(1)

1.

1
-1

(x 1)4

=1
2
2
( x 1)( x 3) x + 1 = 0 .

F = {(x; y ) c y d ;0 x x( y )}.
2. F , Oy , -

x
1

, 1;0 3;4 .
.
1- . Ox . ,

( ) ( )

y = 2 x 2 1 ,

202

.., ..

y = ( x 1) , x [1,3] , ..

5.

)}

F = ( x; y ) 1 x 3; ( x 1) y 2 x 2 1 .
2

, (2):
3

S=

( 2(x

1 ( x 1) dx =
2

3. ,
(x

[0, 2]),

y = sin x ( x [ 2 , ]) .

3
2
1
x x 2 1 ln x + x 2 1 x 13
1 3
2
10
2
=

ln 3 + 8 (.) .
3
2

3
1

.
1- .
Ox ,
Ox :

=
1

2- . , Oy . ,

x=

y2
+ 1 , x = 1 + y , y [0,4], ..
2

y2
F = ( x; y ) 0 y 4;
+1 x 1+ y ,
2

S = y +1

2
1 y
= y + y

22
3
3
2

2x

F1 = ( x; y ) 0 x ;0 y ,
2

F2 = ( x; y )
x ;0 y sin x .
2

F1 F2 :

S=
0

2x

dx + sin xdx =

(x )

2
0

cos x =

+ 1 (.) .

2
4

y 2 + 2 + ln y + y 2 + 2 =
0

y2
+ 1 dy =

10
2

ln 3 + 8
3
2

y = 2x

203

) (.) .

3. ,
,
.

2- . Oy
:

F = ( x; y ) 0 y 1; x arcsin y .
2

S = ( arcsin y ) dy =
2
0
1

y 2

= + 1 (.) .
= y y arcsin y 1 y
4 0 4

.., ..

204

5.

4. ,

x + 2ax y = 0 ax y + 2a = 0 (a > 0) .
2

a 3

S =2

. 1- . Ox ,
Ox :

a 3

F2 = ( x; y ) 0 x a; x 2 + 2ax y 2a 2 + ax ,

y
a 3

x
-2a

-a

Ox ,
S ,

Ox

-a 3

y2
y + a 2 a
+ 2a dy = 2a 2 3 +
a

2y3

+ y y 2 + a 2 + a 2 ln y + y 2 + a 2
3a 0

F3 = ( x; y ) 0 x a; 2a 2 + ax y x 2 + 2ax .

F1 = ( x; y ) 2a x 0; 2a 2 + ax y 2a 2 + ax ,

= 2a 2 3 + a 2 ln 2 + 3


.
5. ,

y=

a3
, y = 0 (a > 0) .
a2 + x2

. ,
.

y
A, A ,

~
F1 = ( x; y ) 2a x 0;0 y 2a 2 + ax F2 .

a
0

S = 2 2a + ax dx + 2a 2 + ax x 2 + 2ax dx =
0
2a

a
a
3
2
x+a 2

= 2
ax + 2a 2 2

x + 2ax +
2
0
3a
2a
a
a2

=
ln x + a + x 2 + 2ax = 2a 2 3 + a 2 ln 2 + 3 (.) .
0
2

2- .
Oy :

y 2 2a 2
F = ( x; y ) a 3 y a 3;
x a + y 2 + a 2 .
a

) (.) .

205

S ( A) =

y(x )dx = 2 y(x )dx = 2a a


3

A > 0 ,
, S A

( )

dx
A
= 2a 2 arctg .
2
a
+x

S = lim S ( A) = a 2 (.) .
A +

(
1- ; ,
).

.., ..

206

5.

6. ,
2

x = a ln

S=

y(x )dx )
0

. y .

a2 y2
dy , , , y
x y ,

dx =

S =
a

a
a2 y2
y/ dy = a 2 y 2 dy .
y/
0

y = a sin t ,

a 2
4

n =0

1+ e
2

(.) .

. ,
.

n =0

e sin x dx .

t = x n ,

n =0

(sin t + cos t )
2

1 + e
=
2

1
e +e 2
=

1 e

2 e e 2

n =0

1
cth (.) .
2
2

5.4.2. , ,

(1) (1) , ,
,

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] ,
x(t ) , y(t ) x (t ), y (t )
[T0 , T ] . x
( y ) t .

Ox , , t
[T0 , T ] T0 T , ( x(t ); y (t ))
, (.. B
A , . , ).

y(T)=d

y = e x sin x y = 0 (x 0) .

S =

7. ,

+ ( n +1)
x

1. .

0 < t 2 , -

S = a 2 a 2 sin 2 t d (a sin t ) =a 2 cos 2 tdt =

n =0

= e n


, . , , , (
1-

S = e n e t sin t dx = e n e t sin tdx =

a+ a y
a 2 y 2 () y = 0 (a > 0) .
y
. , 0 < y a , x 0
+ y a 0.
2

207

S
x

x(T) =a

y(T0)=c

x(T0 ) =b

.., ..

208

5.

dx(t ) = x (t )dt , a = x(T ) , b = x(T0 ) , (1) :


T

S = y (t )x (t )dt .

(3)

T0

Oy ,

(4)

T0

2a

S = y (t )x (t )dt =

2a

= a2

(1 cos t ) dt =
2

= a2

()

T0

T0

, :

(5)

x = a ch t
2

y 2 = a 2 sh 2 t ,
x 2 y 2 = a 2 (ch 2 t sh 2 t ) = a 2 ,

1
3

= a t 2 sin t + sin 2t = 3a 2 (.) .


4
2
0

x2 y2
2 2 = 1 .
a
a

2. .

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] ,

1
(x(t ) y (t ) y(t )x(t ))dt .
2 T0

9. M x = acht , y = asht a > 0 .


, , OM .
. , y

M
a > 0 .
t :

1
3

(1 2 cos t + cos t )dt = a 2 2 cos t + 2 cos 2t dt =


0

x(T ) ,

S=

( x(T0 ) =

S = y (t )x (t )dt , S = x(t ) y (t )dt ,

8. ,
x = a t sin t , y = a 1 cos t , t 0,2 .
.

y
(3).
x t = a 1 cos t ,

S (3)(4):

( )

S = x(t ) y (t )dt .

).

t T0 T ( x(t ); y(t )) -

()

-7

y (T0 ) = y (T ) ) L , S (

, - (. , ). dy t = y t dt , c = y (T0 ) , d = y T , (1) -

()

209

x = x(t ), y = y(t ) , t [T0 , T ] , x(t ), y(t ) [T0 , T ] ( ,

-,

, , )

() ()

x t , y t ( , , ,
).

.., ..

210

5.

, , y = x . , ,
x = acht > 0 t .
, M

2) (4) :
T

S = x(t ) y (t )dt =

a>0

T0

(x; y ) , (. .):

1
xy ydx .
2
a
x = acht , y = asht , dx = ashtdt ,
t

3) , (5) :

(ch2t 1)dt =

1
S = ( x(t ) y (t ) y (t )x (t ))dt =
2 T0

x = a (t 2 2t ), y = a (t 2 1)(t 3) (a > 0) .

-a

3a

-3a

x( 1) = x(3) = 3a
y(1) = y(3) = 0 .

1
(
a (t 2 2t )(a (3t 2 6t 1)) a ((t 2 1)(t 3))(a(2t 2 )))dt =

2 1
3

3a

3t 5

11
17 2
= a
3t 4 + t 3 + t 2 =
a (.) .
3
5
1 15

a2
a2
a2
a 2t
(.) .
sh2t
sh2t + t =
4
4
2
2

2t ))(a (3t 2 6t 1))dt =

10. ,

(a(t

= a 2 (3t 4 12t 3 + 11t 2 + 2t )dt =

S = S ONM S ANM =

a2
a2
1 2
a sht cht a 2 sh 2 tdt =
sh2t
4
2
2
0

S=


,
t 1 3 .


.

a2
1
= a 2 (t 4 4t 3 + 7t 2 6t + 6 )dt =
2
2 1
=

T0


.
11. ,

x = at 2 (1 + t 4 ) , y = at 3 (1 + t 4 ) (a > 0) .
. ,
t t

( )

S = y (t )x (t )dt = (a (t 2 1)(t 3))(a (2t 2 ))dt =


3

= 2a

(t

4t + 2t + 4t 3)dt =
3

t5
17 2
2
a (.) .
= 2a t 4 + t 3 + 2t 2 3t =
3
1 15
5
2

t5

7
t 4 + t 3 3t 2 + 6t =
3
5
1

17 2
a (.) .
15

x(t ) ,
y(t ) , -

1) (3) :
T

211

x
0

x; y x; y , .. .

, x 0 = x + = 0 .

) (

()

212

.., ..

5.

, t
0 + . ,
Ox . ( ) t 0 + .
,
(5). y = tx , xy yx =

x2
y = b 1 2 , x [0, a ] ,
a
, x = a sin t , :

S
x2
= b 1 2 dx =
4
a
0

= x(x + tx ) tx x = x 2 , 1-

S 1 at 2

=
2 2 0 1 + t 4

2 +

a
dt =
2

t 3 dt

t
0 1 + t 4

= ab cos 2 tdt =

S a2
=
2
2

1
t

4 1+ t4

dt a 2
+
=
,
4
16 2
0 4 1+ t

1
2 2

(arctg (x

13. ,

))

y2 =

2 + 1 + arctg x 2 1 + C .

a 2
8 2

(.) .

5.4.3. , ,

F ( x, y ) = 0

1.
, , ,
, .
.
12.

x2 y2
+
= 1.
a2 b2

. , . , ,
a > 0, b > 0 , y x
:

ab 2
(1 + cos 2t )dt =
2 0

ab 1
2 ab
=
. S = ab (. ) .
t + sin 2t =
2 2
4
0

1
x2 + x 2 +1
dt
ln
=
1+ t 4 4 2 x2 x 2 +1 +

213

x3
() x = 2a .
2a x

. ,

x :

x3
0
2a x

0 x < 2a . Ox
x = 2a .

2a

S = 2

x 3 2 dx

2a x
2
x = 2 a sin t , 0 t < 2 ,
0

S = 2
0

(2a sin t )

32

d (2a sin t )

2a (1 sin 2 t )

= 16a 2 sin 4 tdt =


0

214

.., ..

5.

3 1
3

= a 2 t sin 4t = a 2 (.) .
16 4
8
0

1 cos 2t
2
= 16a 2
dt = 3a (.) .
2

0
2

2. (
(3)(5)).
2

x
y
+ 2 = 1
2
a
b


x = a cos t , y = b sin t , t 0, 2 .

2
S

= y (t )x (t )dt = b sin t ( a sin t )dt =


4
0
0

= ab sin 2 tdt =
0

ab
(1 cos 2t )dt = ab (.) .

2 0
4
2
3

x = a cos t , y = a sin t , t [0,2 ] .


3

x (t ) = 3a cos t sin t ,
y (t ) = 3a sin 2 t cos t

(a cos

t 3a sin t cos t + 3a cos t sin t a sin t dt =


2

3
3
3 2
= a 2 sin 2 t cos 2 tdt = a 2 sin 2 2tdt =
a
2 0
8 0
16

(1 cos 4t )dt =
0

( y 0) . -

1
,
z
+ 4 n m 2
y
dy
=
, n 1, m 0 .
4 n
0 1+ y

y =

y m dy

(1 + y )

4 n

(*)

,
+

at 2
at
y
,
=
1+ t4
1+ t4

t
(x(t )y (t ) y(t )x(t ))dt = a (1 + t 4 )2 dt .

S=

(5) ,

y = tx , x =

x 4 + y 4 = ax 2 y .

, (5)
, ,
(3) (4).

; x y t = 0
t . , :

x +y =a .

Oy -

14. ,
2
3

S 12
= a cos 3 t 3a sin 2 t cos t + 3a cos 2 t sin t a sin 3 t dt (.) .
4 20

2
3

. , :

15. ,

1
S=
2

215

I=

t 2 dt

(1 + t )
0

4 2

t 4 dt

(1 + t )

4 2

1
t
1
=
= td
+
4
4 0 1+ t
4(1 + t 4 ) 0
+

1
dt
1
dt
=
.
4

4 0 1+ t
4 0 1+ t4

.., ..

216

,
+

5.

(*) ,

5.5.1. , ,
1. L r = r , r (.. r -

1 t 2 +1
1
dt
t 2 dt
+
=
dt = F (t ) 0 ,
,

I
=
4
0 1 + t 4 0 1 + t 4

8 0 t +1
8

F (t ) =

arctg

t 2 1

t 2

I =

2 2

8 2

( )

), [ , ] ,
.

sgn t (t 0) , F (0) = 0 .
,

S=

a 2
8 2

(.) .
(

r= r( )

3. , F x; y = 0 ,
( (6), . 5.5)

S
=

16. ,

(x

+ y 2 ) = 2a 2 (x 2 y 2 ) .

(r

cos + r sin ) = 2a (r cos r sin ) ,


r 2 = 2a 2 cos 2 .
2

L ,

:

5.5.

, , , ,

()

()

r = r t , = t ,
,

t {t} ,

r = r ( ) ( = (r ) ),

F r, = 0 ,
.
.

P
F = {(r; ) 0 r r ( ); }8.

26 .

r ( )

. .
.
x = r cos , y = r sin .
2

217

1.
,

1
S ( F ) = r 2 ( )d .
(6)
2
.
r ( )
1 2
[ , ] ,
r ( ) . ,
2
> 0 T = { 0 ; 1 ;K; n } [ , ] , S (T ) s (T ) < , S (T ), s (T )
1 2
r ( ) , 2
T .

,
r .

.., ..

218

5.

P Q ,

[ k 1 , k ]

rk =

inf

k 1 k

r ( )

Rk = sup r ( ) , k = 1, K , n , . ,
k 1 k

P F Q ,
1 n
1 n
S ( P ) = rk2 k = s (T ) , S (Q ) = Rk2 k = S (T )
2 k =1
2 k =1
, S (Q ) S ( P ) < , .. F ( 2
5.3). ,

1
s (T ) r 2 ( )d S (T ) S ( P ) S ( F ) S (Q ) ,
2
, > 0 :

S (F )

1
S=
2

1 2
r ( )d < .
2

a2 3
(
)
a

0
6

S (F ) =

18. ,
r = a sin 3 a > 0 .
. -,


=
2
3
2 3 .
(

)
0 < 2 3 ,
.
P ,

1 2
r ( )d . .
2

. , r = r1 , r = r2 ( 0 r1 r2 ) = ,

( )

= , ..

( )

( )

( )

F = {(r; ) ; r1 ( ) r r2 ( )},
S=

0 3 ).
.

F = {(r; ) 0 r a sin 3 ;0 3}.

1
r22 ( ) r12 ( ) d . (6)

, (. . ).
(6) :

2
P

r 0

0 < 2 3
0 3,
r (0) = r ( 3) = 0 (..

4
= 3 a 2 (.) .
3

. , ,
, 3 2
8 a .

219

17.
,
r = .
.
(6):

a2
S 13
2
= (a sin 3 ) d = =
3 20
4

a
(1 cos 6 )d =
3

12

S=
.

a 2
4

(.) .

.., ..

220

19. ,

r = a cos + b 0 < b a .
2

(a cos + b)

d =

1 1 2
1

a + b 2 + a 2 sin 2 + 2ab sin = (a 2 + 2b 2 ) .


2 2
4
2

0
, (.
.) r = a 1 + cos , a > 0 ,

3 2
a (.) .
2
.
, , ,
:

S = (a cos + b ) d .
2

20. ,

r=

r=

1
cos sin
lim
=
2 +0
sin

3
3


+
+ 5
1 1
2
6
= 1 (.) .
= + lim
2
4

2 +0
+

( )

1
, 0 < /2.
sin

( )

21. ,
r = a cos , r = a cos + sin .
.
(, ) ,
(. .).
,
(
S2
).
P

:
a
O
S1
a cos 0

. ,

r2 ( ) =

1
1
> = r1 ( ) .
sin

(6):

2- (
= 0 ) :

2
1
1
1
1 1
1

S = lim 2 2 d = + lim ctg .

+
0
2
2

sin

2 2,

a (cos + sin ) 0 4 3 4 .
, S = S1 + S 2 ,

1 2 1
1
S = 2 2 d .
2 0 sin

221

,
sin cos ,

S=

. (6)

1
S=
2

5.

S1 =

a2
S2 =
2

2 2

a
2

2
cos d =

a2
(cos + sin ) d = 2
2

a 2
0

(1 + sin 2 )d =

.., ..

5.

a2
a 2 a 2
1

.
cos 2 =
8
4
2
2

1 r3
r2 1

1
2
= arctgr +
ln (1 + r 2 ) =
+ 1 ln 2 (.) .
2 3
3 3
2 3
3

a 2

2. L
= r , , r

r = 1 r = 2 , r 1 2 -

()

()

(r; ) L , F :
F = {(r; ) 0 (r ); min(1 ; 2 ) r max(1 ; 2 )}9.

(7)

. (7) , , ,
r; , :

1
S=
2

max ( 1 ; 2 )
2

(r )dr .

min ( 1 ; 2 )

22. ,

= r arctgr

=0 =

. ,
r

S=

3.

3 -

3 . (7)

1
2

S = r 2 (sin r ) dr =
21

2 0

r 2 cos(r )dr =

r2

r
1
1
(.) .
= sin r + cos r 2 sin r =

2
0
. = sin (r ) 1
[0,1] . , r 0 ,
2
1

0 1 , r
2
1 1 0 .

r
2

cos(r )dr

1 2
1
r

r (r )dr = r 2 arctgr +
dr =

2 1
2 0
1+ r2

1 2
r (r )dr .
2 1

, (6) r ,

S=

23. , = sin r 0 r 1 , = 0 .
. ,
r 1 0
BAO , ,
, . A
(7),
, :

( )(

a2 a2
S=
( 1) (.) .

=
4
4
4

223

=
1

222

r
2
1

S OKAMO OKAMO (. .). -

cos(r )dr , ,

S OMABO OMABO . ,
9

,
.

.., ..

224

5.

2
r cos(r )dr

20
OKABO , .

t2 + t + 2
1

arctgt = a 2 1 (.) .
S = 2a
2
4

4(1 + t )(1 + t ) 4
0
2

24. ,

225

= 4r r 3 , = 0 .

. ,

= 4r r 3

5.5.3. , ,
F r , = 0

0 r 2 . r
0 ,

1.
. ,

r 0 .

r .
26. ,

2
1 2
1 3r 5 4r 3
4
= 4
(.) .
S = r 4 3r 2 dr =

20
2 5
3 0
15

5.5.2. , ,
r = r t , =

()

r 2 = 2a 2 cos 2 .
.
; -

(t )

r (t ) , (t )
T0 T , (t )
. t T0 T
(r (t ); (t )) , ,

, . , (6) t ,
T

1
S = r 2 (t ) (t )dt .
2 T0

(8)

25. ,
r =

t
2at
(a > 0) .
, =
2
1+ t
1+ t

. . r 0 ,
t 0 ; r = 0 , t = 0 r 0 , t + .
(8)

S=

2
+
1 2at

2 0 1 + t 2 (1 + t )2

t 2 dt
dt = 2a 2
dt .

2
2 2
(
)
(
)
1
+
t
1
+
t
0

2a cos 2 0 .

, ,
P , ,
O
4 4 ,

(.
.). (
),
, 0

4:

S 14 2
a2
a2
2
sin 2 04 =
= 2a cos 2d =
, S = 2a (. ) .
2
2
4 20

27. ,

r2 +2 = 1.
. ,

: r 2 = 1 2 0 , [ 1,1].

.., ..

226

1
1
2
3
= (.) .
S = (1 2 )d =
2 1
2
3 1 3
1

2. ,
. .

5.

3a 2
cos 3
S =
2 sin 3 + cos 3

28.
. ,

y
.

x = r cos , y = r sin ,
2

x
x+

3a sin cos
.
sin 3 + cos 3
, = 0
= 2
r 0 , ..
r=

y+
a=
0


( ).
, 0

, .
(6)

S=
sin

tg d (tg )

9a
2

2 2

sin 2 cos 2

(sin
0

+ cos 3 )

d .

tg cos ,

(1 + tg )
3

1
1
1
cos 3

=

.
3 1 + tg 3
3 sin 3 + cos 3

2
0

3a 2
2

(.) .

x=

x 3 + y 3 3axy = 0 ( a > 0 ).

227

3at 2
3at
y
,
=
, t ( ,+ ) .
1+ t3
1+ t3


5
, ,
(
):

y = x 2 , y = 2 x .
2
2
2. y = 16 / x , y = 17 x (1 ).
3

3. y = a sin x , y = a cos x ,
x .
4
4
2
4. y = ( x + 1) , x = sin y , y = 0 (0 y 1) .
2 x
5. y = x e , y = 0 , x = 2 .
2
6. y = x ln x , y = x ln x .
2a
7. y =
cos x , y = atgx , x = 0 .
3
4
3
2
8. y = x 4 x + 4 x , y = cos(x ) 1 .

1.

2a 3
x
4a
, y=
arctg .
2
2

a
a +x
10. y = arcsin x , y = arccos x , y 0 .
9.

y=

11. ,

y = e x (x 2 + 3x + 1) + e 2 , Ox ,
Oy , y( x ) .

.., ..

228

5.

, , :

y = 4x , y / 2 = x .
2
2
13. xy = 20 , x + y = 41 (1 ).

12.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

x 2 6x + y 2 = 0 , y = 0 , x = 4 .
y 2 = x3 x4 .
y 2 = x 2 (a 2 x 2 ) .
x3 = x2 y 2 .
a 2 y 4 = x 4 (a 2 x 2 ) .
y = x , y = x , y 2 + 2x 2 = 1.

y = a(a x ) x + y = a .
26.

y = 3t t 3 .

2
t
(6 t ) , y = t (6 t ) .
8
3
29. x = 12 cos t + 5 sin t , y = 5 cos t 12 sin t .
30. x = a(cos t + t sin t ) , y = a(sin t t cos t ) , 0 t 2 , x = a ,
y 0 ( ).
31. x = a(2 cos t cos 2t ) , y = a(2 sin t sin 2t ) .
32. x = a sin t , y = a sin 2t ( ).
33. x = a cos 3t , y = a sin t ( ).

28. x =

a sin 2 t
.
2 + sin t

x 3 + y 3 = axy .

37.

x 4 = axy 2 + ay 3 .

38. ( x + y ) = axy .

39.

x 5 + y 5 = ax 2 y 2 .

6 , = 3.

= sin 2 ( 2 ) ( = 2 ).
45. = 2 cos , r = 1 ( r = 1 ).
47. r = a cos 5 .
46. = a cos 3 ().
49. r = a(1 sin ) .
48. = a sin 4 .
50. = a(2 cos ) .
51. r = atg , = 4 .
a cos 2
2
2
52. r = a cos 4 .
53. r =
.
cos
2
54. r = a (1 + sin 2 ) , = 0 .
55. = r sin r , = .
44.

, , :
2

2 2

43. r = a cos , r = 2a cos .

y = x 2 2 x + 3 , M (2;3) Oy .
27. x = 3t ,

(1 + t )

(0 2 ) .
42. r = 4 / cos( 6 ) , =

y 3 y = x , y = (4 + x ) , y = 1 , y = 0 .
2
24. x = cos(y ) , 4 y = 3( x + 3) .

t t

41. r = 2

y y = x , y = (1 + x ) , y = 0 .

y=

, ,
:
40. r = 3 + 2 cos .

x 2 + 4 y 2 = 8a 2 , x 2 3 y 2 = a 2 (x a ) .

23.

25.

x = a cos t , y =

36.

20. x = a ( x y ) , y = 0 .
22.

35.

(1 + t )

2 2

, ,
:

21.

x=

14. xy = 4 2 ,

34.

229

r
r
r
r
r

56. ,
r = a

r = a cos 2 -

2.

57. ,

r = a(1 + cos )

r = 3a cos .
58. ,
r = a sin

.., ..

230

59. ,
r = 3 + cos 4 r = 2 cos 4 .
60.

r=

cos 2
,
cos

.
, F , , :

+ y4
+ y4
+ y2
+ y2

x4
4
62. x
2
63. x
2
64. x
61.

(x
66. (x

65.

= a 2 xy .
= a2 x2 .
= 2ax , x 2 + y 2 = 2ay , M (a 2 ; a 2) F .
= a 2 , x 2 + y 2 = 2ay , M (0; 3a 2) F .

+ y 2 ) = ax 4 y .
3

+ y2 ) = a2 x2 y2 .
4
4
2
2
2
67. x + y = a (x + y ) .
6
6
2
4
4
68. x + y = a (x + y ) .
6
6
2 4
69. x + y = a x .
3

70. , ,
71.

(x

+y

2 2

72.

(x

= a 2 (x 2 y 2 ) (x 2 + y

+ y 2 ) = a 2 (x 2 y 2 ) (x 2 + y 2 ) = 2a 2 xy .

x + y = a (x + y
4

) x

23

2 2

+y

= 4a 2 (x 2 y 2 ) .

,
23

=a

23

73. : x = 2 cos , y = sin ,

a = 2, b = 1 . , r 2 = x 2 + y 2 ,
:

2
1 2

5
.
S = 4 r ( )d = 2 4 cos 2 + sin 2 d =
2
2 0

, , S = ab = 2 . ?

6.

.., ..

232

L , t T0 , T ( x; y ) (..

, , ,
T0 , T ).

, t (T0 , T ) , -

L , ,
T0 T t ,

6.1.
L M , x y Oxy

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t {t } ,
(1)
x(t ) , y (t )

{t} .

t , ,
.1
{t } t . , , {t }

L . , L
(1).
x(t ) y (t ) T0
T ( ),
. .2
(1) y = y ( x ) , y ( x = x ( y ) , x ). ,
.
,
, y ,
x:

F ( x, y ) = 0 .

T0 , T .

M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ) L ,

t1 t 2 t ,

, x(t1 ) = x(t 2 ) , y (t1 ) = y (t 2 ) . , x(t ) = t (t + 1) ,

y (t ) = t 2 t 2 1 , t R , ( )
(0;0) , t1 = 0 t 2 = 1 .
L , , (-

) .

{t} x(t ) , y (t ) r v
r
- r = r (t ) t , r {x (t ); y (t )} .
r v
r = r (t ) .

.
.
1.

[a, b]

y = f ( x ) () ; -


x = t , y = f (t ) , t a, b .
, .

[ ]

L1

L2

L2 , L1 L2 . L , L1 L2 ,

L1

([4], .392).

6.

233

2. 1 , ( L1 ) ( L2 ) ,

x = cos t ,
x = cos t ,
t [0, ]
t [ ,2 ] ,

y = sin t ,
y = sin t ,
. ,

x = cos t ,
t [0,3 ] ,

y = sin t ,
, , t 2 ,3 .
3. , ,
x = at + b , y = ct + d , t ( ,+ ) , () .
a , b , c , d ,
M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x 2 ; y 2 ) . -

M 1 M 2 ,
, (, , ) , .
,
.
{t } , , , , . , (1)

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t {t} ,
L ,
{[t i 1 , t i ]} , {t } ,
t (1) .
, , M , (1),
t , ,
{t} .

.., ..

234

1.
. ,
T0 , T , ,

[T0 , T ] .

2. L .
, , , x = a cos t , y = b sin t , t 0, 2

(a

> 0, b > 0 ). ,

x2 y2
2 + 2 = 1 , :
a
b
t2
x = t , y = b 1 2 , t [0, a ] .
a
3. , .
4. , , .
.
5. .
{M } , x , y , z

Oxyz

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , z = z (t ) , t {t} ,
(2)
x(t ) , y (t ) , z (t ) {t } ,
t M .
, , .

,

F ( x, y , z ) = 0 , G ( x , y , z ) = 0 .
.

6.

235

4. L ,
x = a cos t , y = a sin t , t 0,3 ,
. ,
0,3 , , 0, , ,2 , 2 ,3 ,
t , .

] [

] [

5.
x = a cos t , y = a sin t , z = ct , t ( ,+ ) ,
,
( , z ).

x + y + z = a
2
2
x + y = ax
2

6.

, (,
,
, , ).
:

x = a sin 2 t , y = a sin t cos t , z = a cos t , t [0,2 ] .

.., ..

236

li (T ) =

(x(t i ) x(t i 1 ))2 + ( y(t i ) y(t i 1 ))2 .

( ) l (T )

l T

l (T ) = li (T ) .
n

i =1

L ( ),

{l (T )} L l (T ) , [

T T0 , T , .

{ ( )} L

l T
L :

{ }

L = sup l (T ) .
T

,
( ).
.
1. l 0 L -

T0 T0 , T ; l1 L -

6.2.
, ( ).
L
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t T0 , T ,

T1 , T0 T1 . l 0 l1 .
. l 0 = M 1 K M k M k +1 K M n ,

l1 = M 1 K M k M M k +1 K M n . M k M k +1 M k M + M M k +1
( ), l 0 l1 . 1 .
1. 3.
.

T T0 , T

T0 = t 0 < t1 < t 2 < ... < t n = T .


T

L
M 0 , M 1 , M 2 ,, M n , M i ( x(t i ); y (t i )) . -

( )

l T = M 0 M 1 M 2 M n 1 M n ,

L T [T0 , T ] .

li (T ) li (T ) = M i 1 M i , i = 1, n ,

1o . (). L ,

2 o . (). L
M 0 , M 1 , M 2 ,, M n Li ,
t 0 , t1 , t 2 ,..., t n
3

.. .. , 1 (., 1982, .382386).

6.

237

t T0 = t 0 < t1 < t 2 < ... < t n = T , Li


Li L .
. , L
: L1 L2 . L
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] ; L1 : x = x(t ) ,
y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] ; L2 : x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T , T ] (
L = L1 U L2 ). T1 [T0 , T ] , l1 , -

; T2 T , T , l 2 T2 . T = T1 U T2

[T0 , T ] ;

l = l1 U l 2 T . l = l1 + l 2 , l1 l ,

.., ..

238

L1 + L2 L .

(2)

(1) (2) , L = L1 + L2 . .

3o . ( ). .
, , , ,
1 .
o

3 ,
.
2.
[13]. , L

( )

l T

(. )

l 2 l . , , L1 L2 ,

t 0 , t = max(t i t i 1 ) .

(, L ). , L1 L2 .
C L ( x (T ); y (T )) .

,
(
).

> 0 . L , l , L , , l > L .

l C l . 1 ,

l l > L . , l = l1 U l 2 , l1

L1 , l 2

L2 . ,

L1 + L2 L .

(1)

.
> 0 . L1 ,
l1 , L1 , , l1 > L1 / 2 .
l 2 , L2 , , l 2 > L2 / 2 .

l L ,

l = l1 + l 2 > L1 + L2 . , L > L1 + L2 .

3. ,
,
. o

2 o , .

l1 + l 2 = l > L .

L1 + L2 l1 + l 2 > L . > 0 ,

l = l1 U l 2 .

1i n

6.3. .


.
6.3.1.

1 (1-
). x(t ) y (t ) -

x (t ) y (t ) -

6.

]
x = x(t ) ,

239

T0 , T .4 L ,

y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] , ,

= min{ 1 ; 2 } ; T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n }
[T0 , T ] , T < . l , L -

T .

L =

.., ..

240

(x(t ))

+ ( y (t )) dt .

l = ( x(t k ) x(t k 1 )) 2 + ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) 2 =

(1)

T0

k =1

(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt

dL .

(dL ) = (dx )
dx = x (t )dt , dy = y (t )dt .
2

= ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k ,

+ (dy ) ,
2

k , k [t k 1 , t k ]
,

. ,

1 = 1 ( ) > 0

y (t ) y (t ) <

4(T T0 )

(x (t ) )2 + ( y (t ) )2 . [T0 , T ] , T

2 = 2 ( ) > 0 ,
V [T0 , T ] , V < 2 , -

(V ) A <

(V )

f (t ) , V ).

T0 t T

k =1

sup ( x (t )) 2 + sup ( y (t )) 2 (T T0 ) .

T0 t T

T0 t T

, ,
. , L .

a2 + b2 a2 + c2 b c .

x(t ) y (t )

[T0 , T ] x(t ) , y (t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] .

(3)

. b + c = 0 , .
2

b 2 + c 2 0 . :
b2 c2
bc b+c
2
2
2
2
a +b a +c =

a2 + b2 + a2 + c2
b2 + c2
b c (b + c )

= b c . 1 .
b+c

(3),
4

L , -

. .
1. a, b, c

f (t )dt . , -

T0

sup ( x (t )) 2 + sup ( y (t )) 2 t k =

T0 t T

, -

f (t ) =

A =

t , t [T0 , T ] , t t < 1 , :

f (t )

( x(t )

y (t ) [t k 1 , t k ] ).

. > 0 .
y (t ) T0 , T , -

(2)

k =1

( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2

6.

y ( k ) y ( k ) <

241

.., ..

242

4(T T0 )

k k t k < . V = V (T ) = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n ; 1 ;K; n }

[T0 , T ] , V < . , (V ) A < .


4

2a

(V ) = ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k

. (2) ,

k =1

(V ) l
k =1

4(T T0 )

t k =

t k =

4(T T0 ) k =1

l A l (V ) + (V ) A <

L =

(4)

(, (4) l ,
T0 , T , ).

L = sup l (T ) ,
T

l , L , l > L

T T , T < . l
T , l l > L

, (2),

l A <

2
2
(a(1 cos t )) + (a sin t ) dt = a

( 1 6.2)

. ,

. x = a ,

L = 2

(a(1 cos t ))2 + (a sin t )2 dt .

2. x = a cos t , y = a sin t , a > 0 .


. (1), .
, t 0 2 ( x; y ) 4

(a;0)

(0; a ) , -

= 2a sin t dt = 2a sin t dt = 4a sin tdt = 4a( cos t ) 0 = 8a .

L A < . , , L = A .
1. ,
x = a(t sin t ) , y = a (1 cos t ) , t 0,2 .
. , .
(1):

2(1 cos t )dt =

l T [T0 , T ] .

2a

0
.

2 ( ).
(. .).
0 2 .

x (t ) = 4a cos 3 t sin t ,
y (t ) = 4a sin 3 t cos t ,
(x (t ))2 +( y (t ))2 = 16a 2 cos 6 t sin 2 t + 16a 2 sin 6 t cos 2 t =
a

6.

243

, y (t )

= 2a 2 sin 2 (2t ) 1 + cos 2 (2t ) ,

[T0 , T ] , 2 > 0 , [T0 , T ] , 2 ,

(z
2

1 + z 2 + ln z + 1 + z 2

))

1
0

L = a 2 1 + cos 2t sin 2tdt =


2

= a+

y = a sin 4 t = a 1 cos 2 t

.., ..

244

1 + z 2 dz =

a ln 1 + 2

).

2
y x :

2 (2- ). x(t ) y (t ) T0 , T -

1).

= min{ 1 ; 2 } ; T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n }

k =1

T < . ( S (T ) s (T ) = (M k mk )t k <

. , , L 1
x (t ) y (t ) T0 , T .

= ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k .

3 (3- ).
(1) ,
x(t ) y (t ) , x (t ) y (t ) -

[T0 , T ] .

k =1

k =1

> 0 . f (t ) = ( x (t ) ) + ( y (t ) ) [T0 , T ] , 1 > 0 ,


V = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n ; 1 ;K; n } [T0 , T ] ,

V < 1 , : (V ) A <

A=

f (t )dt .

T0

V = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n ; 1 ;K; n }

[T0 , T ] ,

l (V ) =

(
n

k =1

. ,
2 , L
.
(1).
2

Mk

l = ( x(t k ) x(t k 1 )) 2 + ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) 2 =

mk y (t )
[t k 1 , t k ] ).
l , L T .

, L ,
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t T0 , T , .

(.

1.2.5.

[T0 , T ] ,

x x
= a1 2
+ ,
a
a

S (T ) s (T ) ,

T k , k = 1, K, n .

( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k

( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k
k =1

y( k ) y( k ) t k S (T ) s (T )

k =1

( 1, 1).

(V ) A <

S (T ) s (T ) <

, -

6.

245

A l (V ) A + l (V ) <

, 3 (4),
1. 1. 3 .
4 (4- ).
(1) ,

x(t ) , y (t ) -

[T0 , T ] ,
[T0 , T ] , 0 < < T T0 ,
(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2
[T0 , T ] . , ..

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))

L = lim

0+

dt .

.., ..

246
,

M T = ( x(T ); y (T ) )

M T = ( x(T ); y (T ) ) . L , -

, , : l L A . -

M T M T M ,
[T0 , T ] , x = x(t ) , y = y(t ) ,

, , . , l l A + M .
l , , , L , .
, L .
, L = A , ..

L . ,
, .. l A l , L . ,

T0

l A

l , L , l > A .

. , L ,
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t T0 , T , .

l , L T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n } [T0 , T ] .

L > 0 , l l .

l L A . , A l =

A = lim

+0

(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt .

T0

> 0 . , 1, L ,
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) [T0 , T ] ,

L =

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt A .

T0

T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n 1 ; T ; t n } T ,

> 0 . , l , -

l + A
2

, ..

l A . . ,
l A l ,

L.

, A , L . > 0 .
T

A = lim

0+

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt , > 0 ,

T0

l , L T . ,
l l ( 1 6.2). ,

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))

T0

dt <

l = l U M T M T , l , L -

L , x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) -

T0 , T . ,

T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n 1 ; T }; M T M T

6.

l ,

247

T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n 1 ; T } ,
T

L l =

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt l <

T0

[T0 , T ] , ,

L
T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n 1 ; T ; t n }. l l , ,

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt l

T0

(x(t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt l <

T0

5 ( ).
L
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , z = z (t ) , x(t ) , y (t ) z (t )

x (t ) , y (t ) z (t )

l ,
T

.., ..

248

L =

> 0 l ,

L , A l < + = .
2 2
l A l , L , ,
A = sup l , .. A = L . .
l

(x [ 1,1]) .

x = t , y = 1 t2 ,
t [ 1,1] , y (t ) t = 1 ,
[ 1 + ,1 ] t
, 0 < < 1 . y (t ) =

1 t2
[ 1 + ,1 ], (x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 = 1 + ( y (t ))2 , 1 + ( y (t ))2 = 1 2 ,
1 t
1

arcsin t
1 t 2
t [ 1,1] , (1):
. ,

L =

dt
1 t

= arcsin t 1 = .

dt .

(5)

T0

. L
x(t ) , y (t ) z (t )

(dL )2 = (dx )2 + (dy )2 + (dz )2 .

3. y = 1 x

(x(t )) + ( y (t )) + (z (t ))

A=

(x(t )) + ( y (t )) + (z (t ))
2

dt .

T0

.
2. f 1 ( x ), K , f m ( x )

[a, b] .
2

b
b

f 1 ( x)dx + K + f m ( x)dx

a
a

f 12 ( x) + K + f m2 dx .

. [a, b] n
x k = a +

ba
k , k = 0,1,K , n . n

:
2

m
ba
ba
ba
n
n
n
f
x
f
x
(
)
+
K
+
(
)
=
1 k

m k

f j ( xk )
=

n
n
n
j =1 k =1
k =1
k =1
m
b a n
ba
n
= f j ( xk )
=
f j ( x l )
n l =1
n
j =1 k =1
n
n m
b a 2
= f j ( x k ) f j ( x l )

k =1 l =1 j =1
n

6.
n

k =1 l =1

j =1

n
=
k =1

2
j

( xk )

i =1

249
2

ba
f i ( xl )
=
n

.., ..

250

T . A l 0 .
T

ba
f (xk ) + K + f ( xk )
.
n
2
1

T . , (6), :
n

l = ( x(t k ) x(t k 1 )) 2 + ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) 2 + ( z (t k ) z (t k 1 )) 2 =
k =1

k =1

tk
tk
tk
x (t )dt + y (t )dt + z (t )dt

t
t
t

k 1
k 1
k 1
n

tk

= ( ) > 0

x (t ) x (t ) <

3 (T T0 )

; y (t ) y (t ) <

z (t ) z (t ) <

3 (T T0 )

3 (T T0 )


k =1 t k 1

tk

dt

x (t k ) x (t k 1 )
y (t k ) y (t k 1 )
x (t )
+ y (t )
+
t k t k 1
t k t k 1

tk

dt =

(x (t ) x ( )) + ( y (t ) y ( )) + (z (t ) z ( ))
2

k =1 t k 1

dt <

tk

3 dt = .
3
(
T
T0 )
k = 1 t k 1

<

2
j

b
j =1

2
j

(a
m

j =1

bj)

(. 2 2.3.2. 2), (

T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n } [T0 , T ] ,
T < ; l , L

j =1

x (t ) x (t k 1 )
y (t k ) y (t k 1 )
z (t ) z (t k 1 )
+
+ k

t
t
t
t
t
t
k
k

1
k
k

1
k
k

t , t [T0 , T ] , t t < , :

(x (t )) + ( y (t )) + (z (t ))

k =1 t k 1

, A
l , L , .. L .
, A l , L . > 0 .
x (t ) , y (t ) , z (t ) T0 , T ,

tk

z ( t k ) z ( t k 1 )

+ z ( t )
t k t k 1

k =1 t k 1

. ,

dt

k =1

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 + ( z (t )) 2 dt = A .

T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n }
[T0 , T ] , l , L

( x(t k ) x(t k 1 )) 2 + ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) 2 + ( z (t k ) z (t k 1 )) 2 =

T0

2
m

,
(. 1 2.3.1 2).
. 2 .

(x (t )) + ( y (t )) + (z (t ))

A l =

(t k 1 , t k ) ).

k , k , k

A , L , .. A = L . .
4. x = t sin t ,

8
2
.
y = t cos t , z = t 2t M (0;0;0 ) N 0;2 ;

3
3

6.

x (t ) = sin t + t cos t ,

251

y (t ) = cos t t sin t ,

2
2
2
2
z (t ) = 2t , (x (t )) + ( y (t )) + ( z (t )) = (t + 1) .
M N t 0 2 .

.., ..

252

. 1.
, : x = x(t ), y = t , t c, d . ,
(1), :

L =

(5)

L =

2
2
2
2
(x(t )) + ( y (t )) + (z (t )) dt = (t + 1)dt = 2 + 2 .

(x (t ))

+ ( y (t )) dt = 1 + ( x ( y )) dy .
2

. y x , (7) :

y x ( x y )).
1) L y = y ( x ) ,
[a, b ] y ( x ) , L
,

L = 1 + ( y ( x )) dx .

L = 1 + (2 x ) dx =

(7)

1
t

= 1 + t 2 dt = 1 + t 2 +
20
4
0

dL = 1 + ( y ( x )) dx .
2

(8)

d
y=y(

x)

x=x(y)

x
a

x
a2
2
2
a
+
x
+
ln x + a 2 + x 2 + C ).

2
2
x
6. y = ach (0; a )
a
(b; ach(b a )) .
x
2
2 x
. y ( x ) = sh , 1 + ( y ( x )) = 1 + sh
=
a
a
2 x
= ch
, (7)
a
(

a 2 + x 2 dx =

1
1

+ ln t + 1 + t 2 = 17 + ln 4 + 17
4
4
0

2)

L = 1 + (x ( y )) dy .

L x = x( y ) , y [c, d ] ,
x( y ) [c, d ]
x ( y ) ,

[ ]

6 (

5. y = x , x 0,2 .

6.3.2.

x
L = ch 2 dx =
a
0

x
x
x
0 ch a dx = 0 ch a dx = ash a

= ash
0

b
.
a

6.

253

1- . y :

7. ,

y = x x .
3

. , ,
x = 0 x = 1 3

(1 + 9 x )

. 1 + ( y ( x )) =
2

13

L = 2

1 + 9x

36 x

13

.., ..

254

L =

, (7)

2
23

1 + a x 3

1 + (x ( y ))

2
3

x dx =

a
3a
.
dx =
x
2

x = a cos 3 t , y = a sin 3 t .
y

1 2 1
y ln y , y [1, e] .
4
2


t 0 2 ,

. , x ,

x (t ) = 3a cos 2 t sin t ,
y (t ) = 3a sin 2 t cos t .

y 1
,

2 2y

(1) :

(7) -

2- . :

8. ,

(8). : x ( y ) =

1
3

1
1
1
4
dx = x 1 2 + 9 x1 2 dx = (2 x1 2 + 6 x 3 2 ) 3 =
.
0
30
3
6 x
3 3

x=

2 2
2 2
23
23

y = a x , y ( x ) = a x 3

1
1
1 1
= = 1 + y 2 2 + 2 = y + . ,
y
4
y 4
e

1
1
e2 + 1
1 y2
L = y + dy =
.
+ ln y =
y
2 1
2 2
4
1

6.3.3.
L
F ( x, y ) = 0 ,
x y , y x ( x y ),
(7) ( (8)).
, (1).
2
3

9. x + y
.

2
3

. , .

2
3

= a ,

L =

9a 2 cos 4 t sin 2 t + 9a 2 sin 4 t cos 2 t dt =

10.

b
x
a

3a 2
3a
sin 2tdt =
.

2
2 0

x2 y2
+
= 1 ( a > b )
a2 b2
(0; b )
.
. ;

x = a sin t ,
y = b cos t ,

t 0, 2 (

).
(1):

6.
t

L(t ) =

255

.., ..

256

r ( ) , L ,

(a cos t )2 + ( b sin t )2 dt =

= a
0

L =

a b
1
sin 2 t dt = a 1 2 sin 2 t dt ,
2
a
0
2

E ( , t ) = 1 2 sin 2 t dt ,

[r1 , r2 ]

r2

1 + (r (r )) dr .
2

(10)

r1

. L

dL = r 2 ( ) + (r ( )) d .
2

. 1) x = r ( ) cos , y = r ( ) sin ,

[1 , 2 ] .
x ( ) = r ( ) cos r ( )sin , y ( ) = r ( )sin + r ( ) cos

1 2 sin 2 t
t = 2 F ( , 2 ) I K ( ) .
0

.
. .
I II

r = a cos + b , r 2 = 2a 2 cos 2 ,
2
x = a sin t , y = a sin t cos t , z = a cos t
,

.
6.3.4.

7 ( ).
1) L r = r ( ) , r , 1 , 2 ,

r ( )

= (r ) ,
r [r1 , r2 ] , (r )
(r ) ,
L =

E ( ) .
I

dt

(9)

II .
. t = 2 ,
. E ( , 2 ) II

2)

F ( , t ) =

r 2 ( ) + (r ( )) d

= a b a .
( ). ,

[1 , 2 ] -

(x ( ))2 + ( y ( ))2 = r 2 ( ) + (r ( ))2 ,

.
2) , (9)
= (r ) :

(r ( ))2 + (r ( ))2 d =

(r )dr =
( (r ))2
2
= r 2 ( (r )) + 1 sgn ( (r ))dr .
(r ) > 0 [r1 , r2 ] ,
r2 +

(10). .
, ,
, .

6.

257

11. r = a (1 + cos ) , a > 0 .


. (9)
. 2 , P
0 2 .
r ( ) = a sin ,

r ( )

+(r ( ))2 = a 2 (2 + 2 cos ) =

= 4a 2 cos 2

12. r = ae
(a > 0, b > 0) (r0 ; 0 ) (r; ) .

2 2 b

a e

2 2 b

+a b e
2

a e

2 b

+a b e
2

d =

1+ b
b

a
1 + b 2 e b
b

(9), .
(10). :

1
2

(r ) = 1

1
,
r2

1
1
r + ,
4
r

5
r2 1

1
1
1
L = r + dr = + ln r = 6 + ln 5 .
2
2 1
r
4 2
1

=
0

(r ) =

shx
dx (0 r R ) .
x

shr
2
2
2
, (r (r )) + 1 = sh r + 1 = ch r .
r

L = chrdr = shr

= shR .
0

6.3.5.

(r r0 ) .

8 ( ).
L r = r (t ) , = (t ) ,
b

, r = ae
(a > 0, b > 0) 0 < r < a , ,

( < < 0) ,

d =

a 1+ b2
.

b
1
1
13. = r + , r [1,5] .
2
r
. r = r ( ) =

a
1 + b 2 e b e b0 =
b
2

(10) :

b
e d =

d = a 1 + b

14. ,

= a 1+ b

2 b

. , . (9)
,

L =

L =

1 + (r (r )) =


L = 2a cos d = 4a cos d = 8a sin = 8a .
2
20
2

0
0

.., ..

, (9), -

,
2

258

r (t ) (t ) r (t ) ,
(t ) ( (t ) 0 ) [T0 , T ] , ,

6.
T

L =

T0

259

r (t )
(t )dt .
r (t ) +
(t )
2

(11)

(9), -

r (t )
r ( ) =
, d = (t )dt .
(t )
2u
2
15. r = ue , = u + 2u , u [0,2] .
. (9)
u = (u ) :

r 2 +(r ( ))2 d =

r (u )
(u )du =
r 2 +

(
)
u

= r 2 ( (u )) + (r (u )) sgn ( (u ))du .
2

r (u ) = e 2u (1 + 2u ) , (u ) = 2u + 2 , r 2 ( (u )) + (r (u )) =
2

( (

) (

))

( (

))

1
L = e (2u + 2u + 1)du = e 2u 2u 2 + 1
2
0
2

r 2 ( ) + (r ( )) d =
2

=
0

areash 2

areash 1

1
1 + sh 2 t chtdt =
2
sh t
areash 2

areash 1

d =
4

1 + 2 d .

= sht ,

areash 2

areash 1

ch 2 t
dt =
sh 2 t

areash 2

areash 1

1 + sh 2 t
dt =
sh 2 t

areash 2
1

2 + 1dt = ( ctht + t ) areash 1 =


2
sh t

1
1

= cth(areash2 ) + areash2 + cth areash areash .


2
2

1
cth(areasht ) = 1 + 2 ,
t
1
5

, cth areash = 5 .
cth(areash2) =
2
2

5 , areash

1
1+ 5
, = ln
2
2

L
F (r , ) = 0 , r , r (
r ), (9) ( (10)). ,
(11).
16. r = 1

A(2;1 2 ) B(1 2 ;2 ) .

5
1+ 5
+ ln 2 + 5 + 5 ln
=
2
2
5
2 2+ 5
5
3+ 5
.
=
+ ln
=
+ ln
2
2
2
1+ 5

L =

6.3.6.

9e 4 1
.
2

. r = 1 , r ( ) = 1
(9)

, areash 2 = ln 2 +

,
2u

L =

= e 4u 4u 2 u 2 + 2u + 1 + 1 + 4u + 4u 2 = e 4u 2u 2 + 2u + 1 .
2

.., ..

260


6
, :

x = a cos 5 t , y = a sin 5 t (0 t 2) .
2
2. x = 2a sin t , y = 2a cos t .
3
2
3. x = t 3 t , y = t + 2 (0 t 3) .
1.

6.

261

x = 6at 5 , y = 5at (1 t 8 ) A(0;0 ) B(6a;0) .


t
t
5. x = e cos t , y = e sin t (0 t ln ) .
6. x = 8 sin t + 6 cos t , y = 6 sin t 8 cos t (0 t / 2 ) .
7. x = a (cos t + t sin t ) , y = a (sin t t cos t ) (0 t 2 ) (

4.

).

8. x = ln 1 + t

),

y = 2arctgt 2t + 8 A(0;8)

B(ln 2; 2 + 6 ) .
9. x = a cos t , y = 2a ln sin t A(0;0 ) B ( x 0 ; y 0 ) .
a
2
3
10. x = sin t 1 + 2 cos t , y = a cos t A(0; a )
2
B(a 2 ;0 ) .
t

11. x = a cos t + ln tg , y = a sin t A(0; a )


2

B(x0 ; y 0 ) .

12. x = t 2 sin t + 2t cos t , y = 2 t


2

13. x = ch t , y = sh t
3

(0 t a ) .

)cos t + 2t sin t (0 t 1) .

y = 3acht A(0;3a ) B( x0 ; y 0 ) .
15. x = a cos t , y = a sin t , z = ct A (t = 0 ) B ( t

14. x = 2ash t ,
3

) ( ).

2 3 1 2
4 3 1 2
1 3 2
16. x = t + t , y = t + t , z = t + t (0 t 1) .
3
2
3
2
3
t
t
17. x = e (cos t + sin t ) , y = e (cos t sin t ) , z = ht (0 t 2 ) .
3
3
18. x = a cos t , y = a sin t , z = a cos 2t .
, :

(0 x 4) .
y = e (0 x a ) .
y = ln x (3 4 x 12 5) .
y = ln sin x ( 3 x 2 ) .
y = ln cos x (0 x a < 2) .

19. y = x

32

20.

21.
22.
23.

262

.., ..

24. y = 1 ln cos x (0 x 6 ) .

y = 1 ln cos x (0 x 3)
2
26. y = ln (1 x ) (0 x 1 2 ) .

25.

a2
(0 x b < a ) .
27. y = a ln 2
a x2
x
(0 x 1) .
28. y = arccos e

( )

29. y = 1 x + arcsin x
2

30. y = 1 x + arccos x
2

(0 x 7 9) .
(0 x 8 9) .

1
x x 2 + arcsin (2 x 1) .
2
2 4
24 3
32. y = x x
x Ox .
5
3
31. y =

33. x = a ln

a + a2 y2
a 2 y 2 ( 0 < b y a ) ().
y

y 1
2
a
y

ay A(0;0 ) B ; a .
a 2
3
6
2
3
a a
y
35. x = +
+ 2 A(a; a ) B(5a;3a ) .
3 2 y 6a
34. x =

36. , y = e ,
x

y = 2 x , x = 0 , y = 1.
37. , y = 2 x ,

y = 23 x 2 .
, :
38. y ( x ) =
39. y ( x ) =

t 4 1dt (0 x 2 ) .

cos 2t dt (0 x 4 ) .

1
x

6.

263
7.

40. y ( x ) =

sin 2t dt (0 x 4 ) .

, :
41. r = a (0 2 ) ( ).
42. r = a ,
2a .
43. r =

(0 ) .

44. r = a sin .

45. r = 1 cos .

46. r = a cos

47. r = a sin

48. r = a cos

49. r = ath
51.

( 3) .
(0 2 ) .

( 3) (0 2) .
( 4) .

50. r = 1 (1 + cos )

2) .

= r , r [0,5] .

r 2
r + 2 + ln r + r 2 + 2 (0 r 2 ) .
2
53. = r + ln r (1 r 5) .
52.

, :
54. r = 1 + cos t , = t tg (t 2 ) (0 t a < ) .

r = a cos 2 t , = 2(t tgt ) A(a;0 )


B(a 2 ; 2 2 ) .
56. r = a (1 + tgt ) , = tgt ln (1 + tgt ) A(a;0 )
B(r0 ; 0 ) .
55.

, (
):

x
y
x
+
= 1.
58.
a
b
2
2
3
59. y = x (2a x ) (0 x 5a 3) .
57.

23

+ y2 3 = a2 3.

60. y =
2

y = x 3 .
2

2
(x 1)3 , 3

7.1.
5 ( ),
.
, ,
, .
.
P1 P2 , ,
, P1 P2 .

( > 0) ,

M .
M P
, > 0 , - M
P . M P , > 0 , - M
P .
M P , , P .5 P .
,
.

> 0 - M
P , , .

7.

265

, :
1) , (, ), ;
2) ,
.
, . ,
, , , . , , .
, ,
,
. ,
,
, , .

.
,
, ,
, .
, , F , , . ,
, .
( )
F ( , , ).
() ,
( ),
() . ()
(), ,
.
, ,
o

. 180

266

.., ..

,
, .
,
.
, , ()
, (
) .
. ,
, . ,
,
, ( ).
, , , , .
.6
, F . F
. , , . F . ,
, . ,
, .
,
.
, .
.7
,
AB ,
. AB ,
(. . ).

, . , , , .
, ( )
6

.., .., .. . : .
. . . . ( ). , Alfa, 1998, .132.
7

., .., .. . (
). .: , 2006. .180.

7.

267

, .
, ,
B
, ,
, .
A
.
,

,
. , . , , .
,
, .
.
.
, ,
.
.
x = x u, v , y = y u, v , z = z u, v ,

( )
( )
( )
x(u, v ) , y(u, v ) , z (u, v ) -


Ouv . L
. , ,
, .
.

7.2. .
, . , , , .

.., ..

268

1o . (). .
2 o . ().

, , .
3o . ( ). ,
,
.
, , . ,
,
( ).
F . P , F , Q , F . P F , Q F .

{V (P )}

P , , Q .
V = sup V (P ) ,
P F

F . F
, V = 0 .
,

{V (Q )}

F Q , ,
,

V = inf V (Q ) ,
Q F

F . ,

V V .

F (.. ),

V =V .

V = V = V F ( ).
, F , , -

1. , , ,
,

7.

269

. , ,
, , (
), , . ,
, .

2. .
F R > 0 -

FR , F
R : FR = U R (O ) I F . R , FR . ,
, R FR
.

V (F ) = lim V (FR ) ,
R +

( )

F ( ), V F
.
1- 2 ( 3
7.5.1).

3. (, , , )
.
, , (. 4 5.3 5).
4. ,
F1 , F2 ,..., Fn
n

V (F ) = V (Fi ) ,
i =1

, , .

5. ,
.

270

.., ..

7.3. .


. .

1 ( ).
F , , .
, (. 1 5.3 5). 1, .
. , .
2 ( ).
F , , {An } {Bn },
, F F ,
lim V ( An ) = lim V (Bn ) = V (F ) .
n +

n +

[17], X, 2.
1 2.
1. F ,
> 0 P F
Q F , V (Q ) V ( P ) < .

. 1) . F ,

V ( F ) = V ( F ) . > 0 P F , V ( F )

< V ( P) V ( F ) .

Q F ,

V ( F ) V (Q ) < V ( F ) +

V ( F ) = V ( F ) = V ( F ) , , ,
:

V (F )

, V (Q ) V ( P ) < .

< V ( P ) V (Q ) < V ( F ) +

7.

271

2) . > 0 P F Q F , V (Q ) V ( P ) < .

>0

V ( P ) V ( F ) V ( F ) V (Q ) ,
0 V ( F ) V ( F ) V (Q ) V ( P ) < .

FP F FQ ), , V ( F ) h S (G) <

, F

, , V ( F ) = V ( F ) . 1 .

2. F , P F Q F -

>0

, V (Q ) V ( P ) < .
. 1, . .
> 0 P F Q F , V (Q ) V ( P ) <

. , ,

2
P Q , P P , Q Q
V ( P ) V ( P ) <
, P F Q

V (Q ) V ( P ) < V (Q ) +

, V (Q ) V (Q ) <

V ( P) +

<

4
+

= .

1 , F . 2 .
.
1. F G , F ,

V = S (G ) h , S (G ) G , h -

> 0 . , V ( F ) = S (G ) h ,
.
2. , .
1 .
3. F1 F
F2 , V (F1 ) V (F2 ) < , F (. 2).
4. F ,
z = z ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, z ) , x = x( y, z ) ,
z (x, y ) , y(x, z ) , x( y, z ) , F .

5. , ,
.
, ,
, .
, ( ) ,8 .

,
.

.
. G ,
> 0 P Q , P G Q

S (Q ) S ( P ) <

.., ..

V ( FQ ) V ( FP ) = h S (Q ) h S ( P ) < . , F
( 1). , S ( P ) S (G ) S (Q ) ,
V ( FP ) h S (G ) V ( FQ ) . V ( FP ) V ( F ) V ( FQ ) (

272

FP FQ P

h.

FP F FQ

7.4.

Oxy F ,

x = a x = b ,

(.,
, [18], XVIII, 1, .308).

7.

273

x [a, b] ,
( x;0;0 ) Ox , ,
S ( x ) .
1. S ( x ) F x [a, b ] . F

V = S ( x )dx .
. T

[a, b]

S P ( x ) S Q (x ) ,

V ( PT ) = S P (x )dx , V (QT ) = S Q ( x )dx .


, S P ( x ) S ( x ) S Q ( x ) ,
b

( )

V ( PT ) = S P ( x )dx S (x )dx S Q ( x )dx = V (QT ) .

Ox

a = x0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n 1 < x n = b ,

() ( ) V

S (x )dx
a


x = xi , i = 1,2,..., n 1 ,

S(x)

PT QT , , ,

(1)

.., ..

274

. i - Fi ,

PT QT ,
, . ,
(1).

F , F ,

V ( PT ) V V (QT ) ,

.
1. (.. , , ), a , AB
.
.
1- .

O , S(x)

h
y
x
,

A
AB ,
y
a

x
. O
,

B
Ox . -

V (QT ) V ( PT )

y =

x = xi x = xi +1 ,

x
y

i = 0,1,..., n 1 .
(
F ),
Pi Qi , -

, ,
, , Pi Fi ,
Qi Fi . ,
PT QT ,

()


T ).

( -

h = tg y = tg a 2 x 2 .

a2 x2

S (x )

7.

275

1
yh = tg a 2 x 2 . (1) 2

.., ..

276

y2

1
V = S ( x )dx = tg a 2 x 2 dx = tg a 2 x 2 dx =
2
0
a
a
a

x
2
= tg a 2 x = a 3 tg (.).
3 0 3

2- . ,
, Oy .
.
,

A
a

a
x

3 a
2
0

c 1 x0

a 2

a1

b1

= 1.

:
a
a
a
x2
x2
V = S ( x )dx = bc 1 2 dx = 2bc 1 2 dx =
a
a
0
a
a

x3
= 2bc x 2
3a

4
= abc (.).
0 3

S ( y ) = 2 xh =

= 2tg y a 2 y 2 .

x2 + z2 = a2 , y2 + z2 = a2 .
. ,
Oy

2
= a 3 tg (.).
3

x2 y2 z2
+
+
= 1 ().
a2 b2 c2

x02
y2 z2
+
=
1

.
b2 c2
a2

Ox .
,
,
. 1 8
, Oz . ,
z = z 0 :
2

x 2 = a 2 z0 = y 2 .

. , , x = x 0 ,

Ox .

= 1 ,

x2
S ( x ) = a1b1 = bc1 2 .
a
, , a x 0 a , (1),

3- . , , Oz .
2. ,

,
, Oy Oz .
3. ,

V = S ( y )dy = 2tg y a 2 y 2 dy =
2
= tg a 2 y 2
3

z2

(1)
a

y2

(.. )

2 x = 2 a 2 y 2 h = tg y . -

O
B

b 1 x0

a 2

z2


(), ,

x = y = a 2 z 02 ,

7.

277

S (z 0 ) = xy = a 2 z 02 a 2 z 02 = a 2 z 02 .

7.5.

z3
16
V = 8 a z dz = 8 a 2 z = a 3 (.).
3 0
3

0
a

4. F

.., ..

278

M ( x; y; z ) ,

0 z 1 , 0 x 1 , 0 y 1 , z ,
1 x 0 , 1 y 0 , z . ,

.
,
.
7.5.1.
Ox Ox

y = f ( x ) [a, b] .
FOX , Ox
1.

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y ( x ), y C[a, b]},

S (z )dz 0

, VOX

, , .
. . ,
F ; , ..
V (F )

VOX = y 2 (x )dx .

= inf V (Q ) , V (Q ) -

.9 T

Q F

{(x; y; z )

mi M i -

0 x 1;0 y 1;0 z 1}


y x

y=y(x)

1 x 0;1 y 0;0 z 1}.

V (F ) = inf V (Q ) = 2 . , ,

QF

( )

()

x i , xi +1 ,

V (Q ) ,

2.
, z 0 z 1
z
, V F F
, .
: 2 = V ( F ) 1 , , .

[a, b] :

a = x0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n 1 < x n = b ,

, F (.. , F ). ,

{(x; y; z )

(1)

i = 0,1,..., n 1 . Pi Qi ,

xi , x i +1

, mi M i .
, ( PT )
F , ( QT ) .
F PT QT

Ox

FOX , ( POX ) -

[9], .420.

7.

279

.., ..

280

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y y ( x ), y C[a, b]}

FOX , ( QOX ) FOX .



n 1

n 1

i =0

2
i

i =0

, -

y 2 ( x ) . ,
, [a, b ] ,

,
. , .
b

[a, b] y 2 (x )dx , VOX

F = {( x; y ) a x b, y ( x ) y 0, y C[a, b]}

V ( POX ) = m xi V (QOX ) = M xi .
2
i

FOX -

( , ), .
(1) , , y x

()

[a, b] , y(x )
y ( x ) . y( x ) (1) , -


Ox F .
, ,

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y y ( x ), y C[a, b]}

(1), .

1. ,

Ox

, y = 2 x x y = 0 .
2

.
(1) :

Ox , ,
Ox

= x 4 x + 4 x dx =
4

x5
4x3
16
=
= x 4 +
3 0
15
5

2 ( ,
Ox ).
, ,

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ); y1 , y 2 C [a, b]}

= 2 x x 2 dx =

( Ox ), (1)
.

VOX = y 2 ( x )dx =

F = {( x; y ) a x b, y ( x ) y 0, y C [a, b]}

(.).

y( x ) ,
[a, b] ). , , Ox 1 (

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y y 2 ( x ); y 2 C [a, b]}

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y y1 ( x ); y1 C [a, b]}.

,
b

VOX = y 22 ( x ) y12 ( x ) dx .
a

, ,

F = {( x; y ) a x b, y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ) 0; y1 , y 2 C [a, b]}

Ox , ,
Ox

F = {( x; y ) a x b, y1 ( x ) y 0; y 1 C [a, b]}

7.

281

F = {( x; y ) a x b, y 2 ( x ) y 0; y 2 C[a, b]}.

2
2

F Ox
,
a, b y 2 x y1 x , x = a x = b :

[ ]

( ) ()
F = {( x; y ) a x b, y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ); y1 , y 2 C [a, b]},

Ox .
, ,
, F Ox ,
b

VOX = y ( x ) y ( x )dx .
2
2

,

F = x, y : a x b,0 y y x , y C a, b .

Ox

3. ,
,

Ox

{(

VOX = y ( x ) y ( x ) dx .
2
1

.., ..

282

2
1

(2)

Ox

2. ,

, y = x y = 2 x x ( x
.
Ox :
3

0) .

+ + 2n

VOX =

n =0 0

n =0

4n

+
e 2 t
(cos t + 2 sin t ) = e 4n 1 1 + e 2 =

5
5
n =0
0

x
=
y

((

= 2x x3

x 2 dx =

x
1

= x 6 4 x 4 + 3 x 2 dx =
0

(.).

12
35

3 ( a b ). , (1) ( ) a b , a b , .. -

t = x 2n :

VOX = e 2(t + 2n ) sin (t + 2n )dt = e 4n e 2t sin tdt .


VOX = e

sin xdx .

n =0

2 x

,
b

n =0 2 n

VOX = y 22 ( x ) y12 ( x ) dx

[ ]}

. , , , , , ( (1) ). sin x 0
2n x + 2n , n = 0,1,2,... ,

()

y = e x sin x y = 0 (0 x < +) .

F = ( x; y ) 0 x 1, x y 2 x x 3 ,

(1 + e ) e
5
2

4n

n=0

VOX =

(1 + e 2 )

5 1 e 4

b1 = 1 q = e 4 ( S =

b1
),
1 q

(1 + e ) =
(.).
(1 e )(1 + e ) 5(1 e )
2

4 ( , Ox , ).
, a, b y = y ( x ) , -

[ ]

,
b :

Ox a

7.

283

.., ..

284

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y y ( x ), y (a ) = y (b ) = 0}.

1 + cos 2t

= a 3 1 3 cos t + 3
cos 3 x dt .
2

()

, , y x

x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T , x(T0 ) = b , x T = a ,

()

()

( )
x(t )

()

y t

T0 , T , -

y=y(x)

T0 T

(x(t ); y(t ))


,
(..
B( x(T0 );0 )

b x

A( x(T );0) , . ).

T0

Ox
, x = a(t sin t ) ,
y = a(1 cos t ) (0 t 2 )
y
y = 0.
. (3)

2a

S
2a

VOX =

2a

y (x )dx =
2

= y (t )x (t )dt =
2

(a(1 cos t )) (a(1 cos t ))dt = a (1 cos t ) dt =


0

( ;0) , -

[0,2 ] . ,

5
VOX = a 3 dt = 5 2 a 3 (.).
2
0
5 (, Ox
, ).
L ,


Ox , , a, b

(3)

T0

4. ,

[ ]

y=y1 (x)

y = y 2 (x ) ( ) y = y1 ( x )

VOX = y (x )dx = y (t )x (t )dt = y (t )x (t )dt .


2

y=y2 (x)


(1) t ,
:
b


cos t , cos 2t , -

(
y1 a = y 2

( )

y1 (b ) = y 2 (b ) . , L

),

(a )

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ); y1 (a ) = y 2 (a ), y1 (b ) = y 2 (b )}.

, , L
x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

()

()

x(t ) y(t ) [T0 , T ] ,


t T0 T ( x(t ); y (t ))

, . ,
t T0 T1 ( x T1 = a )

( )
B(x(T0 ); y (T0 ))

A( x(T1 ); y(T1 )) . -

T1 T (x(t ); y (t ))
, B( x(T ); y (T )) . ).
t

7.

285

, t

VOX = y 22 ( x ) y12 ( x ) dx ,
a

6 ( , Oy Oy ).

T0

VOX = y 22 ( x )dx y12 ( x )dx = y 2 (t )x (t )dt y 2 (t )x (t )dt =


a

T1

T1

T1

= y 2 (t )x (t )dt y 2 (t )x (t )dt = y 2 (t )x (t )dt .


T1

T0

(4)

T0

(4)
F , Ox -

L = {( x; y ) x = x(t ), y = y (t ), t [T0 , T ]; x(T0 ) = x(T ), y (T0 ) = y (T )},

t T0 T L ,

F Oy ,
c, d x 2 y x1 y , y = c

[ ]

( )

y = d :

F = {( x; y ) c y d , x1 ( y ) x x 2 ( y ); x1 , x 2 C[c, d ]},
Oy .
, 2, , FOY , F Oy ,

d

VOY = x 22 ( y ) x12 ( y )dy ,

F .

Ox

, x = 2t t , y = 4t t .
. ,
x(0) = x(2) = 0 ,
. ,
3

y(0) = y (2) = 0 , .. (
). , t 0
2. x(t ) ,
t 0 1 x(t ) 0 1, t 1 2 x(t ) 1 0.
(4)
1

(2).
6. , Oy

, y = x x = 2 y y ( y
.
Oy :
3

, (5)

= 4t t 3
0

((

y 2 dy =

= 2y y3

8t 4 + t 6 (t 1)dt =

= 2 t 7 t 6 8t 5 + 8t 4 + 16t 3 16t 2 dt =
0

) (2 2t )dt = 2 (16t

VOY = x 22 ( y ) x12 ( y ) dy

VOX = y (t )dx (t ) y (t )dx(t ) = y 2 (t )dx(t ) =


2

0) .

F = ( x; y ) 0 y 1, y x 2 y y 3 ,

(5)

5. ,

( )

t8 t7 4 6 8 5
16
64
= 2 t + t + 4t 4 t 3 =
(.).
5
3 0 35
8 7 3

.., ..

286

= y 6 4 y 4 + 3 y 2 dy =
0

= 12 35 (.).

7.

287

7 ( , Oy
, ).

.., ..

288

. (6) :

VOY =

y
d

,
Oy .

c, d x = x y , ,
Oy c d .

[ ]

(a(1 cos t )) (a(1 cos t ))dt = a (1 cos t ) dt =


3

( )

1 + cos 2t

= a 3 1 3 cos t + 3
cos 3 x dt .
2

0
2a

(.
4 ),

VOY = a

( )

, (..
A(0; y (T0 )) B 0; y T ).

( ))

VOY = x 2 ( y )dy
c

t , :
T

VOY = x 2 (t ) y (t )dt .

(6)

T0

7. , Oy
,
x = a(1 cos t ) , y = a(t sin t ) , (0 t 2 ) x = 0 .

2 dt = 5

a3

(.).

F = {( x; y ) c y d , x( y ) x 0, x(c ) = x(d ) = 0}.

()
() [ ]
( )
x(t ) y(t ) [T0 , T ] ,
t T0 T ( x(t ); y (t ))

2
3

Oy ,
:

, , x y

x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T , y (T0 ) = c , y T = d ,

F = {( x; y ) c y d ,0 x x( y ), x(c ) = x(d ) = 0}

x=x(y)

x
0

8 (, Oy
, ).
L ,
F ,
Oy

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] , x(T0 ) = x(T ) , y (T0 ) = y (T ) ,


x(t ) y(t ) [T0 , T ] ,
t T0 T ( x(t ); y (t ))
, .
, , 5, , F Oy :
T

VOY = x 2 (t )y (t )dt .

(7)

T0

8. , Oy
, x = 2t t , y = 4t t .
. (. 5 ) t 0 2, t 0 1 x(t ) 2

7.

289

x(t ) 1

0 1, t 1 2
0, (7)

mi M i

y( x ) [xi , xi +1 ] , i = 0,1,..., n 1 .
Pi Qi ,
[xi , xi +1 ] , mi M i .
, ( PT ) F , ( QT ) .
Oy Pi Qi , mi
M i , xi +1
xi .

VOY = x 2 (t )y (t )dt = 2t t 2

) (4 3t )dt =
2

T0

.., ..

290

= 3t 6 12t 5 + 8t 4 + 16t 3 16t 2 dt =


0

3t 7
8t 5
16t 3
=
=
2t 6 +
+ 4t 4
5
3 0
7
128 19 256
64 (.).
=

64 =
5
21
105
(13)
( 12 ).
7.5.2.
Ox Oy

mi (xi2+1 xi2 ) M i (xi2+1 xi2 ) .


Oy F PT QT
FOY , ( POY ) FOY , ( QOY ) FOY .


n 1

y=y(x)

2.
= f ( x ) -

x
0

[a, b] .

FOY ,


Oy

i =0

. T

a = x0 < x1 < x 2 < ... < x n 1 < x n = b ,


[2], .254.

) V (Q

OY

n 1

) = M i2 xi2+1 xi2 .
i =0

n 1

n 1

i =0
n 1

i =0
n 1

i =0

i =0

V ( POY ) = 2 mi xi xi + mi 2 xi ,
V (QOY ) = 2 M i xi xi + M i 2 xi .

(8)

[a, b] :

,

2xy x .

()

T T T .

10

2
i

2 xi (xi +1 xi ) + (xi +1 xi ) = 2 xi xi + 2 xi .

, VOY

10

2
i +1

xi +1 xi

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y (x ), y C [a, b]},


VOY = 2 x y ( x )dx .

V ( POY ) = m x
2
i

2xy(x ) [a, b] ,

7.
n 1

291

n 1

i =0

lim 2 mi xi xi = lim 2 M i xi xi = 2 x y ( x )dx .

T 0

T 0

i =0

,
n 1

mi x i < T
2

i =0

y ( x )

n 1

m x
i =0

n 1

M i xi < T
2

i =0

[a, b]

n 1

M
i =0

xi

n 1

i =0

lim mi xi = lim M i xi = y ( x )dx < ,


T 0

i =0

:
n 1

T 0

i =0

i =0

, FOY VOY
(8), .

9. , Oy
, y = 2 x x y = 0 .
. (8) y
:
2

VOY = 2 x y (x )dx =
a

= 2 x 2 x x 2 dx =
0

x
0

F = {( x; y ) 0 b x a,0 y y ( x ), y ( x ) C[ b,a ]},

, . (8) t = x , ,
a

VOY = 2 ( x) y ( x )d ( x) = 2 x y ( x )dx .

(9)

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y ( x ), y ( x ) C[a, b]},

F = {( x; y ) a x b 0,0 y y ( x ), y ( x ) C[a, b]}.

10 (

n 1

lim mi 2 xi = lim M i 2 xi = 0 .

T 0

.., ..

(9)

n 1

T 0

292

= 2 2 x 2 x 3 dx =
0

2x3 x 4
8
= 2
=
4 0
3
3
(.).
9 ( a < b 0 ). , , Oy

F = {( x; y ) a x b 0,0 y y ( x ), y ( x ) C[a, b]}

y( x ) ). ,

, Oy

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y (x ), y C [a, b]}

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b, y ( x ) y 0, y C [a, b]}
Ox , .
,
, y x a, b , -

()

(8)

[ ]
y( x ) y ( x ) .

, ,

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y (x ), y C [a, b]}

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b, y ( x ) y 0, y C [a, b]} ,
( Oy ), :
b

VOY = 2 x y ( x )dx .

(10)

, , 9, 10
b

VOY = 2 x y ( x )dx .
a

(11)

7.

293

11 ( ,
Ox ).
,

.., ..

294

, ,


x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

()
() [ ]
x(T0 ) = b , x(T ) = a ,
x(t ) y(t ) -

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b, y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ); y1 , y 2 C [a, b]}

y=y(x)

F = {( x; y ) a x b 0, y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ); y1 , y 2 C [a, b]}
Oy ,
b

VOY = 2 x y 2 ( x ) y1 (x ) dx .


T0 , T , -

(12)

10. , Oy
3

(x 0) .

F = ( x; y ) 0 x 1, x y 2 x x ,
3

Ox :

VOY = 2 x y 2 ( x ) y1 ( x ) dx =

= 2 x 2 x x 3 x dx =
0

x
0

= 2
0

4
x x dx =
(.).
15

, y = x y = 2 x x

y( x )

t T0 T

(x(t ); y(t ))


,
(..
, . ).

b x

B( x(T0 );0) A( x(T );0)

(8)
t ,
:
b

T0

T0

VOY = 2 x y ( x )dx = 2 x(t ) y (t )x (t )dt = 2 x(t ) y (t )x (t )dt .


F = {( x; y ) a x b 0,0 y y ( x ), y (a ) = y (b ) = 0},

F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b, y ( x ) y 0, y (a ) = y (b ) = 0} ,
F = {( x; y ) a x b 0, y ( x ) y 0, y (a ) = y (b ) = 0} ,

12 ( , Ox , ).
,
0 a < b
a, b

[ ] (

y = y( x ) , , Ox a b :
F = {( x; y ) 0 a x b,0 y y ( x ), y (a ) = y (b ) = 0}.

T0

VOY = 2 x y ( x )dx = 2 x(t ) y (t ) x (t )dt .

(13)

11. , Oy
,

y = a(1 cos t ) (0 t 2 ) y = 0 .
. VOY = 2

x(t )y(t ) x(t )dt =

T0

x = a(t sin t ) ,

7.

295

.., ..

296

VOY = 2 x(t ) y (t )dx(t ) 2 x(t ) y (t )dx(t ) =

= 2 a(t sin t )a(1 cos t )a(1 cos t )dt =

)(

= 2a 3 (t sin t )(1 cos t ) dt =

= 2 2t t 2 4t t 3 2(1 t )dt =

t
1
3
3

= 2a 3 t 2t cos t + cos 2t sin t + sin 2t sin t cos 2t dt .


2
2
2
2

= 4 t 6 3t 5 2t 4 + 12t 3 8t 2 dt =

,
2

2t cos t + 2 cos 2t 2 sin t + sin 2t 2 sin t cos 2t dt = 0


0

( ),

3
3
VOY = 2a t dt = 2a 3 t 2 = 6 3 a 3 (.).
2
4 0
0
13 (, Oy , ).
F , Oy -

L = {( x; y ) x = x(t ), y = y (t ), t [T0 , T ]; x(T0 ) = x(T ), y (T0 ) = y (T )},

27 26
64
25
8
(.).
= 4
2 + 3 2 4 2 3 =
2
5
3
7
105
(7) (. 8 ).
7.5.3. ,

F ,
F ,

,
. ,
) y = l ,

F = {(x; y ) a x b, f1 ( x ) y f 2 ( x )},

t T0 T L , F
.
, Oy , (13), .

Vl Fl , F ,
b

Vl = ( f 2 l ) 2 ( f 1 l ) 2 dx .

12. , Oy
, x = 2t t , y = 4t t .
. (13).
x 0 = x 2 = 0 y 0 = y 2 = 0 , , , , t
2

()

()

()

x(t ) , t 0 1 x(t )
0 1, t 1 2
x(t ) 1 0. , x(t ) , y(t ) , -

0 2 . ,

()

(14)

x = x
Ox1 . 1
.
y1 = y l

F = {( x1 ; y1 ) a x1 b, f1 ( x1 ) l y1 f 2 ( x1 ) l} ,

Fl

7.

297

Vl = ( f 2 (x1 ) l ) ( f 1 ( x1 ) l ) dx1 =
2

((

F = {(x; y ) a x b, f1 ( x ) y f 2 ( x )},

V p = 2 ( f 2 ( x ) f 1 ( x )) x p dx .

(15)

x1 = x p
. F

y1 = y

F = {( x; y ) 0 x 2a,0 y y ( x )} .
t , (14)

V y =2a =

2a

( y ( x ) 2a )

(0 2a) 2 dx =

F = {( x1 ; y 2 ) a p x1 b p, f1 ( x1 + p ) y1 f 2 ( x1 + p )},

(12):
1

23
=
30
0

y = 2a ,
x = a(t sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t ) (0 t 2 ) y = 0 .

14. ,

F p , F ,

( f (x

) )

x5 x4 x3 x2

+
+
= 2 ( x x + x + x )dx = 2
5
4
3
2

0
(.).
4

a p

((

) x = p ,

V p = 2

) )

= ( f 2 ( x ) l ) 2 ( f1 ( x ) l ) 2 dx ;

b p

V = 2 2 x x x x + 1dx = 2 2 x x 3 x (x + 1)dx =

.., ..

298

((2a ) ( y(t ) 2a ) )dx(t ) =

+ p ) f1 (x1 + p )) x1 dx1 = 2 ( f 2 ( x ) f1 ( x )) x p dx.

(4a (a(1 cos t ) 2a ) )a(1 cos t )dt =

13. ,
, y = x , y = 2 x x
) y = 1 ; )
. ) (14):

( y 0)

x = 1 ;

1
1
7 17

= a 3 cos t + cos 2t + cos 3t dt =


2 4
2
4

0
2

1
1
7t 17

= a sin t + sin 2t + sin 3t = 7 2 a 3 (.).


4
12
2 4
0
3

= x 6 4 x 4 2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 2 x dx =

V = (2 x x 3 +1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 dx =
1

= a 3 4 (1 + cos t ) (1 cos t )dt =

x
0

) (15):

59
70

(.).

7.6.
,
.

7.

299

7.6.1.


OP

F = {(r; ) 0 ,0 r r ( )} ,

(3), t .
,

a 3

3
3
3 27a 3 3
(.).

sin
4

+
sin
10

sin
2
=

8 4
4
20
320
0
3

7.6.2.

r ( ) C (1) [ , ] , OP (
r = r ( ) , F ).
x( ) = r ( ) cos ,
y( ) = r ( )sin , Oxy , ,

.., ..

300

, ,
, .
3.

FOP , -

F = {(r; ) 0 ,0 r r ( )} ,

VOX = VOP = y 2 ( )x ( )d .

VOP

(16)

1. , , r = a sin 3 , a > 0 , = 0 , = 3 ,
.
. x = a sin 3 cos , y = a sin 3 sin

( )

VOP

r = r ( ) [ , ] .

2 3
r ( )sin d .
=
3

T [ , ]

= 0 < 1 < 2 < ... < n = .


( )

Fi , -

0 3 , , (16)

VOP = y 2 ( )x ( )d =
0

(cos 2 cos 4 ) (2 cos 4 + cos 2 )d =


2

a 3 3 3

3
3

=
cos 2 3 cos 4 + cos 6 + cos10 cos12 d =

8 02
2
2

mi

[ i , i +1 ] .

i+1
i

= i ,

= i +1

Mi

a 3

(17)

r = r ( ) ,

M i = sup r ( ) ,
i i +1

mi = inf r ( ) .
i i +1

Qi Pi , , = i , = i +1 r = M i , r = mi , i = 0,1,..., n 1 .

7.
Q

301

S (T ) s (T ) < ,

Qi Pi . , FOP , F
FOP FOP
Q
OP

, F

P
OP

. , -

2
V =
R 2 h , h 3
, , R ,
Q
P
Q
P
VOP , VOP FOP FOP :
n 1
+ i +1
i
4 n 1 3
2 3
Q
;
sin
VOP
=
M i cos i cos i +1 =
M i sin i

3 i =0
2
2
i =0 3
n 1
+ i +1
i
4 n 1 3
2 3
P
.
sin
VOP =
mi cos i cos i +1 =
mi sin i

3 i =0
2
2
i =0 3
T :
i
i
+ i +1
sin
=
+ ( i2 ), sin i
= sin i , i i i +1 .
2
2
2

2
=
3

Q
OP

n 1

M
i =0

P
VOP
=

i 0

2
3

n 1
i =0

3
i

2
3

m
(

.., ..

302

3
i

i 0

n 1

M
i =0

3
i

> 0 .
, FOP .

(
)
P
Q
s (T ) + i VOP
VOP VOP
S (T ) + i

S (T ) s (T ) (, , ). (17) .
2. , , r = a 1+ cos , a > 0;0 2

.
. ,
(17) 0 :

m
i =0

3
i

VOP

sin i i + i
)

(
sin i i + i

i 0 ;

a 3
6

2a
3

(1 + cos )

sin d =

(1 + cos ) d (cos ) =
3

(1 + cos )

8
= a 3 (.).
3

4
0

3. , ,

(
(
(
sin i i + = s (T ) + i ,

sin i i + = S (T ) + i ;
n 1

) (

2 3
2a 3
(
)
r

sin

=
=
3
3

FOP (17), -

= r 3 , = ,

)
sin i = max sin ,

( = 0

i i +1

S (T ) s (T )
2 3
[ , ]
r ( ) sin ,
3

= ), (17), , :

i i +1

sin i = min sin .

r=3

VOP

2 3
2
2
r ( )sin d = sin d =
=

3
30
3

(.).

, ,
,

7.6.3.

= 2

F = {(r; ) 2 2 ,0 r r ( )}

7.

303

, ( ,
, Oy ). . 7.6.1, :

VOY

= x ( ) y ( )d ,
2

(18)

.., ..

304

. ) , , x = r cos , y = r sin .
:

(17),

x( ) = r ( ) cos , y( ) = r ( )sin , r ( ) C (1) [ , ] .

VOX = 2

4. , , r = a sin 3 , a > 0 , = 0 , = 3 ,

2
3

(a
0

VOY = x 2 ( ) y ( )d =
0

3 3

(sin 2 + sin 4 ) (2 sin 4 sin 2 )d =


2

a 3 3 3

sin 2 + 3 sin 4 + 2 sin 6 sin 10 sin 12 d =

8 02
2

a 3 3

3
3
3
3 81a
(.).
=
cos 2 cos 4 + cos10 =
8 4
4
20
40
0

5. , ,
) Oy .

(x

+ y 2 ) = a 2 (x 2 y 2 ) : ) Ox ;
2

3 2

(z

1)2 d cos =
3

1 2 dz =

2
4a 3 3
2 a 3
ln 1 + 2
=
2 ln 1 + 2 (.).

4
3
8
3 2 8
) : r = a cos 2 .
=

,
:

1 =

= 2

r1 (1 ) = r ( ) . (17),

VO1P1 = 2

7.6.4.

, , ,
,
(, ,
).

4a

(2 cos

3 4

4a 3 z 2
3
3
=
z 1 2 z z 2 1 + ln z + z 2 1 =
8
8
3 2 4
1

4a
3

cos 2 sin d =
=

= 2.
. (18):

r = a cos 2 .

2
3

r1 (1 ) sin 1 d1 =

4a
3

4a
3

(cos 2 ) 2 sin d =

3 4

3 4

(cos 2 )

3
2

cos d =

4a

(1 2 sin ) d (

3 4

3 2

3
2

4a

3 1

3 2

4a

(1 z ) dz = 3
0

3
2 2

3 2

cos
0

tdt =

2a3
4 2

2 sin =

(.).

7.

305

7.6.5.
,
, , . .
6. , , r = a (1 + cos ) , (a > 0;0 2 )

r cos =

.., ..

306

,
.

1.


Ox :
a x b , y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ) ,

y1 , y 2 C [a, b].

a
( 4
x = 4 , O1 x1 ).
O1 y1 ,

VO1 X1 = 2

3 3a
4

2 x1 0 3 3a 4 , 2 x1 3 3a 4 0).

VO1 X1

= 2a (1 + cos ) cos + cos + 2 cos 2 1 d .


4
0

cos x ,

cos

2 k +1

xdx = 0 ,

c
3.

x=x1 (y)

VO1 X1

13
= 2a (4 cos + 2 cos cos )d = 2 a 3 (. ).
4
0
4

VOY = x 22 ( y ) x12 ( y )dy ;


c


Ox Ox ;
(
) :
x = x(t ), y = y (t ) ,

x(T0 ) = b, x(T ) = a .

VOX = y 2 (t )x (t )dt ;
T0

VOY = x 2 (t ) y (t )dt ;
T0

VOX = 2 x(t ) y (t ) y (t )dt ;


T0

. ,

VOX = 2 y ( x 2 ( y ) x1 ( y ))dy ;

( ):

x=x (y)

c y d , x1 ( y ) x x 2 ( y ) ,
x1 , x 2 C [c, d ].

dx1 ( , -

a
x1 ( ) = a (1 + cos )sin , y1 = + a(1 + cos ) cos .
4

Oy :

y=y1 (x)
2.

x1 = y , y1 = x

VOX = y 22 (x ) y12 ( x )dx ;


VOY = 2 x ( y 2 ( x ) y1 ( x ))dx ;

y=y2(x)

F
a

x
b

VOY = 2 x(t ) y (t ) x (t )dt ;


T0

7.


Oy Oy ;
: x = x (t ), y = y (t ) ,

y (T0 ) = c, y (T ) = d .

VOX = y 2 (t )x (t )dt ;

7.

VOY = x 2 (t ) y (t )dt ;

VOP =

, ):

VOX = 2 x(t ) y (t ) y (t )dt ;


0 ,

T0

VOY = 2 x(t ) y (t ) x (t )dt ;

r ( ) C (1) [ , ] .
=

O
, , :
x = x(t ), y = y (t ) ,

x(t ), y (t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] ,


x(T0 ) = x(T ) , y (T0 ) = y (T ) .
y

VOX

= y (t )x (t )dt ;
2

T0

VOY = x 2 (t ) y (t )dt ;
T0

VOX = 2 x(t ) y (t ) y (t )dt ;

8.


Ox

a x b,
y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ) ,
y = l x = p .

y=y2(x)

F
y=y1 (x)
a

VOY = x 2 ( ) y ( )d ,

2 2,

0 r r ( ) ,
x( ) = r ( ) cos ,
= 2
y ( ) = r ( )sin ,
( r = r ( )
r ( ) C (1) [ , ] .
, ):

T0

6.

5.

x( ) = r ( ) cos ,

T0

y ( ) = r ( )sin ,

2 2
r ( )sin d ;
3

0 r r ( ) ,

2
( r = r ( ) V

OX = y ( )x ( )d ,

T0

T0

.., ..

308

4.

307

VOY = 2 x(t ) y (t ) x (t )dt ;

T0

Vl = ( y 2 l ) 2 ( y1 l ) 2 dx ;

V p = 2 ( y 2 y1 ) x p dx ;
a

, , .

7.

309

10. y = sin x , y = 0 (0 x ) : ) Ox ; ) Oy ;

) y = 1 ; ) y = 1 ; )


1. , A, B a, b , h .
2. ,

y = ax 2 Oy , S , H .
x2 y2
3. ,
+
=1
a2 z2
(0 < z < a ) .
4. , x + y + z = 1 ,
2

x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
5. R ( ).
6. , x = 1 , x = 3 ,
,
x = 2 27.
z
7.
, , , ( ).
8.
h

.
a x .
a
,
y
R , h .

, ,
,
, :
2

x 3
9. y = b (0 x a ) , Ox ().
a

.., ..

310

x = 1 .
11. y = cos x , y = 2 cos x , x = 2 : ) Ox ; )
Oy .

y = 0 (0 x < + ) : ) Ox ; ) Oy .
13. y = e , y = 0 , x = 0 , Oy .
x
14. y = e 1 , y = 2 , x = 0 : ) Oy ; )
y = 2.
15. y = sec x , y = 0 , x = 4 , Ox .
2
16. y = x , y = 2 x , Ox .
2
2
17. y = x , x = y , Ox .
3
18. y = x , x = 0 , y = 8 , Oy .
12. y = e

19. y =
20.
21.
22.
23.

x e x , x = 1 , y = 0 , Ox .
y = x 2 2 , y = x 3 8 , Ox .
y 2 = 2 px , x = p , Ox .
y 3 y = x , x = 0 : ) Ox ; ) Oy .
x
y = ach , x = a , y = 0 , Ox .
a
2

x
y = h , y = h ( ), Oy .
a
1
25. y = 2
, y = 0 , x = 1 : ) Ox ; ) x +1
; ) y = 1 .
2
2
26. y = 64 (x + 16 ) , x = 8 y , Ox .
27. y = x(3 x ) , y = x : ) Ox ; ) Oy ; )
y = x .
24.

, ,
,
, :

7.

311

34.

y 2 = (x 1) , x = 2 , Ox .
y 3 = 4 x 2 , y = 2 , Oy .
xy = 4 , x = 1 , x = 4 , y = 0 Ox .
y 2 + x 4 = x 2 , Ox .
x 2 + y 4 = y 2 , Oy .

35.

x 3 + y 3 = a 3 (a > 0 ) , Oy .

30.
31.
32.
33.

36.


) y =

x 2 + ( y b ) = a 2 (0 < a b ) , Ox .
2

x2 y2

= 1 (), y = 2b , Oy .
a2 b2
x2 y2
38. 2 + 2 = 1 (), Oy .
a
b
39. R ( ).
40. , h , R .
41. (,
R ). d .
42. , a ,
b (b > a ) .
43. a , b (0 < b < a ) . , ,
.
44. , 2a H : ) ; )
; ) , .
45. ,

x
y
+ 2 = 1 , y = h y = h
2
a
b
.

x = t , y = t 2 , y = 4 , Oy .
3
2
49. x = t , y = t , x = 1 , Ox .
3
3
50. x = a sin t , y = b cos t (0 t 2 ) : ) Ox ; ) Oy .
3
3
51. x = a cos t , y = a sin t , x = a .
52. x = a sin t , y = a sin 2t : ) Ox ; ) Oy ; )
x = a ; ) y = a .
53. x = a (t + sin t ) , y = a (1 cos t ) (0 t 2 ) , y = 0 : )
Ox ; ) ; ) y = 2a .
54. x = 2a sin 2t , y = 2a cos t : ) Ox ; ) Oy .
48.

x 2 + y 2 = 2ax , x 2 + y 2 = 2ay : ) Ox ;
x.

, ,
,
, :
47. x = a cos t , y = b sin t , Ox .

37.

.., ..

46. , ,

= x 3 , x = 4 , Ox .
3
2
29. x = y , x = 0 , y = 1 27 , y = 8 , Oy .

28. 2 y

312

(0 < h < b ) ,

55. , , x = a cos 2t , y = a cos 3t : ) Ox ; )


x = a ; ) x = a .
, ,
, , :
56.

r = a (1 + sin 2 ) .

57.

r = a cos 2 .

58. r = a sin 2 .

(0 ) , = 0 , = .
59. r = ae
60. , , r = a (a > 0;0 ) , .
2


61. Tr , -

r S . V (r )

V (r )
.
r + r 3

. lim

314
8.

.., ..

Oxyz . , , M ,

x = x u, v , y = y u, v ,

( )

8.1. .
. -
.
, , (, , ).
,
, . , ( ) ,
.
, . , ,
.
1. , , (, ). ,
(..
)
.
, , ( . ),
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
.
1

(),
.

x , y z z = z (u, v ) ,

(1)
(u; v )
u, v . u, v
x(u, v ) , y(u, v ) , z (u, v ) .
x(u, v ) , y(u, v ) , z (u, v )
.2 u, v
,
.
M x; y; z , -

(u; v ) (u ; v) x(u, v ) = x(u , v ) , y (u, v ) = y(u , v ) , z (u, v ) = z (u , v ) .

,
, , () .

, (1),
, x u, v , y u, v , z u, v ,

( ) ( ) ( )
(u; v ) (u ; v )
(x; y; z ) (x; y ; z ) .
.
1. ,
, :

F ( x, y, z ) = 0 .

(2)

x = x(u, v ) , y = y(u, v ) ,
r v
z = z (u, v ) - r = r (u, v ) r
r v
u, v , r {x(u , v ); y (u , v ); z (u , v )}. r = r (u , v ) 2

8.

315

3. , u, v
x, y z (2).
.
x = R sin u cos v , y = R sin u sin v ,

z = R cos u ,

0 u , 0 v < 2 , R ,
R . u , v

:

x2 + y2 + z2 = r 2 .
2. (2) , ..
z = z x, y , y = y x, z x = x y, z ,
, .
.
(1), x u, v , y u, v , z u, v
1- u , v .

( )

( ) ( )

( )

L . , , , . , ,
.
[12] (. 462) ,
, ..
x u, v , y u, v , z u, v ,

( )

( ) ( )
, (u; v )
xu
yu

xv
xu
,
y v
z u

xv
yu
,
z v
z u

y v
z v

( ).
. .
. 3

,
, (,

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1 = 0 ).

.., ..

316

, : , , , .
.
, - .
M 0 , (, ), . ,
M 0 , M 0
,
M 0 .
. - M 0 -
M 0 ,
, .

. .

, z = z x, y -

z (x, y )
z
z
p =
q=
.
y
x


x; y; z , , ,

Ox, Oy , Oz .

cos =

p
1+ p + q
2

cos =

, cos =

q
1+ p2 + q2

1
1+ p2 + q2

,
; + .
, z , ,

8.

317

. , ( ) .
, ,
.
.
,
Oz . r; ;

M ( ) ( x; y; z ) :

(3)
x = r sin cos , y = r sin sin , z = r cos ,
0 r < + , 0 ,
0 < 2 .

r
y

.., ..

8.2. 1- 2-
(,
).
1-
, 1- :

ax + by + cz + d = 0 .
1- .
2-
, 2- :

a11 x 2 + a 22 y 2 + a 33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz + 2a 23 yz + 2a14 x + 2a 24 y + =

+ 2a 34 z + a 44 = 0 .

(1)

r , , :
r -

2- .
2-
, (1)
.

r
r = OM ,
() M ;
,

Oz ; ,

r
r Oxy -

Ox
(. .).
, , 3 r = r0 ,

()

r0
( u , v

, ). -

= 0 , (
u, v r , ). , = 0 , ,
Oz ( u, v r , ).

318

x2 y2 z2
+
+
= 1 ,
a2 b2 c2
x2 y2 z 2
2. 2 + 2 + 2 = 1 ;
a
b
c
1.

x2 y2 z2
+

= 1 ,
a2 b2 c2
x2 y2 z 2
4. 2 + 2 2 = 1 ;
a
b
c
( p > 0, q > 0)
3.

x2 y2
+
= 2 z ,
p
q
x2 y2

= 2 z .
6.
p
q

5.

8.

319

x2
a2
x2
8. 2
a
x2
9. 2
a
2
10. y
7.

y2
= 1 ,
b2
y2
+ 2 = 1 ,
b
y2
2 = 1 ,
b
= 2 px ;

x2 y2 z2
x2 y2 z2
11. 2 + 2 2 = 0 , 12. 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 .
a
b
c
a
b
c

2

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

x
y
2 = 0 ,
2
a
b
2
x
y2
+
= 0 ,
a2 b2
x 2 = a 2 ,
x 2 = a 2 ,
x 2 = 0 .

2- 2-
.
2- 2-
. (1748), 2- . (1801).

8.3.

. () ,
. ,
( ) -

320

.., ..

, . , . XIX
. (Y.A.Schwarz) 4,

.
G ,

() , G .
G ,
- . G -
Gi ,
, M i ,

Gi . ( ),
, ,
Gi M i ,
G . G ,
, .
, - . ,
, , .
, , , , (1- 2- ) .
, 2- ,
.

8.4.

. .
Oxy (, )
AB ,
x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

()

[18], XVII, 2, . 623.

()

8.

321

x(t ) , y(t ) [T0 , T ] (


x(t ) , y (t ) )5.
AB Ox ,

. , . , . , ( ).
AB A B A = A0 , A1 , A2 ,..., Ai , Ai +1 ,..., An 1 , An = B

AA1 A2 ... An 1 B , -

Ai+1

Ai
A3

An-1
B

A2
A1
0

A
x

.

Ox ;
S n , X ,


.

,

S , X = sup S n , X
( AB ).
. ,
S n , X ,
,
.
.
5

AB .

.., ..

322

8.5.
8.5.1.

Ox

1 ( ).
AB
x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

]
[T0 , T ] .

()

()

x(t ) , y(t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] , y (t ) 0


S , X , AB Ox ,

2
2
S , X = 2 y (t ) ( x (t )) + ( y (t )) dt .

(1)

T0

> 0 . y (t ) [T0 , T ] ,
. , 1 > 0 ,
.

t1 , t 2 [T0 , T ] , t1 t 2 < 1 , :
y (t1 ) y (t 2 ) <

8 (T T0 ) sup y (t )
T0 t T

( sup y (t )
T0 t T

= 0 , y (t ) 0 [T0 , T ] (1) -

).
, y (t ) T0 , T , ,

2 > 0

t1 , t 2 [T0 , T ] ,

t1 t 2 < 2 , :
y (t1 ) y (t 2 ) <

8 (T T0 ) sup

T0 t T

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2

= min{ 1 ; 2 } . T = {t 0 ; t1 ;K; t n }
[T0 , T ] , T < . AB ,

, , Ox :

8.

323

y (t ) [t k 1 , t k ] .
, (*) .

S n , X = ( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k )) x k2 + y k2 ,
k =1

x k = x(t k ) x(t k 1 ) , y k = y (t k ) y (t k 1 ) . -

.., ..

324

M = sup

x(t ) y(t ) [t k 1 , t k ] ,

T0 t T

S n , X = ( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k )) ( x ( k )) + ( y ( k )) t k =
2

= 2 y ( k ) ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k +
k =1

(1). 1 .
1. Ox , ,

3 (0, )

S , X = 2 y (t )

2 y ( k ) ( x ( k )) + ( y ( k )) x k 2 y (t ) ( x (t )) + ( y (t )) dt <
2

k =1

T0

a +b a +c
2

bc

k =1

k =1

2 sup y (t ) y ( k ) y ( k ) t k <
T0 t T

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 dt ,

T0

(..
l , A(T0 ) ),
T

S , X = 2 y dl ,

( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k )) ( x ( k )) + ( y ( k )) ( x ( k )) + ( y ( k )) t k
2

(. 1 6.3.1 6), ,

(1)

T0

l (t ) =

(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt .

2.

T < 3 .
2

2 y (t ) ( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 dt < ,

T . , ,
AB Ox

T0 , T . ,
; ,

T0

k , k (t k 1 , t k ) .
2

, S n , X

k =1

k =1

()

+ ( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k ) 2 y ( k )) ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k ,

2 y (t ) ( x (t )) + ( y (t ))

y (t ) t k 1 , t k .

+ ( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k )) ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k +

M y (t k 1 ) + y (t k ) 2 y ( k ) t k <

k =1

( y (t k 1 ) + y (t k ) 2 y ( k )) ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 t k
k =1

k =1

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 .

T0

dl =

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 dt .

8.

325

, , l 0 l L ( L AB ), :
L

S , X = 2 y dl .

(2)

.., ..

326

. , , y
, , 1-
a
0t 2 .

1. ,
a > 0;0 t 2
x = a t sin t , y = a 1 cos t

) (

(1) :

Ox .

S , X = 2 y (t )

(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt =

T0

.
(1) :

2a

= 4 a sin 3 t

2a

0
T

S , X = 2 y (t )

t cos t dt =

= 12a 2 sin 3 t sin 2 t cos 2 t cos 2 t + sin 2 t dt =

(1 cos t )

(1 cos (t 2))d (cos(t 2)) =


2

64a 2
1

3
(.).
= 16a cos(t 2 ) cos (t 2 ) =
3
3

0
2

2. ,

Ox x = a cos t , y = a sin t (a > 0) .


3

sin 5 t 2 12 2
= a (.).
= 12a 2
5
5 0

2
3
(1 cos t ) sin(t 2)dt = 8a sin (t 2)dt =

sin 2 (t 2)dt =

= 12a 2 sin 3 t sin t cos t dt = 12a 2 sin 4 td (sin t ) =

) + (3a sin
(

(x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt =

= 2 a(1 cos t ) (a(1 cos t )) + (a sin t ) dt =

= 16a 2

t sin t

= 4a 2

T0

= 4a 2

( 3a cos

.
2 ( ). -

y = y ( x ) C 1 [a, b] , , Ox ,

S , X = 2 y ( x ) 1 + ( y ( x )) dx .
2

(3)

1.
3. ,
Ox y = sin 2 x x = 0 x = 2 .

8.

327

y x .

y ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x , (3)

S , X = 2 y ( x ) 1 + ( y ( x )) dx = 2 sin 2 x 1 + (2 cos 2 x ) dx .
2

sin 2 x = sin 2 x ,
4 sin 2 xdx = dt , ..

t = 2 cos 2 x ,

1
sin 2 xdx = dt . t : x = 0 ,
4
t = 2 , x = 2 , t = 2 . ,
2

.., ..

328

, Ox , ,
.
, ,
(
, ).
5. ,

Ox y 2 = 2 px (0 x x0 ) .
2px0

()

1
S , X = 2 1 + t 2 dt = 1 + t 2 dt =
2 2
4
2

. , , p > 0 .

y x , -

x0

2 yy = 2 p ,

= 1 + t 2 + ln t + 1 + t 2 =
22
2
2

1
5 + 2
= 2 5 + ln 5 + 2
= 2 5 + ln
2
2
5 2 2

)) (.).

2x
a 2b

= 2a 1 + ch dx = 2a b + sh =
a
a
2

0
2b

= a 2b + ash (.).
a

x:
p
y = .
y

y = 2 px , -

(3)

2px0
b

S , X = 2 y ( x ) 1 + ( y ( x )) dx =

4. ,

x
(a > 0; x b).
Ox y = ach
a
x
x
2 x
1 + sh
. ) , y = ach > 0 , y ( x ) = sh
=
a
a
a
x
= ch 2 , (3) :
a
b
b
x
x
x
S , X = 2a ch
1 + sh 2 dx = 4a ch 2 dx =
a
a
a
b
0

y 2 = 2 px

x0

= 2
0

z=

0
p
2 px 1 + dx = 2 p p + 2 x dx .
2x
0

p + 2 x , dx = zdz
S , X
=

2
3

p + 2 x0
2

2 p 3
= 2 p z dz =
z
3
p

(( p + 2 x )
0

p 2 + 2 px 0 p 2

p + 2 x0

=
p

) (.).

, , y , x , (3)
y (

8.

329

y ( x ) x( y )
).
6. ,

a + a2 y2
a 2 y 2 (a > 0) .
Ox x = a ln
y
. Oy , , Ox (, x 0 ), . , y 0 x + , y a x 0 . y . , x 0
y

330

( y = b ;
(

dl = 1 + ( y ( x ))

= 1 + ( x( y )) dy .
2

1 + (x ( y )) dy =
2

ady
. y

(3) :

S , X = 4

y(x )

, , , y
(, ,
).
7. , -

x + ( y b ) = a
2

(0 < a b) Ox .

. y = b ,
. :

dl = 1 + ( y1 (x )) dx = 1 + ( y 2 ( x )) dx = 1 +
2

x2
dx =
a2 x2

adx
a2 x2

S , X = 2a ( y1 + y 2 )
a

= 8ab
0

dx
a x
2

dx
a x
2

= 8abarcsin

= 4ab

x
a

dx
a x2
2

= 4 2 ab (.).

, , ,
,
(1).
8. ,
2
3

2
3

2
3

Ox x + y = a .
:
(. 2 ).

= 4 y 1 + ( x ( y )) dy = 4a dy = 4a 2 (.).
0

1 + ( y (x )) dx = 4 y 1 + ( x ( y )) dy =
2

S ,1 = 2 y1 1 + ( y1 ( x )) dx , S , 2 = 2 y 2 1 + ( y 2 ( x )) dx .

y 2 = b a 2 x 2 0 ).

1
x ( y )
2
x ( y )dy = 1 + ( x ( y ))
dx = 1 +
dy =
x ( y )
x ( y )

y1 = b + a 2 x 2 0 )

S , X = S ,1 + S , 2 ,

x ( x( y ) < 0) ,
2

.., ..

8.5.2. Oy
1 .
3 ( ).
AB
x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

()

()

x(t ) , y(t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] . S ,Y ,


AB Oy ,

S ,Y = 2 x(t )
T0

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt .

(4)

8.

331

9. ,
Oy

x = a(t sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t ) (a > 0;0 t 2 ) .


2

S ,Y = 4a a(t sin t ) sin 2 (t 2)dt = 4a 2

(t sin t )sin (t 2)dt .

z = t 2 ,
S ,Y = 8a

(2 z sin 2 z )sin zdz =

= 16a ( z cos z ) + cos zdz sin 2 zd (sin z ) =


0
0

sin 3 z
= 16a 2
= 16 2 a 2 (.).

3 0

x = x( y ) C (1) [c, d ] , , Oy ,

S ,Y = 2 x( y ) 1 + (x ( y )) dy .
2

(5)

2
= 2
p

10. , -

y = 2 px (0 x x0 ) Oy .
. , , p > 0 . 2

S ,Y = 2 x( y ) 1 + (x ( y )) dy = 2
2

2
= 2
p

2 px0

2 px0

y
y2
1 + dy =
2p
p

2 px0

y 2 p 2 + y 2 dy .

I = y 2 p 2 + y 2 dy -

))

))

3
y 2
p2
( p + y 2 )2
y p 2 + y 2 + p 2 ln y +
4
8

2 px0 p 2 + 2 px0
2 p

, (5)
d

4 ( ). -

1
y p 2 + y 2 dy = d ( p 2 + y 2 )2 ,

3
3
3
1
1
I = p 2 + y 2 2 y p 2 + y 2 2 dy =
3
3
3
y
1
= p 2 + y 2 2 p 2 + y 2 p 2 + y 2 dy =
3
3
3
y
1
= p 2 + y 2 2 p 2 p 2 + y 2 dy + y 2 p 2 + y 2 dy =
3
3
3
y
1
= p 2 + y 2 2 p 2 p 2 + y 2 dy + I =
3
3
2
3
y
p
I
= ( p 2 + y 2 )2
y p 2 + y 2 + p 2 ln y + p 2 + y 2 + C ,
3
6
3
C .
3
y
p2
I = ( p 2 + y 2 )2
y p 2 + y 2 + p 2 ln y + p 2 + y 2 + C .
4
8
, S ,Y =

. (4) :
2

.., ..

332

( p + 4 x0 )

3
2

p +y
2

))

2 px0

2 px + p 2 + 2 px
p 2
0
0
2 px0 p 2 + 2 px0 + p 2 ln

2
p

2 x0 ( p + 2 x0 ) p 2 ln

2 x0 +

=

=

p + 2 x0
(.).

11. , -

x
(a > 0; x b) Oy .
a
. Oy , , Oy
, x 0 (0 x b ) .
y = ach

8.
x

333

2y

= e a + e a x a

y + y2 a2
b
, x = a ln
, a y ach .
a
a
a
ydy
2
, dl = 1 + ( x ( y )) dy =
,
x ( y ) =
2
2
2
2
y a
y a
(5)
ach

S ,Y = 2

b
a

x( y )

2
1 + ( x ( y )) dy =

.., ..

334

12. ,

x = a(t sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t )


y = 2a .

()

= 2a

= 2a

b
ach
a

b
a

x1 = x , y1 = y 2a (-

y x y = 2a
y1 x = y x 2a Ox1 ). -

()

()

x1 = a , , y1 0 ,

S , X 1 = 2

ach

(a > 0; 0 t 2 )

y (t ) (x (t )) + ( y (t ))
2

dt =

y + y2 a2
ln
a

y + y2 a2
ln
d
a

ydy
y2 a2

y a
2

= 4 y 2a

(x (t ))

)=

b
b
ach

ach
a
2
2
a

y+ y a
= 2a y 2 a 2 ln
dy =
a

a
a

b
b

ach + ash

b
a
a ach b + a =
= 2a ash ln
a
a
a

b
b

= 2a bsh ach + a (.).


a
a

8.5.3.
( ), , .

= 4 a(1 cos t ) 2a

+ ( y 2a ) dt =

(a(1 cos t ))2 + (a sin t )2 dt =

= 4a 2 (1 + cos t ) 2(1 cos t )dt =


0

= 8a

32
(1 + cos t )sin(t 2)dt = 32a cos (t 2)d cos(t 2) = 3 a
2

(
).
5 ( ).
L ,
x = x t , y = y t , z = z t , t T0 , T ,

()
()
x(t ) , y(t ) , z (t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] ,

()

p , ,
, p . -

S , p = 2 (t )dl ,

(t )

T0

(6)

M ( x(t ); y (t ); z (t )) , -

8.

335

dl .
. T = {t 0 ; t1 ; K ; t n }
[T0 , T ] M k , k = 0,1,..., n . L
Ln , . S n , p ,
, p ,

Ln p .
k = [ M k 1 , M k ] Ln p
S k ,
~
S k = 2 k ( M k ) =
~
= 2 ( x(t k ) x(t k 1 )) 2 + ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) 2 + ( z (t k ) z (t k 1 )) 2 ( M k ) ,
~
~
M k , k , ( M k )
p .

, 1, ,

S k = 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 + ( z ( k )) 2 ( M k )(t k t k 1 ) + o((t k t k 1 )),


n

k =1

k =1

(t ) = y(t ) = t ,

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt =


BC : (t ) = y (t ) = 2 ,
2
2
dl = ( x (t )) + ( y (t )) dt =
dl =

12 + 0 2 dt = dt ,

25
S , X = S AB + S BC = 2 tdt + 2 2dt = 2 2 + 20 = 41
2

2
1
(.).
14. ,

y = 3x x 3 , (x 0)

y = x , .

. ,
: dl = 1 + y

0 x 2 , y = 3 3x 2 .

(x )dx =

1 + 9(1 x 2 ) dx . 2

,
(x0 ; y 0 ) y = ax + b

: S n , p =

= S k = 2 ( x ( k )) 2 + ( y ( k )) 2 + ( z ( k )) 2 ( M k )(t k t k 1 ) + o(1)

0 2 + 12 dt = dt ;

k (t k t k 1 ) . S n , p

AB

y=

.., ..

336

y 0 ax0 b

a2 +1

S , p = sup S n , p = 2 (t )dl ,
T

dl =

( x (t )) 2 + ( y (t )) 2 + ( z (t )) 2 dt .

.
AB BC :
AB : x = 1 , y = t , 2 t 5 ;

C
x

(x; y )

BC : x = t , y = 2 , 1 t 6 .

()

y = x )

3x x 3 x

( )

B(1;2) , C (6;2) Ox .

13.
, ABC , A 1;5 ,

T0

2x x3
2

, (6)
T

S . = 2 (t )dl = 2
T0

t = 1 x ,
2

(2 x )
2

1 + 9(1 x 2 ) xdx .
2

8.

2
2

S . =

337

(1 t )

1 + 9t 2 dt =

2 t
1
2
2
1 + 9t + ln 3t + 1 + 9t =
2 2
6
1

))

0 t 2 . B -

b
t 0 = arcsin , A a
T = t 0 . :

L1 : x = a cos t , y = a sin t , t 0 t T ; L2 : x = a cos t , y = a sin t ,


T t 2 + t 0 .
L1 : (t ) = y (t ) b = a sin t b ,
dl =

(x(t ))

+ ( y (t )) dt =
2

(a sin t )

(b a sin t )adt = 2ab( + 2t ) + 2a

S ,1 = 2

t0

= 4a 2 1

2ab ( 2t 0 ) =

b2
b
2ab 2 + 4ab arcsin .
2
a
a

t 0

(.).

6. -

r = r ( ) , r ( ) C (1) [ 0 , 1 ] , ,
OP ( Ox

),

S , P = 2 r sin r 2 + (r ( )) d .
2

(7)

. (7) (1) x ( ) = r ( ) cos , y ( ) = r ( ) sin . ,


dl = ( x ( )) 2 + ( y ( )) 2 d =
= ( r ( )) 2 cos 2 + (r ( )) 2 sin 2 + ( r ( )) 2 sin 2 + (r ( )) 2 cos 2 d =

= r 2 + (r ( )) 2 d .
16. ,
r = a 1 + cos , a > 0

+ (a cos t ) dt = adt ,
t 0

b
+ 4a a 2 b 2
a

2 + t 0

8.6.1.

2
(a sin t b)adt = 2a cos t t

cos t

8.6.

, (6)
t 0

= 2 2 ab + 4ab arcsin

.
. , ,
y
Ox AB .

A
B
b
. :
x = a cos t ,
y = a sin t ,
x

2 + t 0

t 0

2
2 10 + ln 3 + 10 (.).
6
15. AB L a b (b < a ) . ,
L1 L2 ,
=

L2 : (t ) = b y(t ) = b a sin t , dl = adt , ,

S , 2 = 2

.., ..

338

OP .

.
(7),
:

8.
1

339

.., ..

340

S , P = 2 r sin r + (r ( )) d =
2

= 2 a(1 + cos )sin

(a(1 + cos ))

S , P = 4 r sin r 2 + (r ( )) d = 4a 2 sin d =

+ ( a sin ) d =
2

= 2a 2 2
2

) (.).

8.6.2. ,

= 4a 2 (1 + cos )sin cos( 2 )d =

7. -

r = r ( ) , r ( ) C (1) [ 0 , 1 ] , ,

, (
Oy ),

= 4a 2 (1 + cos )sin cos( 2)d =

= 16a 2 cos 4 ( 2 )sin ( 2)d =

S ,Y = 2 r cos r 2 + (r ( )) d .

= 32a 2 cos 4 ( 2)d cos( 2) =


0

6 ( (4)).

17. ,
,

r 2 = a 2 cos 2 (a > 0) , .

r = a cos 2

a sin 2
cos 2

(7) :

, ,

,
0 2 .
:
cos 2 0 0 4 .

r 2 ( ) + (r ( )) =
2

a2
,
cos 2

r 2 = a 2 cos 2 (a > 0) =

. , (8)

r sin = a cos 2 sin ,

r ( ) =

18. ,

(8)

32 2
a (.).
5

S ,Y = 4 r cos r 2 + (r ( )) d = 4a 2 cos d = 2 2a 2
2

(.).

8.6.3.
1. , , ,
, .
19. , r = a 1 + cos , a > 0 ,
.
. .
, , x y -

8.

341

: x = r ( ) cos , y = r ( )sin . r ( ) a(1+ cos ) , -

x = a(1 + cos ) cos , y = a(1 + cos )sin , 0 2 .

1
3
5
3 3

1
= 8a 2 cos + cos + cos + cos
+ cos d =
2 4
2 4
2
2
2
2
0
= 4a

.

(x( 0 ); y( 0 )) , x( 0 ) x -

( )

x( ) :
2
4
1 = 0 , 2 =
, 3 = , 4 =
, 5 = 2 . , 3
3
a
x( ) 2 4 . ,
4
a
: x = . ( )
4
a
( x( ); y ( )) x ( ) + ,
4
dl , , 2a cos( 2) d .

cos 2 + cos

3
5
3 3
1
+ cos d =
+ cos + cos
2 2
2 2
2
2

3 1
5
3
5
= 4a 2 cos + cos
+ cos d =
2
2 2
2 2
2
0

3 1
5
84 2

a (.).
= 4a 5 sin + sin
+ sin
=
2
2 5
2 0
5

,
20. r = e ,

6
6
2

, . .
. , ,

y = r sin = e 6 sin .
6
6
6

dl = r 2 ( ) + (r ( ))2 d =

= 8a x( ) + cos d =
4
2
0

= 6

= 8a 2 (1 + cos ) cos + cos( 2)d =


4
0

x = r cos = e 6 cos ,
6
6
6

S . = 2 (t )dl = 2 x( ) + 2a cos( 2) d =
4
T0
0

3
1

= 8a 2 cos cos + cos + cos 2 cos d =


2 4
2 2
2
0

Ox =

, (6)
T

( )

0 2 .
,
. x = a sin + 2 sin cos ,

.., ..

342

O
7
=
6

e 2 d .

Ox ,

( ) = y ( ) = e

sin .
6

, (6):
T

S . = 2 (t )dl =
T0

8.

= 2

7
6

2e

343

.., ..

344

= 4a

2t +

sin d = 2 2 e 6 sin tdt =


6

1
= 2 2e e sin tdt = 2 2e (2 sin t cos t )e 2t =
0
5
0
6

2t

= 4a

2 2 6 2
=
e (e + 1) (.).
5

r = a cos 2 a > 0 = 4 .
. .

= 4

S ,1 = 4

r1 (1 ) sin 1

1 =

r1 (1 ) = r ( ) .

(r1 (1 ))2 + (r1(1 ))2 d1 ,

(r1 (1 ))2 + (r1(1 ))2 d1

( ,
sin 1 1 2 0).
r

S ,1 = 4a 2

,
Ox , :
1. y = 2ch

S , 2 = 4 r1 (1 ) sin 1

4
2

= 2a 2 2 2 .
= 4a 2 cos = 4a 2 1
40
2

2
2
2
, S . = 2a 2 + 2a 2 2 = 4a (.).

8

2
0

sin d = 4a 2 cos = 2a 2 2 .
4
4

S , 2 = 4a 2 sin d = 4a 2 sin d =
4
4

S . = S ,1 + S , 2 ,

21. ,
2

2. ,
.
2

sin 4 d =

, :

cos 2 sin
4

d
cos 2

x
x = 0 x = 2 .
2

1
, 0<a xb.
x
5. y = tgx , 0 x 4 .
3. y =

2.

y = x 3 x = 0 x = 1 2 .

4.

y 2 + 4 x = 2 ln y , 1 y 2 .

, , :
6. x = t sin t , y = 1 cos t (, -

Ox ).
t
t
7. x = e sin t , y = e cos t , 0 t 2 , Ox .
8. x = a(t + sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t ) , 0 t 2 , .

9.

3
t
, Ox .
x = a cos t + ln tg , y = a sin t , t
2
4
2

8.

345
9.

10. x = 2 a sin t , y = 2a cos t


2

Ox .
11. x = a(2 cos t cos 2t ) , y = a(2 sin t sin 2t ) Ox .
3
3
12. x = a cos t , y = a sin t , y = x .

, AB
:
13. x = at , y =
2

1
at (3 t 2 ) , A(0;0) , B(3a;0) : ) Ox ; )
3

Oy .

9 4
6
14. x = at , y =
a (5t 3 3t 5 ) , A(0;0) , B(5a;0) : )
5
25
Ox ; ) Oy .
3
3
2
4
15. x = 2at , y = a (2t t ) , A(0;0) , B 4a 2 ;0 : )
4
Ox ; ) Oy .

9.1.

, , :

x2 y2
16. 2 + 2 = 1 ( a b , Ox ).
a
b
2
x
y2
17. 2 + 2 = 1 ( a b , Oy ).
a
b
2
2
18. 3ay = x (a x ) ( Ox ).

1. AB ,
6

M = (l )dl ,

[l , l + l ] l , ,
(l )

M (l )
[0, L] .
L

Ox ; ) Oy .

(1)

Ox , y = 2 x 2 x = 3 .
21. , , r = 2a sin r = a ,
.
22. ,

(0 l L ) . -

dl .
.
M = (l ) l + o( l ) , M ,

r 2 = a 2 cos 2 + b 2 sin 2

b b > a .
20. ,

(l )

19. , a ,


. , , .

(a > b) ,

l 0 L ): M = (l )dl , 0

.
. 1 ( ) .
.
1.

6

, .

9.

347

x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] ,

348

.., ..

x(t ) , y(t ) C (1) [T0 , T ] , ( x(t ), y(t )) ( x; y ) . -

d k , , -

, .
, M x M y

Ox Oy ():

M = ( x(t ), y (t )) ( x (t )) + ( y (t )) dt .
2

(2)

T0

y = y( x ) , y ( x ) C (1) [a, b] , b

M = ( x ) 1 + ( y ( x )) dx .
2

C (1) [c, d ] ,
d

M = ( y ) 1 + (x ( y )) dy .
2

(3)

3. ,

r = r ( ) , r ( ) C (1) [ 0 , 1 ] ,

M = ( ) r 2 ( ) + (r ( )) d .
2

(4)

9.2. ,

k =1

I x I y {Ak } -

k =1

k =1

I x = m k y k2 , I y = m k x k2 .
, ,
, .
( )
, .. () .
, 1 ( ).
1 ( ).
AB L . l , A 0 l L .
7
Ox Oy

M x = y (l )dl , M y = x(l )dl ,

9.2.1.

n
Ak ( x k ; y k ) m k , p
(), Ak d k , k = 1,2,..., n .
p -

k =1

Ox Oy :

(3)

x = x( y ) , x( y )

M x = mk y k , M y = mk x k .

2.

{Ak }

Oxy

I x = y (l )dl , I y = x 2 (l )dl ,

(1)

(2)

dl .

M p = mk d k ,
k =1

9.

349

. dl AB . ,
dl . , y Ox ,

dM x = ydl . l , A , ,

.
1.

()

M x = y (l )dl . -

AB , , dl -

(4)

1
a xdl , yc = L a y(x )dl .

1
xc =
L

M y = x(l )dl .

(1)

M x = y ( x )dl , M y = xdl , I x = y 2 ( x )dl , I y = x 2 dl ,

Oy :

[ ]

y = y x , y ( x ) C a, b , ,
8

, :

.., ..

350

(5)

dl = 1 + ( y ( x )) dx , L = dl .
2

Ox Oy : dI x = y 2 dl ,

2.
x = x t , y = y t , t T0 , T ,

dI y = x 2 dl . l , -

x(t ), y (t ) C

(1)

[T0 , T ] , x(T0 ) = a ,

Mx

M x M y

C ( xc ; y c ) . C , L (

T0

T0

T0

T0

= y (t )dl , M y = x(t )dl , I x = y 2 (t )dl , I y = x 2 (t )dl ,


xc =

),
.
2 ( ).

1
L

x(l )dl , yc =
0

1
y (l )dl .
L 0

(3)

. M x M y . ,
L

()

I x = y 2 (l )dl , I y = x 2 (l )dl . .

xc =

()
x(T ) = b ,

Lxc = M y = x(l )dl , Ly c = M x = y (l )dl .


(3)
. .

1
L

x(t )dl , yc =

T0

dl =

(6)

1
y (t )dl .
L T0

(7)
T

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt , L = dl .


T0

3. ( ) r = r , 0 , 1 ,

( )

r ( ) C (1) [ 0 , 1 ] ,

2- (

f (x )

k -

k = x k f (x )dx (k N ) ).
a

( ) ,
.

f (x )

9.

351

Ox Oy
1

M x = y ( x )dl , dl = 1 + ( y ( x )) dx , y =

M x = r sin dl , M y = r cos dl ,
0

Ix =

(r sin )

dl , I y =

1
xc =
L

(r cos )

(8)

1 1
r
cos

dl
,
y
=
r sin dl .
c

L 0
0

(9)

I x = y dl =
2

(r

.
9

3 ( ). ,
,
, L ,
, C :
S . = 2y c L .
L

y c L = y (l )dl , 2y c L = 2 y (l )dl ,
S . ,

AB Ox , 2y c ,

Ox . , .

1. -

r x r Ox .
y = r x
.
2

Guldin Paul (15771643) .

)
r

x = r sin t , t [0, 2] , dx = r cos tdt .

I x = 2r r 2 r 2 sin 2t r cos tdt = r 3 (1 + cos 2t )dt =


0

3
1
2 r
= r 3 t + sin 2t =
.
2
2
0

2. -

. ,

r
x2
1+ 2
dx = r r 2 x 2 dx =
2
r x
r

= 2r r 2 x 2 dx .

. , .
y c -

dl = r ( ) + (r ( )) d , L = dl .

r
x2
M x = r x 1+ 2
dx = r dx = 2r 2 .
2
r x
r
r
Ox :

r 2 x2

dl

.., ..

352

x = a cos t , y = a sin t , 1- .
.
: M x = M y , I x = I y .
3

Ox . t -

2 .

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt = 3a sin t cos tdt ,

M x = y (t )
T0

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt = a sin 3 t 3a sin t cos tdt =


0

3a
3a 2
sin 5 t 2 =
,
0
5
5

9.

353

(x(t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt = a 2 sin 6 t 3a sin t cos tdt =

I x = y 2 (t )
T0

3a
3a
sin 8 t 2 =
.
0
8
8

.., ..

354

. ,
( ).

4 ( ).
F Ox Oy
S

3.

Mx =

x
y = ach , a x a .
a

y (x ) = sh

xc = 0 . y c .

x
,
a

2
dl = 1 + ( y ( x )) dx = 1 + sh 2 ( x a )dx = ch( x a )dx ,

L=

2
1 + ( y (x )) dx =

ch(x a )dx = 2 ch(x a )dx =

= 2ash( x a ) 0 = 2ash1 .
a

yc=

1
L

1 + ( y ( x )) dx =
2

1
yds , M y = xds ,
2 0
0
S

Ix =

. Oy ,
, ..

1
ach 2 ( x a )dx =

2ash1 a
a

1
1
(1 + ch(2 x a ))dx =
ch 2 ( x a )dx =

sh1 0
2sh1 0
a (2 + sh 2 )
1
a 2x
.
=
x + sh =
a 0
4 sh1
2 sh1
2
a

9.2.2.
Oxy F , AB ,
, , A B ( a b ). ,
-

(7)

1 2
y ds , I y = x 2 ds ,
3 0
0

(8)

ds (
ds = ydx ), S F .
. ,
. , , ( , )
ydx .

dM x , dM y ,

(.. ), , ,
.

1
1
y Ox x + dx Oy .
2
2

1
dx , ydx ,
2
1 2
, : dM x = y dx + o( dx ) , dM y = xydx . 2

,
b

Mx =

1 2
y dx , M y = xydx .
2 a
a

ds (.. -

s = ydx ), (7)
a

9.

355

.., ..

356

F = {(x; y ) a x b,0 y y ( x )},

dx dx

dy . Ox Oy
2

,
F
b

Mx =

1
1

y + dy dxdy x + dx dxdy .
2
2

1 3
2
: dI x = y dx , dI y = x ydx . 3
, , :
b

1
I x = y 3 dx , I y = x 2 ydx .
3a
a
x

s = ydx ,
a

Ix =

5 ( ).
,

yc =

Mx
.
S

S
(9)

.
S

1
xc S = M y = xds , y c S = M x = yds ,
20
0
(9) .
.
1. AB ,
F ,

1
1
xy( x )dx , y c =
y 2 ( x )dx , S = y ( x )dx . (12)

2S a
Sa
a
2. AB ,
F ,
(1)
x = x(t ) , y = y (t ) , t [T0 , T ] , x (t ), y (t ) C [T0 , T ] ,
x(T0 ) = a , x(T ) = b , , F -

y = y( x ) , y ( x ) C [a, b] , ..
1

1
M x = y 2 (t )dx(t ) , M y = x(t ) y (t )dx(t ) ,
2 T0
T0
T

Ix =

(11)

xc =

.
, ( x c ; y c ) -

My

1 2
y ds , I y = x 2 ds .
3 0
0

xc =

(10)

1
I x = y 3 ( x )dx , I y = x 2 y ( x )dx ,
3a
a

1 2
y ( x )dx , M y = xy( x )dx ,
2 a
a

xc =

1 3
y (t )dx(t ) , I y =
3 T0

(13)

x (t )y(t )dx(t ) ,
2

(14)

T0

1
1
x(t ) y (t )dx(t ) , y c =
y 2 (t )dx(t ) , S = y (t )dx(t ) . (15)

S T0
2S T0
T0

1. AB ,
F , ( )
(1)
r = r ( ) , [ 0 , 1 ] , r ( ) C [ 0 , 1 ] , ..

F = {(r; ) 0 r r ( ); 0 1 },

Ox Oy ,

Mx =

1 1 3
1 1 3
(
)
r

sin

,
r ( ) cos d ,
M
=
y
3 0
3 0

(16)

9.

357

(17)

, :

xc = rc cos c
.

y c = rc sin c

. ,

xc =

My

yc =

Mx
.
S

.
4. I p V ( ,
1) p :

Ip =

dV ,

dV p (

, V ). (
)
p I c , ()
p , M d :

I = I c + Md 2 .
.
1.

y 2 = 2 px

1
y c S = M x = yds , 2y c S = yds .
2a
a
V , Ox , 2y c , . .
3. (10)(12) ( )
, , :

F = {( x; y ) a x b,0 y1 ( x ) y y 2 ( x ), y C [a, b]}.

(V )

6 ( ). , , , S
, C :
V = 2y c S .

2. ,
.

y c .

1
3
y 2 ( x ) y13 ( x ) dx , I y = x 2 ( y 2 ( x ) y1 (x ))dx ,

3a
a

(18)

1 1 2
r ( )d . (rc ; c ) 2 0

Mx =

Ix =

1 1 3
1 1 3
xc =
r ( ) cos d , y c =
r ( )sin d ,
3S 0
3S 0
S=

.., ..

1 1
1 1
I x = r 4 ( )sin 2 d , I y = r 4 ( ) cos 2 d ,
4 0
4 0

358

y = 0 x = 1.
b

p
1
1
M x = y 2 ( x )dx = 2 p xdx = ,
2a
2
2
0
b

M y = xy( x )dx = x 2 px dx =

2 2p
.
5

:
b

S = y ( x )dx =
a

2 px dx =

2 2p
.
3

:
b

1
2
y 2 (x ) y12 ( x ) dx , M y = x( y 2 ( x ) y1 ( x ))dx ,
2 a
a

xc =

My
S

Mx 3
3
=
2p .
, yc =
5
S
8

9.

359

2. , x = a cos t , y = b sin t , Oy .
. Oy ( ),
a

= 4a b cos t sin tdt = a b sin 2 2tdt =


2

a 3b
=
2

a 3 b sin 4t 2 a 3b
0 (1 cos 4t )dt = 2 t 4 = 4 .
0
2

Ox ,

. ,

Vx =

2a

y
0

dx = y (t )x (t )dt = a
2

S=

(1 cos t ) dt =5
3

a3 .

ydx = a (1 cos t ) dt =3a


2

S=

y c .

4. ,
x = a cos t , y = b sin t , 1- ,
.
. 1- x 0 a t -

4b
(1 cos t )d (cos t ) = 3 .
2

5. ,
, r = a 1 + cos .
.
( Ox ), y c = 0 ( c = 0 ). xc .

Vx
5a
=
. F 2S
6
x = a , xc = a .

2b

S 2y c = V x , y c =

2a

2
3

3. , F ,
x = a t sin t , y = a 1 cos t , 0 t 2 , Ox .

1
1
xc = xydx = a cos t b sin t ( a sin t )dt =
S
S0
=

.., ..

a 2b 2 2
a 2b
ab
(
)
sin
td
sin
t
=
, S =
.

S 0
3S
4
4a
.
, x c =
3
a
0
1
1
2
yc =
y
dx
=
b 2 sin 2 t ( a sin t )dt =

2S
2S 0

I y = 2 x ydx = 4 x ydx = 4 x 2 (t ) y (t )dx(t ) =


2

360

0. , ,

ab ,

a2
1 1 2
(
)
r

=
2 0
2

(1 + cos ) d =
2

1 + cos 2

= a 2 1 + 2 cos +
d .
2

0
1
[0, ] 2 cos
cos 2 2
( 2 ;0) ,
.

S=

3a 2
.
2

(16) M y :

1
1 1 3
M y = r ( ) cos d = r 3 ( ) cos d =
30
3 0

9.

2a 3
=
3
=
=
=

2a
3

2a
3
3

2a
3

361

9.3. ,

3
(1 + cos ) cos d =
0

(cos + 3 cos

, , . , .
1. S , , -

+ 3 cos 3 + cos 4 )d =

cos + 2 (1 + cos 2 ) + 3 cos

cos + 2 (1 + cos 2 ) + 3 cos

1
(1 + cos 2 )2 d =
4

1
4

+ 1 + 2 cos 2 +

1 + cos 4
d =
2

1
2a 3
15 3
1

3
=
cos + + cos 2 + 3 cos + cos 2 + cos 4 d .

3 0
8 2
2
8

15
, ,
8
, [0, ]
, , M y =

5a
.
4
3

xc = M y S = 5a 6 . , -

rc = xc = 5a 6 .

6. ,

+ ( y b ) r Ox Oy (a r , b r ) .
. Ox ,
b , ,

(x a )

.., ..

362

,
, ,

V x = r 2 2b = 2 2 br 2 .
Oy ,
Oy a .

S y = 2r 2a = 4 ar , V y = r 2a = 2 ar .
2

t ) a t b .
. , t , t + dt . v t .
dS = v t dt . a b ,

()

()

S = v(t )dt .
a

1. -

v(t ) = 0,1t 3 . S ,
T = 10 , .

?
.
T

10

t4
S = v(t )dt = 0,1 t dt = 0,1
4
0
0

10

= 250 ;

v. =

S 250
=
= 25 / .
10
T

2. A

S x = 2r 2b = 4 2 br ,

v(t ) (

F (x ) , -

M ,
Ox x = a x = b , ,
.
. M x

()

x + dx . x, x + dx dx F x
.
dA = F x dx . x = a x = b ,

()

9.

363

.., ..

364

.
dx M , -

A = F ( x )dx .

[x, x + dx]

2. ,
0,06 , 1 0,01 ?

dF = k

. F , , x , .. F x = kx ,

()

k . x
, F . k F = 1 x = 0,01 ,

( ) = 100 x . -

A=

100 xdx = 50 x
0

2 0 , 06
0

3. ,
C ( x ) =

F = km
0

= 0,18( ) .

C (

) -

10 x
( x ). x +1

Q ,

( )

S = 1 , 0 200 ?
.
S dx , x .
2

dx

(a x )2

1
kml
= km
=
.
ax 0
a(a l )

B
A

B'
A'

AA' B ' B ,
x k x k .

x k , -

(x + 1) 1 dx = 10(x ln (x + 1)) 200 = 1947 ( ) .


10 x
dx = 10
0
x +1
x +1
0
200

S k AA'x k = 2 R 2 x k2 x k .
,

H x k ,

4. 0 x l
M ,


m ?

a (a > l )

(k = 1,2,..., n ) . k -

0 200,

Q=

k -

5. P
R , H H > 2 R .
.
Ox x
O ,
.
n

x k

10 x
, , dQ = C Sdx =
dx . x +1
200

( ).

,
dF ,
, (
):

a-x

k = 100 , , F x
,
0 , 06

(a x )2

M
a

x
0

mdx

(H xk ) S k = 2 (H xk ) R 2 xk2 xk ,

. , -

9.

365

P 2 (H x k ) R 2 x k2 x k .

mM
,
r2
r . r = R F = mg ,
. ,

k =1

.., ..

366

x k . n +

max x k 0

kM = gR 2 .

1 k n

P = lim

n +

2 (H x )
k =1

R+h

A=

R x x k =
2

m , F = k

2
k

1
mgh
mM
1
.
dr = kmM
=
2
r
R R + h 1 + (h R )

= 2 (H x ) R 2 x 2 dx = R 2 H .

6. ,
h = 3,5 r = 1,5 , ,
= 900 .
.
: dP = g 2rxdx ,
3

P = 2rg xdx = rgh 2 = 9,8 1,5 3,5 2 900 = 161700 ( ) =


0

= 161,7 ( ) .

a , m = 2 r 2 x 2 dx ,
dV = amdx = 2a r 2 x 2 dx .

dA = 2 gax r 2 x 2 dx , . r

3
2

2
A = 2 ga x r x dx = ga (r 2 x 2 )2 = gar 3 .
3
0 3
0

2.

= 0 sin

x
l

8. ,
R h ?

m -

0 xl

. .

3.

4.

x
, 0 x a , Ox .
a

(0 x p 2) x = p

y 2 = 2 px

2.

5. a h .
6. ,
y = 4 x y = 3 , Ox .
7.
a b , .
8. a b .
9. R M
.
10. x = a cos ,
2

, x ,
,

= 20 x + 0,15 x 2 ,
( ), .

y = ach

7. , , ,
a , () r .
. , x

1. 1,

y = a sin ( ) .

9.

367

11. ,

ax = y , ay = x
2

12.

y= r x
Ox .
2

(a > 0) .

13. ,

x = 0 , x = 2 , y = 0 , y = cos x .
x

14. ,
= 0 , x = 2 , y = 0 , y = sin x .
15. , -

y = 4 x2 , y = 0 .

16. x = a cos t ,
3

y = a sin 3 t ( 1- ).
17. ,

y = 2x x 2 , y = 0 .
18. , -

( x 2 ) + y = 1 Oy .
19. , ,
r , .
20. , , .
21. , 2

x + y r .
22. , ,
6 8 ,
.
23. ,
A , B a , b , H .
24. R .
25. t
2

c = 0,2 + 0,001t

( ( )) . o

, 1 0 100 ?
26. a , .
o

.., ..

368

27. . ,
a , h .
.
28. ,
v0 , v = v0 gt ,
t , g .
t ?
29. v = 100 + 8t ( v

). [0,10] ?
0.01t
( ) . , 30. v = te

.
31. v = 2 6 t (

). ?
32. Ox , M (1;0) , , -

. 10 ?
33. . ,
y = A a bt a bt > 0 , v

)(

t , . h , t = t1 .
34. , ,
, R H .
35. ,
, ,
r h .
36. M R ,
,
.

.., ..

370

10.

() .
.
, , ,
.

10.2.
10.2.1. .

10.1.
, ,
,
.
2- XIX
. ,
. ,
. ,
, , .

.. , ,
,
, . ,
(.. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. ).
,
.

. , F ( x )
. , , f ( x ) F ( x ) =

f (t )dt + C ,
a


. , ( )
. -

, , ,

.
,
. A
B , A ~ B .
, {1;2;3;4;...}

{2;4;6;8;...} , [0,1]
R = ( ,+ ) .

[ ]

a, b ,

(a, b )

, ,
.
.
() E1 , E 2 ,..., E n
n

E = U E k , , k =1

E k

(k = 1,2,..., n ) .

E1 E 2 -

E1 U E 2 E1 + E 2 .

E1 , E 2 ,..., E n

E = I E k , ,
k =1

E k

(k = 1,2,..., n ) .

E1 I E 2 E1 E 2 .

E1 E 2 +

E = U E k
k =1

10.

371

k =1

E1 E 2 E = E1 \ E 2 , E1 , E 2 .
10.2.2.
, ( , ,
).
.
1. .
2.
.
3. .
4.
.
5. 0,1 ,
1.

[ ]

0,1 , , .

[ ]

6. 0,1
R .
7. A , B
, :
) A + B ~ A ;
) A \ B , A \ B ~ A .
1. , (0,1) = I

R -

: R ~ I .
. I R ,
.
, ,

y = tg x , x I .
2

, , [9], . 6163.

.., ..

, x I y R , I , ,

E = I E k (. ) .

[ ]

372

lim tg x = , lim tg x = + , y R
x +0
x 1 0
2
2

x I , y = tg x . ,
2

I R . , R ~ I .

[ ]

2. , (0,1) = I 0,1 = S : S ~ I .
. Q S .
. Q = S \ Q , S = Q + Q .
Q 0 1. Q1
I . , I = Q1 + Q . Q Q1
, Q ~ Q1 . , Q + Q ~ Q1 + Q , .. S ~ I .
. 1 2 ,
R ( ) .
10.2.3.
E . x E , x , E .
E , .
E , . , (a, b ) ,

[a, b] .

[ ]

3. E E a, b . ,

[ ]

G = a, b \ E .
. , G
. , x a, b

[ ]

x E , x G . x G , .. x G , x .

10.

373

.., ..

374

[ ]

, x a, b . , x G . .

10.3. 2

x E , E ,
x , E . , x
G , , x
G . , x G , ,
, G .
, E
E (a, b ) , G = (a, b ) \ E .

,
. .
(a, b ) , a < b , , .. b a .


.
1 ( ). .
2 ( ).
,
.
3 ( ). .
4 ( ).
.
5 ( ). , .
10.2.4. .
{a n } . -

G .
G = U (a k , bk ) , (a k , bk ) k =1

G = (bk a k ) .
k =1

, (a k , bk ) , +

(b
k =1

a k )

(bk a k ) . G

E . G , E .
{G} (, 0) , -

, inf {G}.

E = inf {G}

()

E . () E E

G (G \ E ) , G

- ,

E,

G \ E , E .

a1 + a 2 + ... + a n + ... = a k
k =1

, S n =

a
k =1

E ( ), > 0 G , E , (G \ E ) < .
, E ,

( ). a k
n - .

{S n } . lim S n = S ,

, ( ).
()

E , .. E = E = E .

1. .

n +

a
k =1

, S .
2

, , [13].

10.

375

2. , (, ), , . ,
( ), . .
3. E , ( G
E ).
4. ,
=0.

Q [a, b ] , Q = 0 .
. Q ,
. > 0 Q 2 ,
. ,

,, n -

G <

E = U E k
k =1

()

i j ) :

E1 , E 2 ,..., E n ,... ( Ei I E j = ,

E = E k
k =1

( ).
.
1 ( ). .
2 ( ). E -

[ ]
E = [a, b] \ E (
[a, b ] ) , E = [a, b ] E .

E a, b ,

..

G ,
+

.., ..

376

= .

10.4.

, , ,
Q = 0 . (G \ Q ) G , (G \ Q ) G = G < . -

, , . .
f ( x ) E , -

, . x E

k =1

2k

Q , Q = Q = 0 (
, Q ( )).
5. Q [a, b ]
Q
, [a, b ] , ..

Q , Q . ,
, : Q = 0 , Q = [a, b] = b a .
. .

1o . () : E 0 .
2 o . ( )

f ( x ) c}

x ,
f ( x ) c ( c ).

f ( x )

c x E
, f ( x )

E,

E , -

f ( x ) c} .

E , :
{x E f (x ) c}, {x E f (x ) > c}, {x E f (x ) = c},

{x E f (x ) < c}.

1. , ,

D( x ) [a, b] .

10.

377

. , , c

{ [ ] f (x ) c} E

x a, b
c 1 ,

. .

E c = [a, b] .

0 c < 1 ,

[ ]

E c = Q , Q

a, b .
c < 0 ,

E c = ( ).

, D ( x ) .

[ ]

2. , f ( x ) a, b .
. , c

{x [a, b] f (x ) c} E

E c = , E c : E c = = 0 . E c . , E c . ,
E c . x0 E c . ,
x0 E c . , x0 [a, b] .
{x n } x0 , n x n E c . f ( x ) x0
, { f ( x n )} f ( x 0 ) , x n E c , f ( x n ) c . ,
f ( x0 ) c , .. x0 E c , .

.., ..

378

5 o . .
6 o . .
7 o . .
,

E , E , ,

.
f ( x ) g ( x ) , , ,
. : f ( x ) g ( x ) E .
,

0, x ;
D(x ) =
1, x ,

1o . f (x ) E ,
E .
2 o . f (x )
E1 , E 2 ,..., E n ,... ( ),
+

k =1

E k I E k .
k =1

3o . f (x ) E ,
.

4 o . f ( x ) g ( x ) E ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) , f ( x ) g ( x ) , f ( x ) / g (x ) ( g ( x ) 0 ) E ( ,
).

[a, b]

g ( x ) 0 , x [a, b] ,
D( x ) g (x ) , Q
[a, b] , Q = 0 . , D(x )
[a, b ] ( ).
8 o . g ( x ) E f (x ) g ( x ) E , f (x )
E .
9 o . ( , C - ).
f ( x ) [a, b ] , , > 0 [a, b ] g ( x )
,

{x [a, b] f (x ) g ( x )} .

[ ]

, a, b

, ..
.
, ,

0, 0 x < 1 2 ;
f (x ) =
1, 1 2 x 1,
[0,1] .

10.

379

10 o . . , f 1 ( x ) , f 2 ( x ) ,, f n ( x ) , E x E lim f n ( x ) ,
n +

E .

10.5.
,
, 1902 . . 3 .
10.5.1.

E .
T = {E k }
n

E1 , E 2 ,..., E n , U E k = E , Ei I E j =

.., ..

380

{sT } {S T }
.

M E , m = inf f (x ) , M = sup f ( x ) , , , E

I = sup{sT } I = inf {S T }
T

, , . ,

II.

E f ( x )
,

I=I.

I = I = I f ( x )

f (x )d (x ) .
E

E f ( x ) .
T = {E k }
M k = sup f ( x ) , m k = inf f ( x )

Ek

k =1

k =1

S T = M k E k , sT = mk E k .
S T sT , ,

T . , T sT S T .

T1 = {E k } - E k (.. T1 ),
sT1 sT2 , S T1 S T2 .
. T2

E f (x ) -

f (x )d (x ) = 0 .
E

Ek

k =1

i j.

m E ,

10.5.2. .

1 ( ). , a, b ,

[a, b]

[ ]

, -

.
. .
2 ( ).
E f ( x ) -

, , f ( x )
3

(18751941) ,
.

E.

10.

381

10.5.3.

f (x ) E ,
m = inf f (x ) , M = sup f ( x ) , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n 1
E

.., ..

382

3o . . f ( x ) E1
E 2 , E1 I E 2 = , f ( x ) E1 U E 2 ,

f (x )d (x ) = f (x )d (x ) + f (x )d (x ) .

m = y 0 < y1 < y 2 < ... < y n 1 < y n = M .


E T = {E k } ,

E1 = x E y 0 f ( x ) y1 , E k = x E y k 1 < f ( x ) y k ,

k = 2,3,..., n .

E1 U E2

f (x )d (x ) = f (x )d (x )

I (E k , k ) = f ( k )E k

Ek

( ).

k =1

( -

E k =, E k

k , ). = max k , k = y k y k 1 .

4 o . . f ( x ) g ( x ) E , f ( x ) g ( x ) x E ,

f (x )d (x ) g (x )d (x ) .

1 k n

.
:

f (x )d (x ) .

10.5.4.
, . .

1 . d ( x ) = E .
o

5 . . f ( x ) E , f ( x ) ,

, 0 . ,

, .

f (x )d (x ) f (x ) d (x ) .
E

6 . f ( x ) E ,
o

7 o . f ( x )

, , .

8 o . f ( x ) 0

f (x )d (x ) = 0 , f (x ) 0.
E

2 o . . f (x ) g ( x )
E , ,
f ( x ) + g (x ) E ,

(f (x ) + g (x ))d (x ) = f (x )d (x ) + g (x )d (x ) .
E

E2

, f ( x ) E ,

E1 , E 2 ,..., E n ,,

E k (k = 1,2,..., n ) .

lim I (E k , k ) =

E1

9 o . f ( x ) E , > 0 > 0 ,

f (x )d (x ) <
e

10.

383

e E e < .
.

10 o . . f 1 ( x ) ,
f 2 (x ) ,, f n (x ) , E , f n ( x ) f (x )
E , E ( x ) ,
f n ( x ) ( x ) n , f ( x ) E , ..
lim f n ( x )d ( x ) = f ( x )d ( x ) .
n +

11o . F (x ) F (x ) ,

x

F ( x ) = F ( x )dx + C ,

.., ..

384

1. , D ( x ) -

[ ]

sT 0 , S T 0 .
Q

12 o .
. u k ( x ) 0 (k N ) E ,

u k (x )d (x ) ,

S T = sup D( x )Q + sup D( x )Q = 1 0 + 0 (b a ) = 0 .
Q

, {S T } 0.

I = inf {S T } = 0 .
sT 0 , I = sup{sT } 0 , I I ,
I = 0.

14 . .
f ( x ) g ( x ) ( )
E ,

( f (x ) + g ( x ))2 d ( x )

f
E

(x )d (x )

12

I = I = 0 . , D( x )

[ ]

a, b ,

D(x )d (x ) = 0 .

[a , b ]

T = {E k }

f (1 ) = 0 1 E1 ; E 2 = E3 = ... = E n 1 = = 0 ;

E n = {x [a, b] 0 < y n 1 < D(x ) 1} = Q = 0 , f ( n ) = 1


n E n .

I (E k , k ) = f (1 )Q + f ( n )Q = 0 , ..
. , lim I (E k , k ) = 0, ..

(x )d (x ) g 2 (x )d (x ) .
E

12

Q . -

E1 = {x [a, b] 0 D( x ) y1 < 1} = Q = b a ,

k =1 E

13o . .
f ( x ) g ( x ) ( )
E ,
2

T [a, b] -

2- .

+ .

T -

. ,
.

f (x )g (x )d ( x ) f

[a , b ]

. 1- . D ( x ) 0 ,

u k (x )d ( x ) =
E
k =1

D(x )d (x ) .

a, b ,

12

+ g 2 ( x )d ( x ) .
E

[ ]
D(x )d (x ) = 0 .

D ( x ) a, b ,
[a , b ]

. , D ( x )

[a, b] . ,
.

10.

385
11.



[6], , ( ).


10
1.
?

Q ? ,

2. Q ? ,
?
3. , f ( x ) = 0

E , ,

f ( x )d ( x ) = 0 .

4. , f ( x ) g ( x )

E f (x ) E , g ( x )
E ,
f (x )d (x ) = g (x )d (x ) .

[ ]

5. , , a, b ,

[ ]

a, b ,
.
6. , E .
7. ,
( ):
E , ,
> 0 T E ,
S T sT < .
8. , f ( x ) -

E , 0
= max k , k = y k y k 1 )

11.1.


4. .
,
.
C[ a, b] ,

[a, b] . f (x )

f = max f ( x) ,
a x b

f (x ) C[ a, b] .
b

I ( f ) = f ( x)dx a

, , .. . , : I (f + g ) = I ( f ) + I ( g )

, R f , g C[ a, b] . , , .. M > 0 ,
f C[ a , b] I ( f ) M f .

M -

I . , I ( f )
C[ a, b] .
I

1 k n

f ( x ) E .
4

. (18561894) .

11.

387


. , g ( x ) [ a , b] .

.., ..

388

M > 0 ,

T : a = x0 < x1 < K < x n = b [a, b]

V ( f ; T ) = f (t k ) f (t k 1 ) < M .

V ( f ) = sup V ( f ; T ) , -

I g ( f ) = f ( x) g ( x)dx .

k =1

, G ( x )

g ( x ) [a, b] , I g ( f )
b

I g ( f ) = f ( x)dG ( x) .

b
a

[ a , b] , f ( x ) [ a , b] .
.

,
, , , , :
( f ) C[ a, b] , ..

1. .
. , h( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ) .
T [ a , b] :

V (h; T ) V ( f ; T ) + V ( g ; T ) .

g ( x ) ,
b

( f ) = I g ( f ) = f ( x) g ( x)dx = f ( x)dG ( x) .
, , : ,
( f ) = f a + b 2 . ,
( f ) C[ a, b]

((

) )

, V a (h ) h( x ) [ a , b]
f ( x ) g ( x ) .
2. [ a , b] .
. f ( x )
[ a , b] . , f ( x ) . T [ a , b] :
n

k =1

k =1

V ( f ; T ) = f (t k ) f (t k 1 ) = ( f (t k ) f (t k 1 ) ) = f (b) f (a ) .

a < c < b f ( x )
b
c
b
[ a , b] . Va ( f ) = Va ( f ) + Vc ( f ) .
. T1 T2
[a, c ] [c, b ] . T = T1 U T2
[a, b] , V ( f ; T ) = V ( f ; T1 ) + V ( f ; T2 ) .
c
b
Va ( f ) = sup V ( f ; T1 ) , Vc ( f ) = sup V ( f ; T2 ) , :

( f ) = f ( x)dG ( x) .
.

11.2. .

, .
f ( x ) ,
, [ a , b] , -

3.

T1

T2

V ( f ) + V ( f ) = sup V ( f ; T ) sup V ( f ; T ) = Vab ( f ) .


c
a

b
c

T =T1 UT2

11.

389

T [ a , b]

c . T , T = T1 U T2 , T1 T2

[a, c] ,
[c , b ] .
V ( f ; T ) V ( f ; T ) = V ( f ; T1 ) + V ( f ; T2 ) . -

, ,

Vab ( f ) = sup V ( f ; T ) sup V ( f ; T1 ) + sup V ( f ; T2 ) = Vac ( f ) + Vcb ( f ) .


T

T1

T2

Vab ( f ) = Vac ( f ) + Vcb ( f ) ,


4. [ a , b]
.

( x) = Vax ( f ) , a x b . , , ( x )
.

[ a , b] .

( x1 ) ( x 2 ) =

V xxkk1 ( f ) = f ( xk ) f ( x k 1 ) .
. f ( x ) = sin x
[0, 2 ] .
. [0, 2 ] 3 3

,
sin x : 0, , ,
, 2 . , 3 5,

2 2 2 2
:

0 x / 2
sin x,

V (sin x) = 2 sin x, / 2 x 3 / 2 V02 (sin x) = 4 .


4 + sin x, 3 / 2 x 2

x
0

, ( x ) = f ( x ) ( x ) .

.., ..

390

x1 > x2 .

.
f ( x ) [ a , b] , g ( x )

V = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n } [a, b] ;

T = T (V ) .
k g = g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )
n

g (V ) = f ( k ) k g .

= V ( f ) V ( f ) f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) = V ( f ) ( f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 )) 0,
x1
a

x1
x2

x2
a

V ( f ) = sup f (a k ) f ( a k 1 ) f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ,
x1
x2

k =1

k =1

T : x 2 = a 0 < a1 < K < a n = x1 .


, ( x ) ( x ) . , f ( x ) , ,
f ( x) = ( ( x ) + x ) ( ( x) + x ) , ( x) + x ( x ) + x -

.
5. [ a , b]
.
. [ x k 1 , x k ] , k = 1, K , n , f ( x ) [ a , b] . V ( f ) =
b
a

V
k =1

xk
x k 1

( f ) ,

g (V ) = g (V ; f )

f ( x ) g ( x ) .

>0

lim g (V ) = I g ( f ) , ..

V 0

= ( ) > 0 , V [ a , b] , V < ,

g (V ) I g ( f ) <

, f ( x ) -

g ( x ) [ a , b] , I g ( f )
f ( x ) g ( x ) ( g ( x ) )
b

Ig (f) =

f ( x)dg ( x) .
a

11.

391

.., ..

392

11.3.


.
1. g ( x ) -

jk

( f ( x
k =1 j =1

f ( x )

>0

= ( ) > 0 , -

V1 V2 [a, b] ,

V1 < V2 < , :

g (V1 ) g (V2 ) <

, ..

> 0.

f ( x )

[a, b] , . ,
= ( ) > 0 , x1 , x2 [a, b] ,

x1 x2 < , :

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) <

2Vab ( g )

Vab ( g ) = 0 , g ( x ) 0 [a, b] , ,

f ( x)dg ( x)
a

V1 V2 [a, b] ,
V1 < V2 < . T1 = T (V1 )
).

T2 = T (V2 ) . T = T1 U T2 T1 T2 . V
[ a , b] , T = T (V ) . :

g (V1 ) g (V ) =

jk

f ( xk ) k g f ( x j ) j g =
k =1

, g ( x ) . ,

k g > 0 k = 1, K , n , -

, .
T = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b]
:

g (V1 ) g (V2 ) < .

2V ( g )

Vab ( g ).

V 0

.
:
lim g (V ) = I g ( f ) ,

b
a

lim g (V ) = I g ( f ) . .

[a, b] .

V 0

g (V2 ) g (V ) <

) f ( x j )) j g <

[ a , b] .

f ( x)dg ( x)

k =1 j =1

k =1

k =1

S g (T ) = M k ( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )) , s g (T ) = m k ( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )) ,

M k = sup f ( x) , mk = inf
xk 1 x xk

xk 1 x xk

f ( x) .

, g ( x ) = x + c
.
, ,
:
1)
; .
2) T1 T2 [ a , b] :

s g (T1 ) S g (T2 ) .
, ,

: I g = inf S g (T ) , I g = sup s g (T ) ,
T

[ a , b] . , ,

; .

11.

393

2. f ( x ) [ a , b] . -

.., ..

394

1. , f ( x )

g ( x )

[a, b]

, > 0 T [ a , b] ,

g ( x) = + (t )dt , (t )

, g ( x ) -

[a, b] ,

. ,

x2

g ( x1 ) g ( x 2 ) (t )dt M x1 x 2
x1

. , g ( x ) , ..

C>0

x1 , x2 [a, b] :
g ( x1 ) g ( x 2 ) C x1 x 2 .

x1 , x2 [a, b] . , g ( x )
[a, b] , , f ( x )
g ( x ) .

f ( x ) -

[ a , b] , T [ a , b] ,

, s (T ) S (T ) -

11.4.
1. g ( x )
[ a , b] ,
b

f ( x ) . ,
n

k =1

2 , f ( x ) g ( x )
[ a , b] .
g ( x ) ,
.
g ( x ) = ( x ) ( x ) , ( x ) = Cx + x , ( x ) = Cx + x g ( x ) .
,

S g (T ) s g (T ) = ( M k m k ) k g C ( M k mk )x k < .
k =1

(t )

[a, b] , : (t ) M . ,

S (T ) s (T ) <

f ( x)dg ( x) .
a

f ( x)dg ( x) .

> 0.

, (. 2 1.2.5
1).
3. f ( x ) [ a , b]

g ( x)

S g (T ) s g (T ) < .

x1 < x 2 , ( x2 ) ( x1 ) = (C + 1)( x 2 x1 ) > 0 ,

( x2 ) ( x1 ) = C ( x2 x1 ) ( g ( x2 ) g ( x1 )) + x2 x1 x2 x1 > 0
. , ( x ) ( x ) . g ( x ) .

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( x) g ( x)dx ,
a

.
. , , g ( x )
[ a , b] , g ( x ) (.
1 ). , , ( 2 1.4 1).
. > 0 . = ( ) > 0 ,

V [a, b] , V < , :

11.
b

g (V ; f ) f ( x)dg ( x) <
a

395
b

(V ; fg ) f ( x ) g ( x ) dx <
a

( ).
T = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n } [ a , b] ,

V1 [a, ] , V2
[c, b ] . V = V1 U V2
[ a , b] , V = max{ V1 , V2 } g (V ) = g (V1 ) +
+ g (V2 ) . , ,

.., ..

T < .
g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 ) = g ( k )( x k x k 1 ) , k = 1, K , n .

V = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n } . ,


g (V ; g ) = (V ; fg ) , ..

396

>0

( x))dg ( x) = f1 ( x)dg ( x) + f 2 ( x)dg ( x) ,

f ( x)d (g ( x) + g
1

( x)) = f ( x)dg1 ( x) + f ( x)dg 2 ( x) .

g (V ; f 1 + f 2 ) = g (V ; f1 ) + g (V ; f 2 )

g + g (V ; f ) = g (V ; f ) + g (V ; f )
V [ a , b] .
1

3.

a < c < b ,

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( x)dg ( x) + f ( x)dg ( x)

, .

f ( x)dg ( x) .
a

g ( x ) , .. (
)
2

0, 1 x 0,
0, 1 x < 0,
g ( x) =
1. f ( x) =
.
1, 0 < x 1,
1, 0 x 1

2. f ( x ) , -

(f ( x) + f

, ,

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( x) g ( x)dx ,

f ( x)dg ( x) f ( x)dg ( x)

, ,
b

f ( x)dg ( x) f ( x) g ( x)dx < .

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( x)dg ( x) + f ( x)dg ( x) .

f ( x)dg ( x)

f ( x)dg ( x)

.
. , ,
f ( x ) .
, g ( x ) [0,1] , ,

g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 ) = 0

x k 1 x k .
1

f ( x)dg ( x)

. , -

T [ 1,1] , 0 . V ,
T . g (V )
, ,

f ( k )( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )) = f ( k ) ,
[ x k 1 , x k ] .

11.

,
,

k 0

k > 0 ,

398

( 2).

g (V ) = 0 g (V ) = 1 . ,

.
4. f ( x ) g ( x )

[a, b] , :
b

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( x) g ( x)

b
a

.., ..

397

6.
: f ( x ) [ a , b] ,

m f ( x) M , g ( x ) . , m M , :

f ( x) g ( x)dx ,

f ( x)dg ( x) = ( g (b) g (a))

.
. V = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n }
[ a , b] .

.
,
f ( x ) [a, b] , ,

[a, b] ,

g (V ) = f ( k )( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )) =

k =1

f ( x)dg ( x) = f ( )( g (b) g (a)) .

n 1

= g ( k )( f ( xk + 1 ) f ( x k )) + f ( n ) g ( x n ) f (1 ) g ( x0 ) =


(. 1 2.2.1 2).
2. x x , .. x = x x ,

k =1

= f (b) g (b) f (a) g (a) g (b)( f (b) f ( n )) g (a)( f (1 ) f (a))


n 1

g ( k )( f ( xk +1 ) f ( xk )) = f (b) g (b) f (a ) g ( a ) g (V1 ) ,

[x] = m Z

k =1

n +1

V1 = { 0 ; 1 ;K; n +1 ; x1 ;K; x n 1 } (, 0 = a ,
= b ). , , V1 2 V 4 V1 ,
lim g (V ; f ) = f (b) g (b) f ( a ) g ( a ) lim f (V ; g ) =

V 0

V 1 0

{}

h( x) g ( x )
f ( x ) h( x ) x [ a, b] ,

3
0 xd {x} = 0 xdx + 1 (1) + 2 (1) + 3 (1) = 2 .

3.

sin x, 0 x < ,

g ( x) =
cos x, x 2 .

xdg (x) .
0

. ,
2

xdg ( x) = xd sin x + xd cos x + (1) = 2 2 .

f ( x)dg ( x) h( x)dg ( x) .

. :

x , m x < m + 1 .

xd {x} .

1 .
5. g ( x ) [ a , b] , f ( x )

[]

= f (b) g (b) f (a ) g ( a ) g ( x) df ( x ) .

{}

g (V ; f h) 0 V [a, b]

( ) C[ a, b] .

11.

399

1. 1) g ( x ) [ a , b] .

.., ..

f ( x ) g ( x ) .
7. f ( x ) , g ( x ) h( x ) [0,1] ,

1
, f ( x )
2
g ( x ) [0,1] , h( x ) .
8. f ( x ) , g ( x ) h( x ) [0,1]
, f ( x ) ; g ( x )
h( x) , g ( x ) = h( x )
x 1 ,
g ( x ) = h ( x ) x

I g ( f ) = f ( x)dg ( x)
a

C[ a, b] .
2)

400

( f )

C[ a, b] . g ( x )
[ a , b] , ( f ) :
b

( f ) = I g ( f ) = f ( x)dg ( x) .

[9,18].


11
2

1.

f ( x)d ( x) ,

f ( x )

[ 1, 2] ,

0, x 0
.
1, x > 0

( x) =
1

2.

xd x .

0, 1 x < 0,

f 0 ( x) =
f ( x), 0 x 1
[ 1,1] g ( x ) .
0, x ,
10. D ( x) =

1, x
[0,1] , g ( x )
,

D( x)dg ( x) .
0

sgn(sin x)) .

4.

f ( x ) ; g ( x )

. ,

( x + 2)d (e

9. f ( x ) g ( x ) [ 1,1] ,

3.

f ( x)dg ( x) f ( x)dh( x) .

( x 1)d (cos x sgn x) .

11. g ( x )
[ a , b] , f ( x ) g ( x ) . ,
b

f ( x)dg ( x) sup

x, 0 x < / 2,

5. g ( x) = 2, x = / 2 x = , sin dg ( x) .
0
x / 2, / 2 < x < .

6. f ( x ) g ( x ) [0,1] , f ( x ) g ( x ) [0,1] ,

a x b

f ( x ) Vab ( g ) .

g1 ( x) g 2 ( x)
[a, b] , f ( x )
g ( x) = g1 ( x) + g 2 ( x) . , f ( x )
[a, b] g1 ( x) g 2 ( x) .
12.

.., ..

402

1 + x
, .

1.

5(k 1) 5 25 n

f
1

(k 1) ,
n n n 2 k =1

k =1
k =1
n
n
5k 5 25 n

S (T ) = M k x k = f 1 + = 2 k .
n n n k =1

k =1
k =1
n

s (T ) = mk x k =

[ ]

1. . ) , 1,2 ,
,
n n +
1

xdx .
0

x k = x k x k 1

[xk 1 , xk ] ,

k = 1,..., n ,

(T , ) =
k =1

1+ n
k1
,
f ( k )x k = 1 + = 1 +
nn
2n
k =1
lim (T , ) = 3 2 ;
n

1
n

1
n

1
n

2n

4n 1

2n

2 1 4 (4 1) 2 1

=
1
=
1
1

lim

n +

(T , ) = 3 2 .

1
n

1
n

3 4
3 4
= 1 1
;
1
1
n
n

2 1 2 + 1 2 n 2 n + 1

k = x k , k = 1,..., n . -

25
k ,
n 2 k =1

I=

(1 + x )dx = nlim
+

25 n(n + 1) 25
25 n
.
=
k = lim 2
2
2
2
n k =1 n + n

3. . , , , . .
1

dx . n

2. . 1) , f x = 1 + x 1,4 ,

()

k 1

n 2 k 1 1
2 n 1 n 1n
) (T , ) = 2 2 2 n = 2 n 2 n 1 =
4 =
1

k =1

k =1
k =1

2n
n

k
n

n +

k
n

n
25 n
(k 1) = 25 < , n > 25 , ..

n k =1
k =1
n

(1). ,
1,4 .
2) 1,4 n , k -

k
1
k
= , f ( k ) = f 1 + = 1 + .
n
n
n
n

S (T ) s(T ) =

>0

S (T ) s(T ) < .

(1)
5k
,
[ 1,4] n x k = 1 +
n
5
k = 0,1,..., n , x k = . [x k 1 , x k ]
n

k
, k = 0,1,..., n , k = x k (.. n
), k = 1,..., n .

x k =

1
1 e n (e 1)
k 1 1 n
k k
(T , ) = e
.
= e =
n 1n
n n k =1
n
k =1
e 1
n

,
1

e
0

dx = lim (T , ) = e 1 .
n +

403

.., ..

404


) sin xdx . 0, n
2
0
k

, x k =
, k xk =
2n
2n
: k = x k , k = 1,..., n .
2

n
k
k
sin
sin .

2n 2n 2n k =1 2n
k =1
n
k
sin
. 2n
k =1

4n

sin 2n = sin(
k =1

sin (k ) =

sin

(n + 1) sin n
2

sin

2k , k Z , =

S (T ) =
2n

(n + 1)
4n
sin

sin

4n

4 =

= 1 ,

4n

dx . [1, 2] n

dx = lim
n

k =1

.
2

n
3 18k 27 k 2
3k 3

f ( k )x k = lim 1 + = lim 2 + 3
n
n n n k =1 n n
n
k =1
n

18 n( n + 1) 27 n( n + 1)( 2n + 1)

= lim 3 2
+ 3
= 3 9 + 9 = 3.
n
2
6
n
n

x dx . :
3

x k = 3 n , k = 0,1,..., n ,
b

2 ,

k =1

k =1

sin

sin

, ,

n +

sin sin 4n =
4n ) 2n

1

, lim S (T ) = 1 .
+
=
n +
2
4 4n

4n

, lim sin

(2n 1) cos (2n + 1)


3
3
5

cos
+ cos
cos
+ ... + cos
cos

2 sin ( 4n )
4n
4n
4n
4n
4n
4n
, , .
=

n +

S (T ) =

sin

, , lim

k = x k , k = 1,..., n .

dx
. [ a , b] :
x
k

x k = a (b a ) n ( a = x0 < x1 < ... < x n = b ); k = x k , k = 1, K , n .


,

2n

x k = x k x k 1

4n 2 sin + .

4 4n

sin
4n

b
= a
a

k 1
n

b n

n
n
k
k 1
1
dx

n (b a ) n (b a ) n 1 =
(
)
=
lim
f
(

x
=
lim
a
b

k
k
a x n k =1
n

k =1

405

n(n + 1)
,
k=

2
k =1

1
(b a ) n 1 = ln b

= lim n(a b ) (b a ) n 1 = lim


n
a

n 1 n

1
n

.., ..

406
n

s (T ) = 16 14

a x 1
= ln a ).
x 0
x

lim
2

dx
) 2 . n
1 x
k
1
x k = 1 + , x k = , k
n
n
x k 1 x k , k = 1,..., n .
n

k =1

=n

k 1 k 1
f 1 +
1 + =

n
n n

n2
1
=

k =1 (n + k 1)(n + k ) n
n

n
1
1
1

1 1 1
n
=

= n = .

n+k
n 2n 2
k =1 (n + k 1)(n + k )
k =1 n + k 1
n

n + , I =
1
3

dx 1
= .
x2 2

s (T ) =
k =1

5(k 1) 5 5 n 1
5i

f ( x k 1 )x k = 2 +
= 2 + ,

n n n i =0
n
k =1
3

S (T ) =
k =1

5k 5 5 n
5k

f (x k )x k = 2 +
= 2 + .
n n n k =1
n
k =1
n

x + 1, 1 x < 0;

x = 0;
6. : , f ( x ) = 0,
,
x 1, 0 < x 1;

x
=
0
, [ 1,1]
.
7. .

m f (x ) M x [a, b] . [a, b] x k (k = 0,1,..., n )

5. : .

x k 1 , x k

5
(k = 1,..., n ) , xk = 2 + 5k (k = 0,1,..., n ) .
n
n

175 125
175 125
.
+ 2 , S (T ) = 16 14 +
+
2n 4n
2n 4n 2

] (k = 1,..., n ) :
n

s (T ) = inf f ( x )x k
x x xk

k =1 k 1

= m(b a )

= M (b a ) ,

mx
k =1

S (T ) = sup f (x )x k
k =1 xk 1 x xk

, ,

10230 210 n
10230
, S (T ) =
.
s (T ) =
n 210 n 1
n 210 n 1

f ( x ) [x k 1 , x k ] -

. , x k =

n(n + 1)
k =

2
k =1
n

) ,

f (x ) = x [ 2,3] , T = { 2 = x0 < x1 < ... < x n = 3}


4. . )

( ), :

( :

S (T ) =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
,
k =

6
k =1
n

M x
k =1

m(b a )
M (b a ) . s(T ) S (T )

.
8. :
f , a, b : sup f ( x ) sup f ( x )

[ ]

x[a ,b ]

x[c , d ]

inf f ( x ) inf f ( x ) , [c, d ] [a, b] ,

x[a ,b ]

x[c , d ]

f . . 3

407

1.2.4.
9. .
. f -

[a, b] , , > 0 T [a, b] (T , ) I < ,


.., ..

408

sin x
, 0 < x 1

( C ),
f (x ) = x
C , x = 0
1

C . ,

I = f ( x )dx . , , T ,
a

s(T ) = inf (T , )

S (T ) = sup (T , ) ,

1 s(T ) < S (T ) 2 < .


S (T ) s(T ) = S (T ) 2 + 2 I + I 1 + 1 s(T )

S (T ) 2 + 2 I + I 1 + 1 s(T ) < 4 ,

, lim S (T ) s (T ) = 0 .
T 0

10. : 2 ,

1 2 , 0 ; s(T ) = 0 ; S (T ) = 2 .

11. :

( f (b ) f (a ))

3 2 , 1,

( f (a ) f (b )) .

f ( x ) = arcsin x a x b , 1 a < b 1 ;
) f ( x ) = sgn x a x b , a < 0, b > 0 .
[a, b] - x = 0 , ( 12. : )

, , ).

sin x
, f ( x ) =
x
(0,1) .
1

[0,1] ? , sin x dx
x

sin x
x = 0
.
x

f (x )dx .
0

sin x
dx
x
0

f (x )dx ,
0

f ( x ) =

1 1
,

x x

x 0 f (0) = 0 . , ( ) [0,1] . , 1
( f ( x ) 1) 1- x = 0 x n =
n
(n N ) . ,
. > 0 , n0 N :
1
1
n > n0
< . x n = , n = 1,2,..., n0 , n 2
n

n +1 .
2
n0
n0
+

1
1
= n < n = . ,

n +1
2 n =1 2
2 n =1 2
2
n =1 2
n0 + 1

,
)

f ( x ) = x x 3 + 4 x

2 x 4 ( ) .
f ( x ) = [x ] , .
) ,

f ( x ) = sin x

[a, b] .

x1 , x2 [a, b]

sin x1 sin x 2 = 2 sin

409

x1 x 2
x + x2

cos 1
2
2

x1 x 2
x x2
2 1
= x1 x 2 , 2
2
( C = 1 ).
) sin (arctgx )
[a, b] ; f (x ) = arctgx [a, b] ,
( y ) = sin y [arctga, arctgb] 2 sin

(. ). a, b .
13.

[ ]

: ,
f x , , , (, ).

( )

x
0

14. . , f (x ) [0,1]

x0 = 0 x k = 1 / k , k = 1, 2, ... .

.., ..


> 0 . ,
4 4

x 0 , x k , k >

4

,1 : x1 , K , x p , p ,

4
4
p + 1 > . xi , i = 1,K, p ,


xi
. , f (x )
, xi +
4p
4 p

[0,1] ,

+ p

2p

= . ( 2 1.3.2),

f (x ) .
1

f (x )dx -

15. . 1- .

(T , ) = f ( k )x k

, : )

k =1

x = 1 2 k , (T , ) = x k
k ; ) x = 1 2 k , (T , ) = 0 .
1

f (x )dx = lim (T , ) = 0 .
0

-1

410

[0,1] x k
(k = 0,1,..., n ) [xk 1 , xk ] (k = 1,..., n ) :
1
s(T ) = 0 S (T ) = 1 x k , k , [x k 1 , x k ] . ,
2
S (T ) s(T ) = x k 0 T 0 , f .
2- .

f (x )dx = 0 s(T ) = 0 .
0

16. . f b

[ ]

f (x )dx = 0

a, b ,
.
17. . ,
. , 2 (. 1.3.2.)
( [0,1] , 1).
[0,1] , > 0 . N = 2 + 1 ( -

[ ]

; ,

N ).

411

, 0 < <

(-

2N
, ). T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }

T < .
1
[ x k 1 , x k ] T , M k m k > . ,
N

[0,1] ,

, N . ,
2

N .

S (T ) s(T ) = ( M k mk )x k + ( M k mk )x k .

[ x k 1 , x k ] ,

1
1
, , M k m k >
.
N
N
1
* 1

S (T ) s (T )
x k + (1 0)x k 1 + N 2 (
N
N

M k m k

, [0,1] 1, 0; ,
, ..
[0,1] ). N ,

S (T ) s (T ) <

+ N2

2N

.., ..

412

, ( lim S (T ) = b a 0 = lim s (T ) 0

[ ]

0 = x0 < x1 < ... < x m < x m +1 < ... < x n = 1


mk xk sin(50 x )dx
k =0

>0

(T , ) = b a ; k

n 1

n 1

k =0

k =0

k =0

(T , ) = 0.

x k

k =0

x k x xk +1

(M

19. . , x k 1 , x k ,

k =0

n 1

x k x xk +1

k ,

mk = inf sin (50 x ) , M k = sup sin (50 x ) . -

( y ) = ln y [1, 3] . ,
( ( x )) [1,1] (. 6 1.3.5).

n 1

mk xk sin (50 k )xk M k xk ,

n 1

.. [0,1] .
18. . 1- . [1,1] x = 0 ,
( 2, .1.3.2).
2- . ( x ) = sgn x [1,1] .

, ,

21. . ,

n 1

(0 m n) . k , k m ,
k [x k 1 , x k ] , k > m k , (T , ) :
(T , ) = 1 x1 + 1 x 2 + ... + 1 x m + 0 x m +1 + ... + 0 x n = .
lim (T , ) = .
0
xm =

= ,

). , .
20. . 0,1 ,

, -

m k )x k < , T < .

mk = sin (50a k ) ,

M k = sin (50bk ) ,

a k , bk [x k , x k +1 ] ,
M k mk = 50 cos(50c k )(bk a k ) , c k (a k , bk ) ,
0 M k mk 50(bk a k ) 50x k .
n 1

n 1

k =0

k =0

0 (M k m k )x k 50 x k2 .
x k <


n 1

n 1

k =0

k =0

413

50 x k2 < 50 x k = 150 .
,

.., ..

414

[ ]

a, b , , ,
(. 2 1.3.2). , g x a, b ( -

[ ]

()

n 1

(M k mk )xk < 150 .


k =0

= 150 .
22. : .
23. . 1 1.3.1.
24. . 2 1.3.2.
25. . 4 1.3.4.
26. . 5 1.3.5.
27. . 2 1.2.1.
28. : , . , ,
, , .
29. : (. 2 1.2.1).
30. . 3 1.4.
31. . 4 () 1.4.
.
32. . 1.1 1.4.
33. . 1.2 1.4.
34. . 1 1.4.
35. . 2 1.4.
36. . 2 1.4.
37. : )

1, x ;
x [a, b] ;
f (x ) =
0, x ,
0, x ;
x [a, b] .
g (x ) =
1, x ,
) ,

1, x ;
x [a, b] .
f (x ) =
1, x ,
38. . 3 1.4.
39. . 4 1.4.
40. . 6 1.3.5.
41. : , (. 2 1.3.5).
42. . f x -

( )

[a, b] . f (x ) g (x ) .

). ,

f (x )dx = g (x )dx .

M = max sup f ( x ) , sup g (x ) .


a x b
a x b

( f (x ) g (x ))dx .
a

> 0 . , ,
, , ,
, / M . -

[a, b] . ,
. [a, b ] ,

, , ,
.

()

[ ]

()

f x g x a, b ,

. , . , , ..
b

f ( x )dx = g ( x )dx .
a

, ,

f (x )

[a, b] , ,
f ( x ) [a, b ] ,

.
f x a, b , -

( )

[ ]

g ( x ) ( f ( x )
f ( x ) g ( x ) g ( x ) ).

415
b

43. . ,

.., ..

416

( f 2 ; I U J ) =

(x )dx = 0

f ( x ) = 0 f ( x ) ,
[a, b ] . x 0 [a, b ] , f ( x ) x 0 f ( x0 ) = 0 . > 0 ,

f ( x)
2

[ xk 1 , xk ] I

( k )x k +

[ xk 1 , xk ] I

( k )x k M

, ). -

/ 2, x [ x0 , x 0 + ]
2

g ( x ) =

x [ x0 , x0 + ]
0,
f ( x ) g ( x ) x [ a, b] . ,
b

f
a

( x)dx g ( x)dx = 2
a

2
2

. ,

( )

x k 1 , x k

] k

sup

f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) , , -

sup

xk 1 x , x xk

f ( x ) f ( x )

sup

xk 1 x, x xk

5)

f ( x )

[a, b] , ,
f (x ) .
45. .

1, x ;
x [a, b] .
f (x ) =
1, x ,
b

| f ( x ) | 1 [ a , b] . ,

a x b

f ( x ) [a, b] , ). I , f ( x )
[a, b ] , , / M . J , [a, b ] , I .
I U J [a, b ] .
I U J ( -

f (x ) f ( x) .

[ ]

1.3.3). M = sup f ( x ) (

., , [19], II, 5.

f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) , x , x [x k 1 , x k ] , -

f x a, b , (. -

f (x )dx = 0 .

44. .

xk 1 x, x xk

( k )x k 0 ,

>0

( 3 1.3.3),
, .. > 0

( k )x k .

()
f ( x ) , [a, b] . , -

[ xk 1 , xk ] J

, ( f ; I U J ) < . ,

(. , , 2).
. .
. f x = 0 -

[ xk 1 , xk ] J

x [ x0 , x0 + ] ( -

, ,

f ( x) dx -

. , f (x ) [ a , b] . -

. T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }

[a, b] . k , 1 k n , k [ x k 1 , x k ] k [ x k 1 , x k ] .
n

S (T ) = M k x k = 1 x k = b a ,
k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1

s (T ) = mk x k = (1) x k = (b a ) ,

417

.. S (T ) s (T ) = 2(b a ) T [ a , b] .
, (
).
46. . f (x )

[ A, B ] , [a, b] ( A, B ) . [ A, B ]

>0

>0

x, x + h [ A, B ] ,
b

, f ( x + h) f ( x ) <

ba

h < .
b

f ( x + h) f ( x) dx

dx =
ba
( f ( x ) R[ a, b ] , g ( x ) R[ a, b] , f ( x ) g ( x )
a

x [ a, b] ,

[ x k , x k + ] , = min T ,
.
4 2( n 1)( M + m )
.

M 1 , a x x1

, ( x) = M k , x k + x x k +1 , k = 1, 2, K , n 2 ,
M , x x b
n n 1
[ x k , x k + ] , k = 1, 2, K , n 1 . , ( x )
( ),
[ a , b]
b

f ( x)dx g ( x)dx ).

lim f ( x) n ( x) dx = 0 .
n

, f (x ) [ a , b] ,

>0

T = {x 0 ; x1 ;K; x n }
n

[a, b] , I S (T ) = M k ( x k x k 1 ) < I +
k =1

+ ( ( x) , ( x))dx

(x)

( x)dx = S (T ) .
a

(x)

x1 , x 2 , K, x n 1

[ a , b] m ( x) M , M = sup f ( x) , m = inf f ( x ) .
a x b

a x b

+ (n 1)( M + m ) .

.
. f (x ) [ A, B ] , [ a, b] ( A, B ) .

> 0 . , , [ A, B ] (x ) ,

( f ( x) ( x))dx < 3 . (, ,

[ a , b]

I = f ( x)dx ,

M , x x < x k
M k = sup f ( x) . ( x) = k k 1
. x=b
xk 1 x xk
M n ,

f ( x)dx S (T ) +

[ a , b] , ,

.
: f (x )

n (x)

[ a , b]

( f ( x) ( x))dx ( f ( x) ( x))dx + ( ( x) ( x))dx =


a

.., ..

418

( f ( x) ( x))dx <
a

( f ( x + h) ( x + h))dx < 3 ,
a

h ). , ,

:

h, h < ,

( f ( x + h) f ( x))dx ( f ( x + h) ( x + h))dx +

419

+ ( ( x + h) ( x )) dx + ( f ( x) ( x))dx <

.., ..

420

(xk k )2 + 2(xk k )( k xk 1 ) + ( k xk 1 )2

k =1

=.

.
47. . f (x )
k/n

1
[0,1] . dx = k , , n
( k 1) / n
1

f ( x)dx n ,
0

k/n

k/n

f ( x)dx

n
1 n k n
k
=

f
f
(
x
)
dx
f dx =

n k =1 n k =1 ( k 1) / n
k =1 ( k 1) / n n

k/n

k/n

k 1
k
k
= f ( x) f dx f
f dx
n
n
k =1 ( k 1) / n
k =1 ( k 1) / n n
( , f (x )
k
k 1
k
[0,1] , , 0 f ( x) f f
f
n
n
n
k , 1 k n ). ,
1
1 n k 1 n k 1
k f (0) f (1)
f f
,
f =
0 f ( x)dx n
n k =1 n
n
n
k =1 n
n

.
48. .
b

f ( x )dx f ( k )( x k x k 1 ) =
k =1

( f (x ) f ( ))dx .
k

k =1 xk 1

f ( x ) f ( k ) = f ( k ) x k x k ( k ( x, k )) .

k =1

f (x )dx f ( )(x
k

x k 1 )

xk

x
k =1 xk 1

dx =

( )

( x k k )2 ( x k 1 k )2
=
+
2
2
k =1
n

(xk xk 1 )2

k =1

1 n ( x k x k 1 ) 1
2 = 2.
b a k =1

f ( x ) -

x [a, b] 1 (b a ) .
2
n 1
1
49. . ) 2 + 2 + ... +
n
n
n
n 1
k 1
(T , ) = f ( x ) = x , k =0 n n
T [0,1] n

k =

1
k
. lim (T , ) = xdx = .
n +
n
2
0
1
1
dx
1

= ln 2 ;

n 0 1+ x
k =1 1 + k
n

: ) lim

n +

dx
1
1
= ;
=
) lim
2
2
n +
n 0 1+ x
4
k =1 1 + k
n

( )

xk

:
b

) lim

n +

2
1 n
k
= sin xdx = ;
sin

n k =1
n

0
1

2
1 n
k
) lim
1 + = 1 + x dx = 2 2 1 ;

n + n
3
n 0
k =1
p

1
1 n k
p
.
) lim
= x dx =

n + n
p +1
k =1 n
0
ba
1 ba n
1 n
ba
=
) S n = f a + k

f a + k
,

n k =1
n
n k =1
n ba

421

.., ..

422

lim S n =

n +

sin

S n = sin

1
f ( x )dx .
b a a

2 + cos(k n ) .
n

) S n =

n +

1
+ o 2 , , ,
n n
n

n
1
1
S n = sin
= + o 2
n k =1 2 + cos(k n ) n
n
=

1
n
=

k =1 2 + cos(k n )
n
1
1
1 n
=
+ o 2
.
n k =1 2 + cos(k n )
n k =1 2 + cos(k n )

k
+x +
n
n +

(. 3 3.2 3),

1
dx

1
= (F ( ) F (0)) =
.

2 0 1 + 0,5 cos x 2
3

1 n
k
k + 1
=
x + x +

n
n
n k =1

k 1

. x +
n n

k 1
k

o
x

=
+

,

n n
n

k 1
k
~ x + .
n n
n
n +

1 n
x +
n k =1

k
=
n

(x + t )dt = x + 2 .
0

Sn =
n

k
n

k
n

k
n

k
n

k
n

1
2
(1 + kn ) 2 2 =
1
1
kn 2
=
=

n k =1 1 + 1 (kn ) n k =1 1 + kn
n k =1
1 + kn
n

k
n

1
1
2
2
= S n S n . S n :

n k =1
n k =1 1 + kn

dx
1
dx
1
=
=
.
lim S n = lim
n +
n + n
2 + cos x 2 0 1 + 0,5 cos x
k =1 2 + cos(k n )
0
1


1 + 0,5 cos x
[0, ]
tg ( x 2 )
4
, 0 x < ;
3 arctg
3

F (x ) =
2 , x = ;
3

k
+x +
n

x+

n2

lim S n = lim

1
1 n
1
1 n 1
o 2
o 2
= o ,
n k =1 2 1
n
n k =1 2 + cos(k n )
1
1 n
= 0,
lim o 2
n +
n k =1 2 + cos(k n )

k =1

1 n
x+
n k =1

k =1

(nx + k )(nx + k + 1)

1 n 2
2
2
1
1
: 0 < S n
=
n < .

n k =1 1 + n n(1 + n )
n
1 + kn 1 + n
, lim S n = 0

2n 2

n +

1 n
2x
1
.
lim S n = lim S n = lim 2 n = 2 x dx =
=
n +
n +
n + n
ln
2
ln
2
k =1
0
0
50. . , 1 +

S n f ( x ) =

[1, n + 1]

1 1
1
+ + ... +
2 3
n

1
, x
n

n , ln n = dx . 1

, x n = S n

dx
> 0 , .. {x n } x

x n x n +1 = (S n S n +1 ) +

n +1

423

dx
1
=
+
x
n +1

n +1

dx
.
x

1
1
x [n, n + 1] , x n x n +1 > 0 , ..

x n +1

{x n } -

424

f (x ) [0,1] ( F (x ) ),
[0,1] ,
.
2)

x
0,

R( x) = 1 / n, x = m / n .
1,
x=0

[0,1] (. 17),

. (,
) .
51. . , {U n } 1

: 0 U n

2 x n dx =
0

2
, lim U n = 0 .
n +
n +1

52. . f

[a, b] , ,

f , [a, b] . M = sup f . a x b

F (x ) , x [a, b] , x :
F (x ) = F (x + x ) F ( x ) =

x + x

f (t )dt .
x

F ( x )

x + x

f (t ) dt

. .
F (x ) , F ( x ) = R ( x ) x [0,1] . R (x )

[0,1] , .. 0 1 (
6). R (x )

>0

= / M ,

x < , F (x ) < , F (x ) .

53. . 4 1.5.
54. .
, , . , ,
, , , , . .

1
2
1) F ( x ) = x sin 2 .
x

:
[0,1]
x=0
0,

. ,
f ( x) = F ( x) =
1 2
1
2 x sin x 2 x cos x 2 , 0 < x 1

1
, n
n

. ,
F (x ) , .. .
55. . ,

M x . -

.., ..

f (t )dt = f (t )dt
a

f (t )dt = F (d ) F (c ) .
a

56. . ( 1
2.2 2) ,
x + x
x0

F (x0 ) F ( x0 + x ) F (x0 ) 1 0
f (t )dt f (t )dt =
=
=
a

x
x
x a

x0 + x
1
1
f (t )dt =
(x ) = ,

x x0
x

m=

inf

x0 x x0 + x

f x 0 ,

sup

f =M.

(1)

x0 x x0 + x

> 0 ( , x0 ) > 0 :

x < , f (t ) f ( x0 ) < , t [x0 , x0 + x ] .

, ( ), . , , [1], V, 6.

425

f ( x0 ) < f (t ) < f ( x0 ) + ,

61. .
:

f (x0 ) m M f (x0 ) + ,

(2)

f (x0 ) , ,

(1) (2) ,

F (x ) x 0 ,
F (x0 )
= lim = f (x0 ) .
F ( x0 ) = lim
x 0
x 0
x
1
F
=
x
x

x + x

x1

x2

x2

f (t )dt

x1

x2

f (t )dt M x

x2 .

) F ( x ) = cos x

( )

1 cos x
=
;
x = cos x
2 x 2 x

F ( x ) = ln(x 5 ) (x 5 ) = 25 x 4 ln x ;

F ( x ) =

2 sin x

) , ,

dt =

1
x

; ) 0; )

) sin x cos cos


.

(x

3x 2

)
x ) cos x cos ( sin x ) = (sin x cos x ) cos( sin x )
t

xdx

+t

4 3

x 2 + x12

62. . )

0
. 0

cos(t )dt
2

2
2
cos (x ) , .. cos(t )dt = cos(x ) . ,

cos(x 2 )
= 1.
x 0
x 0
1
x
2
, cos (x )
lim 0

1
x

cos(t )dt cos(t )dt ,


2

cos 1 x 2
+
F ( x ) =
.
x2
2 x
cos x

1 + t 12

x3

cos(t )dt

3t 2

2 sin t
2 t dt );

cos t

x 0; ) sin (b 2 ) ; ) sin (a 2 ) ; ) 2 x 1 + x 4 ; )
3x 2
2x
3x 2
2x
3x 2
; )
; )
;

1+ x6
1+ x4
1+ x6
1+ x4
1+ x6

( x ) = sinx x

2 sin t
t dt =
x

sin(x )dx , x ,

x1

60. . :
2

2 x 1 + x 4 ; )

F ( x1 ) F ( x2 ) =

f (t )dt f (t )dt =

f (t , x )dt .

(x)

58. : 56. .
2 1.5.
59. .

(x )

1
sup f (t ) x = sup f (t ) .
x a t b
a t b

f (t )dt

(x )

d
f (t , x )dt = f ( ( x ), x ) ( x ) f ( ( x ), x ) ( x ) +
dx ( x )
)

. 2 1.5.
57. . ) 56;
)

.., ..

426

lim

, ..

cos(t )dt . ,
2

, .

) lim

d
(arctgt )2 dt
2

dx 0
(
arctgx )
2
= lim
= lim
=
.
x +
x +
x
d
4
2
1+ x
dx
1+ x2

2
(arctgt ) dt
0

x +

427

1+ x2

x
x
x t2
d t2
2
x2
e dt
e dt
e
e t dt
2

0
= lim dx 0
= lim
0
=
) lim x
x
2 x2
x

+
x +
x

+
d
e
2t 2
2t 2
e dt
0 e dt
dx 0
x

lim

x +

1 + t 4 dt

x3

1 + t 4 dt

4
= lim 1 + x = 1 .
= lim 0

x +
x +
3
3x 2
x3

( )
1

) lim

x +0

f (t )

+1

. ,

x +0

. ,
:

0
x +0 tgx

lim

sin x

tgt dt

cos x tg (sin x )
= lim
=
= lim 0
x

+
0

x +0 tgx
sin (tgx )

sin t dt
sin t dt
cos 2 x

tgt dt

tg (sin x )
sin x
= lim
= 1.
x

+
0
sin (tgx )
tgx
64. . f x 0
, f ( x0 ) = lim f ( x ) . F ( x 0 ) = f ( x0 ) (.
= lim

x +0

56).
65. .

x > 0 ,
F+ (0) F (0 + x ) F (0 ) 1 x
=
1 dt = 1 .
=
x
x 0
x

F+ (0)
= 1 . x < 0 ,
x 0
x
F (0) F (0 + x ) F (0 ) 1 x
( 1) dt = 1 ,
=
=
x
x 0
x

, F+ (0 ) = lim

dt

f ( x ) x = 0 ).
0
) ,
0

x x0

( )

sin x

1 f (t )
f (t )
f (x )

+1
x t +1 dt
t +1 dt
f ( x ) f (0 )
= lim
x
= lim
lim
=
= lim x
1

+
0
x
x

+
0
x

+
x +0
0

x
x
x
1

2
d
e t dt
2

0 e dt
dx 0
ex
1
=
2
lim
=
= 2 lim
2
lim
=
2
lim
=0.
2
2
x
x +
x +
x + 2 x
x +
d x2
ex
2
xe
e
dx
63. . ) , x + + . ,

. ,

t2

.., ..

428

, F (0 ) = lim

x 0

F (0)
= 1 . , F+ (0) F (0) .
x

429

.., ..

430

x
x t2
x t2

t2
e dt
e dt
0 e dt

+1 =
+ 1 = lim
= lim
+ 1 = lim
x2
x2

x +
x +
x +
2
xe
xe

xe x

66. :
x0 + x

f (t )dt = f (c )x , c [x

7 (

, x0 + x] ).

x0

67. . c
:
c

S = ( f (c ) f (x ))dx +

( f (x ) f (c ))dx =

f (c )(c a ) f ( x )dx +
a

= 2cf

( )

C .

= lim

x +

f (x )dx f (c )(b c ) =
c

(c ) f (c )(a + b) f (x )dx f (x )dx .

ex
e

x2

+ 2x e
2

y=f(x)
x

x > 0 , (x )
, [0,+) ).
x

x t2
x t2
2
e dt + xe x

/
2
2
x
e
dt
2 x e dt

0
= lim 0
=
0
lim
=
lim
x2
x2
x +
x +
x +
2
e
2/ xe
ex
x

t2

( )

(x ) =

a + b 2 .
68. .
,
x + 1.
:

2,

1
+1 = 1.
x + 1 + 2 x 2

+ 1 = lim

[ )
( ( x ) 0
(

S c .
S (c ) = 2cf (c ) + 2 f (c ) f (c )(a + b ) f (c ) f (c ) = (2c a b ) f (c ) ,
S (c )
y

x2

69. . ,
x 0,+ -


c = a + b 2 . ,
c .
: C

xf ( x ) f (t )dt f ( x ) tf (t )dt
0

f (t )dt

0
x

f (x )

f (t )dt

0
x

> 0 ( ), -

( x ) = x f (t )dt tf (t )dt

(x ) = (x t ) f (t )dt 0 ,
0

. ,

f (t ) > 0 , t x . ,

x > 0 , , (x ) [0,+) .
1
70. : max f ( x ) = f (1) 1.66 , min f ( x ) = f 0.11 .
1 x 1
1 x 1
2
17
71. : y min = y (1) =
, :
12
4

4 112
M 1 2; , M 2 ;
.
3

3 81

(x ) 0

431

72. :

f (x ) =

sin 2 x

cos 2 x

arcsin t dt +

73. .

432

.., ..

. , f x , .

( )

arcsin t dt .

f ( x ) ,

75. .

A = max f ( x ) , A = f (x0 ) . p > 0 x[0 ,1]

f (t )dt

1
p 1
p
f (x ) p dx A p dx = A .

> 0 , ( ) > 0 , x x0 <


f (x ) A

. 0

f ( x ) p dx

x0 1 0 < < .
1

p
f ( x ) dx A dx

= A ( ) p A
2

p (

( )

f ( x ) = f (t )dt , f ( x ) = f ( x )

x . , f ( x ) = f ( x )
x
f ( x) = Ce , C . , f ( x ) x
x
x
x
. ( f ( x)e ) = f ( x)e f ( x)e 0 . , f ( x)e = C ,
x
.. f ( x) = Ce .
x
. f ( x) = Ce x

1 p + ).

f ( x ) = f (t )dt , : Ce x = Ce t dt = C (e x 1) . 0

C = 0 , .. f ( x ) 0 .

, A .
74. . f x .

( )

x (0,2) [0, x] [x,2] :


f ( x ) = f (0) + f (1 )x f ( x ) = f (2) + f (2 )(2 x ) , 1 (0, x ) ,
2 (x,2) , .. f (x ) = 1 + f (1 )x f ( x ) = 1 + f (2 )(2 x ) , ,
, f ( x ) 1 x f ( x ) x 1 .
1

f (x )dx (1 x )dx = 2 , f (x )dx (x 1)dx = 2 ,


,
f x 1 x x 0,1 f x x 1 x 1,2 , -

[ ]

()

()

[ ]

f ( x ) .

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx > 1 ,

d
f (t )dt = f ( x) .

dx 0

2.
1. . ) ,

M [cos x ] =

2
3

3
2

cos xdx = 3 . 0

3
cos x 0,
2
2
2
2

, cos =
, = arccos

3
3
3
2
1
1
[0, 3 2] . ) : M [sgn x ] = sgn xdx = .
3
3 1
sgn x [ 1,2]

[ ]

1
x3
2
2
. ) M x = x dx =

3
3
0

1
2

1
3

433
1

=
0

1
,
3

[0,1] . ) M [sin x sin ( x + )] =

1
sin x sin (x + )dx = 4 (cos cos(2 x + ))dx =
0

.., ..

[ ]

a, b ,
(. 3 1.3.3
1). , x0 [ a, b] , f x -

( )

x 0 f ( x0 )

1
4

( )
V (t ) = V0 + gt ,
V0 , g (
).
T :
T

2
1
1

M [V ] = V (t )dt = (V0 + gt )dt = 1 V0 t + gt =


T 0
T 0
T
2 0
gT V0 + V (T )
= V0 +
=
.
2
2

, V0 T .
4. . 3 2.2.1.
f x = arctgx :

()

1
.
lim
arctgx
=
arctgtdt
=
x +
x + x
2
0
5. . 4 2.2.1.
6. . 5 2.2.1.
7. . .
1 2.1.
, b

f (x )dx > 0 . , f (x )
a

f (x )dx > 0

(.

3 2.1).

cos xdx = 1 > 0 ,

8. : , . ,

, , cos x 0
9. . 2 2.1 7.
10. : , . :

g ( x ) 1 2 , x [0, ] .

2< x .
f ( x ) = sin x ,

11. . 3 2.1.
12. . 7 2.1.
13. : .
14. : (. 4
2.1).
15. . 5 2.1. :
n

k =1

f ( k )x k

f ( ) x
k =1

16. . .
17. . 6 2.1.
18. . 8 2.1.
19. . 9 2.1.
20. . -

lim

> 0 . ,

2
2
cos
2
cos dx cos(2 x + )dx =
; ) 2 + ln 2
.

2
+
1
e
0
0

2. : a = e .
3. . V t

434

dx
x

y = 1 x , y = 0 , x = a , x = b ;

ba
ba

[a; b ]
a
b
, 1 a 1 b . -

435

, . ,

ba
b ba
.
= ln =
b
a
a

21. .

a=b

An =

a1 + a 2 + ... + a n
,
n

a1 a 2 ... a n . k , a1 a 2 ... a k
An a k +1 ... a n .

A
A
An a1 An a 2
A ak
A
+
+ ... + n
ln n + ln n + ... + ln n
a1
a2
An
An
An
ak
(. ),

( An ) .
kAn (a1 + a 2 + ... + a k )
ln
An
a1 a 2 ... a n
k

( ),

a k +1 a k + 2 ... a n (a k +1 + a k + 2 + ... + a n ) (n k )An

.
An
( An )nk

kAn (a1 + a 2 + ... + a k ) (a k +1 + a k + 2 + ... + a n ) (n k )An


=
.
An
An

a a ... a
( An )k .
ln k +1 k + 2 n k n ln
a1 a 2 ... a k
( An )
, f ( x ) = ln x , ,
k
a k +1 a k + 2 ... a n
(
An )

,
a1 a 2 ... a k
( An )nk

.
22. . ) x 1 2 ,1 (.. -

x = 1 ,

ln x 1 2 < x < 1 , x [1 2 ,1] ,


(1 2 ,1) ,
2

2
2
2
x ln xdx = ln xdx = (x(ln x 1)) 1 =

12

12

(ln 2 1) < 0 ;

sin x
x = 0 , ,
x
[0,2 ] , ..
sin x
, x (0,2 ];

f (x ) = x
1, x = 0.
)

a
a
a
a An a k + 2 An
a An
ln k +1 + ln k + 2 + .. + ln n k +1
+
+ .. + n
An
An
An
An
An
An

x ln x , . : 1- :
x 2 ln x 1 2 ,1 ,

Ann a1 a 2 ... a n . ( ),

ln

.., ..

436

sin x
dx =

x
0

sin x
dx .
x
0
0

t = x :
2

sin x
sin (t + )
sin t
sin x
x dx = 0 t + dt = 0 t + dt = 0 x + dx . ,

f (x )dx = f (x )dx +

f (x )
sin x
dx =
f ( x )dx
dx .
x +
x +
0
0

1-

f (x )
dx

dx = f ( )
= f ( )ln( x + ) 0 = f ( )(ln 2 ln ) =
x +
x +
0

f ( ) ln 2 > 0 , f ( ) =

sin

> 0 (0, ) .
2

] [

x sin xdx

0, ,2 ,
t = x (
):

437

x sin xdx = x sin xdx +

x sin xdx = x sin xdx +

.., ..

438

x ( 4 , 2) .

( + t )sin( + t )dt = x sin xdx ( + t )sin tdt = sin tdt .

1- , :

sin tdt = 2 sin < 0 ,


0

2 x dx =

2 x dx = t 3 2 t dt +
0

0 x 1

t = x :

x
0

2 x dx = x 3 2 x 2 x dx .
0

, :
2

x (2
3

)dx = 2 f ( ) > 0 ,

f ( ) = 3 (2 2 ) > 0 (0,2) .
1 1
1
1
23. . ) inf
, sup
=
= ,
k x k +1 x
k + 1 k x k +1 x k
k +1
k +1
1
dx
dx 1
=
<
= .
k +1 k k +1 k k k

k +1

128

2
1

dx sin 10 xdx 1 dx = .
=

32 4 2
4

x 1

2.

sin t t tgt ,
t [0, 2) , 0 x , x [0, 2) :
24.

t2
0 sin tdt 0 tdt 0 tgtdt cos t 0 2

x
x

l n cos t 0 .
0

25. .
1

0 x 1

4 2 x 2 4 x 2 x 3 4 x 2 (0 x 1) .

1
e

0 1, , 3 11 2 1
) :

) sin 1 =

10

inf x = e . e

3 11 2 25 x + x 2 5 , 2
, x x + 25 =
(x (1 2 ))2 + 99 4 [0,1] , 5,

1
dx 1
<
< , k N ,
) :
k +1 k x k
k 1 n 1
2

1
e

) :

e 1
dx
e 1
.
<
<
3
ln
2
2
x
+
1
) : [2,3]

sup x = 1 ,

2 x dx + x 3 2 x dx .

2 < ln x + 2 < 3 x (1, e) ,

2 < 2 x < 16 x (1,2) .

.
) : , ,

sin > 0 0, .
) :
2

2 2 < sin x < 1

cos
0

dx
2

1
cos x
cos xdx
dx cos xdx =2 sin 1 ;
2

2 1
1 1 + x
1

x 3 + sin x

dx
cos 2 x 3 + 3 2

3
1 3 dx
=
.
2

2 0 cos x 2

(, ).

e x < e x x [0,1]; ) e x
[0, ] , [ ,2 ] ;
26. : ) ,

sin x

439

.
1

27. . )

dx

>

4 x2 x3

= arcsin
= . ) 20 6
4 x2
dx

x e x 2 , x [0,1]. ) : ln(1 + x ) ln 2 , x [0,1] . ) :


cos x
1
:
arctgx < x , x (0,+ ) .

2
3
1+ x + x
1+ x2
28. . f ( x ) = 0 x [0,1] ,
2

,
:
1

f ( x )dx =

29. .

100 x

(e

100 a

x2

1
f (x )

f (x )

dx = 0,01 e

100 a

f , , ,
1

dx

100 a

f (x )
a

23

2
3

dx a .
dx > 0,04

t 2 4t 1
>0
t

dx
2
=
, 0 < < . ,
1
+
0
,
5
cos
x
1
+
0
,
5
cos

0
1 < cos < 1 , 0,5 < 1 + 0,5 < 1,5 ,

) ,
( ) 1- -
,
1

. ,

1+ x

x9
1+ x

dx

1
1+ x

x ,

dx
dx
0 1 + 0,5 cos x = 20 1 + 0,5 cos x . ,
2

100 x

t > 2 + 5 . a > 0,01 ln(2 + 5 ) .


30. . ) [0,2 ] y = cos x
x = (cos(2 x ) = cos x ) ,

4 4 3 4
4 + 4 3 8
4
8 4

,
. =
=
<I
<
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
I 8 3
8 4

+
= , I =
, < 1 .
4 3
3
3

). e

e 100 a ) > 4 . e100 a = t > 0 ,

4
2
<
< 4 .
3 1 + 0,5 cos

x [0, ] ; )

5
2
x2 + 2
y = arctgx ,
5

.., ..

440

1+ x

dx =

(0,1) :

x dx .
1+
9

,
1

1
1
x 10
x
dx
=
. :
=

1+ 0
1 + 10
1 + 10 0
1
1
1
1
<
< 1 , ..
0 < < 1 ,
<I< .
10
2
1+
10 2
1

31. . . n . 1- :
1

xn
1
1
1 x n +1
n
dx
x
dx
=
=
, 0 < < 1 .
=
0 1 + x 1 + 0
1 + n + 1 0 (1 + )(n + 1)

xn
1
dx = lim
= 0.
n + 1 + x
n + (1 + )(n + 1)
0
lim

441

32. . ) ,

) x = t , dx =
2

dx
1
0 1 + x 3 = 1 + 3 , 0 < < 1 .

1
dx
lim
= lim
= 1.
3
0 1 + x
0 1 + 3
0
)

+0

dx

a < < b .

( )

I = sin x dx =
2

b2

sin t

a2

dt .

[ ]

b
.
a

cos a 2 cos
1
.
dt = 2a 2 sin tdt =
2a
a2 2 t
a

0,1 ,

= f (0) ln

f (x ) x

2 t

, -

b2

lim

dt

, 2- , :

b
dx
dx
f ( x ) = f ( )
= f ( ) ln ,
a
x
x
a

+0 0 , f (x )
f ( ) f (0 ) , :

.., ..

442

sin t

1
cos a 2 cos 1
<I=
< ,
a
2a
a

= aI , 1 < aI < 1 . , I =

< 1.

e x
33. . ) f ( x ) = sin x g ( x ) =
x
[a, b ] , g ( x ) ( g ( x ) < 0 ) -

1

x
[n, n + p ], f ( x ) = sin x

, 2- :

. 2-

I =

sin xdx = g (a + 0 ) f (x )dx =

( cos x ) a

sin xdx =

34. . g ( x ) =

n+ p

I=

(cos a cos ) , a < < b .

a
a
2 cos a cos 2 ,

e a e a
e a
(cos a cos ) 2
2

.
a
a
a
a
, 0 , e
1
2
2
I
= , : < I < . ,
a
a
2a
2
: I = , < 1 .
a

1
1
sin x
1

dx = sin xdx = ( cos x ) n = (cos n cos ) ,


n
n
x
nn

n < < n + p .

n+ p

n+ p

n , lim

n +

cos n cos 2
sin x
dx =
x
n
n

sin x
dx = 0 .
x
x

t n +1
x n +1
x n +1
n
35. . t dt =
. ,
= x(x ) ,
=
n +1
n +1 0 n +1
0
x

1
n

n +1

[a, b] . k > 0 (k N )
k + + k < b . , ,

36. .
,

k 0


+ k

f (x )dx M

1+

+ k

f (x )dx = f ( ) ,

k ( , + k ) .

443

.., ..

444

3. . ) ,

2

f ( k ) M k , , f ( k ) 0

k + . f ( x ) ,

f ( ) = 0 . ,
f ( x ) 0 [a, b ] .

k ,
f ( x ) 0 ( , ) . ,

37. . 1 . 2.3.1.
38. .

f ( x ) =

f (x )dx = f ( x )dx +
0

=
1

1
1
1

1
x e x dx xdx e 2 x dx = (e + 1)(e 1) < e 1 ,

4
0
0
0

x
=
2

3
5

1. : ) 2; ) ; ) 2; )
; )
.
8
4
2
1

2. . ) 1)

f ( x )dx =

f ( x )dx +

3 0

x
3

x
2

f (x )dx = x 2 dx +
1

xdx =
0

1 1 5
+ = .
3 2 6

5
.
6

t (1 x )

1 t
2

t
(1 x )dx =
1 t t

2 1

=
t

t 2 t (1 t ) t
+
= .
2
2
2

1
,
x 1

[0,2]; ) : cos 2 x = cos x ,


x [0, ] ; ) , x 2 3 = x 1 3 , x [ 1,1] .
x
5. . [0,2] e
: e

(7 < e

< 8) .
= k , .. x k = ln k ,
2

[ ] = ln k ,
( )
k +1
[e ]dx = kdx + 7dx = k ln k +7(2 ln 7 ) =
0

xk

k = 2,3,...,7 . [ln k , ln(k + 1)) , k = 1,2,...,6 ,


x

f (x )dx = F (1) F ( 1) = 2 3 = 6 .

); ,

) 2,5 .

(2 x )dx =

4. . ) , ,
x = 1 (,

x 3 3 , x < 0;
F (x ) = 2
x 2 , x 0.
1

(2 x )

1 e

2) ,
1,1

2 2

x = 1 ,

2 1

f (x )dx = xdx +

2 t

3.

x
3

f ( x )dx = x 2 dx +

) ,

x g (x ) = e x , [0,1] , :

.
39. :
.

3 1

6 ln k +1

k =1

ln k

k =1

ln 7

6
k +1
= ln
+ 7(2 ln 7 ) =
k
k =1

445

2 3 4 5 6 7
= ln + 14 ln 7 7 =
1 2 3 4 5 6
76
= ln
ln 7 7 + 14 = 14 ln(7!) .
1 2 3 4 5 6

4 cos

x,
x l;

1
f (t )dt = l ,
= ( x + l x l ).
x > l;
2
l ,
x < l

x sgn(cos x )dx =

xk = k

(k = 1,2,3,4,5)

[0,6] ,
[x] ( [x ] = k x [k , k + 1) ;
[k , k + 1]
x = k + 1 ).
,

[x]sin
0

k +1

k =1

dx = k

sin

x
6

dx =
k =1

6k

cos

x
6

=
k +1

k
(k + 1)

= k cos
cos
=
k =1
6
6
6

= ( cos cos + 2 cos cos +



6
3
3
2

5
2
2

+ 3 cos cos
cos
+ 4 cos
+
6
3
3
2

+ 5 cos
cos ) = (cos cos + 2 cos + 3 cos

6
6
3
3
3

+ 5) =

30

xdx =

2 2
2
=
0

.
8
8
4
2

5 cos

+ xk

k = 0 x k +1

sgn(sin(ln x ))dx = sgn(sin(ln x ))dx =

(k = 0,1,2...) .
1, x ( x k +1 , x k ), k ;
sgn(sin(ln x )) =
=
1, x ( x k +1 , x k ), k ,
k 1
= ( 1) , x ( x k +1 , xk ) ,

3
sgn x x dx = dx dx = 1 2 = 1 .
0

xdx

y = sin (ln x ) , .. x k = e

+ 4 cos

1, 0 < x < 1;

1 < x 3;
) sgn x x = 1,
0,
x = 0, x = 1,

7. . )
x = 2 ,

6. . ) ,
x

.., ..

446

= ( 1)

k 1

(e

e (k +1) = lim

k =0

n +

( 1) (e
n

k 1

e (k +1) =

k =0

1 + ( 1) e (n +1) e 1 e 2 e 2
= th .
= 1 e lim
=
=

n +

2
1+ e
e +1
e 2 +e2
) E [0, ] [2 ,3 ].
, y = cos x

, ,
E 0, 2 , 2 , ,

[2 , 5 2] , [5

] [

2 ,3 ] , cos x -

cos x sin x dx =
E

sin x d (sin x )

sin x d (sin x ) +

5
2

sin x d (sin x )

447

[0,1] ;

sin x d (sin x ) =

5
3

3 2
3
3
3
2

2
= sin 2 x sin 2 x + sin 2 x sin 2 x
3
5

2
0
2
2

f (x ) = 1 x 2

8
= .
3

8. .

sh2 + 1 + sh 2 2

sh 2 + ch 2
sh1 1 + x 2 = l n x + 1 + x sh1 = ln sh1 + 1 + sh 2 1 = ln sh1 + ch1 .
e2
sh 2 + ch 2
x
shx + chx = e , ln
= ln
= 1.
sh1 + ch1
e
9. . f f

dx

sh 2

, , :
3

f ( x ) dx = f ( x )dx +
0

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx =

1+ 2

1
x

(. 6 3.1).
11. . .
) 2 ( ): x = sin t

2 , ] -

1
1
1
sin 2t
= (cos 2t + 1)dt = cos 2tdt + dt =
2
2
2
4
2

) 2:

x = sin t [2 , 5 2] -

[0,1] ; f (x ) =
2) = 1 .

[0,1] ; x(2 ) = 0 , x(5

1 x 2 dx =

5
2

5
2

1 x 2 -

5
2

cos t cos tdt = cos tdt = 2 (cos 2t + 1)dt =


=

= f (1) + f (0) + f (2) f (1) f (3) + f (2) = 8 .


10. . ) t = tgx x = 2
x = 3 2 (. 1 3.2).
) x = 1 t , , t [ 1,1] ,
, x [ 1,1] (. 2 3.2);
) x = 0 , ,
1

[0,1] ;

1 x 2 dx = cos t cos tdt = cos 2 tdt =

sh 2

x( ) = 0 , x( 2) = 1 . :

5
2

.., ..

448

5
2

1 sin 2t

+ t = .

2 2
4
2

) , 2: x = sin t , 5 2

f (x ) =

[
]
[ 1,1] ;
1 x 2 [ 1,1] ; x( ) = 0 , x(5 2) = 1 .

:
1

1 x 2 dx =

1
=
2

5
2

3
2

cos t cos tdt = cos

3
2

tdt +

5
2

cos

3
2

1 2
(1 + cos 2t )dt =
(
)
1
+
cos
2
t
dt
+

2 3
2

tdt =

449

1 sin 2t 2

1 sin 2t 2
= t +
+ t +
= + = .
2
2
4 2 4
2
2 3

sin t 1 cos t 1 , x

0 3.
)) . 3 3.2 2

dx

1 + 0,5 cos x .
0

) 1 ( ) : t = x 6 x + 13

[0,7] ,

[0,7] [4,20].
g (t ) (
[4,20]). t = x 2 6 x + 13

x : x = 3 t 4 ,
x [0,3] x = 3 t 4 , x [3,7] , ,

f ( x )d (sin x ) =

(x
0

6 x + 13 dx = x 2 6 x + 13 dx +
0

dx =

dt
2 t4

(x

(
0

(p
0

+ 4 dp = 21 +

f ( x )d (sin x ) =

f (arcsin t )dt +

f ( arcsin t )dt +
1

+ f (2 arcsin t )dt .
1

dt
2 t 4

. -

20
1
tdt
1
tdt
x 6 x + 13 dx =
+
= p 2 + 4 dp +
2 13 t 4 2 4 t 4 0

f (x )d (sin x ) .

3
2


t = sin x + n, + n ,
2

2
n
n Z , x = ( 1) arcsin t + n , n Z . -

6 x + 13 dx .

dx =

f ( x )d (sin x ) +

f (x )d (sin x ) +

3
2

:
3

x = 3 + t 4 . 7

x3

343
175
3x 2 + 13x =
x

6
x
+
13
d
x
=
147 + 91 =
.
0
3
3
3
0
13. . [0,2 ] , , [0, 2] , [ 2 , 3 2] , [3 2 ,2 ] ,
sin x , ,
x(t ) :
7

12. . ) ,

.., ..

450

112 175
=
3
3

t 4 ).
2
, t = x 6 x + 13 -

f ( x ) 2- x = 0
x = 2 , arctg ( f (x )) , ( 1,0 ) , (0,2 ) (2,3) , 1-
. [ 1,3]
[ 1,0] , [0,2] [2,3] .
14. .

(
f x )

( )

arctg ( f (x )) . f ( 1) = 0 , f ( 0) = ,
f (+ 0) = + , f (2 0) = , f (2 + 0) = + , f (3) = 32 27 ,

( p =

, ,


1,0 , 0,2 2,3 :

] [ ] [ ]

451

I = arctg ( f ( 0)) arctg ( f ( 1)) + arctg ( f (2 0)) arctg ( f (+ 0)) +


+ arctg ( f (3)) arctg ( f (2 + 0)) =
32

32

= 0 + + arctg
= arctg
2 .
2
27 2
27
2 2
15. : t = a + b x .
16. . t =

x = a + (b a )t , dx = (b a )dt
b

xa
,
ba

21. . ) 12-
25- . : xdx =

x(2 x )

, ,
t x .
b

2 12

x= t,

a2

1
x f (x )dx = tf (t )dt . dx =
20
2 t
0
3

f ( x + y )dy =

b+ x

f (t )dt . -

a+ x


(x)

d
f (t )dt = f ( ( x ), x ) ( x ) f ( ( x ), x ) ( x )
dx ( x )

13 1

= 315
0

1
.
26

t = 1 x ,
3

1
cos t
, dx =
dt ,
sin t
sin 2 t

x2 1

sin t
cos t

sin t

, t .
cos t
2
6

, , t x .
19. : t = 1 x .
20. . t = x + y , y = t x , dy = dt ,
b

) x =

I , .
a

) (

1 2 x2
d 2 x =
2
13
2

t4 t7
6
3
1 x 1 x dx = 32(1 t )t dt = 3 4 7 = 66 7 .
2

= (a + b t ) f (t )dt = (a + b ) f (t )dt tf (t )dt = (a + b ) f (t )dt I .

dt

x = 1 t , dx = 3t dt
3

(t 0) ,

12

1
dx = 2 x 2
20

18. . t = x

1
d 2 x 2 ,
2

I = xf (x )dx = xf (a + b x )dx =
a

b+ x

d
d
f ( x + y )dy =
f (t )dt = f ( x + b ) f (x + a ) .

dx a
dx a+ x

17. .

f ( x )
( x ) = a + x (x ) = b + x A a < x < B b ),

( ,

2 x

f (x )dx = (b a ) f (a + (b a )t )dt .

.., ..

452

dx
x2 1

sin t cos t
dt =
sin 2 t cos t

dt = 3 .

tdt
1 2
8
8
7
) t = 1 + 3 x , x = t 1 , x dx =
3
12

15
8
8
8 7
x 1 + 3x dx = x 1 + 3x x dx =
2

1 2 2
t (t 1)dt =
36 1

1 t5 t3
29
= =
.
36 5 3 1 270

453

dt
1
1
, x = 1 , dx = 2 ,
x +1
t
t
0 , 75
1
dx
dt
1 2
=
=
x 2 + 1 = 2 + 2 .
2
2
t
t

+
2
t
2
t
1
4
0 ( x + 1) x + 1
7

.., ..

454

dx

22. . ) t =

1
dt
2
2

1
1
1
ln t + t +
4
2 2
2

1
1
7
t +
4
2
1
1
+
1
9+4 2
1
2
2
ln
.
=
ln
=
2
7
2
2
1
1
1
+ +
14
4
14

dt
) t = e , x = ln t , dx =
t
x

=
4

t 1


x = sin t , t 0, ,
2

(1 x ) dx = cos
0

2 n

2 n +1

) t =

tdt =

x 10 x + 13
2

tdt

1 6t 3t

1
=
2t t 2
3 3

dt
4
2
(t + 1)
3

e 1dx =

arcsin

1
3

1
3

1
3

(t + 1)dt

4
2
(t + 1)
3

(t + 1)
arcsin
2

1
3

2
2
.
1
3
3 3

23. .
1

=
0

dx
dx
= x
+
x
2
e + 1 x + 1 1 e + 1 x 2 + 1

)(

dt
+
t
e +1 t 2 +1

) (

)(

) (e

)(

)(

)(

dx

= .
x +1 4

) ,

dx

dx
=
+1 x2 +1

3 + cos x =

dx
1 dx
1
= x
+ x
=

2
x
e + 1 x + 1 0 e + 1 e + 1 x2 + 1

(2n )!! (. 5() 3.3).


(2n + 1)!!

1
,
x2

dx
2

1
3

1
1
dz
=
2 dz 2

z
1
+
0
0

z 2 +1 1
z 2 dz
dt
dz =
= 2
= 2 2
t
z2 +1
0 z +1
0

= 2(1 arctg1) = 2

(x 2)

x 2 10 x + 13

ln 2

t dt

1 6
1 6t 3t 2

3
t2 t
x < 2 , t < 0 , ,
t = t :

dt
t 1 . z = t 1 , t = z 2 + 1 , dt = 2 zdz
t

(x 2)2

dt

t = tg ( x 2) :

2dt
1
t
dt
=
arctg
+C =
=
2

2+t
1 t2
2
2
2

1 + t 3 +
2
1+ t
tg (x 2)
1
=
arctg
+C.
2
2

F (x ) =

arctg

455

tg ( x 2 )
2

+ C -

1
[0,2 ] , x = .
f ( x ) =
3 + cos x
f ( x ) [0,2 ] ,
tg (x 2 )
1
,
x [0, );
2 arctg
2
F (x ) =
1 arctg tg (x 2 ) + C , x ( ,2 ].
2
2
, f ( x ) , x (0, ) U ( ,2 ) . x = :

F ( 0) = F ( + 0)

2 2
tg ( x 2 )

2 2

+ C , C =

1
x [0, ];
,
2 arctg
2

F ( x ) =
1 arctg tg ( x 2 ) + , x ( ,2 ]
2
2
2
[0,2 ] f (x ) [0,2 ] . , ,
2

dx

3 + cos x = F (2 ) F (0) =
0

1
2

arctg

tg 0
2

1
2
=

arctg

tg
2

tg (x 2 )
1

,
F (x ) = 2 arctg
2
F2 (x ) =
lim F ( x ) = ,
2 2
x + 0

( )

x ( ,2 ];
x =

f x ,2 . ,
2

dx
dx
0 3 + cos x = 0 3 + cos x +

dx

= F ( ) F (0) +

3 + cos x

F2 (2 ) F2 ( ) =

2
2
) x + x + 1
, 1-

t = x 2 + x + 1 + x .

x 2 + x + 1 = t x ,
2tx + x 2 , x + 1 = t 2 2tx ,
t 2 + t +1
t 2 1
, dx = 2
dt .
x=
1 + 2t
(1 + 2t )2

x2 + x +1 = t 2

A
B
D
t 2 + t +1

=
+
+
=
2
dt
t 1 + 2t (1 + 2t )2 dt .
x + x 2 + x + 1 t (1 + 2t )2
A, B, D : A = 2 , B = 3 , D = 3 . dx

tg ( x 2 )
1

x [0, );
,
F (x ) = 2 arctg
2
F1 ( x ) =
lim F ( x ) = ,
x=0
x 0
2 2
f ( x ) [0, ] .

.., ..

456

x+

dx

3
3
= 2 ln t ln 1 + 2t +
+C =
2(1 + 2t )
2
x2 + x +1

= 2 ln x 2 + x + 1 + x

3
3
ln 1 + 2 x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 +
+
2
2 1 + 2x + 2 x 2 + x + 1

+ C . (, C = 0 )
.

457

ln 2 6 3 9 + 3 2 .

1
1
d ( x cos )
dx
.
24. . 2
=
2
2
1 x 2 x cos + 1
1 ( x cos ) + sin
t = x cos :
:

1 cos

1
t
dt
=
arctg
2
2

sin
sin
1 cos t + sin

1 cos

=
1 cos

1
1 cos
1 + cos
=
+ arctg
=
arctg
sin
sin
sin

2 sin 2 ( 2 )
2 cos 2 ( 2)
1

=
=
arctg
+
arctg
sin
2 sin ( 2) cos( 2)
2 sin ( 2 ) cos( 2 )
1

=
arctg tg + arctg ctg =
sin
2
2

1
arctg tg + arctg tg .
=

sin
2
2 2


0 < < , 0 <
< 0 < < ,
2 2
2 2 2


arctg (tgz ) = z , z , , arctg tg =
2
2 2

= , arctg tg = . ,
2
2 2 2 2
1

.
+ =
sin 2 2 2 2 sin
x

f (t )dt

= f ( x ) , , -

f (t )dt = ln f (x ) .

25. . ,

e,

f (x ) =

f ( x )
, .. f ( x ) = f
f (x )

df
=f 2
dx
1
1
df
2 = dx . , :
= x + C , .. f =
.
f
x+C
f
1
1
.
f (0 ) = = 1 , C = 1 . f ( x ) =
C
x +1
2
26. . y = x :

2
2
1 sin y
sin y
1 sin y
+
dy
dy .
dy
=

2
2
y
y
y
0
0

z = y , 2

(x ) , f (0) = e 0 = 1 . -

( )

2
sin x dx =

1
1 sin y
sin y
1

=
dy
sin y

y
2 0 y
20
y +

dy ,
y +
1

,
0, .
27. : . 1 . 3.5.2.
28. . ) x 0 , :

d (x 1 x )
1+1 x2
x2 +1
dx = 2
dx =
,
4
2
x +1
x +1 x
( x 1 x )2 + 2

d (x 1 x )
x2 1
1
1+ x2
1 1 + x 4 dx = 1 (x 1 x )2 + 2 = 2 arctg x 2 =
1
2

1
3
1
3

arctg 0 =
.
arctg
arctg
2
2 2
2
2 2

1
x2 1
arctg

) , F ( x ) =
2
x 2
[ 1,1] .

=

lim F (x ) =

x 0
2

.., ..

458

2 2

lim F (x ) =

x +0

2 2

, ,

x = 0

1- .

459

F ( x ), x [ 1,0];

F (x ) =

F ( x ) + 2 , x [0,1]

[ 1,1] , -

.., ..

460

ln x, x [1 e ,1],
ln x =
, ,
ln x, x [1, e],
dg = dx ,
f = ln x ,
30. .

( ).
:

ln x dx =

1+ x2
11 + x 4 dx = F (1) F ( 1) = 0 + 2 0 = 2 .
1

(x

dx
2

+ a2

1
sin t
= 2 cos tdt = 2
a
a 0

dx = a cos tdt .

a
2

(a

dx
2

1
= 2
a

dt
tgt
0 cos 2 t = a 2

2
=
.
2a 2

1
a2 3

x = a cos 2t ,

a
2

6
a+x
dx = 4a cos 2 tdt = 2a (1 + cos 2t )dt =
ax

0
6

3
.
= a (2t + sin 2t ) 06 = a +

3
2

1 + cos 2 x
1
dx = e x dx + e x cos 2 xdx =
2
20
0

1
(I 1 + I 2 ) . I1 = e x dx = e x
2
0


t 0, , dx = 2a sin 2tdt .
6
a

x
2
x
e cos xdx = e


x = a sin t , t 0, ,
6

31. . ) :

dt

x = atgt , t 0, , dx = a
.
cos 2 t
4

1
( ln x )dx + ln xdx = ( x ln x + x ) 1

+ ( x ln x x ) 1 = 2 1 e 1 .

29. . )

= e 1 ;

I 2 = e cos 2 xdx = e cos 2 x + 2 e x sin 2 xdx =


x

= e 1 + 2 e x sin 2 x 2 e x cos 2 xdx = e 1 4 I 2 ,


0
0

1
I 2 = (e 1) .
5

1
1
3
x
2
, e cos xdx = e 1 + (e 1) = (e 1) .
2
5
5
0
)

x 2 dx = dg , f = ln 2 x , g =

x3
2 ln xdx
, df =
,
3
x

,
e

2
x3 2
(
)
x
ln
x
dx
=
ln x
1
3
3
1
2

x
1

ln xdx .

461

.., ..

462

2
x ln xdx , :

dg = x 2 dx , f = ln x , g =

1
x
ln x
3
3
1

ln xdx =

x3
dx
, df =
,
3
x

dx =

3 e

e
x

3
9

) t = x ,
n

e
5e 2
4e
2

=
.
27
3
27 27
1
1
1
2

x [0,1] ,
32. .
5
25 x + x 2 3 11

(x ln x ) dx =
2

xe dx = 1 , :
x

1
1
2
2
xe dx
= xe x dx

xe x dx =
.
2
5 05
3
11
3
11
25

x
+
x
0
0

1 sin t
I=
n 1 1n
t

2
2
(2 x 1) f (x )dx = f (x )d (x x ) = (x x ) f (x ) 0
0

x x f ( x )dx 0 , f ( x ) .
2

0, x [0,1),
34. . ) lim cos(x )dx =1, lim x =
n +
n +
1, x = 1;
0
1

1, x [0,1),
(
lim cos x n =
n +
cos1, x = 1;

( )

).

1
n

n 1

, 1- . .

cos(x )dx = cos( ) dx = ( 1)cos( ) , 1 < < .


n

d (sin t )

2
n 1
n 1 sin t
1 sin t
lim
dt 2 t n dt =
=0
2
1

1
n + n 1
n 1
n 1 2 n
t n 1
t
1
1
=
0 n + , I 0 .
n +
n n n 1

(2 x 1) f (x )dx 0 .
0

n 1 sin t
+ 2 1 dt .
n 1 2 n
t

33. . ,

( )

1 cos t
1
I = cos x dx = 1 dt =
n 1 1 n
n
1
t
n

,
e

1 n 1
t , n

2e
1
+ .
9
9

x = n t , dx =

+
n

, , lim

n +

( 1)cos( n ) .

, , 0.
, ,

n , .. = (n ) .

n + (n ) 1 , , , -

1 , lim ( 1) cos (n )
n +

) -


1 ( ). .

n
n

) lim cos(x )dx = lim cos x dx + cos x dx .

n +
n +
1
0

( )

35. . ) , :

( )

I n = f ( x )sin (nx )dx =


a

463

1
f ( x )d (cos nx ) =
n a

464

.., ..
1

1
x m +1
I 0 = x dx =
.
=
m +1 0 m +1
0
1

1
1
b
f ( x ) cos nx a + f ( x ) cos nxdx .
n
na

37. .

b
1
1

f ( x ) cos nxdx f (x ) dx , lim I n = 0 .

n +
na
na

( dg = cos xdx ,
n :

) .
) :

, .

x (0,1];
x = 0.

f ( x ),
f (x ) =
0,

,
,

I n = f ( x )dx =
0

[0,1] ,

f (x )dx .
0

In =

In =

5 3.3, :

(2n 1)(2n 3) ... 3 1


I (2m + 2n,0) =
(2m + 1)(2m + 3) ... (2m + 2n 1)
(2n 1)!!(2m + 2n 1)!!

=
=
((2m + 1)(2m + 3) ... (2m + 2n 1))(2m + 2n )!! 2
(2n 1)!!(2m 1)!! .
2(2m + 2n )!!

I (2m,2n ) =

(2n 1)!!(2m 1)!!


2(2m + 2n )!!

(2n )!(2m )!
(2n )!(2m )!
.
= 2 m + 2 n +1
m+n
(m + n )!2 m!n! 2
(m + n )!m!n!
2
38. . ) cos(nx + x ) = cos nx cos x sin nx sin x ,
=

m + n +1

2n 1
I (2m + 2,2n 2 ) .
2m + 1
n 1

I n = sin n 1 x cos((n + 1)x )dx = sin n 1 x cos nx cos xdx

xf ( x )
n
n
n 1
x m (ln x ) dx =
I n 1 ,

m +1 0 m +1 0
m +1
1

f = sin x cos 2 n 1 x ), 2m

I (2m,2n ) =

1
(sin ( + ) + sin ( )) = sin cos .
2
n
m
36. . f ( x ) = x (ln x )
x = 0 , ,
[0,1] . -

I (2m,2n ) = sin 2 m x cos 2 n xdx .

sin n x sin nxdx .

n
I n 1 .
m +1

In =

( 1)n n! I
(m + 1)n 0

( 1)n n! ,
(m + 1)n +1

dg = sin n 1x cos xdx =

sin n x cos nx
In =
n

1
d (sin n x ) , f = cos nx ),
n

+ sin x sin nxdx sin n x sin nxdx =0.


n

) , , .

465

39. . x =

40. .

, ,
0, 2 ( ). , ,
f x = cos 2n 2 x + cos 2nx ln cos x = 2 cos 2n 1 x cos x ln cos x ,

() ( (

.., ..

466

I n + I n 1 =

2
sin (2n 1)x
f ( x )dx = 2(
cos x ln cos x
2n 1
0

F (T ) = f (t )dt + C = F (0) = C ,

2) .

1 2
1
+
sin (2n 1)x sin x ln cos xdx) =
(I n1 I n ) ,

2n 1 0
2n 1
n
I n =
I n 1 . n 1
,

I n=

( 1)n 1 I
n

1.

f (t )dt = 0 , F ( x ) = f (t + T )dt + C =
0

T +x

T +x

f ( )d + C = f ( )d + f ( )d + C = F (x + T ) .

( ,+) ,
, F ( x ) .
x +1

x :

f (t )dt = F (x + 1) F (x ) , , ,
x

F ( x + 1) F ( x ) 0 . , 1,
F ( x ) . F ( x + 1) F ( x ) x ,
: f ( x + 1) f ( x ) , .. f ( x ) ( x

44. .

I 1 + I 0 = 2 cos 2 x ln cos xdx =

= 2 sin x cos x ln cos x 02

f (t )dt = 0 .

42. : . 2 . 3.5.1.
43. .

1).

I 1 .

= I 0 I1 +

F ( x ) = f (t )dt + C ,

F T ,

1 2
sin (2n 1)x sin xdx +
2n 1 0

f (x )dx .
0

b +T

a +T

f ( x + T )d ( x + T ) =

41. . 1) .

,
2

x [0, 2) , f ( 2) = 0 ,
, [0, 2] . -

f ( x )dx = f ( x + T )dx =

+ 2 sin 2 x ln cos xdx + 2 sin 2 xdx =

, I 1 =

, I n =

( 1)n1
4n

A
~

F ( x ) = f (t ) dt .
T
0

f (t ) T dt = 0 , , 41, F (x )
0

T . F ( x ) = F ( x )

A
x , T

.
45. .

2,

467

4
dx
(
dx
1 + tg 2 x )dtgx
I= 4
=4
=
=4
4
4
4
1 + tg 4 x
sin x + cos x

0 sin x + cos x
2

=4

(1 + t ) dt . 28 I = 2
2

1+ t4

2 .

46. : . 6 3.2.
47. .

z = t , f ),
F ( x ) = F ( x ) x ( a, a ) , C = 0 .
2) f ( x ) .
F ( x ) f ( x ) .
(

.., ..

468

f (x )dx =

f ( x )dx +

, . ,

f (x )dx ,

F ( x ) =

, ( , Ox , , , , ).
, f x ,

( )

Oy ,
.
, , (, , ) .
. 27.
48. . 1) , , f x -

( )

( a, a ) .

= sin ( sin t + nt + n )dt = ( 1)

sin (nt sin t )dt = 0 ,

.
51. : 41.
52. : . 3.5.3.
53. .
1

1 d x2 +1
xdx
= arctg1 2
=
1) arctgxdx = xarctgx 0 2
2 0 x +1
4
0
0 x +1
1
1
1

ln (x 2 + 1) = = (ln 2 ln 1) = ln 2 .
0
2
4 2
4

f (t )dt + C = f (z )dz + C

f (t )dt + C = f (z )dz + C

sin(sin x + nx )dx = sin (sin (t + ) + n(t + ))dt =

F ( x ) = f (t )dt + C ,

C , f ( x )
( a, a ) . , F (x ) ,
C = 0 . ,

x ( a, a )

( z = t , f ).
49. : ) 0; ) 0 ( ,
x = 0 , . 47).
50. .

F ( x ) =

C , F (x ) F ( x ) = f (t )dt + C .

2)

arctgxdx = 1 arctg1 0 arctg 0


0

arctg 1

tgydy =

arctg 0

sin ydy
=
cos y
0

d cos y

= + (ln cos y ) 04 = ln 2 .
= +
4 0 cos y
4
4

469

.., ..

470

54. . 1- .

ln 1+ 2

55. . )

arcsin xdx = 1 arcsin1 0 arcsin 0 sin ydy = 2 1 ;


2

b) e ; c)

2(1 ln 2) .

OABC ( 1

OBC ( -

sin ydy = 1).

ln 2

ln 2

2
th xdx =

sh 2 x
dx =
ch 2 x

ln 3

xchxdx = xshx
0

DABCFED FEBCF ;

dy = e 2 e . ,

ln xdx = 2e

O
0

a)

OABC BCD .

y=arcsinx

A
1

D
0

y=lnx

C
A O

e2

y=

1
dx =
2
x

1 ch
0

ln 3
0

ln 3

shxdx =
0

4
ln 3
ln 3 chx 0 =
3

4
2 2(2 ln 3 1)
.
ln 3 =
3
3
3

1
1+ x

B
A
1

()

n = k + 1 . , (chx + shx )k +1 =

= (chx + shx ) (chx + shx ) = (ch(kx ) + sh(kx )) (chx + shx ) =


= (ch(kx )chx + sh(kx )shx ) + (sh(kx )chx + ch(kx )shx ) =
= ch((k + 1)x ) + sh((k + 1)x ) ,
k

ln 2

= .
20 6

n = k 1 , .. (chx + shx )k = ch(kx ) + sh(kx ) , ,

c)

b)

t = shx

= arcsin

ch 2 x 1
dx =
ch 2 x

()

e (e e ) = e .
2

c)

4 t2

56. .
.
1) n = 1 chx + shx = ch x + sh x .
2) ,

e2

ln 2

4 sh 2 x

e x ex
3
ln 2
= ln 2 .
= ( x thx ) 0 = x x
x
5
e +e 0

) , dv = chx , u = x :

e2

ln xdx

d (shx )

ln 2

b)

dt

arcsin xdx

4 sh x

ln 1+ 2

chxdx
2

2- . a)

.
, : x x

( )


, :
)

0 ,1 ln 2

0 ,1 ln 2

chx shx .

10
(chx + shx ) dx = (ch(10 x ) + sh(10 x ))dx =

471

1
(sh(10 x ) + ch(10 x )) 00,1ln 2 = 1 (sh(ln 2) + ch(ln 2) sh0 ch0) =
10
10
1 3 5
= + 1 = 0,1 .
10 4 4
0 ,1 ln 2

(chx shx )

10

dx =

(ch(10 x ) sh(10 x ))dx =


0

1
1
0 ,1 ln 2
(sh(ln 2) ch(ln 2) sh0 + ch0) =
= (sh(10 x ) ch(10 x )) 0
=
10
10
1 3 5
= + 1 = 0,05 .
10 4 4
57. . :

(e

+ ex )
(e 3 x + e 3 x ) + (3e x + 3e x ) = 1 ch3x + 3 chx
=
8
4
4
23
1
ln 2
3

3
3
1
1

3
sh3x
) ch xdx = ch3 x + chx dx =
4
4
12

0
0
0
1 33
=
+
2 3 2 1 ;
16 8
ln a
ln a
5
5
1

5
sh5 x sh3x + shx dx =
) sh xdx =
16
16
8

0
0

ln a

ln 2

3
3
+ shx
4
0

ch5 x 5ch3 x 5chx


=

+
=
48
8 0
80
5
5
1
=
ch ln a 5 1
ch ln a 3 1 + (ch(ln a ) 1) =
8
48
80
5
5
3
3
5 a +a
5 a + a 1
1 a +a
=
1
1 +
1 .
80
2
48
2
8
2

( (

sh

shx sin xdx = 2 (chx sin x shx cos x ) + C ;

ch (x 2) dx = th

3
sh (x 3)ch (x 3)dx = 5 ch

( ).
1
ln 2
3

0 ,1 ln 2

ch 3 x =

.., ..

472

) )

( (

) )

58. . , :

ln 2

chxdx = x 2 shx 2 xchx + 2 shx + C ;


4

xdx =

thx
chx 1

1
1
sh 4 x sh 2 x + 6 x + C ;
32
4

dx = 2arctg chx 1 + C ;
1

sh(x 2)
3

x
+C;
2

x
x
ch 3 + C .
3
3

1 ( x )
,
59. . ) 1 x + x x + x x =
1+ x
x6
1
x 1,
. = 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 x5 +
1+ x
1+ x
6

.
) :

1 ( x 2 )
1 x + x x + x x + x =
.
1+ x2
7

10

12

60. . ) :

x +1
A
B
C
.

+ +
(x 1)x(x 2) x 1 x x 2

A, B

C ,
5
5
2
1
3
x +1
3 (x 1)x(x 2) dx = 3 x 1 + 2 x + 2(x 2) dx =

473

.., ..

474

4.

3
1
3 5

.
= 2 ln x 1 + ln x + ln x 2 = ln
2
2
4
3

(x + 2) (x 3)
2

dx

1. . ,
(
k .

1 1
1
=

dx =
5 x 3 x + 2
0
1

2. . (1) , (2) -

2 1
1
1
dx
1
dx

=
+

dx =
2
2

125 0 x 3 x + 2
25 0 ( x 3)
25 0 ( x + 2)
1

1
1
2
2
=

ln x 3 +
ln x + 2 =
125
25( x 3) 25( x + 2 ) 125
0
3
1
4
=
+
ln .
75 125 2
61. : ) 8 +
)

16

3 3
6 2

; )
; )
; ) 4 ;
+
2
27
48
6

sin x
, ( x ) = sin x x
+
+
sin x
sin 2 x
dx ,
dx .
x
x
0
0

. , f ( x ) =

2
dx
1
dx
1
dx
=
+

=
2
2

25 0 ( x 3)( x + 2)
25 0 ( x 3)
25 0 ( x + 2)

. , , , (2) (, f ( x ) =

.
(1) ,

f ( x ) ( x ) C f (x ) (2), -

, .
3. . :

f (x )

3 2 + 24 .

62. : )

sin x
, ( x ) = 2 cos x ). , (2) x

x = 2 ; ) x = 2 ln 2 .

1 + f 2 (x )
2
2
2
, ( f ( x ) + g ( x )) 2( f ( x ) + g ( x )) ,
2
f 2 (x ) + g 2 (x )
.
f ( x )g ( x )
2

4. . ) , :

(sin
x

( ))

t + cos 2 t 2 dt =

= x+

x +

sin 2 2 x
4 2

M [ f ] = lim

))

1
1 cos 2t + 1 + cos 2t 2 dt =
2 0

) sin 2 x ,
4

1
sin 2 2 x sin 2 x
x +
=

4
x
4 2

sin 2 2 x sin 2 x
= 1.

= lim 1 +

x +
4
x
4
2
x

475

) ,
x

x sin tdt =

t sin tdt =

x (cos cos x ) , 0 < < x .

.., ..

476



2
I 2 = ln(cos x )dx = ln cos t d t = ln(sin x )dx = I 1 .
2 2 0

0
0

1
2

< x ( > 0
t sin tdt

x0
x

x sin x = 0.
5. . A 0 . t = nx , -

, ).

2) ,
,

2 I 1 = ln(sin x )dx + ln(cos x )dx = ln(sin x cos x )dx =


0

f (nx )dx =

1
f (t )dt = n .
n 0

(x ) =

1
f (t )dt x = n .
x 0

(. 3
2),
x

lim

x +

f (t )dt

f (t )dt

= lim f ( x ) = A .
= lim
x +
x +
x

n A

n + , lim

n +

f (nx )dx = A .
0

A = 0 .

6. . ))

I 1 = ln(sin x )dx I 2 = ln(cos x )dx .

, 2-
( ln sin x x = 0 , ln cos x

x ,

sin 2 x
= ln
dx = ln(sin 2 x )dx ln 2dx .
2
0
0
0
t = 2 x :

1
2 I 1 = ln (sin t )dt ln 2 =
20
2
2


1
= ln (sin t )dt + ln (sin t )dt ln 2 .
20

2
2

z = t .
2

0

1
2 I 1 = ln (sin t )dt + ln (sin ( z ))d ( z ) ln 2 =
20

2
2

2

12

1
= ln (sin t )dt + ln (sin z )dz ln 2 = (I 1+ I 1 ) ln 2 =
20
2
2
2
0

x = 2 ).
1) , . , t =

2 I1 = I1 + I 2 .

= I1

ln 2 .

I 1 , I 1 =

ln 2 .

) ,
0, 2 , .. .

477

) ,

dx
2

sin x + b cos x
2

V . p. cos xdx = lim

1+ x
V . p.
dx = lim
2
A +
+
x
1

a 1
b cos 2 x

(x 1)

dt
0 t 2 + 1 ).

A
A dx
1 d 1+ x2
1+ x

+
dx
=
lim
2
A + 1 + x 2
2 A 1 + x 2
A1 + x
A

x2
(x 1)5

(x 1)

( ), .
) 2- .

) =

x2
3

(x 1)2

1
= O
( x 1) 23

x e

5 x

dx 1- (

x = + ). f (x ) = x 5 e x ,
+

) ,

V . p. arctgxdx = lim xarctgx ln 1 + x 2 =


A +
2

1
1
= lim AarctgA ln (1 + A 2 ) ( A)arctg ( A) + ln 1 + ( A)2 = 0.
A +
2
2

, , 2 < 1 ,
3

1
1 + A2
= lim (2arctgA) = .
= lim arctgA arctg ( A) + ln
A +
2 1 + ( A)2 A+

x = 1 .

( ).

1
, 5 > 1 , , 3- = O
5
( x 1)

x2

x 1+ 0 :

= lim atctgx + ln (1 + x 2 ) =
A +
2

, ..

lim sin x A =

A +

A +

x 1+ 0

. b cos x -

7. . ) ,

A +

1
a
tgx
ab
b

cos xdx =

, , , , ,
.
8. . ) 2- ( x = 1 ).

= lim (sin A sin( A)) = lim 2 sin A .

1
a
2
1
(arctg (+ ) arctg 0) = .
=
arctg tgx =
ab
ab
2 ab
b
0
2

A +

d
tgx

2
1 2 b
dx
=
=
=
2

2
a
ab 0 a

2
tgx + 1
b cos 2 x tgx + 1
b

( t =

.., ..

478

x e
5

dx (

). 2- .
x +

f (x ) g (x ) =
+

1
, p > 1 . ,
xp

g (x )dx . :
1

lim

x +

479

f (x )
x 5e x
ex
= lim
= lim p 5 = 0
x + x
g ( x ) x+ 1 p
x

xk
lim
= 0 , a > 1, k > 0 ). 2- , x + a x
+

g (x )dx

5 x
x e dx , ,
1

5 x
x e dx .
0

x = + . x + 1+ x2 1 x2 +1
:
=
=
x
x3
1
= O , , 3- , .
x
) x = + . x + :
3
1
xarctgx

arctgx ~ , 1 + x 3 ~ x 2 ,
= O 1 . 1 2 < 1 ,
2
1 + x3
x 2
, 3- 1- , .
) x = 1 . x 1 0 :
3

1 ~ x 3 ,

1
= O 1
1
x 3

, ,

< 1 , 3-

2- , .
) x = 0 . x +0 :

x3
+ o(x 3 ) ,
3
1
1
= O 3 , , 3 > 1, 3- tgx x
x

tgx = x +

2- , .

dx

dx

dx

= I1 + I 2 ,
ln x
I 1 I 2 .
1
x 1+ 0 f ( x ) =

2
x ln x
1

9. . )

1- , .
10. . )
x = 1 (2- ) x = + (1- ). :
+

x = + . x + :
2 2
2
2
1 2
1
cos = 1 + o = 1 2 + o 2 .
x
x
2! x
x
x

2
2
1
1
1 cos = 2 + o 2 = O 2 , , 3- x x
x
x
)

p > 1 , ( ,

.., ..

480

ln x

ln x

. , :

1
x ln x
2

1
ln x

ln(1 + ( x 1))

1
x 1

, ..

1
f ( x ) = O
( x 1) 12

1 < 1 , I 1 ( 3- ,
2

).

x + :

1
x ln x
2

1
.
x2

dx

( 3- ), , 1- (
), (
) I 2 .
, I 1 I 2 ,
.
) x +0 , x = 0 , , , x = + ( 1- ).

x +

x2

x4 x2 +1

481

1
x2
1
: 4
= 2
2
x x x +1 x 1+ 1

x2

1
= O 2 .
x

2 > 1 , , 3- 1- , .
)
x 1 0 .

1
1
1
1
2
2
=3
. cos x cos 1 ,
3
,
2
3
1 x
1+ x
1 x
1 x
1

1+ x

1
= O
3
(1 x ) 13
1 x2

cos 2 x

. , 3-

, .
)

x + :

1
= O 5
3
x 3 x2 +1
x
1

> 1 , ,

3- 1- , .
) : x
x = + .
x +0 :

x+ x+ x

1
= O 1
x 4
x x + 1 + x 7

=0

x + x + x9

1
x 9 1 + 1

x7 +1

1
= O 9
8
x
x 5

( 3- 1-
).
, .
11. . ) :

x=0 x=

, , :

2
dx
dx
dx
dx
=
+
I=
dx
dx = I 1+ I 2 .
p
q
p
q
p
q

sin
x
cos
x

x
x
sin

cos
sin

cos
x
x
1
0
0
I , I 1 I 2 .
1) I 1 . x +0 : sin x ~ x ,
cos x ~1,
1
1
= O p .
p
q
sin x cos x
x
3- , I 1 p < 1
p 1 .

2) I 2 . x 0 :
2


sin x ~1, cos x = sin x ~ x ,
2
2

1
1
. 3- ,
= O
q
q
sin x cos x
( 2 x )
I 2 , q < 1 .
, I , p < 1 q < 1 ( -

( 3- 2-
).
x + :

.., ..

482

).
)

[0,+)

Pn ( x ) , , x = x k p k ( p k N ) ,

3- , x k :

Pm ( x )
1
= O
pk
Pn ( x )
(x x k )

Pn ( x ) [0,+) ,
, n m > 1 , .. x + :

483

Pm ( x )
1
= O n m .
Pn ( x )

x
, , Pn ( x )
[0,+) n m > 1.
) : x = 0 ( m < 0 ) x = + .
+
A
+
xm
xm
xm
I=
dx
=
dx
+
dx = I 1+ I 2 ,
n
n

1
1
+
x
+
x
+
1
x
0
0
A
.

xm
1
= O m
n
1+x
x

, 3-

I 1 , m < 1 ,
.. m > 1 .
xm
1
= O n m , 3-
2) x + :
n
1+x
x
I 2 ,
n m > 1, .. m < n 1 .
, I , ( )
I 1 I 2 , .. 1 < m < n 1 .
12. . ) x +0 ,
arctg(ax ) ~ ax , ,
arctg (ax )
1
= O n 1 ,
n
x
x
2 , a > 0;
x + arctg (ax ) =

2 , a < 0;
arctg (ax )
1
= O n .
n
x
x
1)

x +0 :

, 3- , , n 1 < 1 n > 1 , .. 1 < n < 2 .


) t 0

484

.., ..

ln(1 + t ) = t

n
t2 t3
n t
+ ... + ( 1)
+ o(t n ) ,
2 3
n

1
, x +
x
1
1
1
1
2 1
x x 2 ln1 + x x 2 + 3 + o 3
3x
x
x
x 2x

=
=
p
p
x
x
1 1
1
+ o
x/ x/ + +
2 3x
x = O 1 .
=
p
p
x
x
, 3- , p > 1
p 1 .
) x = 0 , t =

x3
x
+ o x 3 x
3!
1
1

p sin x x
=
xp
= xp
= x
3
x sin x

x
x sin x
3
+ o x
x x
3!

3
x

+ o x3
1
= p 3!2
= O p 1 .
2
x x +o x
x

, p 1 < 1 , .. p > 2 .

( )

( )

( )
( ))

) x = 0 ,
p > 0 2- . ,
p .

:

f ( x )

x2 x4
x2 x4
1
+
+ o x 5
+
+ o x 4 1
2! 4!
2
8
=

f (x ) =
p
x

( )

( )

485

( )

1 4
x + o x4
1
= 12 p
= O p 4 .
x
x
, x +0
1
.
, p 4 ,
x

3- 2- ,
p 4 < 1 , .. p < 5 , .

a 0 , n > 0 . . f ( x ) = cos(ax ) [0, A] , A > 0 , A > 0 13. . ) 1)

2
:
a

2a

cos(ax )dx cos axdx =


0

g (x ) =

2
.
a

x + . , , ,
.
2)
+

a = 0 ,

1
0 , . xp

x + g (x ) =

, , .
) t = x ,
2

+ : cos(x 2 )dx =
0

x = t , dx =

2 t

x 0
0

1 cos t
dt .
2 0 t

A 0 [0, A]

f (t ) = cos t :

dt

cos tdt

= sin A sin 0 1 ,

g (t ) =

1
t

0 t + , , , -

.
+

) ,

dx 3- ,

dx

1+ x

p > 0

2a

1
0
1+ xn

sin xdx sin xdx = 2 .

.., ..

486

n > 0 x = + .

1
1
= O n , 3-
n
1+ x
x
, n > 1 .
3) , n = 0 ,
+
cos(ax ), x > 0;
1
f ( x )dx , f ( x ) =
.

2 0
1, x = 0;

f ( x ) = sin x [0, A] , A > 0 , A > 0


) .

2:

x + 0
:
2
2
x
1
arccos 2 x 1 . , ,
x

arccos

.
14. : . 1 4.3.
15. . ) ,
( A > 0
):
+

sin x
sin x
0 x dx = 0 x dx +

sin x
dx = I 1 + I 2 .
x
A

I1 I 2 .

487

sin x
(0, A] , x
I 1 ( x = 0 1)

, 1,
0, A ).

2) I 2 (. 13() ).
.
+

sin x
sin x
dx = p dx +
) :
p
0 x
0 x
1)

x +0 : sin x ~ x ,

sin x
A x p dx = I1 + I 2 .

sin x
1
= O p 1 , 3-
p
x
x

I 1 ( )
p 1 < 1 , .. p < 2 , p .
2) x + . p > 0 I 2 (. 13() ). p 0 I 2 -

(. 14 ).
, 0 < p < 2 , .
16. . ) 1- .
, :
x = 1 (2- ) x = + (1- ).

dx
dx
1 x p ln q x = 1 x p ln q x +

dx
A x p ln q x = I1 + I 2

.
1) I 2 (
) 2- .
, p > 1 I 2 .
x +

f (x ) =
+

1
1
g ( x ) = k , k > 1 (
q
x ln x
x
p

g (x )dx ).
A

.., ..

488

1 (x p ln q x )
f (x )
ln q x
= lim
= lim p k .
x + g ( x )
x + x
x +
1 k
x
, p k > 0 , .. p > k , q
p k

0 ( x
x + ).
, p > k > 1 , .. p > 1 , 2- , lim

dx
.
ln q x

, p < 1

I 2 .
1
1
x + p q
g ( x ) = k ,
x ln x
x

k 1 (

g (x )dx

).

f (x )
ln q x
= lim p k .
x + g ( x )
x + x
p k < 0 , .. p < k , q + . 2lim

g (x )dx -

I2.

p = 1 , q > 1 ,
+

dx
I2 =
=
q
A x ln x
p = 1 , q = 1 ,
+

dx
A x ln x =
p = 1 , q < 1

I2 =

d ln x ln 1 q x
A ln q x = 1 q

.
A

d ln x
+
= ln ln x A .
ln x
A

ln 1 q x
dx
I2 =
=
q
1 q
A x ln x

.
A

489

x +1 : ln x = ln(1 + ( x 1)) ~ x 1 ,
1
1
. 3- (
= O
p
q
q
x ln x
( x 1)
p ) , q < 1 .
, , p > 1 q < 1 (
2)

).
2- .

t = ln x , x = e t ,

dx = e t dt
+

dx
1 x p ln q x =

e (1 p )t
e (1 p )t
dt
=
0 t q
0 t q dt +

e (1 p )t
A t q dt = I1 + I 2 .

e (1 p )t
1
= O q , , I 1
q
t
t
3- q < 1 ( p R ) q 1 .
(1 p )t
,
2) t + p > 1 e
1
k , k > 1 . , 2- , t
+
dt
k I 2 .
At
(1 p )t
, t + p < 1 e
1
k , k 1 . , 2- ,
t
+
dt
k I 2 .
At
1)

t +0 :

e (1 p )t
dt
t + p = 1
tq
0
+

dt

, -

, .
: , p > 1 q < 1 ( ).

.., ..

490

) : x = 0 x = + . , ,
:

ln(1 + x )
ln(1 + x )
I=
dx =
dx +
n
x
xn
0
0
+

ln (1 + x )
dx = I 1+ I 2 .
xn
A

I1 I 2 .
x +0 :

I ,
1)

ln(1 + x ) ~ x ,

I 1 .

ln (1 + x )
1
= O n 1 .
n
x
x
3- , I 1 , n 1 < 1 , .. n < 2 .
2) I 2 . x +
( )

ln (1 + x )
1
g (x ) = k .
n
x
x
, n I 2 .
f (x ) =

k , 1 (

g (x )dx

).

ln(1 + x ) x n
f (x )
ln (1 + x )
lim
= lim
= lim
.
k
x + g ( x )
x

+
x +
x nk
1x

2- , 0,

I2

n k > 0 , .. n > k , nk

( x
x + ).
, n > k > 1 , .. n > 1 , I 2 .
I 2 n 1 .
1
x + f ( x ) g (x ) = k ,
x

. ,

k 1 (

491

.., ..

492

g (x )dx ).

17. . )

xn

1
= O n ,
x
1 x4

x +0 :

f (x )
ln (1 + x )
= lim
.
x + g ( x )
x +
x nk
, n k 0 , .. n k ( 1) , .. n 1 ,
+ . 2- ,
lim

g (x )dx I

2.

: 1 < n < 2 , .
) , x = 1 (.. ):

(ln x ) = lim 1 x = 1 .
ln x
lim
=
x10 2 x
x 1 0
x 1 0 1 x 2
2
1 x2
x +0 . lim

ln x (1 x 2 )
1
ln x
= lim
lim k .
k
2
x +0 x
x +0
x +0 1 x
1x
lim

k > 0

, :

xk
1x
ln x
=
lim
=0.
lim
=
x +0 x k
x +0 kx k 1
x +0 k
, x = 0 1
, k ,
x
k < 1 . 2- ,
1
dx
k (0 < k < 1) 0 x
lim

, 3- , ,
n < 1 , .. n > 1 .

1 x 4 = 1 x (1 + x )(1 + x 2 ) ~ 1 x . -

x 1 0 :

, 1 2 < 1 ,

x = 1 ( n ).
, n > 1 .

1
= O
(1 x ) 12
1 x4

xn

) :

( p ) =

p 1 x
p 1 x
x e dx = x e dx +


1)

x +0 : e

e dx = I 1 + I 2 ( A > 0) .

p 1 x

I1 I 2 .

f ( x ) = x p 1e x =

1
= O 1 p . 3- 2-
x
I 1 , 1 p < 1 , .. p > 0 (
p ).
2) 1- I 2
2- .
x +

f (x ) g (x ) =

1
, k > 1 (
xk

g (x )dx ).
A

lim

x +

f (x )
x p 1e x
ex
= lim
= lim p k +1 = 0
x + x
g ( x ) x + 1 k
x

p , . 2- ,
+

g (x )dx
A

493

( p ) , ( )
I 1 I 2 , .. p > 0 .
,

) , : x = 0 x = + .

( A > 0) :

I=
1)

x m arctgx
0 2 + x n dx =

x m arctgx
0 2 + x n dx +

x m arctgx
A 2 + x n dx = I1 + I 2 .

x +0 : arctgx ~ x ,

3-

m 1 < 1 , .. m > 2 .
2)

x3
x2
3
2
+ o x 3

x
o
x
o
x

+
sin x

3!
1 (cos x )

2
=
=
p
p
x
x
1 3
x + o x3
1
= 2
= O p 3 .
p
x
x
, p 3 < 1 , ..
p < 4.

( )

p 1 x
x e dx .

.., ..

494

x m arctgx
1
= O m 1 ,
n
2 +x
x

I 1 ,

x + : arctgx ~

2 + x n ~ x n ,

x arctgx
1
= O n m . , 3- I 2
n
2 +x
x

, n m > 1 .
, , I 1 I 2 , .. 2 < m < n 1 ( ).
) x
x +0 :

1 e sin x ln (cos x )
1 (cos x )
=
=
xp
xp
1 (1 + sin x ln (cos x ) + o(sin x ln (cos x )))
.
=
xp
1
1
2
2
ln (cos x ) = ln (cos x ) = ln (1 sin x ) , x +0
2
2
1
1
ln(cos x ) ~ sin 2 x ~ x 2 ,
2
2
3
3
: o(sin x ln(cos x )) = o sin x = o x . ,
sin x

) ( )

( )

( )

( )

) , , : x = 0 , x = 1
x = + . .
1) x +0 :

1
x x 1 = O .
x
1

.
2) x 1 : x x 1 = O
x 1

3) x + : x x 1 = O .
x

3- , , : < 1 ,
< 1, > 1 .
,
18. .
+

f x x dx =

> 1 , > 1 , + < 1 .

f x dx +
x

f x x dx = I

+ I2 .

t = x

1
.
x

t + t2 + 4
t t2 + 4
x > 0 ( I 1 ) x =
x < 0
2
2
( I 2 ). ,
x=

495

.., ..

496

+
+

1
t
1
t

dt .

I 1 = f (t )1 +
, I 2 = f (t )1
dt

2
2
2
2
t +4
t +4

f (t ) 1 +
dt , f (t )dt (

t2 + 4

). , I 1 I 2 ,

I1 + I 2 =

I =
0

cos x
cos x
0 x p dx = 0 x p dx +

( B A

cos xdx =
A

.
2) ( 0 < p < 1 ).

I=

cos x
dx =
xp

cos x
xp

dx -

x = ln t , dx =

dt

t

ln 2 t
1 t cos tdt .

1) t = + . t +
A

ln 2 t
0
( A 1 cos tdt = sin A sin 1 2 ,
t
1

I 1 . I 2 .

) t = e ,

x + ). p 0 I 2 (
). I 0 < p < 1 -

dx = I1 + I 2 .

, I 2 , ,
.
, 0 < p < 1 , p 0 p 1
.

cos x
dx = I 1 + I 2 .
p
x
A

1
0
xp

xp

( ). -

sin B sin A 2 ,

+
+
+
cos x
dx 1 cos 2 x
cos 2 x
+
dx
=
dx

A x p 2 A x p
A x p
A x p dx .
p < 1 J 1 ( 3- ), J 2

cos x
1
x +0 :
= O p , , 3- ,
p
x
x
I 1 ( ) p < 1
p 1.
x + . p > 0 I 2

cos x

1 + cos 2 x
= cos 2 x cos x 1 , I 2
2

1
1
1
J1 + J 2 =
2
2
2

I=

xp

dx +

f ( x )dx .

19. : .
20. : .
21. : .
22. : .
23. : .
24. : .
25. : n .
26. : () n > 1 , n 1 .
27. : n . 28. : .
29. . ) 1) .

cos x

t + .

ln t (2 ln t )
< 0 t ).
t2

ln 2 t
=

2) .
+

ln 2 t

cos t dt .
t
1
2
1 ln 2 t 1
ln 2 t
ln 2 t
2 ln t
+ cos 2t
= cos t
cos t
,
t
t
2 t
2
t

1
2

ln 2 tdt 1
ln 2 t
+
cos
2
t
dt
1 t
2 1
t

ln 2 t 1
> t > e ,

t
t
+

cos 2t
1

497
+

ln 2 t
1 t cos t dt .

ln 2 t
1 t dt ( + ),

.., ..

498

,
.

ln t
dt ,
t

I 2 :
+

) :
+

x p sin x
0 1 + x q dx =

x p sin x
0 1 + x q dx +

x p sin x
A 1 + x q dx = I1 + I 2 .

1) .

x +0 : sin x ~ x , 1 + x q ~1,
x p sin x
1
= O p 1 ,
q
1+ x
x

, 3- , I 1 ( ) p 1 < 1 , .. p > 2 , p 1 1 , ..
p 2 .
xp
x + p < q
0 , , 1+ xq
I 2 ( p q I 2

).
I 2 < p < q ( ).
2) (
p, q , , .. 2 < p < q ).
+

I =

x p sin x
dx =
1+ xq

x p sin x
1+ x

dx

:
A

I =

x sin x
1+ x

dx +

x sin x
1+ xq

dx = I1 + I 2 .

x +

x p cos 2 x
A 1 + x q dx =

x p sin 2 x
xp

I
dx

2
A 1 + x q
A 1 + x q dx = J1 .

xp
1
= O q p , , q p > 1 q
1+ x
x

J 1 ( 3- ), ,
I 2 (.. I 2 ). ,
q p 1 J 1 , J 2 (

). ,

I 2 , , . ,
q p 1 I 2 .
, 2 < p < q 1 ,
2 < p < q p + 1 (

).
) 1) . t = x :
2

cos(x 2 )
I=
dx =
ln x
1
+

cos t

dt .
ln t 2 t
: t = 1 t = + . 1

:
+

cos t
ln t 2 t

dt =

cos t
ln t 2 t

dt +

cos t
ln t 2 t

dt = I 1 + I 2 .

1
1
1
= O
, p = < 1 ,
t 1+ 0 f (t ) = O
2
ln t
t 1
I 1 () 3- .

1 cos 2 x
= sin 2 x sin x 1 ,
2

1
1
1 x p dx 1

J1 + J 2 =
2
2
2 A 1 + x q 2

, , .
: .

I=

I 2 .

I1

499

t + .

cos tdt

A 1

ln t 2 t

0 , I 2 . ,

I , , .
2) .

I =

cos t

dt =

ln t t

ln t t

dt

ln t t

1
2

cos t
ln t t

dt = I 1 + I 2 .

I 2 :

dt +

I 1 . -

1
2

cos t

dt
ln t t

cos 2t

ln t t
cos t
dt .
ln t t

cos 2t
ln t t

dt
t t

dt =

cos 2 t
ln t t

dt

cos(1 x )
1
cos t
dx = 2 p dt .
: I =
p
x
x
1 t
0

1
dt
I1 + I 2 = ( 2 p +
2 1t

1
t 2 p

cos t

2 p

dt :

1
+

cos 2t
1 t 2 p dt ) =

cos 2 t
1 t 2 p dt I

dt
2 p

= I1 .

I . I I 1 ,
I 1 I , .. I . I 1
2 p > 1 , .. p < 1 ( 3- ),
p .
, I 1 + I 2 .
I 1 + I 2 I , I 1 + I 2 I , .. I , , ,
I . 1 p < 2 I 1
, I 2 ( ), ,

1 p < 2 ;
p 2 .
) t =

0 , -

1
: I =
1 x

cos t
dt .
p 2 (1 p )
t

(2t 1)
1

: t = + .
1) .

+ .
1) .
t +

cos xdx 2 A 1 , 2 p > 0

I =

: p < 1 ;

, . -

30. . ) t =

I p < 2 .

. , , p 2 I .

2) .

dt ( ),

, .
: .

.., ..

500

(2t 1) p t 2(1 p )

t +
1
= O 2 p .
t

cos tdt
1

2 A 1 , 2 p > 0

1
t

2 p

0 ,

I p < 2 (

p 2 ).
2) .

501

cos 2t
cos 2 t
dt
=
1 (2t 1) p t 2(1 p ) 1 (2t 1) p t 2(1 p ) dt
+
+
cos t
dt

dt
= I1 .
p 2 (1 p )
p 2 (1 p )
1 (2t 1) t
1 (2t 1) t
I 1 p < 1 , p
I . , p 1 I 1 1
1
I1 +
2
2

cos 2t
,
dt ( ),
p 2 (1 p )
(
)
2

1
t
t
1
, , I .
: p < 1 ;
1 p < 2 ;
p 2 .
) : x = 0 x = + .
I=

sin x arctg q x
p
2

dx =

1+ x
sin x arctg q x

sin x arctg q x
1+ x

p
2

1+ x

p
2

0 , I 2 ( -

I 2 ).

, p > 0 , q > 2 I , , ; .
2) ( p > 0 ,

q > 2 ).

I =

sin x arctg q x
1+ x

p
2

sin x arctg q x

dx =

p
2

dx +

1+ x
= I1 + I 2 .

sin x arctg q x
1+ x

p
2

dx =

I 1 p q .
I 2 :

1
1
J1
2
2

dx +

cos 2 x arctg q x
1+ x

p
2

dx =

sin 2 x arctg q x

arctg x
p
2

1+ x

p
2

dx I 2

dx = J 1 .

1+ x

p
arctg q x
1
x +
, ,
> 1
O
=
p
p

2
1+ x 2
x2

dx = I 1 + I 2 .

x 0 + 0
sin x arctg x
1
= O (q +1) ,
p
x

1+ x 2
, 3- , I 1 ( ) (q + 1) < 1 , .. q > 2 p ( q 2
p ).
x + .

B
arctg q x
1

sin
xdx

2
=
O
A
p
p ,
1+ x 2
x2

p
2

, p 0

p > 0

:
+

.., ..

502

1) .
q

J 1 ( 3- ), , I 2 (.. I 2 ). ,
0<

p
1 J 1 ,
2

cos 2 x arctg q x
1+ x

p
2

dx -

( ). ,
. , 0 <
.

I 2 , ,

p
1 I 2 2

: p > 2 , q > 2 ;

503

0 < p 2 , q > 2 ;
p 0 q 2 .
)

t = x + x2 ,

x2 + x t = 0 ,

x1, 2 =

dt
1 1 + 4t
1 + 4t 1
. x > 0 , x =
, dx =

2
2
1 + 4t
+
sin tdt
I=
.
p
0 1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

t = 0 t = + . :
+
sin tdt
sin tdt
I=
+
= I1 + I 2 .
p
p
0 1 + 4t 1
A 1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

1 + 4t

2
2

1) . t 0 + 0 : sin t ~ t ,
1 + 4t ~ 1 + 2t ,
sin t
1
= O p 1 .
p
t
1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

, 3- , I 1 (
) p 1 < 1 , .. p < 2 , p 2 .
t + .

B
1
1
= O p +1 ,
p
A sin tdt 2 B A
2
1 + 4t 1
t

1 + 4t

p +1
1

> 0 , .. p > 1 , p +1 0 , I 2
2
t 2
p +1
( ,
0 , ..
2
p 1 , I 2 ).
:
A

.., ..

504

, I 1 < p < 2
; .
2) ( 1 < p < 2 ).

I =

sin t dt

1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

sin t dt

1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

sin t dt

= I1 + I 2 .
p
1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

I 1 p . +

1
1
J1
2
2

I 2 :
+

cos 2tdt

1 + 4t 1

1 + 4t

t +

1 + 4t 1

dt
1 + 4t 1

1
p

sin 2 tdt

I2

1 + 4t

= J1 .

1 + 4t

1
= O p +1
2
t
1 + 4t

1 + 4t 1

p +1
,
> 1 , .. 1 < p < 2 , J 1 ( 3-
2
), , I 2 (..
p +1
I 2 ). ,
1 , .. 1 < p 1 ,
2

J 1 ,

cos 2tdt

1 + 4t 1

506

1
2

1 + 4t

( ).

I 2 , , . , 1 < p 1 I 2 .
: 1 < p < 2 ;
1 < p 1 ;
p .
31. . ) x = 0 . x +0
1
1
1
e x = 1 x + o( x ) ,
= O 2 . =
3
x(e x e x ) 3 x(2 x + o( x ))
x 3
2 3 < 1 , , 3- , , -

.
)

x = + . :
+

= +
0

.., ..

505

x dx
1
1 x + 100 + 2

100 x

< 0 x > 100 ).

2 x (x + 100)
B 1 . .
2

cos xdx 2
1

, .
+

2)

x cos x
dx :
x + 100

x cos 2 x
dx
x + 100

x cos x
x + 100

dx .

1
x
= O 1
x + 100
x 2

. , +

x cos x
x + 100

dx , ,

x cos x
dx .
x + 100
, .
)

dt
t t 2 1

t = sec x =

1
,
cos x

1
cos x = ,
t

1
x = arccos ,
t

. :

sin(sec x )dx =

x +

( , ).

x cos x
1)
dx . x +
x
+
100
1

x
x
=

0 (

x + 100
x + 100

x cos 2 x
dx =
x + 100

, , 3- ,

+
+
x dx
x cos 2 x
.

dx
x + 100
x + 100
1
1

dx =

t
1

sin tdt
t 2 1

t = 1 t = + . :
A
+
sin tdt
sin tdt
+
= I1 + I 2 .
I=
2
2
1 t t 1
A t t 1
t 1 + 0 :
1
sin t
.
= O
1
2

t t 1
(t 1) 2
, 3- , I 1 (
:

).

t +

sin t
t t 1
2

1
t t 1
2

507

1
2
t

= O

( 1- ). , .

Pn ( x ) > 0 x a 0 ,

x = + .

1) .

Pm ( x )
1
= O n m ,
Pn ( x )
x

1
x

n m

x +

0 n m > 0 , , ,

n m 0 ).

2) .

1
1
J1
2
2

Pm (x )

Pm (x )

P (x ) cos 2 xdx = P (x ) sin


a

Pm (x )

Pm (x )

P (x ) dx = J
a

xdx

Pm ( x )

P (x )
a

sin x dx

1,

1
= O n m , Pn (x )
x

, n m > 1 , .. n > m + 1 .
+
P (x )
cos 2 xdx
m < n m + 1 J 1 , m
Pn ( x )
a

x +

( ), .
: n > m + 1 ;
m < n m + 1
( ).

.., ..

508

5.
1. 4,5 ..
5. 2

2. 18 ..

10
..
e2

4. 1 3 + 2

3. 2 2a ..

1
3
..
ln
+
3
2

6. 1 .. 7. a

..

8. 46 15 ..

4
3 3

9. a 2 + ln 2 .. 10. 2 1 ..
11. (e 4 ) ..

12. 2 15 ..
13. (41 2 ) arcsin (9 41) + 20 ln 0,8 ..
2

14. (9 4 )

16. 4a

2 + 4 2 ln 2 (9 2 ) arcsin(1 3) ..

23. 43 12 ..

35.
38.
42.

a 2

4a 2
..
3

(16 9 3 ) ..
3

3 + 3 2 ..
2
48. a / 4 ..

43.

(3 2)a

3 3 2
a ..
2

a 2 210 ..
3

3 ..

44. (3 8) / 32 ..

..

46. a / 4 ..
2

34. 1 / 12 ..

37.

47. a / 4 ..

49. 3 a

3)(4 3 + 3 ) ..

40. 11 .. 41. 16

a 2 6 0 .. 39. a 2 10 ..
3 ..

30. a

a 2 6 ..

36.

72 3 5 ..

27.

29. 169 ..

a 2

45.

26. 8 / 3 ..

6a 2 .. 32. 8a 2 / 3 .. 33.

50. 9a / 2 ..
2

2 ..

a
a
2
(4 ) ..
(4 ) ..
52. a ..
53.
8
2
2
2
2
54. 19a / 8 .. 55. (1 + 6 ) .. 56. a 6 + 6 3 3 ..
51.

)(

60. 2

, 2+

a 2 5 + 18 3
..
32

58.

a 2 / 2

59.

37
5 3 ..
6
62. a /
2

2 ..
2
2
2
2
2
2
63. a 2 ( 2 ) .. 64. a 3 + a 3 2 .. 65. 7a / 512 ..

66.

..

61.

a / 8

.. 67.

70. a 1
2

4a 2 / 3 .. 69. a 2 / 2 ..
3
2
2
71. 3a ..
72. a 2 ..
8

2a 2

2 2 ..

4. 10a .

a ln tg

14. 2ach

3 / 3 .

2 ( 1) .

5.

9. a cos t 0 + a ln

.. 68.

) )

1. (5a 8) 2 ln 2

11.

..

..

1
21. a
ln 2 + 3 .. 22. 7 12 ..
3

2
a 2 2a 2
24. 6
.. 25. S1 = S 2 =

..,

4
3

2
28. 27 / 5 ..

31.

3 .. 17. 8 15 .. 18. 8a 5 .. 19. 2 ln 1 + 2 ..

20. a 10 ..

S3 =

15.

57. a / 4 ..

509

6.
2. 2a 5
6. 5 .

a.

8. 2

+ a ln 2 + 5 .

7. 2

cos t 0 1
, x(t 0 ) = x0 , y (t 0 ) = y 0 .
cos t 0 + 1

3. 12.

2 1 .

10. 3a 2 .

t0
32
, x(t 0 ) = x 0 , y (t 0 ) = y 0 . 12. 1 3 . 13. (ch 2a 1) / 2 .
2

t 0 3acht 0 + a , x(t 0 ) = x0 , y (t 0 ) = y 0 . 15.

a2 + c2 t .

16. 27 3 2 6 / 21 .
17.

4e 4 + h 2 h
2 .
h 2 + 4 + h ln
2

4 + h h

h 2 + 4e 4

19. 8 10 10

1 / 27 .

20.

1 + e 2 a 2 + a ln

18. 10a .

1 + 1 + e 2a

1+ 2
21. 27 20 + ln 2 . 22. (1 2 ) ln 3 . 23. ln (tg ( 4 + a 2 )) . 24. (1 2 ) ln 3 .
a+b
25. ln 2 + 3 . 26. ln 3 1 2 . 27. a ln
b . 28. ln e + e 2 1 .
ab
a
29. 2 2 / 3 .
30. 4 2 / 3 .
31. 2. 32. (20 9 ) 5 3 .
33. a ln .
b

) (

34. 7 a / 6 . 35. 14a / 3 . 36.

1 + e 2 + e 2 + 2 ln 1 + 2 + ln 1 + e 2 1 .

37.

32

2 + ln 1 + 2 + 2(10

1) / 27 .

38. 7 3 .

39. 1.

40. 1.

.., ..

510

511

).
(
42. a 1 + 4 + (a 2 ) ln (2 + 1 + 4 ) .
43. (( + 4 ) + 4 8)/ 3 . 44. a . 45. 8.

46.

a 2 + 3 3 / 8 .

Oy (, ). ,

47. 3a 2 .

50.

2 + ln 1 + 2

S . -

41.

a 1 + 4 2 + (a 2) ln 2 + 1 + 4 2
2

( tg

: V

49. a (2 th ) .

48. 16a 3 .

1 6 + 37
3
= 2 + 1 ). 51. 6 13 . 52. 14 3 . 53. 3 37 5 + ln
.
2
8
2+ 5

54. a .

55. 2a 1

2 2.

0 = (t 0 ) , r0 = r (t 0 ) . 57.
58. 28a / 3 .

59. 4a 1 +

56.

sin t 0
1

t
+ ln tg 0 + ,
a
2
2 4
2 cos 0 2

a 3 + b3
a 2b 2
+
a2 + b2
a2 + b2

3 ln( 1 + 3

23

ln

(
a( a

).
a)

b a2 + b2 + b

+b 2

2 ) . 60. 2 2 5 3 2 2 3 2 / 9 .

(B(a + 2 A) + b( A + 2a )) (.).

2. . S ( y ) ,

H
= R 2 ( ) a
H
H
H 2
:
= S , a =
. , y =
x , a
S
S
Sy
2
x =
. H
( x y ),
Sy
.
y : S ( y ) =
H

R ,

:
H

S
V = S ( y )dy =
H
0

7.
1. . ,
x .

Aa
Bb
x z 2 (x ) = b +
x .
h
h
Aa
Bb

S ( x ) = a +
x b +
x =
h
h

( A a )(B b ) x 2 .
aB 2ab + bA

x+
= ab +

h
h2

z1 ( x ) = a +

V =

S (x )dx =
0

aB 2ab + bA
AB Ab aB + ab 2

= ab +
x+
x dx =
h
h2

0
h
(B(a + 2 A) + b( A + 2a )) .
=
6

ydy =
0

SH
2

(.).

3. . , Oz ,
a z , , S ( z ) = az .

a

V = S ( z )dz = a zdz =

a 3
2

(.).

4. . .
z = 1 x y .
, Oz ,

S (z ) =

(1 z )

1 z2 ,

2 2

2
1

V = S ( z )dz =
0

5. 4R

3 (. ).

4
1
(.).
(
1 2 z 2 + z 4 )dz =

15
20
6. 72 (. ).

7. 2a h 3 (. ).
2

.., ..

512

8. R h 2 (. ).
9. . (1):
2

VOX = y ( x )dx =
2

b 2

a3

4
3

x dx =
0

3b 2
4

7 a
3

7a 3

3ab 2
(.).
7

10. . )

VOX = y 2 ( x )dx = sin 2 xdx =

(1 cos 2 x )dx = (.).


2

12. . ) VOX =

(.).
+

) VOY

2
2 x
y (x )dx = e dx =
0

= 2 xy( x )dx = 2 xe x dx = 2 xe x

0
0

+
0

e 2 x

+
0

+ e x dx = 2
0

(.). 13. 2 (.). 14. ) (3 ln 3 6 ln 3 + 4) (.). ;


) (9 ln 3 8) (. ). 15. 2 (. ). 16. 64 15 (. ).
2
17. 0,3 (. ). 18. 19,2 (. ). 19. (e + 1) 4 (. ).
3
20. 4 35 (. ).
21. p (. ).
22. ) 8 15 (. ). ;
2

) 16 105 (. ).

(.).

25. )

1 2

sh x + 1 (. ).
2

23. a
3

(2 + ) (.). ;

34. 4 15 (. ).

+ 4 (. ). ; ) 4 (. ). ; ) 2 2 + 4 (. ).
2
2

2
2
11. ) 3 2 (. ). ; ) 2 (. ).

32. . VOX

= 12 (. ). 33. 4 15

35. 32a 105 (. ).


3

36. . , Ox , a (0; b ) . -

= 2 x cos x 0 + cos xdx = 2 2 (. ).


0

16
16
= 2 dx =
x
1 x
4

(.).

) VOY = 2 xy ( x )dx = 2 x sin xdx =

3 2
(.). 26. 16 (5 + 8) 5 (.). 27. ) 56 15
)

4
2
(.). ; ) 8 3 (.). ; ) 8 2 15 (.). 28. 32 (.).
3 7 1
29.
31. (. ).
2 7 (. ). 30. 4 (. ).
7
3

513

24. a h 2
2

ln 2 (. ). ;

y = b )

y = b + a 2 x 2 , , ,
y = b a 2 x 2 .
a

VOX = ( y (x ) y
2

(x ))dx = 8b
0

a 2 x 2 dx .

x = a sin t , t 0, 2 ,
2

VOX = 8a b cos tdt = 2 a b (. ).

y3
y2
= a 1 + 2 dy = a 2 y + 2
3b

b
2b
28
= a 2 b (. ).
3
2b

37. . VOY

2b

=
2b

38. .
b

4
y3
y2
VOY = a 1 2 dy = a 2 y 2 = a 2 b (. ).
3b b 3

b
b
4 3
. a = b = R V = R .
3
b

.., ..

514

39. .

y = R x , R x R , Ox .
2

VOX =

(R

x 2 dx = R 2 x

R
R

3 R

VOX =
41.

x dx =
2

h2

R 2 x 3

3h 2

4
= R 3 (. ).
3

R 2 h
3

50. . ) , t 0

40. . , (0;0 ) , (h;0 ) (h; R ) Ox .

R 2

(.).

(d +

R x
2

) dx (d
R

R x
2

) dx = 4d
2

) (

VOX = 2 y 2 (t )dx(t ) = 2 b cos 3 t d a sin 3 t =

= 6ab 2 cos 7 t cos 9 t dt =

R x dx =
2

32ab 2
(.).
105

(a sin t )(b cos t )d (a sin t ) = 124a b sin

= 4dR 2 cos 2 tdt = 2 2 dR 2 .

: VOX = 2 dR
2

(.).

) VOY = 4

t cos 4 tdt =

a2 b2
2
(.) ;
a 2 b 2 (2a 2 + b 2 ) 2a 2 b arcsin
a
3
2
b
(.).
a 2 b 2 2a 2 + b 2 + 2 a 2 b + 2a 2 b arcsin
3
a
16
a 2 H
(.). ; ) 8 aH 2 (.).
44. )
aH 2 (. ). ; )
2
15
5
2
2
2
2a h 3b h
(.).
45.
3b 2
a 3
5
3
( 2) (.). ;
46. )
) a 2 (. ).
2
6 4
4
2
47. ab (. ).
48. 8 (. ).
49. 6 7 (. ).
3
43.

42. 2 a b (. ).

2
2 2

. ,
( 5 3.3), Ox
:

2
x 0 a , y , , b 0.
, t 0 2
(0; b )

y = d R x Ox . VOX
2

515

= 124a 2 b sin 5 t 2 sin 7 t + sin 9 t dt =


0

32a 2 b
(.).
105

2 3
3 a
(.). 52. ) 16 a 3 (.). ; ) a (.). ;
4
2
15
16 3
16 3
2 3
)
a (. ). ; ) a (. ).
53. ) a (. ). ;
3
3
2
4
2 3
3
) 2a
54. ) 4 a
(. ). ; ) 3 2 a 3 (. ).
4 3
2

51.

(.). ; ) 128 a 3 (.). 55. )


15

3
27a 3
(.). ; ) 118 3a
32
35

22 3a 3
3
(.).
56. 236a 35 (. ).
7
3
3
3
6
57. 4a 21 (. ). 58. 64a 105 (. ). 59. 2a e + 1 111

(.). ;

.., ..

516

(.).

60. . VOP

2
=
3

(a )

7.

sin d =

3 cos + 3 2 cos d =

0
0

2a 3
+ 3 2 sin 0 2 sin d =
=

3
0

2a 3 3

6 cos 0 + cos d =
=

3
0

2
2 2 a 3 2
=
6 . : VOP = 2 a 3 2 6 (. ).
3
3
61. . P S .
4 3
r P Tr , V (r ) r .
3
P S d .
Tr r + d P ,

4
4
V (r ) 4
d
3
V (r ) (r + d ) 3 1 + ,
3
3
3
r
r
V (r ) 4
lim
= .
r + r 3
3
3

(e 2 e 2 + 4) (. ).

2.

)(

4. 10 3 (. ).

6.

64
3

(.).

(.).

) (.).

1
+ (. ).
2 3

8. 16a
2

2a 2 2
2
5 1 (. ).
(. ). 10.

3
2

11.

128a 2
5

x1 , y1

x+ y
x = x1 cos y1 sin , y = y1 cos + x1 sin , x1 =
,
4
4
4
4
2
yx
, , y1 =
2
a
x1 =
sin 3 t + cos 3 t ,
2
2
a
y1 =
(sin 3 t cos 3 t ) Ox1 . : 35a 4 2 1 (.).
2
12. :

13. ) 3a ; )
2

arcsin

28a 2 3
(.). 14. ) 10 a 2 ; ) 1240 5a 2
5
3
63 3
816
2
2
15. ) 6a ; )
2a 2 (. ).
16. 2b +
35

a2 b2
.
a

17. 2a +

a
ln (1 + ) (. ) , =

a2 b2
.
a

18. a

+ 2ab

2
2
61
(.). 3. 2 ln b 2 + 1 + b 2 +
1728
a + 1+ a

1
1
+ 2 1 + 2 1 + 2 (. ).
a
b

1+ 2 5 1
(. ).
5. 5 2 + ln

2
9. 2a 1

(.).

8.
1.

2a 3
=
3

2 2
e 2
5

517

(.) ,

2b 2

3 (. ).

8
+ 4 3

3
4
4
4
2

(.). ; ) 4a 2 (.). 22. ) 2 a 2 + 4b 4 ln a b2 + a


b
a b

4
4
4

(.) ; ) 2 b 2 + 4a 4 arcsin a 2 b (.).


a
a b

19.

4 2 ab (. ).

20. 14 3 (. ).

21. ) a
2

.., ..

518

9.
2. 2 0 l

1. 150.

e +e
2

+ 10 24

I a = ah 12 .
3

8. I x = ab

3. M x = a

4. p

)(

(e

+ 4 8 , Ix = a e e
3

))

2 + 5 ln 1 + 2 .

6. I x = 1628 105 .

5. M a = ah

7. I x = ab 12 ,
3

)
6,

I y = a b 12 .
3

M
. ,
R 2
R
M 2 2
MR 2 2
M 2 3
r d . K =
dK =
.
r dr =
4
2R 2
R 2 0
,

4 , I y = a b 4 . 9. 3RM 16 . 10. xc = (a sin ) , y c = 0 .

); xc = 0 , y c = 4r (3 ) ( ). 13.

14. x c = 1 , y c = 8 .
17. x c = 1 , y c = 2 5 .

11.

( xc = ( 2) 2 , y c = 8 .

15. x c = 0 , y c = 8 5 .
18. 4

16. x c = y c = 2a 5 .

1. .

(..) 19. V = r (3 4 ) 3 (..)

f ( x)d ( x) :

f ( x)d ( x) = f (0)( (0 + 0) (0 0)) = f (0) 1 = f (0) .

3 . 2
V = r 4 (2y c ) , y c = 4r (3 ) .

2. . x

, .. 1- ,
xc = y c . 22. V = 480 (..).
23.

H
( AB + ab + ( A + a )(B + b )) (..) 24. 4R 3 3 .. 25. 25 .
6
3
2
2
4
26. 2a 3 . 27. gah 3 . 28. v 0 t gt 2 . 29. 1400 . 30. S = 10 ( ) .
31. 36 . 32. x = e .
10

33. v =

A a
ln
,
b a bt

bt1 (a bt1 ) ln a . 34. :


a bt

2
() dx , .. dF = R dx ,
A
h= 2
b

. ,

dA = R 2 (H x )dx , x . : A = R 2 H 2 2 .
2 2
35. A = gr h 4 . 36. .
mv 2 r 2 2
dK =
=
d , d , r
2
2

[1, 0)

, V = 2r

(x)

(0, 2] ,

20. : , . 21. : Ox

11. x c = 9a 20 , y c = 9a 20 . 12. x c = 0 , y c = 2r

519

[1, 0) (0,1] x = 0 ,

x2
=
(

)
+
=

xd
x
xd
x
xdx

0
2
1
1

x2
+
2
1

=
0

1 1
+ = 1.
2 2

3. . ,
:

x
x

( x + 2)d (e sgn(sin x)) = ( + 2)(e ) + ( x + 2)(e )dx + 4 +

+ ( x + 2)e x dx ( + 2)e = ( + 2)(e ) + 4 ( + 2)e


0

( x + 2) de + ( x + 2) de x = ( + 2)( e ) + 4 ( + 2)e +
x

+ ( + 2)e + ( + 2)e 4 + e x dx e x dx = 2 e e .
4. . :

( x 1)d (cos x sgn x) = 1 + ( x 1)d cos x =

.., ..

520

5. . g (x) ,
/2

0 sin xdg ( x) = 0 sin xdx 2 sin 2 + 2 2 sin + / 2sin xdx =

= sin xdx
0

= 2

1
1
. , j , 2
2
: h (V1 ; f ) = 1 , h (V2 ; f ) = 1 . ,
1

f ( x)dh( x) .
0

8.

f (x) g (x) [0,1] ,


1
V [0,1] , V < , 3

f ( x)dg ( x) 0

0.
7. .

0, x 1 / 2,
g ( x) 0 [0,1] ; f ( x) = h( x) =
1, x = 1 / 2.

f ( x)dg ( x) = 0 . ,

g ( x) 0 [0,1] ;

f ( x) 1 [0,1] ;

f (x) -

h(x ) [0,1] . , , -

1
> 0 T , x k =

2
T < .
V1 V2 , T ;
1
1
V1 : k = , k +1 , V2 :
2
2

f ( x)dg ( x) = 0 ; f ( x)dh( x) = 1 f (1) = 1 .

0 x 2 / 3,
0,
1
, 0 x < 1 / 3,

g ( x) = 1
f ( x) = x 1 / 3
x 2 / 3 , 2 / 3 < x 1.
0,
1 / 3 x 1,

g (V ; f ) = 0 , ,

0, x 1,
h( x ) =
, ,
1, x = 1.

6. .

521

k , k +1 =

= 1 ( 1) + 1 cos xdx = 1 .

0,
1,

9. . f ( x ) 1 [1,1] ; g ( x) =

1 x < 0,
0 x 1.

, , .

0,
f 0 ( x) =
1,

1 x < 0,

0 x 1

( x)dg ( x) .

, T [1,1] , 0 . V , T . g (V ; f 0 ) ,

f 0 ( k )( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )) = f 0 ( k ) ,
[ x k 1 , x k ] . , k
k < 0 k 0 , , g (V ) = 0

g (V ) = 1 . ,

.
10. . g (x ) -

y, z [0,1] ,
g ( y ) g ( z ) . > 0 . T = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n }
[0,1] , T < , y = xi , z = x j i, j

[0,1] ,

1 i < j n.

.., ..

522

523

V1 = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n ; 1 ;K; n } , V2 = {x0 ; x1 ;K; x n ;1 ;K; n }

, :

k = k

k > j ; k i < k j ; k
i < k j . g (V1 ; D ) = g ( z ) g ( y ) ; g (V2 ; D ) = 0 , ..

k i

g (V1 ; D) g (V2 ; D) = g ( z ) g ( y ) 0 .
> 0 , , [0,1] g (x) .
11. .

k =1

( ).

x [a,+ )

F ( x ) = f (u )du

g ( x ) , ,
x + .
,

I=

f (x )g (x )dx .
a

f (

k [ x k 1 , x k ]

T = {x0 , x1 ,K, x n } [a, b]

)( g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 ) sup f ( x) g ( x k ) g ( x k 1 )
a x b

k =1

sup f ( x) V ( g ) ,
a x b

b
a

.
12. .
g1 ( x) g 2 ( x) g (x) , -

T [a, b]
S g (T ) s g (T ) S g k (T ) s g k (T ) , k = 1, 2 , -

S g (T ) s g (T ) S g k (T ) s g k (T ) .
2 11.3 .

. , .
, .
, ,
.
,
:

.
, ,

, ,
.
2007

:
382
34
395
140
268
191,
192
:
382
55
142,
174
174
318

- 102, 184

111

370
190, 264
190, 264
157
70

- 184
82

( ) 130
198
267, 315
190, 264
190, 264

, 18
14
184
236

253, 259
238, 258
251, 255

89, 149
190, 372

374
376
:
379
14
390

35, 39, 145
:
381
14
390

320
192
231, 314
136
:
27
22
267
- 209
- 37

346
372
374
:
89, 149
99, 150, 397
:
, 25, 27, 375

( ) 16
( )
23
68
67, 383

65, 383
68
:
1- , 123
2- , 126
138

268
:
Ox 278, 299
Oy 289, 302
296,
305
190, 264
265, 320
- 190, 264

38
124, 126
190, 372

233
37
157
108, 144
231, 191
191
212, 225
207, 224
198, 217
320, 321
:
Ox 322, 338
Oy 330, 340
333, 340
168

525

165
169
154, 157, 162

235
:
60, 129
135

:
347
353
123, 126, 153
(
) 130, 132
371

265
378
154
351, 357
:
146
57, 62
398
162

28

38, 80,
147

103, 153
387

349, 355
266

,
183, 184
255

1. .., .., .. : . / . ..
. .: . ., 1999. 695.
2. .., .., ..
. 2 . .1. . .
, . ./ . .. 2- ., . .: . . 2000. 725.: .
3. .. : IXX .
. .: , 1983. 351., .
4. .. : ./ .: , 1998. 416.
5. .., .., .. . 2- . .1/ . . 5- ., .
.: . ., 1997. 304.
6. ./ .., .., .., .., . .: , 2005.416.
7. .. . /: , 1995. 489.
8. :
/ .., .. 2- ., . .:
, 2003. 208.: .
9. ..., ..., .. . . / . .. 2- ., .: - ,
1985. 662.
10. .., .. . .
. 2- .,
., , 2002. 208.
11. .., .. : . 7- ., . .: . . . .-.
., 1989. 656 .

527

12. . . / .
.. 3- . .: , 2000. 848.:
.
13. : . /
.., .., .., .. .
..4- ., ..: .-. -, 2001. 480.
14. .. : . .: , 1997. 384.
15. . 1./ ..,
.., .. . : , 1978. 696.
16. .. : (
): . . .: . . .. , ,
2007. 184.
17. .. .
II./.: , .. .-. -, 1969. 800., .
18. .. .
III./.: , .. .-. -, 1969. 656., .
19. .. .
I./.: , .. .-. -, 1962. 607., .



. ..
05899 24.09.01 .
119992, -2, , , . .. ,
2-

-

00510 01.12.99 .
17.07.2008 .
. 60x90 1/16. . . . 33,0. 750 . . 406.
119992, -2, , , . .. ,
2- , 627 .
. 939-3890, 939-3891. ./ 939-3891.

119991, -1, , .1, . 15
1674