Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 138
The ASNT PERSONNEL TRAINING| RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING STUDENT GUIDE Compiled for ASNT by Bahman Zoofan The Ohio State University ‘The American Society for Nondestructive ‘Testing, Inc. Published by The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 1711 Arlingate Lane Columbus, OH 43228-0518 Copyright © 2007 by The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc: All rights reserved. ASNT is not responsible for the authenticity or accuracy of information herein, and published opinions or statements do not necessarily teflect the opinion of ASNT. Products or services that are advertised or mentioned do not carry the endorsement or recommendation of ASNT. IRRSP, Materials Bvaluation®, NDT Handbook, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, The NDT Technician and are trademarks of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. ACCP, ASNT, Level IIT Study Guide, Research in Nondestructive Evaluation and RNDE ate registered trademarks of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. ASNT oxists to create a safer world by promoting the profession and technologies of nondestructive testing Edited by Ann Spence ISBN-13: 978-1-57117-160-3 Printed in the United States of America Second printing with revisions 11/09 Third printing 5/11 Nondestructive Testing Training Program Student Guide L, Introduction to the Radiographic Testing Student Guide ‘The materials in this training package are designed to provide basic knowledge of the fundamentals of radiographic testing. The taining program that you are participating in will contain the following classroom hours of instruction to present the information suggested in the ASNT publication Recommended Practice No. SNT: A. Level I training will include lectures on chapters 1 through 5, with an average of approximately oie hour per lesson, Level Il training will include lectures on all eight chapters with an average of approximately one hour per lesson, with emphasis on chapters 6 through 8. ‘The student shall assume the responsibility for reading all assignments, including the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book, additional reference materials associated with the Student Guide, attend all lectures, atid participate in classroom discussions. Short exams will be adm istered after cach lesson to provide the student with an indicator of their progress and to stimulate study. I. Contents of Training Package Your training package contains the following materials, with specific instructions and assignments to be given by the course instructor. 1. Student Guide A. Student Guide Introduction that outlines the purpose, content, and use of the training material B. Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book that serves as the major text for the training course. C. Printed copy of the electronic lecture Radiographic Testing consisting of eight individual lessons on the fanéamentais of radiographic testing. The copy of the electronic lecture is identical to the presentation used by the instructor uring the lectures on each chapter. During the lecture the stuclent should use the Student Guide to make additional notes, and it will also be valuable to study at a later date, D. Quizzes. The instructor may elect to remove the quizzes from your packet prior to starting the course and administer them as cach lesson is completed. A quiz, will be furnished for each of the lessons in the training course. ¢ 2, Outline of Lessons and Related Reading Ass ‘ignments ‘The reading assignments will be made by the instructor and will correlate with the lectures ‘The Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book published by ASNT follows the lessons/lectures in the training course in the following order. Lesson I ~ Introduction to Radiographic ‘Testing ‘Lesson 2 ~ Radiographic Testing Principles Lesson 3 — Equipment. Lesson 4~ Radiographic Film. Lesson 5 ~ Safety. Lesson 6 ~ Specialized Radiographic Applications Lesson 7 — Digital Radiographic Imaging. Lesson 8 ~ Special Radiographic Techniques. ~ Personnel Training Publications IIL. Optional Reference Material ‘The followi imaterials are available from ASNT and are suggested for students looking for additional information on radiographic testing. 7, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition: Volume 4. Radiographic Testing. ASNT Level I Study Guide: Radiographic Testing Method. ASNT Level Ilf Study Guide: Radiographic Testing Method, second edition. Supplement to Recommended Practice No. SNE-TC-1A (Q & A Book): Radiographic Testing Method. Supplement to Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (Q & A Book): Neutron Radiographic Testing Method. Radiographic Interpretation, Revised. Gamma Radiation Safety Study Guide, second edition. Working Safely in Radiography, second edition. ‘Siudlent Guide: Radiographic Testing it Table of Contents Nondestructive Testing Training Program: Student Guide Introduction to the Radiographic Testing Student Guide . Contents of Training Package Student Guide . i Outline of Lessons and Related Reading. Assignment Ss Optional Reference Material . Table of Contents .... Lesson 1 - Introduction to Radiographic Testing - Radiography ...... ‘Advantages of Radiograph : Linatations of Radiographic Testing ‘Test Objective . Safety Considerations . Qualification Certification. Lesson 1 ~ Qui Lesson 2 ~ Radiographic Testing Principles . . Penetration and Differential Absorption ..... Geometric Exposure Principles . Film/Detector Image Shar} Mess « Image Distortion ..... mt X-radiation and Gamma Radiation X-rays... é Electron Source | Blectron Target : Electron Acceleration . Radiation Intensity . Inverse Square Law ... . X-ray Quality Characteristics . Interaction With Matter - Photoelectric Absorption... Compton Bffect ... Pair Production Scatter Radiation . Internal Scatter . Sidescatter ....- Backscatter .......45 Gamma Rays... 200s 0. e0 2 Natural Isotope Sources Artificial Sources. Gamma Ray Intensity . Specific Activity Half Life .... Gamma Ray Quality Charactetistics “| Lesson 2~ Quiz .... eee Lesson 3 - Equipment X-ray Equipment. ..... Portable X-ray Units - Xaay Tube....... Tube Envelope « Cathode Filament Heating : Anode ; Focal Spot’. . near Accelerators X-Ray Beam Configuration « Accelerating Potential , : Iron Core Transformers <....... Heat Dissipation ..... : Equipment Shielding : Control Panel... eee sees Gamma Ray Equipment Gamma Ray Sources... Rodham oc ueceecee aes iiet Artificial Radioisotopes - Isotope Cameras 0.2.5. Lesson 3 ~ Quiz . : Lesson 4 - Radiographic Film ............5 5 Introduction ... : fe Usefulness of Radiographs |; Radiographic Contrast . Subject Contrast . Film Contrast . : Film Characteristic Curves ||: Film Speed . : Graininess .... Film Selection Factors . . : Bilm Processing ......2 20000022. ceceecec Tank Processing ........ ‘Tank Processing Procedures Developing : Stop Bath Fixing. Washing Drying Automatic Film Processing Darkroom Facilities and Equipment Lesson 4- QUIZ 2... eevee eee Lesson 5 ~ Safety ........ceeseeeeeeeteees Introduction... ci as Units of Radiation Dose Measurement Roentgen (R).....ceeeee scree Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad)... Quality Factor ...s...-e. ses Roentgen Equivalent Mammal (rem) f International System of Units (SI) Measurements... - Becquerel Replaces Curie ....... A Coulomb per Kilogram Replaces Roentgen Gray (Gy) Replaces Rad... .....- w Personnel Training Publications aa Sievert (Sv) Replaces Rem Maximum Permissible Dose . Protection Against Radiation Allowable Working Time . Working Distance Shielding ....... Exposure Area Radiation Protective Construction . Gamma Ray Requirements ..... United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission « Occupational Radiation Exposure Limits . Levels of Radiation in Unrestricted Areas Personnel Monitoring... cee Cauition Signs, Labels and Signals Exposure Devices and Storage Containers . Radiation Survey Instrumentation Requirements Radiation Surveys .......+ 4+ cae Detection and Measurement Instruments -......0005 Pocket Dosimeters ... : petieseeed Personal Electronic Dosimeters. .. oy Film Badges and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters . . Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Badges - Ionization Chambers ...... Geiger-Mueller Counters. Area Alarm Systems Blectrical Safety... 2022220045 Lesson §~ Quit to. e eee ence tee Lesson 6 - Specialized Radiographic Applications - Introduction a Selection of Equipment ....- ‘Accessory Equipment . Diaphragms, Collimators and Cones Filters... Screens Fluorescent Screens Lead Screens . . Masking Materials... . 0... Image Quality Indicators (Ql) - Shim Stock ... Film Holders and Cassettes 0.1... Identification and Location Markers Area Shielding Equipment . Densitometer.. . X-Ray Exposure Charts 0... Preparation of an Exposure Chart Film Latitude . : Gamma Ray Exposure Chart * |: Dated Decay Curves... ....505 Film Characteristic Curves . Radiographic Equivalent Factors’. Exposure Variables Movement . Source Size... Source-to-Film Distance (SFD) « Radiographic Applications . Radiography of Welds ........ Erie 90 Tube Angulation .... 90 ( Incident Beam Alignment 290 Discontinuity Location . ...- 291 Gritical and Noncritical Criteria 91 Improper Interpretation of Discontinuities a1 Elimination of Distortion ....... 92 Proper Identification and Image Quality Indicator Piacement | 11111! 92 Radiography of Welded Flat Plates . : pode Radiography of Welded Comer Joints Single-Wall Radiography of Tubing Double-Wall Radiography of Tubing Tubing up to 3.5 in. (9 cm) Outside Diameter # (OD) Radiography of Closed Spheres Radiography of Closed Tanks... Radiographic Multiple Combination Application Radiographic of Hemispherical Sections : Panoramic Radiography . . : Radiography of Large Pipe Welds Radiographic Techniques of Discontinuity Location” Alignment . : Discontinuity Depth Location Techniques Radiography of Brazed Honeycomb . Radiography of Semiconductors... Techniques of Semiconductor Radiography : Alignment of Semiconductors Lesson 6 Quiz . . Lesson 7 — Digital Radiographic Imaging .......- euce 105 Introduction ...... 5 Development. Detectors for Digital Imaging Principles of Digital X-ray Detectors - Charge Coupled Devices. Thin Film Transistor ........ Light Collection Technology Radiation Conversion Material <<... Storage Phosphors .......-60.005 Linear Arrays . a Scanning Beam, Reversed Geometry pete Detection Efficiency . a 110 Spatial Resolution . . SeeeeaTAD Modulation ‘Transfer Function (Mf Heat ate) Gain and Offset Correction. . Lilo Radiation Damage «2,-0.4. tees HD Selection of Systems to Match, Application Seeing: X-ray Detector Technology .. seed Amorphous Silicon Detectors - aera ery Amorphous Selenium Detectors . c12, Chasge Coupled Device Radiographic Systems | fe eeuiaa| Linear Detector Arrays ae be ee ee LD3 Lesson 7 ~ Quiz ....... ce LDS : t vii ‘Parsonnel Training Publications Lesson 8 = Special Radiographic Techniques . “ Introduction ( Fluoroscopy... Image Amplifier... Television Radiography Xeroradiography...... Stereoradiography and Double Exposure Steteoradiography Double Exposure (Parallax Radiographic Teclnigue) « Flash Radiography... . os... In-M« mm Radiography . . Conclusion . f Lesson 8 ~ Quiz Siudent Guide; Radiographic Testing Chapter 1: Radiographic Testing Principles In this lesson you will learn about: * Concepts of radiography. * Advantages and limitations of radiographic testing. © Test objectives. * Personnel qualifications and certifications. Lesson 1 Introduction to Radiographic Testing RADIOGRAPHY 1. In radiography, test objects are exposed to X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons, and an image is produced. 2. — Radiography is used to test a variety of products, such as castings, forgings and weldments, It is also used heavily in the aerospace industry for the detection of cracks in airframe structures, detection of water in honeycomb structures and detection of foreign objects. ~( Advantages of Radiographic Testing 1. Radiography can be used on most materials, 2. Radiography provides a permanent record of the test object. 3. Radiography reveals discontinuities within a material. 4, — Radiography discloses fabrication errors and often indicates the need for corrective action. Limitations of Radiographic Testing yey ‘The radiographer must have access to both sides of the test object. Planar discontinuities that are not parallel to the radiation beam ate difficult to defect. Radiography is an expensive testing method. Film radiography is time consuming. Some surface discontinuities or shallow discontinuities may be difficult, if not impossible, to detect. ‘The objective of radiographic testing is to ensure product reliability. Performing the actual radiographic test is only part of the procedure. The test results must then be interpreted to acceptance standards by qualified personnel, and an evaluation of the results must be made, Safety Considerations Radiation can cause damage to the cells of living tissue, so it is essential that personnel be aware and protected. Compliance with state and federal safety regulations is mandatory. QUALIFICATION 1. It is important that personnel responsible for radiographic testing have adequate training, education and experience. 2. Guidelines are for the qualification and certification of nondestructive testing personnel. 3. ASNT has published guidelines for training and qualifying nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel since 1966. These are known as: Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-IA: Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. 4. Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A describes the knowledge and capabilities of nondestructive testing personnel in terms of certification levels, 5. Per SNF-TC-1A, there are three basic Jevels of qualification applied to NDT personnel: a. Lovel b. Level Il c. Level Ill. Personnel Training Publications C CERTIFICATION ‘The formal certification of a person in NDT to a Level I, Level IT and Level ITT is a ‘written festimony that the individual has been properly qualified. Certification is meant to document the actual qualification of the individual in a specific NDT method. Propet qualification and certification are extremely important in mod n manufacturing, fabrication and inservice inspection due to the impact on the health and safety of the public, “Snident Guide: Radiograph Testing Notes Lesson 1 Quiz Please answer true or false to the following statements, 1, Radiography can reveal all types of discontinuities within a material, 2. Radiography cannot be used in aerospace due to radiation safety constraints. 3. In zadiography, access to both sides of the test object is not necessary Radiography provides a permanent visual record of internal discontinuities. 5. Every radiographer can decide acceptance or rejection of a test object. Chapter 2: Radiographic Testing Principles In this lesson you will learn about: * Penetration and differential absorption. * Geometric exposure principles, + Film/detector image sharpness. + Characteristics of X-radiation and gamma radiation. a * X-ray tubes. * Inverse square law. * X-ray quality characteristics. « Interaction of radiation with matter. * Gamma rays (natural isotope sources, artificial sources and gamma ray intensity). Lesson 2 Radiographic Testing Principles PENETRATION AND DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION ‘X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials, including materials that do not transmit light. Depending on the thickness and density of the material, and the intensity of the source being used, the amount of radiation that is transmitted through the test object will vary. ‘The rac jon transmitted through the test object produces the radiographic image. Figure 2.1 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book illustrates the partial absorption characteristies of radiation. Thicker portions of the test object or dense inclusions will appear lighter because of more absorption of the radiation. 2. G OMETRIC EXPOSURE PRINCIPLES A radiograph is a shadow picture of a test object placed between the film/detector and the X-ray or gamma radiation source. If the film/detector is placed too far from the test object, the image will be enlarged. If the test object is too close to the source, the image will be greatly enlarged, resulting in the loss of resolution. ‘The degree of enlargement will vary according to the relative distances of the test object from the film/detector. ‘As shown in Figure 2.2 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book, the : i Dees image enlargement: 5" is equal to the ratio: 7 i D, sea ra i Film/Detector Image Sharpness i The sharpness of a radiographic image is determined by: a, The size of the radiation source. b, The ratio of the object-to-film/detector distance, c. The source-to-object distance. The unsharpness or fuzziness around an image is called geometric unsharpnes (penumbra), as shown in Figure 2.3 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book. To minimize the geometric unsharpness (U/,) in the image, the test object should be placed as close to the film/detector as possible. ‘Most radiographic codes recommend the maximum acceptable values for ‘geometric unsharpness Geometric unsharpness can be calculated by using the following formula: Fa Co D u, a, Uy is the geometric unsharpness (in millimeters or inches). b. Fis the source size (the maximum projected dimension of the radiation soutce, of effective focal spot size). ©. Dis the distance from the source of the radiation to the object being radiographed. 4. dis the distance from the source side of the test object to the film/detector. Optimum geometric unsharpness of the image is obtained when: a. The radiation source is small. b. The distance from the source to the test object is relatively large. c. The distance from the test object to the film/detector plane is small, B Persone] Training Publications Image Distortion ‘Two possible causes of radiographic image distortion ate: 1, The test object and the film/detector plane are not parallel. 2. ‘The radiation beam is not directed perpendicular to the film/detector plane. X-RADIATION AND_ GAMMA RADIATION 1. X-rays and gamma rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. 2. These rays have high energy and short wavelengths. X-rays ‘The conditions required to generate X-rays ate 1. Assource of electrons. 2, — Asuitable target for electrons to strike. 3. A means of speeding the electrons in the desired direction. Characteristic X-rays: When an electron from a higher energy level interacts with an electron in a lower orbit of an atom, characteristic X-rays may be generated. Continuous radiation: The generated X-rays have a continuous energy spectrum and are not entirely dependent on the disturbed atom’s characteristics, Bremsstrahlung radiation: This is a German name for braking or continuous radiation, Ke¥ (Kilo-electron volts): This unit corresponds to the amount of kinetic energy that an clectron would gain when moving between two points that differ in voltage by T kV. MeV (1 000 000 electron volts): This unit corresponds to the amount of Kinetic energy an electrons gains when moving between two points that differ in voltage by 1 MV. ‘Snulent Guides Radiographic Testing | | | | | | Electron Source 1. When a suitable material is heated, some of its charged negative particles . (€lectrons) become agitated and escape the material as free electrons Cathode: In an X-ray tube, 2 coil of wire or filament (known as the cathode) serves as the electron source. Electron Target For industrial radiography applications, a solid material of high atomic number, usually tungsten, is used as the target in the tube anode. Electron Acceleration 1, By placing a positive charge on the anode of an X-ray tube and a negative charge on the cathode, free electrons are accelerated from the cathode to the anode. { 2. The electron path should occur in a vacuum a Radiation Intensity 1. The number of X-rays created by electrons striking the target is one measure of the intensity of the X-ray beam. 2. Intensity depends on the number of electrons available at the X-ray tube cathode. 3. Keeping the other factors constant, an increase in the current through the tube filament will increase the cathode temperature, causing emission of more electrons and consequently increasing the intensity of the X-ray beam. 4, Similarly, though to a lesser degree, an inctease in the applied tube voltage will increase the beam intensity. 5. The output rating of an X-ray tube is expressed in volts (KV or MeV). ¢ is Personnel Training Publications Inverse Square Law ‘The intensity of an X-ray beam varies inversely with the squate of the distance from the radiation source. ‘The relationship is known as the inverse square law: ADE ate where 1) and Jy are the received radiation intensities at distances D, and Dy. X-Ray Quality Characteristics ‘The spectrum of continuous X-rays covers a wide band of wavelengths, as shown, in Figure 2.9 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book. ‘An increase in applied voltage in an X-ray tube increases the intensity (quality) of ‘X-rays. This produces higher energy rays with greater penetrating power. X-rays with higher energy (shorier wavelengths) are called hard X-rays. X-rays with lower energy (longer wavelengths) are called soft X-rays. ‘Variation in wibe current changes the intensity of the beam, but the spectrum of wavelengths produced remains unchanged. (See Figure 2.11 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book.) Effects of changes in kilovoltage and (ube current on the produced X-rays are summatized in Table 2.1 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book. ‘Sudent Guide: Radiographic Testing i INTERACTION Wir MATTER iC 1. Any action that disrupts the electrical balance of an atom and produces ions is, called ionization 2, X-rays passing through matter cause ionization in their path 3. X-rays are photons (bundles of energy) traveling at the speed of light. 4. In passing through matter, X-rays lose energy to atoms by ionization processes known as: 8. Photoelectric absorption. b. Compton effect. ©. Pair production. Photoelectric Absorption L. In photooleetric absorption, when X-rays (photons) with relatively low energy pass ( through matter, the photon etergy may be transferred to an orbital electron (see ~ Figure 2.12 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). 2. Part of the energy is expended in ejecting the electron from its orbit, and the remainder gives velocity to the electron, 3. This phenomenon usually takes place with low energy photons of 0.5 MeV or less. 4, This absorption effect is what makes radiography possible. Compton Effect 1, When higher energy photons (0.1 to 3 MeV) pass through matter, part of the photon energy is expended in ejecting an electron. The remaining slower energy photons travel at different angles compared to the original photon path (see Figure 2.13 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). 2, This process is repeated, progressively weakening the photon, until the ( photoelectric effect completely absorbs the last photon, Personnel Training Publications Pair Production Pair production occurs only with higher energy photons of 1.02 MeV or mote (see Figure 2.14 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). Scatter Radiation 1, The major components of scatter radiation are the low energy rays represented by photons weakened in the Compton process. 2. Scatter radiation is low-level energy content of random direction Internal Scatter 1, Internal seater is the scattering that occurs in the object being radiographed (see Figure 2.15 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). 2. — It affects image definition by blurring the image outline. 3, ‘The increase in radiation passing through matter caused by scatter in the forward direction is known as buildup. Sidescatter 1, Sidescatter is the scattering from walls and the surrounding of the object in the vicinity of the test object that cause rays to enter the sides of the test object. 2, — Sidescatter obscures the image outline just as internal scatter does. Backscatter 1. Backscatter is the scattering of rays from the surface or from objects beneath or behind the test object (see Figure 2.17 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). 2. — Backscatter also obscures the test object. ‘Snident Guides Radiographic Testing a GAMMA Rays. 1. Gamma rays are produced by the disintegration of the nuclei of a radioactive isotope. 2. Isotopes are vatieties of the same chemical clement having different atomic weights. ‘The wavelength and intensity of gamma waves are determined by the source isotope characteristics and cannot be controlled or changed, Natural Isotope Sources 1, Some heavy natural elements integrate because of their inherent instability. 2. Radium is the best known and most used natural radioactive source. 3. Natural radioactive sources release energy in the form of: a. Gamma rays. b. Alpha particles: Positively charged particles having mass and charge equal in magnitude of @ helium nuclei. Beta part Jes: Negatively charged particles having charge and mass equal in magnitude to those of the electron. ‘The penetrating power of alpha and beta particles is relatively negligible. Artificial Sources 1, There are two ways of manufacturing radioactive isotopes, or so-called radioisotopes: ‘By using the by-product of nuclear fission in atomic reactors, such as cesium-137 (Cs-137) b. By bombarding certain elements with neutrons to make them unstable, Examples include cobalt-60 (Co-60), thulium-170 (Tm-170), selenium-75 (Se-75) and itidium-192 (11-192) 2, These artificial isotopes emit gamma rays, alpha particles and beta particles. ® Personnel Training Publications Gamma Ray Intensity 1. The activity of a gamma ray source determines the intensity of its radiation 2. The measure of activity is the curie, which is 3.7 x 10! becquerel (Bq) or disintegrations per second. Specific Activity 1, Specific activity is defined as the degree of concentration of radioactive material within a gamma ray source 2. Specific activity is expressed in terms of curies per gram or curies per cubic centimeter. 3. Specific activity is an important measure of radioisotopes because the smaller the source, the sharper the radiographic image that can be produced (as shown in Figure 2.4 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). Half Life 1. The length of time required for the activity of a radioisotope to decay to one half of its initial intensity is called its half life 2, The half life of a radioisotope is a basic characteristic and depends on the particular isotope of a given element, Dated decay curves (similat (o the one shown in Figure 2.18 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book) are supplied by source suppliers for each particular radioisotope and should be used by radiographers to determine the exact source intensity Gamma Ray Quality Characteristics 1, Radiation from a gamma ray source consists of rays whose wavelengths and { energy are determined by the nature of the source, ‘Student Guide: Radiographic Testing w Each of the commonly used radioisotopes has a specific application because of the fixed gamma energy characteristics. ‘Table 2.3 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book lists the most common radioisotopes for radiography and their equivalent energy. Gamma rays and X-rays have identical propagation characteristics, and both conform to the inverse square Jaw. ‘The mechanism of interaction of gamma rays with matter is identical to those discussed for X-rays. Personnel Tralning Publications Notes Notes Lesson 2 Quiz Please answer true or false to the following 5. statements, 1. Geometric unsharpness can be seen on ‘an image, and it is not an important issue in industrial radiography. 6 X-rays and gamma rays are both clectromagnetic radiation. The only difference is their source of generation. X-rays and gamma rays are detectable ‘by human senses. 2. Small radioactive sources produce less geometric unsharpness. 1. 3. Most radiographic codes recommend minimum acceptable geometric unsharpness. = 8 To minimize the geometric unsharpness, the distance between test object and film/detector should be as large as 9. possible. If the source-to-film/detector distance increases 4x, the intensity that is received by the detector is also increased 4x. ‘The spectrum of X-rays generated in an Xray tube is very wide. Increasing the applied voltage in an X-ray unit produces X-rays with larger wavelengths, 3 10. By changing the tbe current, the X-ray wavelength spectrum remains unchanged. Personnel Training Publications i Chapter 3: Equipment In this lesson you will learn about: * X-ray equipment. * Gamma ray equipment. + Equipment protection devices. * Radioisotopes. Lesson 3 Equipment X-RAY EQUIPMENT There are three basic requirements for the generation of X-rays: A source of free electrons. 2. A means of rapidly accelerating the beam of electrons. 3. Assuitable target material to stop the electrons. Portable X-ray Units In field radiography, such as inspection of pipelines, bridges, vessels, and ships, portable X-ray units are very important. The characteristics of these tubes are: 1. Lightweight. 2. Compact. 3. Usually air-cooled. X-ray Tube 1, The main components of X-ray equipment include: a, Tube: Enclosed in a high-vacuum envelope of heat-resistant glass or ceramic. b. Cathode: To produce five eleotrons c. Anode: Target which the electrons strike. 2. Associated with the tube are the following parts: a, Equipment that heats the filament, accelerates, and controls the resultant free electrons. b, Equipment to remove the heat generated by the X-rays. Shielding of the equipment. 3, There are many varieties in the size and shape of X-ray tubes. ‘Tube Envelope 1. The tube envelope is constructed of glass or ceramic that has: a, Ahigh melting point b. Sufficient strength. 2. For the following reasons, a high-vacuum environment for the tube element is necessary. a, Prevents oxidation of the electrode material b. Permits ready passage of the clectron beam without ionization of gas within the tube, cc, Provides electrical insulation between the electrodes. Cathode ‘The cathode of an K-ray tube consists of: 1, Focusing eup: Functions as an electrostatic lens. 2, Filament: A coil of tungsten wire that produces a cloud of electrons by flowing an electrical current through it. 28 Personnel Trainhig Publications 2. 3 4 Filament Heating ‘Acsinall flow of current through the filament is enough to heat it to a temperature ‘that causes electron emission. ‘A change in the number of emitted electrons varies with the current flow through the filament. ‘The tube current is measured in milliamperes (mA), and it controls the intensity of X-rays. Anode “The anode of an X-ray tube is usually made of copper. Copper and tungsten are the most common anode material ‘A dense target material is required to ensure & maximum number of collisions. Material with a high melting point is necessary for a target to withstand the excessive heat. Focal Spot ‘The image sharpness is partly determined by the size of the focal spot. ‘The electron beam is focused so that it bombards a rectangular arca of the target. ‘The projected area of the electron beam is the effective focal spot (see Figure 3.2 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book). ‘The size to which the focal spot can be reduced is limited by the heat generated by target bombardment. Saudent Guide: Radiographic Testing 2B Linear Accelerators ‘There are two types of linear accelerators: 1. Standing wave linear accelerator for energy up to 200 MeV, 2. ‘Traveling wave linear accelerator for energy up to 30 GeV (giga-clectron volts or billion electron yolts). X-ray Beam Configuration 1, Once the X-rays are created, they cannot be focused or otherwise directed. 2. The direction of useful X-radiation is determined by the positioning of the target and the lead shielding. Accelerating Potential 1. The applied potential between the cathode and anode determines the penetrating. effect of the produced X-ray, ‘The higher the voltage, the greater the electron velocity along with shorter wavelengths and more penetrating power for the generated X-rays. Tron Core Transformers 1, ‘The majority of X-ray equipment for industrial radiography (up to 400 KV) use iron core transformers. 2. Their basic limitations are their size and weight, Heat Dissipation 1, X-ray generation is a very inefficient process as most of the electron energy is expended in producing heat. 2, Heat dissipation in the X-ray tube is achieved by & flow of oil, gas of water, 3. _Bifficieney of an X-ray tube cooling system is the main factor in determining the duty cycle of the tube. % Personnel Training Publications QUIPMENT SHIELDING ‘To prevent unwanted radiation, lead is used to shield the X-ray tube, ‘The shielding design varies with different X-ray tubes, but in all cases, it serves to absotb that portion of the radiation that is not traveling in the desired direction, CONTROL PANEL ‘The control panel of an X-tay system is designed to permit a.radiographer to set the desired exposure parameters, ‘The control panel also provides critical indications for tube performance, such as the flow of oil or water in the cooling system, GAMMA Ray EQUIPMEN' Handling and storage of gamma ray sources are extremely important since they cannot be shut off. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and various state agencies recommend safety standards for propes transportation, storage and handling of radioisotopes. Every inspection firm should propare a comprehensive safety procedure for the storage and handling of all their radioisotopes. More infoimation on this ean be found in Lesson 5. Gamma Ray Sources ‘There are two types of gamma ray sources: a. Natural isotopes. b. Artificial isotopes. ‘Most isotopes used in industrial radiography are round wafers encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. ‘Student Guide: Radiographic Testing ETS Radium Radium is a natural radioactive substance having a half life of about 1600 years. Most radium sources consist of radium sulfate packaged in either spherical or cylindrical capsules Because of its low specific activity and its long half life, radium is rarely used in industrial radiography. Artificial Radioisotopes ‘The artificial radioisotopes used in industrial radiography for gaging purposes are: a, Cobalt-60 (Co-60). b. _Iridium-192 (fr-192). c. Selenium-75 (Se-75). 4, Thulium-170 (Tm-170). fe, Cesium-137 (Cs-137) ‘Table 3.2 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book gives a summary of the main characteristics of the most used isotopes. Isotope Cameras ‘The equipment to accomplish safe handling and storage of radioisotope sources is called a camera or exposure device. ‘These cameras are self-contained units, meaning no external power supply is required. ‘The exposure devices contain self-locking mechanisms ensuring safety in accordance with ANSI and ISO requirements, in addition to NRC and JAA requirements % Personnel Training Publications Notes Notes. = Lesson 3 Quiz Please answer true or false to the following 6, Typical isotope equipment is often statements, referred (o as a camera or projector. 1. Ahigh vacuum environment for an X-ray tube is to make it lighter for easy Compared to cobalt-60, iridium-192 transportation. has a shorter half life, ‘The function of a focusing cup in the cathode of an X-ray tube is to focus the tion. produced X-radi 3. The isotopes used in industrial radiography are usually natural isotopes, 4. A major disadvantage of isotope radiography is the high cost of isotope equipment and sources 5. Afler-a radioactive material is stored, its ~ ‘gamma radiation shuts off. 35 Chapter 4: Radiographic Film In this lesson you will learn about: + Radiographic contrast. + Film density. + Film characteristic curves. * Film graininess. « Film selection factors. * Film processing (manual and automatic). + Darkroom facilities. 7 Lesson 4 Radiographic Film aH INTRODUCTION Radiographic film consists of: a. Base: A thin, transparent plastic sheet. b, Emulsion coat: A coat of an emulsion of gelatin about 0.001 in, (0,003 cm) thick on one or both sides. The emulsion coat containis very fine grains of silver bromide (AgB:). Latent (hidden) image: Exposure of radiation on the film that cannot be detected until chemical processing occurs. Visible image: Image on the film after developed by chemical processing. Usefulness of Radiographs Film density: Degree of darkening on the developed film, Radiographic contrast; Difference between bwo film areas. The darker area, (higher density) has received more radiation compared to the area of light density, Definition: Sharpness of any change in film density. Contrast and definition are important for a successful interprétation of radiographs. RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST ‘The film density D is a logarithmic value defined as: D= log, 4 where (Ig ) is the intensity of the incident light and / is the intensity of the transmitted light through the film. The higher the number, the darker the film, eH If the intensity of light is 1000 units and the film allows only one unit of that intensity to pass through, the film density based on the previous equation will be: D= logy A 3 3. Radiographic contrast (as shown in Figure 4.2 in the Radiographic Testing Class 10m Training Book) is defined as the difference in the film density between two selected areas of the exposed and developed film. 4. Higher contrast is better for film interpretation. 5. Radiographic contrast is a combination of: a, Subject contrast b. Film contrast. 6. Radiographic contrast depends on: a, Applied radiation energy (penetrating quality) b. Contrast characteristics of the film: ¢. Amount of exposure (tie product of radiation intensity and exposure time), d, Film screen, e, Film processing. f. Scattered radiation, Subject Contrast Subject contrast is the relative radiation intensities passing through any two selected portions of material. Subject contrast depends on the following factors: a. Type and shape of the test object. b. Bnetgy of the applied energy radiation (wavelength, type of source). c. Scattered radiation 2. Subject contrast decreases as the wavelength of the incident radiation decreases. @ Personnel Training Publications 3. Higher subject contrast cait be- achieved by: ( a, Larger thickness variation, b. Use of different X-ray or gamma ray energies. ©. Masks. 4. Diaphragms e. Filters or screens, Film Contrast 1. The ability of film to detect and record different radiation exposures as differences in film density is called film contrast. 2. — The relationship between the amount of exposure and the resulting film density is expressed in the form of film characteristic curves and is determined by the following factors: a. Film grain size, ¢ b. Chemistry of the film processing chemicals. ©. Concentration of the processing chemicals. d. Development time, e. Development temperature. f, Agitation in the developer solution Film Characteristic Curves 1, Figure 4.3 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book shows a film characteristic curve. a. ‘The vertical axis is the resulting film density. b. The horizontal axis is expressed in a logarithm of relative exposure. ¢. The minimum point of the curve on the vertical axis is called fog density. 4d. Based on this curve, as the exposure increases, film conttast increases, tadiographio Testing a 2. A film characteristic curve has two different sections: a, A tail of lower densi b. A straighter portion (with a higher slope on the curve). 3. High radiographic contrast is achieved with densities along the straight portion of a characteristic curve, This is the reason that films should always be exposed for a density of at least 1.5. 4. Most radiographic codes, standards and specifications usually give upper and lower density limits within a range of 1.8 to 4.0. Film Speed 1, Film speed is an important consideration in determi 1g the proper exposure time to obtain the desired film density. 2, Figure 4.4 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book illustrates films with high, medium and tow speeds. 3. Knowing film speed is important when selecting film for each particular radiographic testing task, Graininess 1. Graininess is the visible evidence of the grouping into clumps of the silver particles that form the imago on the radiographic film. 2. — Figure 4.5 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book shows the effect of grain variation on the image definition 3. The degree of graininess of an exposed film depends on the following factors: a. Grain size. b. The quality of the radiation c. Film processing conditions. 4d, Type of film screens. Parsoniiel Training Publications FILM SELECTION FAcrors When not otherwise specified by the customer or governing standards, the selection of film is made by the radiographer, Most of the time, the selection of film is based on the following factors: a. Need for certain contrast and definition quality. b, ‘Thickness and density of the test object. ¢. The type of indication or discontinuity normally associated with the object. 4. Size of an acceptable indication. e. Accessibility, location and configuration of the test object, £. Customer requirements, In film selection, remember that: a. Film contrast, film speed and graininess are interrelated. b. Faster films need shorter exposure time but usually have larger grains and poor resolution/sensitivity. ©. Slower films need longer exposure time but have finer grain and good resolution/sensitivity. d. Film manufacturers’ recommendations for film sclection are a useful tool in sclecting the proper film for a given application. FILM PROCE: iG Film processing makes the latent image visible. ‘The following general precautions must be observed during film processing: a. Follow manufacturer recommendations for chemical concentrations, temperature and processing time b. Use equipment, tanks, trays and holders thet can withstand the chemical action, c. Ensure tanks are clean, ‘Suudent Guide: Radiographic Testing d. Use recommended safelights and checked them regularly. ¢. Maintain cleanliness in the darkroom to avoid any artifacts on developed radiographs. f. Avoid any contamination of different solutions. TANK PROCESSING ‘The arrangement of a tank processing (manual processing) unit is shown in Figure 4.6 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book. 1 ‘The tanks for processing solutions and wash water should be deep enough for the film to be submerged. ‘The chemicals in the tanks must be .d and the temperature must be checked with a calibrated thermometer before tuming off the ambient light, All requited equipment should be arranged before turning off the ambient light. All unnecessary materials should be kept away from the processing area. ‘Test the safelights and arcange them for easy viewing. Follow the standard recommendations for regular checking. Lock the darkroom door to prevent accidental exposure to ambient light. ‘To load the film inside the hangers, grasp it by its edges ot corner to avoid fingerprints, bending, wrinkling or crimping during handling. Keep the loading area completely dry, Follow the tank processing procedures. Tank Processing Procedures ‘There are five separate steps in tank processing: 1 2 3 Developing. Stop bath Fixing or Personnel Training Publications 4, 5 Washing. Drying. Developing Developing is the chemical process of reducing silver bromide particles in the exposed area of the film emulsion to metallic silver. Follow the manufacturers’ recommendations for developing temperature and time. Agitate the film during developing to obtain « uniform development and to avoid any air bubbles from attaching to the film. Use strips of exposed radiographs to control the developer activity as a method of regular quality control checking, Follow the manufacturers’ recommendations to replenish the solution, Stop Bath ‘The stop bath, a solution of acetic acid and water, serves to remove the residual developer solution from the film. 1 Running uncontaminated water for at least 2 min. can be used as an alternative to the stop bath ‘The manufacturers’ directions should be used to make the stop bath solution. A fresh stop bath solution is yellow in color and clear under safelight. Fixing Fixer, an acidic solution, has two functions on the film: a, It dissolves and removes the silver bromide from the undeveloped portions of the film without affecting the developed portion. b, Ithardens the emulsion gelatin. ‘Sucent Guide: Radiographic Testing After 1 2. ‘The minimum time required for fixing is twice the amount of time necessary to clean the film Fixing time should not exceed 15 min. Improper fixing shortens the archival length of the film, Film should be agitated in fixing solution at 2-min. intervals. The replacement of fixing solution should be determined by checking the acidity of the solution. ‘Washing fixing, washing is necessary to remove the fixer from the emulsion Bach film is washed for a period of time equal to twice the fixing. ‘Hypo clearing agent may be used to speed up film, washing. Best results for washing are obtained with a water temperature between 65 and 70 °F (18.3 and 21.1 °C). To avoid any watermarks, film is immersed in a wetting agent that also aids in reducing the drying time. Drying The final stage of film processing is drying. Automatic Film Processing Automatic film processing systems are used whenever the volume of work makes them economical. 1. The entire processing cycle is completed in less than 15 min. 2. Automatic film processing units consistently produce radiographs of much higher quality than those obtained using a manual process. 3. Loading the film inside the unit should be done in a dark environment. 4, Properly maintaining the system is the key for high performance of an automatic system, 6 Personnel Training Publications DARKROOM FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT Some requirements that must be satisfied in the design and construction of a darkroom: 1, It must be lighted with suitable and tested safelights, 2. Tt must be protected against anabient light from outside sources. 3. The walls and ceiling must be painted with lightly colored, semigloss paint. 4. Darkroom floors ate usually covered with chemical resistant, waterproof and slip-proof materials. 5. Cleanliness is of great importance during the entire film processing procedure. Suudent Guide: Radiographic Testing a7 Notes Lesson 4 Quiz Please answer true or false to the following statements. 1. The emulsion gelatin coating is only applied to one side of industrial films. 2. If light with intensity of 10 000 units is used to see a radiograph film, and only 100 units of light pass through it, the density of that film is 3.0. 3. Subject contrast cannot have any effect on the radiographic contrast. 4, The type of the radiation source has an effect on the subject contrast, 5. Developing conditions do not have any effect on film characteristic curves. 6. A film should always be exposed for at Teast a density of 1.0. Slower films need longer exposure because of larger grain size. ‘Time in developing solution is always fixed. 10. ‘To attain acceptable film quality, film agitation inside the developing solution should be avoided. Wetting agents help to speed up the fixing procedure, ® Chapter 5: Safety In this lesson you will learn about: * Units of radiation dose measurement. * International system of units (SI) measurements. * Maximum permissible dose. * Protection against radiation. + Radiation protective construction. * United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. * Occupational radiation exposure limits. * Levels of radiation in unrestricted areas. * Personnel monitoring, * Exposure devices and storage containers. * Detection and measurement instruments. * Electrical safety. a ay. Lesson $ Safety INTRODUCTION ‘This lesson is designed to present some of the basic radiographic safety procedures. 1. Radiographers must be aware of the latest effective safety regulations. 2, Radiation safety practices are based on the effects of radiation on the human body and the characteristics of radiation. 3. Personnel protection is dependent on detection devices, as well as the proper use of time, distance and shielding. 4. Agreement States ate states that observe the regulations covering use, handling and transportation of radioactive materials approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 5. All of the safety regulations are designed to limit exposure to the radiographer and to provide protection to the general public. 6. The radiographer, who is employed by a licensee of NRC or who is employed by a licensee of an Agreement State, must have knowledge of, and comply with, all applicable regulations. UNITS OF RADIATION Dost. MEASUREMENT 1. The damaging effects of radiation are dependent on both the type and the level of energy of the radiation. 2. For different types of radiation, a relative biological effectiveness is applied. ~ 3. For radiation safety purposes, the cumulative effect of radiation on the human ody is of primary concern. Roentgen (R) J, The roentgen (R) or sievert (Sv) is the physical unit measure of the ionization of air by X-radiation or gamma radiation. 2. Ris defined as the quantity of radiation that will produce one electrostatic unit, (esu) of charge in one cubic centimeter of air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). 3. L Rof radiation equals absorption by ionization of about 83 ergs (unit of work or energy in physics) of radiation energy per gram of air: 4, For practical purposes, mR is offen used, which is: 1 mR = 1/1000 R. Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad) 1. Radiation absorbed dose (rad) is the unit of measurement of radiation absorption by humans. 2, Itrepresents an absoxption of 100 erg of energy per gram of irradiated tissue. 3. Whereas the roentgen applies only to X-rays and gamma rays, rad applies to any type of radiation. 4, For X-ray and gamma radiation, exposure to 1 R results in 1 rad. 5. The unit gray (Gy) has been introduced as: 100 rad = 1 Gy. Quality Factor 1. The quality factor takes into account the biological effect of different radiations on the human body. 2, — Quality factor values are determined by the National Committee on Radiation Protection. They are summarized in Table 5.1 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book. Personnel Training Publications i Roentgen Equivalent Mammal (rem) INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF Units (SI) MEASUR i Roentgen equivalent mammal (rem) represents the radiation absorbed dose (rad) multiplied by the quality factor of the type of radiation Radiation safety levels are established in terms of roentgen equivalent mainmal (rem), Since the quality factor of X-radiation and gamma radiation is 1, then: Lad = 1 rem, ‘The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state regulations and radiogcaphers in the US. often still use the old English units: curie, roentgen, rem and rad, Different organizations, such as the following, support the replacement of older units with SI units: The National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEBR), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and ‘The American Society for Nondestructive ‘Testing (ASNT), Becquerel Replaces Curie 3 Curie (Ci) is the original unit for radioactivity, which is defined as: 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second. In SI, the replacement unit for radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq), which is one disintegration per second, 1 Ci = 37 GBq (gigabecquerel), where giga = 109. Coulomb per Kilogram Replaces Roentgen 1 Coulomb (C) is the unit of electrical charge, where: 1 C= 1 ampere x 1s Siudlent Guide: Radiographic Testing 2. 1 R = 258 microcoulombs per kilogram of air (258 wC-kg~! of air), Gray (Gy) Replaces Rad Ti the SI system, the unit of radiation dose is the gray (Gy), and 1Gy =100 rad. Sievert (Sv) Replaces Rem In the SI system, the unit of radiation absorbed by the human body is the Sievert (Sv), and 1 Sv = 100 rem. MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE 1, Permissible dose is defined by NIST as the dose of radiation that is not expected to cause appreciable bodily injury to a person. 2. The following restrictions for the maximum annual permissible dose limits for classified workers should be observed: a, Total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rem (0.05 Sv). Or b. The sum of the deep dose and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rem 5 Sv) c. The maxmum dose absorbed by the lens of the eye being 15 rem (0.15 Sv). 4, A shallow dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity, 3. ‘The maximum annual radiation dose is limited to 5 rem (0.05 Sv). 4, Tho absorbed dose shouldn’t exceed 0.5 rem (5 mSv) during an entire pregnancy. 5. Dose limits to the general public shall not exceed 0.002 rem or 2 mrem (0.02 mSv) per hour or exceed 0.5 rem or 500 mrem (5 mSv) annually. ca Porsonnel Training Publications ( PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Safe radiographic techniques and radiographic installation design are achievable by applying these principles: 1, Time: Keep the time close to a radiation source as low as possible, 2. — Distance: Keep the distance from a radiation source as high as possible. 3. Shielding: Keep adequate shielding from the radiation source, Allowable Working Time 1. The amount of absorbed radiation by the human body is directly proportional to the time that the body is exposed to radiation, Example: 2 rem (0.2 mSy) in 60 s = 10 mrem (1 mSv) in 5 min 2. Allowable working time for working with gamma sources is calculated by ( measuting radiation intensity and substituting it in the following equation: Allowable working permissible exposure in Cilwk time in hiwk eet exposure rate in Cilh Working Distance 1, The greater the distance from a radiation source, the lower the radiation intensity, 2. The'inverse square law is used to calculate radiation intensities at various distances from a radiation source: where /) and fz are intensities at distances D, and D2, respectively. Practice the examples (1 to 4) on pages 62 and 63 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom ( Training Book. ‘Sudont Guide: Radiographic Testing ‘The same principles hold for X-radiation, The intensity at a known distance with predetermined current and voltage setting (usually given by the X-ray tube’s manufactures) can be determined by applying the inverse square law. Radiation intensity at any point is the sum of the pritpary radiation and the secondary (scattered) radiation at that point. Shielding 1 Materials commonly used for shielding to reduce personnel exposures are lead, ste], water and concrete. Shielding cannot stop all of the energy of X-radiation or gamma radiation; therefore, itis practical to measure shielding efficiency in terms of half value layers Half value layer (HVL) is that amount of shielding that will stop half of the radiation of a given intensity. Similarly, shielding efficiency is often measured in tenth value layers. A tenth value layer is that amount of shielding that will stop nine tenths of the radiation of 4 given intensity. (Look at Tables 5.4 and 5.5 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book.) Follow the examples in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book on page 65. Exposure Area. The exposure area should consist of a room with concrete or block walls, lined with lead or other suitable shielding materials. ‘An exposure area can be an enclosed shielding cabinet large enough for the test objects and with reliable safety features. Controls should be located outside the exposure area, 8 Personnel Training Publications In ficld radiography or temporary job sites, safe distance in relation to exposure, must be determined and be secured by: a. Guard rails or ropes, b. Legible radiation waming signs. ©. Sufficient shielding. Only monitored radiographers are permitted in the radiation atea. Keeping a safe distance from the radiation source is the simplest and most effective safety consideration in field radiography, Radiation Protective Construction Lead and concrete are the most common materials used to protect against radiation. Shielding measurements are usually exptessed in terms of thickness. Ensuring a leak-proof shielding is very important, Sheets of lead must be overlapped, and nails and sorews in the walls must be covered with adequate lead. Pipes, conduits and air ducts passing through the walls of the shiclding must be completely shielded (see Figure 5.1 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book) The thickness of lead is dependent on two factors: a. Enetgy of the radiation souree, b. Occupancy of the surrounding areas. Other than lead, structural materials such as concrete and brick are often used as shielding materials, At voltages greater than 400 kV, concrete is used a8 shielding because: a. Installing very thick lead can be difficult. b. Thick sheets of lead are cost-prohibitive. ©. Conerete is the best alternative material because of its property of radiation protection and its simplicity of construction. ‘Student Guide: Radiographic Testing Gamma Ray Requirements 1, Special radiation protection is required for gamma radiation based on two factors: Cy a, Gamma radiation cannot be shut off. b. Gamma radiation has considerable penetrating ability. 2. — Acombination of shielding and distance is usually used during gamma radiography. 3. Specially labeled storage containers are necessary (o store gamma sources when not in use. 4, — After every use, readings with survey meters are taken to ensure the source is safely stored. 5. Special projectors (called pigs) or isotope cameras containing heavy shielding made of lead or depleted uranium should be used for handling radioisotope sources. Untred STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Ce 1. The NRC regulates handling, storage and use of radioisotopes. 2. Figures 5.2 and 5.3 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book show NRC Form-4 and NRC Form-5, used to monitor the occupational dose history. Occupational Radiation Exposure Limits Limitations on individual dosage greater than those listed in Table 5.6 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book may be permitted with the following conditions: 1. The dose for the whole body does not exceed 5 rem (0.05 Sv) during any calendar year. 2. The individual's accumulated occupational dose has been recoded on NRC Form-4 and the individual has signed the form. ( Personnel Training Publications Levels of Radiation in Unrestricted Areas Table 5.7 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book shows the exposure limits in an unrestricted area. Personnel Monitoring There are different personnel monitoring devices required for use by radiographers and their 6. r¢ ants ducing radiographic operations Film badges. ‘Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Optically stimulated luminescence badges (OSL). Direct reading dosimeters. Pocket dosimeters. Electronic personal dosimeters. ‘The last two types should be capable of measuring exposures from 0 to 200 mR (0 to 2 mSv). Caution Signs, Labels and Signals ‘The radiation symbol (as illustrated in Figure 5.4 in the Radiographic Testing Classroom Training Book) should be placed: a, In exposure areas. b. Oncontainers for transporting and storing radioactive materials. ‘The words caution or danger must appear. ‘The words radioactive material should be marked on containers of radioactive ‘materials and in the areas housing such containers. Exposure devices should have # radiation symbot and the phrase Danger radioactive material ~ do not handle. Company information and a 24-hr. phone number must be mentioned on the sign. ‘Student Guide: Radiographic Testing a