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Success isnt about winning.

It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

Section 3:
INFANCY
CHAPTER 4:
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
Introduction
Latonya
Newborn baby in Ghana
First days of life: bottle fed
Mother was persuaded to bottle fed rather than breast fed
Mother: overdilutes the milk formula with unclean water
Her feeding bottles have not been sterilized
Died before her first birthday
Ramona
Born in Nigeria (has a baby-friendly program)
Nigeria:
babies are not separated from their mother
mothers are encouraged to breast feed
mother are told of the perils that bottle fedding can
bring because of unsafe water and unsterilized
bottles
mothers are informed about the advantges of breast
milk
At 1 year of age, she becomes healthy.
Note:
Maternity units in hospitals favored bottle feeding and did
not give mothers adequate information about the benefits
of breast feeding.
In recent years, WHO and UNICEF have tried to reverse
the trend toward bottle feeding of infants in many
impoverished countries.
Result of WHO and UNICEF effort = baby-friendly
program

In 12 months, infants are capable of:


Sitting
Standing
Stooping
Climbing
Walking
During the second year:
growth decelerates
running and climbing

PATTERNS OF GROWTH
head unproportional to the body
cephalocaudal pattern
- sequence of growth is from top to bottom
- shoulders, middle trunk
- head top part of the head-eyes and brain- grow faster
than the lower parts, such as the jaw.
motor development follows the cephalocaudal pattern
DEVELOPMENT DOES NOT FOLLOW A RIGID BLUEPRINT.
proximodistal pattern- sequence of growth starts at the center of
the body and moves toward the extremities.

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT


20 inches and 7 pounds
- newborn North-American
18 to 22 inches long and weigh between 5 and 10 pounds
- 95% percent of full term newborns

Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital


In Philippines
Saved 8 percent of their annual budget
Disadvantage of breast milk:
Passing HIV
Africa
30% of mothers have human immunodefiency virus (HIV)

1
PHYSICAL GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY

Figure 1
CHANGES IN PROPORTION OF HUMAN BODY DURING GROWTH.
Head becomes smaller in relation to the rest of the body.

First two years of life most crucial period for an infant

First several days of life:


Most lose 5 to 7 percent of their baby weight
Before they adjust by sucking, swallowing, and digesting.

Newborn infants:
Heads are quite large
Little strength in their necks
Cannot hold their heads up
Have basic reflexes

First month:
Grow 5 to 6 ounces per week

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
Fourth month:
Doubled their birth weight
First year:
Grow 1 inch per month
Second year:
Weighs approximately 26 to 32 pounds
Gained quarter to half a pound per month
Reached 1/5 of their adult weight
Average height: 32 to 35 inches
Reaches half of their adult height
First several days
of life
First month
Fourth month
First year
Second year

Lose 5 to 7 percent of body weight


Grow 5 to 6 ounces per week
Doubled their birth weight
Grow 1 inch per month
Weigh: 26 to 32 pounds
1/5 of their adult weight
Height: 32 to 35 inches
Half of adult weight

THE BRAIN
Infant single cell to 100 billion neurons
Extensive brain development continues after birth, through
infancy and later.
infant's head- should be protected

MAPPING THE BRAIN


forebrain- portion farthest from the spinal cord
a. cerebral cortex- covers the forehead like a wrinkled cap.
left hemisphere
- location of logical and language thinking
- speech and grammar
right hemisphere
- location of emotion and creative thinking
- humor and use of metaphors
Four main lobes: FOTP
1. frontal lobe
voluntary movement
thinking
personality
intentionality or purpose
2. occipital lobe
vision
3. temporal lobe
active role in hearing
language processing
memory
4. parietal lobe
registering spatial location
attention
motor control
cerebral cortex- covers the forehead like a wrinkled cap.

Shaken Baby Syndrome


- brain swelling and hemorrhaging
- affects hundreds of babies in US

Division of cerebral cortex:


1. left hemisphere
- location of logical and language thinking
- speech and grammar

Perpetrators:
1. fathers
2. child care provider
3. boyfriend of victims mother

2. right hemisphere
- location of emotion and creative thinking
- humor and use of metaphors

Positon-emission tomography (PET)


- scans pose a radiation risk to babies
- uses radioactive tracer to image and analyze blood flow
and metabolic activity in the bodys organs.

Note:
Reading and performing music requires the work of both
hemispheres.
Complex thinking is the outcome of the communication of
both hemispheres.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


- infants wriggle too much to capture accurate images
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
- measures the brains electrical activity
Charles Nelson
- making strides in brain development

THE BRAINS DEVELOPMENT


At birth: 25 PERCENT of its adult weight
Second birthday: 75 percent of its adult weight.
BRAINS AREAS DO NOT MATURE UNIFORMLY.

Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of


the cerebral cortex
left hemisphere- has greater electrical activity in the left
hemisphere when they are listening to speech sounds.

CHANGES IN NEURONS
neurons- nerve cells that send electrical and chemical signals
- nerve cell that handles information processing

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
CHANGES IN THE REGIONS OF THE BRAIN
synaptic density important indication of the extent of
connectivity between neurons.

a.

b.
c.
d.

The dendrites of the cell body receive rhe information


from other neurons, muscles, or glands through the
axon.
Axons transmit information away from the cell body.
A myelin sheath covers most axons and dendrites
and speeds information transmission
As the axons ends, it branches out into terminal

2 types of fibers:
1. axons- carries the signals away from the cell body
synapses- terminal buttons that are found at the end of the
axon
- tiny gaps between neuron fibers
- allows information to pass from neuron to
neuron through chemical interactions
terminal buttons found at the end of an axon
- releases chemicals called
neurotransmitters
metaphor:
Think of the synapse as a river that blocks a road. A
grocery truck arrives at one bank of the rover, crosses
ferry and continues its journey to market. Similarly, a
message in the brain is ferried across the synapse by a
neurotransmitter, which pours out information contained in
chemicals when it reaches the other side of the river.
2. dendrites- carries signals toward
myelin sheath layer of fat cells, encases many axons.
insulates axons
helps critical signals travel faster down
the axon.
myelination involved in providing energy to neurons and
in communication
2 significant ways on how neurons change:
1. myelination the process of encasing axons with fat cells
- begins prenatally and continues after birth,
even into adolescence
2. expansion of dendritic connections
- facilitates the spreading of neural pathways

Synaptic overproduction:
1. visual cortex fourth postnatal month, followed by a
gradual retraction until the middle to end of the preschool
years.
2. hearing and language later
3. prefrontal cortex higher level of thinking and selfregulation occur
- 1 year of age
- it is not until the middle to late
adolescence that the adult density of the synapses is
achieved.
Pace of myelination (speeds up neural transmission):
1. visual pathways occurs after birth
- com: in the first six month
2. auditory completed until the 4 or 5 years of age
frontal lobes immature in the newborns
NOTE:
As neurons in the frontal lobes become myelinated and
interconnected during the first year of life, infants
develop an ability to regulate their physiological
states.
Prefrontal region of the frontal lobe has the most
prolonged development of any brain region, with
changes detectable at least into the emerging adulthood.
cognitive skills - do not emerge until the first year of life

EARLY EXPERIENCES AND THE BRAIN


NOTE:
Children who grew up in a deprived environment MAY
have depressed brain activity.
Deprived environments are reversible
The brain demonstrates both reversibility and
resilience.
Repeated experiences wires the brain.
Experiences determine how connections are made.
Before birth, it appears that genes mainly direct basic
writing patterns.
After birth, the inflowing stream help shape the brains
neural connections.

SLEEP
sleep consumed more of an infants time
18 hours a day newborns sleep
10 to 21 hours range of newborns sleeping time

Synaptic connections:
Nearly twice as many of these connections are made
as will ever be used.
The connections that are used become strengthened
and survive, while the unused ones are replaced by
other pathways or disappear, these connections will be
pruned

NOTE:
Infants vary in their preferred times of sleeping and their
patterns of sleep.
Total amount of time (10 to 21 hours) is consistent.
night walking most common infant sleep-related problem

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

Factors of infant night walking:


excessive parental involvement
intrinsic factors
o
daytime crying
o
fussing
extrinsic factors
o
distressed
o
separated from the mother
o
breastfeeding
o
sleeping with parents in their bed
CULTURAL VARIATIONS INFLUENCE SLEEPING PATTERN
Kipsigis culture, Kenya
United States
night:
sleep with mothers
nurse on demand
day:
strapped to mothers back
3 hrs longest sleep
8 or more hrs of sleep

SIDS SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME


SIDS infant stop breathing, dies at night without an apparent
cause.
- highest cause of infant death
- 2 to 4 months of age
sleep on their backs reduce SIDS
- impairs the infants arousal from sleep
and restricts infants ability to swallow effectively.
9 RISK FACTORS OF SIDS:
1. Less likely to occur in infants who use a pacifier when
asleep.
2. Less likely to occur to infants who sleep in a bedroom
with a fan.
3.
4.
5.

REM SLEEP
REM sleep eyes flutter beneath the closed lids.
Non-REM sleep eye movement does not occur and sleep is
more quiet.

6.
7.
8.
9.

ADULTHOOD
1/5 in REM sleep
REM sleep: one hour after
non-REM sleep.
After REM : dreaming

INFANCY
1/2 REM sleep
Begin their life cycle with
REM sleep.
After REM: unknown

Why do infants spends so much time in REM sleep?


- REM sleep provides infants with added self-stimulation
and promote brain development.

SHARED SLEEP
United States and Great Britain
- infants sleep in a crib, the same room or separate room.
Guatemala and China
- infants share a bed with mother.
INFANTS BEDDING MUST PROVIDE FIRM SUPPORT AND
THAT CRIBS SHOULD HAVE SIDE RAILS.
Benefits of shared sleeping:
1. promotes breastfeeding
2. quicker response to babys cries
3. allows mother to detect potentially dangerous breathing
pauses

Low birth weight infants are 5 to 10 times more likely to


die of SIDS.
Infants who have siblings who died of SIDS. (2-4x).
Infants with sleep apnea (temporary cessation of
breathing in which the airways is completely blocked,
usually for 10 seconds or longer).
Prone to African American and Eskimo infants.
SIDS is common in lower SE groups.
SIDS is more common to infants exposed to cigarette
smoke.
SIDS occur more in infants with abnormal brain stem
functioning involving the neurotransmitter serotonin.

NUTRITION
1 year of age infants triple their weight and length by 50
percent

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS AND EATING BEHAVIOR


50 calories per day for each pound
- required infant consume
Development of motor skills:
1. suck-and-swallow movements with breast milk or formula
2. chew-and-swallow movements of semisolids
3. self-feeding : first year
NOTE:
Above 95th percentile of their age and gender on a
weight-for-height index : overweight
Between 85th and 95th percentile : at risk
Factors in increase of overweight infants:
1. poor dietary patterns
2. mothers weight gain during pregnancy
3. an infants is breast fed or bottle fed

The American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Infant


Positioning and SIDS
- thinks otherwise

Breast feeding reduces the risk of obesity

Cons:
1. promotes the risk that the sleeping mother will roll over the
baby
2. increases SIDS

human milk or alternative formula


- babys source of nutrients and energy for the first four to six
months

BREAST FEEDING VERSUS BOTTLE FEEDING

American Dietetic Association and AAP


- endorse breast feeding throughout the infants first year.

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

OUTCOMES FOR CHILD


1. gastrointestinal infections
2. lower respiratory tract infections
3. allergies
4. asthma
5. otitis media middle ear infection
6. atopic dermatitis
7. overweight and obesity
8. diabetes
9. SIDS

OUTCOMES FOR MOTHER


1. breast cancer
2. ovarian cancer
3. type 2 diabetes
4. lower incidence of metabolic syndrome
Women who are likely to breast feed:
1. mothers who work full-time outside of the home
2. mothers under age 25
3. mothers without a high school education
4. African American mothers
5. mothers in low-income circumstances
NOTE:
Intervention increased the incidence of breast feeding.
No psychological differences between breast feeding
and bottle feeding.
breast pump what mothers used to extract milk that can be
stored for later feeding of the infant when they are not
present.
Mothers should not breast feed:
1. when she is infected with HIV or any infectious diseases
that can be transmitted through her milk.
2. has active tuberculosis.
3. taking any drugs that can affect the baby.

MALNUTRITION IN INFANCY
NOTE:
Early weaning of infants from breast milk to inadequate
sources of nutrients cause protein deficiency.
Breast feeding is more optimal for mothers and infants in
developing countries, except for mother with HIV/AIDS or
those suspected of having HIV/AIDS.
tapioca or rice substitute for breast milk.
2 life-threatening conditions:
1. marasmus
severe protein-calorie deficiency and
results in a wasting away of body tissues in infants first
year.
infant becomes underweight and muscles atrophy.
2. kwashiorkor
severe protein deficiency
occur in 1 and 3 years of age
childs abdomen and feet are swollen with water

vital organ to collect the nutrients that are present and


deprive other parts of the body of them.
hair: thin, brittle, and colorless
behavior: listless

2
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
THE DYNAMIC SYSTEMS VIEW
maturation development comes about through the unfolding of
genetic plan.
DYNAMIC SYSTEMS THEORY
Esther Thelen
Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting.
Motor skills represents solutions to infants goals.
Universal milestones are learned through this process of
adaptation: modulate their movement pattern to fit a
new task by exploring and selecting possible
configurations.
Motor development is not a passive process.
Nature and nurture are all working together.
Many converging factors:
1. development nervous systems
2. body's physical properties
3. possibilities for movement, the goal the child is motivated to
reach, and the environmental support for the skill.
NOTE:
Infants explore and select possible solutions to the
demands of a new task.
They assemble adaptive patterns by modifying their
current movement patterns.
Steps to mastering a motor skill:
1. infant is motivated by a new challenge.
2. Infants tunes the movement to make them more
smoother and more effective.
tuning repeated cycles of action and perception of the
consequences of that action

REFLEXES
Reflexes
Built-in reactions to stimuli
Govern newborns movements
Automatic and beyond the newborns control
Genetically carried survival mechanisms
Allow infants to respond adaptively to their environment.
MOST IMPORTANT REFLEXES: (SURVIVAL)
1. Rooting reflex
When the infants cheek is stroked or the side of the
mouth is touched
Infants turns it head towards the side that was touched to
suck
2. Sucking reflex
When newborn automatically suck an object placed in
their mouth
To get nourishment
Self-soothing mechanism
Self-regulating mechanism
OTHER REFLEXES:

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
1. Moro reflex
Response to a sudden noise or movement
Newborn:
Arches its back
Throw back its head
Fling out its arms and legs
Grabbing for support while falling
Survival value for primate ancestors
Rooting and Moro reflex disappears: 3 to 4 months
REFLEX TO COMPLEX, VOLUNTARY ACTIONS:
1. Grasping reflex
When something touches the infants palms

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS


gross motor skills skills that involve large-muscle activites.

DEVELOPMENT OF POSTURE
posture dynamic process that is linked with sensory information
in the skin, joints, and muscles
TIME TABLE:
Weeks
hold their heads erect
lift their heads
2 months
Sit while supported
6 to 7 months
Sit independently
8 to 9 months
Can pull themselves up and hold to a chair
10 to 12 months
Stand alone

LEARNING TO WALK
NOTE:
Locomotion and postural control are linked in walking
upright.
Very young infants took more steps when they saw a
visual treadmill moving beneath their feet.
o Perception + action in dynamic systems theory
(assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting).
The key skill in learning to walk appear to be stabilizing
balance on one leg enough to swing the other forward
and shifting the weight without falling.
When infants learn to walk, they typically take small
steps because of the limited balance control and
strength.
o Importance or perceptual-motor coupling in the
development of motor skills.

Practice is important in the development of new motor


skills
Combination of strength and balancing required to
improve their walking skills.

THE FIRST YEAR: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT


MILESTONES AND VARIATIONS
NOTE:
The timing of these milestones may vary, and
experiences can modify the onset of these
accomplishments.
American infants never crawl on their belly or on their
hands and knees.

African Mali tribes: most infants do not crawl.

DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECOND YEAR


NOTE:
Toddlers become more motorically skilled and mobile.
motor activity vital to a childs development
13 to 18 months
Can pull a toy attached to a string
Use their hands and legs to climb up a number of steps
18 to 24 months
Walk quickly
Run swiftly
Balance on their feet in squat position
Walk backward without losing balance
Stand and throw a ball
Jump in place
African, Indian, and Caribbean cultures
- massage and stretch infants during daily baths
Jamaican and Mali mothers
- regularly massage infants and stretch their arms and legs
Gusii culture of Kenya
- encourage vigorous movements

FINE MOTOR SKILLS


fine motor skills
Involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger
dexterity.
Grabbing a toy
Using a spoon
Buttoning a shirt
2 types of grasps:
1. palmer grasp
Grip with the whole hand
2. pincher grasp
Grasp small objects with thumb and forefinger
Grip large objects with all of the finger of one hands or
both hands.
Four-month old rely on touch to determine how they will grip
an object.
Eight-month old rely on vision to determine how they will grip
an object.
Sticky mittens mittens with palms that stuck to the edges of
toys and allowed to infants to pick up toys.

3
SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL
DEVELOPMENT
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION?
Sensation information interacts with sensory receptors
Sensory receptors eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin
Perception interpretation of what is sensed.
- designed for action

ECOLOGICAL VIEW
Eleanor and James J. Gibson
Perceptual system can select from the rich information that
the environment provides.
ecological view perceive information that exists in the world
around us.
ecological connects the perceptual capabilities to information
available in the world of perceiver.

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
affordances opportunities for interaction offered by objects that
fit within our capabilities to perform functional activities.
visual preference method method used to determine whether
infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by
measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli.
habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after
repeated presentations of the stimulus.
dishabituation recovery of a habituated response after a
change in stimulation.

VISUAL PERCEPTION
VISUAL ACUITY AND HUMAN FACES
blooming, buzzing confusion
- Willliam James pov of the world
20/240 newborns vision accdg. to Snellen chart
- an object 20 feet away is only as clear ot the newborn
a it would be if it were 240 feet away from and adult with
normal vision
20/20 normal vision for adults
20/40 average vision of infants of 6 months of age
Snellen chart use for eyes examinations
MILESTONES:
Infants show interest to human faces soon after birth.
Infants spend more time looking at their mothers face 12
hours after born.
3 months:
Infants match voices to faces
Distinguish between male and female voices
Discriminate between faces of their ethnic grp.
3 to 9 months of age:
Infants focus more on faces in animated film and less on
salient background stimuli.
2 to 3 week old:
Infants prefer to look at patterned displays rather than
nonpatterned.
Bulls eye or black-and-white stripes > circle
Normal face > scrambled features

COLOR VISION
8 weeks:
Infants can discriminate colors.
4 months:
Have color preferences
Prefer saturated colors.

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY
perceptual constancy sensory stimulation is changing but
perception of the physical world remains constant.
perceptual constancy allows infants to perceive the world as
stable
2 TYPES:
1. Size constancy
Object remains the same even though the retinal image of
the object changes as you move toward or away from the
object.
Size as constant.
2. Shape constancy
Object remains the same shape even though its orientation
to us changes.
3 months:
Have shape constancy
Do not have shape constancy for irregularly shaped
objects, such as tilted planes.

PERCEPTION OF OCCLUDED OBJECTS

NOTE:
INFANTS PERCEIVE WHAT IS VISIBLE.
2 months of age:
Infants develop the ability to perceive the occluded
objects as a whole.
Learning, experience, and self-directed exploitation
via aye movement play key roles in the development of
perceptual completion in young infants.

DEPTH PERCEPTION
depth perception respond to differences in some visual
characteristics of the deep and shallow cliff, with no actual
knowledge of depth.
binocular cues develop by abou 3 to 4 months of age/
stereoacuity- fine-detail depth perception

OTHER SENSES
HEARING
NOTE:
Last two months of pregnancy fetus can hear
Fetus can recognize mothers voice
Changes in Hearing:
1. Loudness cannot hear soft sounds
- stimulus must be louder to be heard
2. Pitch perception of the frequency of a sound
- less sensitive to the pitch
- hear high-pitched sounds
3. Localization determine the general location from where the
sound is coming from.

TOUCH AND PAIN


NOTE:
Infants can feel touch and pain.
Circumcision third day after birth with no anesthesia

SMELL
NOTE:
Newborns can differentiate odors
The expressions of their faces indicate what they like and
what they do not like.

TASTE
NOTE:
Sensitivity to taste might be present even before birth.
4 months of age:
Infants prefer salty taste.

INTERMODAL PERCEPTIONS
intermodal perception ability to relate and integrate
information from two or more sensory modalities, such as
vision and hearing.

NATURE, NURTURE AND PERCEPTUAL


DEVELOPMENT
Nativists
Nature proponents
Perceive the world in a competent, organized way is inborn
and innate
Ecological view _ Eleanor and James J. Gibson
Empiricist
Emphasize learning and experience

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

Piagets constructive view


Infancy must await the development of a sequence of
cognitive stage for infants to construct more complex
perceptual tasks.

PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COUPLING
perceptual-motor coupling
- distinction between perceiving and doing
Esther Thelens dynamic systems theory
- explore how people assemble motor behaviors
Ecological approach
- discover how perception guides action.
NOTE:
Action can guide perception, and perception can
guide action. Action educates perception

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
CHAPTER 5: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN
INFANCY
Introduction
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist
Children: Lucienne, Laurent, Jacqueline

1
PIAGETS THEORY OF INFANT
DEVELOPMENT
ADAPTATION
adjusting to new environmental demands
PIAGET
Biology + experience
Child construct
Environment feeds information

COGNITIVE PROCESSES
SCHEMES
Schemes - actions or mental presentations that organize
knowledge.
- structured simple actions.

Coordination of sensation and action through


reflexive behaviors.
After, infants produces behaviors that resemble reflex in
the absence of usual stimulus for reflex
Rooting
Sucking
Grasping
Newborn suck reflexively when their lips are touched.

2) FIRST HABITS AND PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS


1 to 4 months
Coordination of sensation and two types of schemes:
habits and primary circular reactions
Habit reflexes that have become completely separated
from its eliciting stimulus.
Circular reaction repetitive actions
Primary circular reactions
- reproduction of an event that initially occurred by
chance
Infants body is the main focus
Sucking thumb

ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMODATION


assimilation- use their existing schemes to deal with new
information
- adapt to their surroundings.
accommodation - adjust their schemes to take new information
and experiences into account.
- look for a common ground

ORGANIZATION
organization grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into
a higher-order system

EQUILIBRATION AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT


disequilibrium cognitive conflict
- counterexamples to ones existing schemes
and with inconsistencies
PIAGET: an internal search for equilibrium creates motivation
for change.
Equilibration mechanism by which children shift from one
stage to another
NOTE:
Cognitive is qualitatively different in one stage compared
with another.

THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE


Sensorimotor stage
Birth to 2 years of age
Infants construct an understanding of the world by
coordinating sensory experiences with physical,
motoric actions.
Beginning:
Newborn have more than reflexes with which to work
End:
2 years-old can produce complex sensorimotor
patterns and use primitive symbols.

SUBSTAGES
SFSCTI : 1 4 8 12 18 24 MONTHS
1) SIMPLE REFLEXES
First month after birth

3) SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS


4 to 8 months
Infants become object-oriented, moving beyond
preoccupation with the self.
Infants schemes are repeated because of their
consequences.
Infants repeat reactions for the sake of fascination.
Secondary circular reaction
- action repeated because of consequences
Infants imitate simple actions that he or she can
produce.
Infants coos to make a person stay.

4) COORDINATION OF CIRCULAR REACTIONS


8 to 12 months
Infants must coordinate vision and touch, hand and eye
(intermodal perception)
Actions are outwardly directed.
Coordination of schemes and intentionality.
Second achievement presence of intentionality.
Infants manipulate a stick in order to bring an attractive
toy within reach.

5) TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS, NOVELTY, AND


CURIOUSITY.
12 to 18 months
Infants become intrigued by the main properties of objects
and by many things they can make happen to object
They experiment with new behavior.
Tertiary circular reactions

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
- schemes in which the infant purposely explores new
possibilities with objects.
Marks the starting point for human curiosity and
interest in novelty.

Space
Number sense
Object permanence and knowledge.

A block can be made to fall, spin, hit another object, and


slide across the ground.

6) INTERNALIZATION OF SCHEMES
18 to 24 months
Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols
Infants develop ability to form enduring mental
representations.
Symbols internalized sensory image or word that
represent an event.
- allows the infant to manipulate and
transform the represent events in simple ways.
An infant who has never thrown a tantrum before sees
playmate throw a tantrum; the infants retains in memory
of the event, then throws one himself the next day.
(deferred imitation)

OBJECT PERMANENCE
Object permanence objects continue to exist even when they
cannot be seen, touched or heard.

EVALUATING PIAGETS SENSORIMOTOR


STAGE
A-NOT-B ERROR
A-not-B error aka AB error
- infants continue to search for the initial location
of an object.
CAUSEs OF AB ERROR:
1. Due to failure in memory
2. Infants tend to repeat a previous motor behavior.

PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXPECTATIONS


intermodal perception ability to coordinate information from
two or more sensory receptors.
RESEARCH SUGGEST:
1. Infants develop the ability to understand how to world
works at a very early age.
2. Infants develop expectations about future events.
alternating sequence L R L R
unpredictable sequence L L R L
3. Infants did not develop expectations about where a
picture would be presented.
4. 4 months: infants expect object to be solid and
continuous.
substantial objects cannot move through them
permanent exist even when it is absent.
5. 6 to 8 months: infants learned to perceive gravity and
support.

NATURE AND NURTURE ISSUE


NATURE
Core Knowledge Approach
Infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge
systems.
Influenced by evolution (core knowledge)

Innate core knowledge domains form a foundation around


which more mature cognitive functioning and learning
develop.

APPROACH SUGGEST:
1. Infants have sense of number.
2. Infants can distinguish between different numbers of
actions, objects and sounds.
temporal lobe changes in types
parietal lobe changes in number
CRITICISM:
Infants are merely reacting to the changes in display that
violated their expectations.

CONCLUSION
Understand changes in cognition take place and the big
issue of nature and nurture.
Determining whether the course of acquiring information,
which is very rapid in some domains, is best accounted for
by an innate set of biases or by extensive input of
environmental experiences to which infant is exposed.

2
LEARNING, REMEMEMBERING AN
CONCEPTUALIZING
Luciennes feet Piaget hung a doll
Behavioral and social cognitive & information processing
approaches
- development is gradual

CONDITIONING
INFANTS CAN RETAIN INFORMATION FROM THE
EXPERIENCE OF BEING CONDITIONED.
Operant conditioning important to understand babys
perception
reinforcing stimulus increases behavior

ATTENTION
ATTENTION
Attention focusing of mental resources on select information,
improves cognitive processing on many tasks
4 months infants attend to an object
parietal lobe attention to an object or event.
orienting/investigative process
- process involves directing attention to where and
recognizing what
where locations in the environment
what objects and their features
sustained attention aka focused attention
- allows infant to learn about and
remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes
familiar.
3 years : 5 to 10 seconds of sustained attention

HABITUATION AND DISHABITUATION


Habituation
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated
presentation
Determines the extent to which an infant can see, hear,
smell, taste and experience touch.
Provides a measure of an infants maturity and well-being

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
Say the same word several times in a row
Dishabituation
Increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation
Sucking behavior
Heart rates
Length of time infant look at an object
NOTE:

When an object becomes familiar, attention


becomes shorter, and infants become more
vulnerable to distraction.

JOINT ATTENTION
joint attention individuals focus on the same object or event
- occurs at 7 to 8 months
ATTENTION REQUIRES:
1. Ability to track anothers behavior
2. Directing anothers attention
3. Reciprocal interaction
JOINT ATTENTION INVOLVES:
1. Caregiver pointing
2. Turning the infants head
3. Snapping ones fingers
4. Using words to direct attention
Gaze following follow eye movements of someone else.
- at 10 to 11 months
1 year old capture adults attention
7 to 8 months
Joint attention
10 to 11 months
Gaze following
1 year old
Capture adults attention
FREQUENTLY ENGAGE IN ATTENTION:
1. Infants say their words earlier
2. Develop a larger vocab

MEMORY
memory - retention of information over time
encoding information gets into memory
implicit memory memory without conscious recollection
- skills, routines
explicit memory conscious memory of facts and experiences.
NOTE:
Older infants showed more accurate and memory
and required fewer prompts to demonstrate their
memory than younger infants.
LINKED TO BABYS MEMORY DEVELOPMENT:
1. Maturation of hippocampus
2. Maturation of frontal lobes
infantile or childhood amnesia remember little from their first
three years of life.
NOTE:
Difficulty recalling event form their infant and early child
years becomes prefrontal lobes of the brain are
immature.

IMITATION
NOTE:
Infants can imitate a facial expression within the first few
days after birth.
Infants imitative abilities involve flexibility and adaptability.
Interplay between learning by observing and learning by
doing.
deferred imitation imitation occurs after a delay.

CONCEPT FORMATION AND CATEGORIZATION

categories group on the basis of common properties.


concepts ideas about what categories represent
categories & concepts help summarization
3 months of age - can group by appearance
NOTE:
Infants are more likely to look at a novel object than a
familiar object.
perceptual categorization based on similar perceptual
features.
conceptual categorization categorize by _______
BOYS INTENSE INTEREST:
1. Vehicles
2. Trains
3. Machines
4. Dinosaurs
5. Balls
GIRLS INTENSE INTEREST:
1. Reading books
2. Dress-ups

3
INDIVIDUALS DIFFERENCES AND
ASSESSMENTS
MEASURES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT
Developmental quotient
Arnold Gesell
Help sort out babies with normal functioning from ones with
abnormal functioning
Useful to adaption agencies.
Four categories:
1. motor
2. language
3. adaptive
4. personal-social
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Assess infant behavior and predict later development
Current version: Bayley III
Five categories:
1. motor
2. adaptive
3. language
4. cognitive
5. socioemotional
6 months:
1. able to vocalize pleasure
2. search for out of reach
3. approach a mirror
12 months:
1. inihibit behavior
2. imitate words
Fagan test of Infant Intelligence
Infants ability to process information in such ways as
Encoding the attributes of objects,
Detecting similarities and differences between objects
Forming mental presentations
Retrieving presentations

PREDICTING INTELLIGENCE
NOTE:
IQ pay attention to verbal ability.
Measures habituation and dishabituation

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
Habituation assessed at 3 or 6 months of age was linked
to verbal skills and intelligence assessed at 32 months
of age.

4
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

1. CRYING
signal distress
2. COOING
2 to 4 months
gurgling sounds
made in the back of the throat
express pleasure
3. BABBLING
first year
consonant-vowel combinations

GESTURES
EXAMPLES:
1. wild boy of Aveyron
2. Genie

DEFINING LANGUAGE
Language form of communication that is based on symbols
- spoken, written or signed
- highly organize and ordered
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Infinite generativity ability to produce an endless
number of meaning sentences using a finite set of
words and rules
2. Organizational rules way language works

LANGUAGE SYSTEMS
PMMSP
FIVE SYSTEMS:
1. PHONOLOGY
Sound system of language
Provides a basis for constructing a lare and expandable
set of words.
phenome basic unit of sound
- smallest unit of sound that affects meaning
2. MORPHOLOGY
Units of meaning involved in word formation
morpheme minimal unit of meaning
- part of a word that cannot be broken into
smaller meaningful parts.
3. SYNTAX
Way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and
sentences
THE MOUSE THE CAT THE KILLER CHASED KILLED
ATE THE CAT
4. SEMANTICS
Meaning of words and sentences
THE BICYCLE TALKED THE BOY INTO BUYING A
CANDY BAR.
5. PRAGMATICS
Appropriate of language in different contexts

Showing and pointing to draw attention


Pointing important index

FIRST WORDS
5 months of age recognize own name
13 months 50 words
5 months
Recognize own name
13 months
50 words
Receptive vocabulary
words the child understands.
Spoken vocabulary words the child uses.
First words:
1. Impo people
Dada
2. Familiar animals
Kitty
3. Vehicles
Car
4. Toys
Ball
5. Food
Milk
6. Body parts
Eye
7. Clothing
Hat
8. Household items
Clock
9. Greeting
Bye
Vocabulary spurt - rapid increase in vocabulary
TIMING OF VOCABULARY SPURT VARIES
Overextension tendency to apply a words to object that are
inappropriate for the words meaning
Underextension - tendency to apply a word too narrowly

TWO WORD UTTERANCES


Two-Word Utterences:
1. Identification
2. Location
3. Repetition
4. Negation
5. Possession
6. Attribution
7. Agent-action
8. Action-direct object
9. Action-indirect object
10. Action-instrument
11. Question
Telegraphic speech use of short and precise words without
grammatical markers.

BIOLOGICAL AND ENVI INFLUENCES


BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES

HOW LANGUAGE DEVELOPS


Frederick II selected newborns and threatened caregivers to
never talk to them.

RECOGNIZING LANGUAGE SOUNDS


THEY RECOGNIZE WHEN SOUNDS CHANGE, NO MATTER
WHAT LANGUAGE

BABBLING AND OTHER VOCALIZATIONS

100 YEARS AGO humans acquired language


Brocas area speech production
Wernickes area language comprehension
Aphasia loss of impairment of language processing
Language acquisitive device
- biological endowment
- detect certain features and rules of language
- theoretical

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
ENVIRONMENTLA INFLUENCES
BEHAVIORIST:
Language is a complex skill
Criticism:
Does not explain how people create novel
sentences
Children learn the syntax of their own language
even if they are not reinforced
Impo:
Particular language to be learned and the context in which
learning takes places can strongly influence language
acquisition.
Language is not learned in a social vacuum.
Childs vocabulary development is linked to familys SES
and type of talk that the parents direct to the children
Mothers who spoke more often = high vocab
Parents should read book to and with their kids.
Interaction view of language
- emphasizes that children learn language in specific context
Child directed speech
- language spoken in a higher piych than normal with simple
words and sentences.
STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE LANG. ACQUISITION:
1. RECASTING
Rephrasing what the child has said
Statements to questions
2. EXPANDING
Restating what the baby just said
3. LABELLING
Identifying names of objects

INTERACTIONIST VIEW
INTERACTIONIST VIEW
- both biological and experience contribute to language
development

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
CHAPTER 6: SOCIOEMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
Introduction

Non-Latino white mothers


- respond after their children become distressed.

Darius

EARLY EMOTIONS
17th month old
Mother is a landscape architect
Father is a writer
Fafa cares for him during the day
Spends one day a week at a child-care center because
they wanted him to get some experience with peers
and to give his father some time out from
caregiving

NOTE:
MANY AFTHERS ARE SPENDING MORE TIME WITH
THEIR INFANTS TODAY THAN IN THE PAST.

1
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2 classifications of emotions, accdg to Michael Lewis:


1) Primary emotions emotions that are present I
humans and other animals
- birth to six months.
Primary emotions:
Surprise
Interest
Joy
Anger
Sadness
Fear
Disgust
2) Self-conscious emotions
require self-awareness that involves consciousness
and sense of me
- 6 months to 24 months
Self-conscious emotions:
Jealous 18 months of age
- illustrates the complexity and
difficulty in indexing early emotions
Empathy
Embarrassment
Shame
Guilt
Pride

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
WHAT ARE EMOTIONS?
Emotions as feeling, or affect that occurs when a person is in
state or and interaction hat is important to him or her.
- involve an individuals communication with the
world.
Classifications of Emotions:
1) Positive
Enthusiasm
Joy
Love
2)

Negative
Anxiety
Anger
Guilt
Sadness

Other conscious emotions (involve the emotional


reactions of others when they are generated):
Embarrassment
Shame
Guilt
Pride
NOTE:

The structural immaturity of the infant brain make it


unlikely that emotions which require thought can be
experience in the first year.

BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES


Brain stem, amygdala and hippocampus
- play a role in distress, excitement, and rage.
Gradual maturation of the frontal region of the cerebral
cortex
- tied to the ability to regulate emotions

EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION AND SOCIAL


RELATIONSHIPS
NOTE:

Infants modify their emotional expression I response to


their parent;s emotional expressions

Emotions first language of communication

Reciprocal or synchronous
- interactions are mutually regulated

Social relationships provide the setting for the development of


a rich variety of emotions.

Cries and smiles first forms of emotional communication.

East Asian infants


- display less frequent and less positive negative emotions.
Japanese parents
- prevent their children form experiencing negative emotions

CRYING
- most important mechanism
- verifies that the babys lungs have filled with air
- provide information about the health of the newborns CNR.
3 types of cries:

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
1.

2.

Basic cry
- rhythmic pattern that usually consists: 1- of a cry,
2- followed by a briefer silence,
3- then a shorter whistle that is somewhat
higher in pitch than the main cry,
4- then another brief rest before
5- the next cry
- hunger incites the cry
Anger cry
- variation of basic cry in which more excess air is
forced through the vocal chords.

Stranger anxiety infant shows a fear and wariness of strangers


- emerges gradually
- shows up at 6 months of age in the form
of wary reactions
NOTE:

3.

Pain cry
- sudden long, initial loud cry followed by a breath
holding
- no preliminary moaning is present
- high-intensity stimulus stimulates the pain cry

SMILING
- critical as means of developinh a new social skill
- a key social signal
- John Bowlby captured th power of infants smiles.
2 types of smiling:
1. Reflexive smile
- a smile that does not occur in response to
external stimuli
- appears during the first month after birth
- appears during sleep
2. Social smile
- a smile that occurs in response to external
stimuli, which in early development is typically a
face.
- occurs at 2 months of age
Duchenne marker and mouth opening
- occur in the midst of highly enjoyable interactions and
play with parents
- 6 to 12 months

Separation anxiety fear and wariness of strangers


- appears at second half of the first
years life

Separation protest distressed crying when the caregiver


leaves
- appear at 7 to 8 months, and peaks
at 13 to 15 months

EMOTIONAL REGULATION AND COPING


NOTE:

Second year infants becomes aware of the social meanings of


smiles.

6 to 12 months
24 months

Duchenne marker and mouth


opening
Aware of social meanings of smiles

Anticipatory smiling communicate pre-existing positive


emotion by smiling at an object and then turning their
smile toward an adult.
FEAR
- one of babys earlies emotions
- appears at about 6 months of age and peaks at about 18
months
Abused and neglected infants
- show signs of fear as early as 3 months
NOTE:

Infants put their thumbs in their mouths to soothe


themselves.
Infants mainly depend on caregivers to help them
soother their emotions.
Caregivers help modulate their emotion and reduce
the level of stress hormone
Caregivers should soothe an infant before the infants
gets into an intense, agitated, uncontrolled state.
Infants redirect their attention or distract
themselves, in order to reduce their arousal.
2 years of age : toddlers use language to define
their feeling states and the context that is upsetting
them.
Contexts can influence emotional regulation.
Infants are often affected by fatigue, hunger, time of
day, which people are around them, and where they
are.
New demands appear as the infant becomes older and
parents modify their expectations.

TO SOOTHE OR NOT OT SOOTHE:


Caregivers quick, soothing
Caregivers
quick,
response to crying increased
comforting response is an
crying.
important ingredient in the
development of a strong
bond between the infant
and caregiver.

Infant fear is linked to guilt, empathy and low


aggression at 6 to 7 years of age.

Infants how less stranger anxiety when they are in


familiar settings.
When infants feel secure, they are less likely to show
stranger anxiety.
Infants are less fearful of child strangers than adult
strangers
They are also less fearful of friendly, outgoing,
smiling strangers than of passive, unsmiling
strangers.

Mothers who responded quickly when they cried at 3


months of age cried less later in the first year of life.
Parents should soothe a crying infant to develop a
sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver.

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
3. Effortful control
aka self-regulation
Includes attentional focusing and shifting,
inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity and
low intensity pleasure

TEMPERAMENT
Temperament involves individual differences in behavioral
styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding.
NOTE:

DESCRIBING AND CLASSIFIYING TEMPERAMENT

CHESS AND TOMAS CLASSIFICATION


Alexander Ches
Stella Thomas

3 basic types:
1. Easy child
- in positive mood
- quickly establishes a regular routines in infancy
- adapts easily to new experiences.

BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS AND EXPERIENCES


NOTE:

2. Difficult child
- reacts negatively
- cries frequently
- engages in irregular routines
- slow to accept change

Children inherit a physiology that biases them to have a


particular type of temperament.
Through experience they may learn to modify their
temperament to some degree.

BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES
Inherited temperament is associated with a
PHYSIOLOGICAL PATTERNS that includes:
1. High stable heart rate
2. High level of cortisol
3. High activity in the frontal lobe of the brain
4. Excitability of the amygdala

3. Slow-to-warm-up child
- has low activity level
- somewhat negative
- displays a low intensity of mood.
KAGANS BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION
Jerome Kagan
Focuses on the differences between a shy, subdued, timid
child and a sociable, extraverted bold child
Inhibition to the unfamiliar
broad temperament category for shyness
- 7 to 9 months of age
Inhibition sis stable from infancy through early childhood.
Continuity was demonstrated for both inhibition and lack of
inhibition
ROTHBART AND BATES CLASSIFICATION
Mary Rothbart
John Bates

3 dimensions:
1. Extraversion
Aka surgency
Includes positive anticipation, impulsivity,
activity level, and sensation seeking

sadness,

and

UNIQUE

Amygdala plays a role in fear and inhibition


Temperament biologically based but evolving aspect of
behavior
GENDER, CULTURE AND TEMPERAMENT
Gender- influences the fate of temperament
NOTE:

Argues that three broad dimensions best represent what


researches have to characterize the structure of
temperament: extraversion/surgency, negative affectivity,
and effortful control (self-regulation).

2. Negative affectivity
Includes fear, frustration,
discomfort
Children are easily distressed
May fret and cry often
Kagans inhibited children

Children should not be pigeon-holed as having only one


temperament dimension.
A good strategy is thinking that TEMPERAMENT AS
CONSISITING OF MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS.
The development of temperament capabilities allow
individual differences to emerge.

Mothers were more responsive to the crying of


irritable girls than to the crying of irritable boys.
The cultural differences in temperament were linked
to parent attitude and behaviors.

China behavioral inhibition

GOODNESS OF FIT AND PARENTING


Goodness of fit refers to the match between a childs
temperament and the environmental demands the child must
cope with.
Adjustment problems can be produced when there is lack of
fit
Parenting strategies to use on relation to childrens
temperament:
1. Attention and respect for individuality.
2. Structuring the childs environment.
3. The difficult child and packaged parenting programs.

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
Caregivers should be:
1. Sensitive to the individual characteristics of the child.
2. Flexible in responding to these characteristics.
3. Avoid applying negative labels to the child.

Autonomy builds as the infants mental and motor abilities


develop

PERSONALITY DEVELPOMENT
Personality enduring personal characteristics of an individual.

TRUST
Trust vs Mistrust
First stage of Erik Eriksons psychosocial theory
Infants learn trust when they are cared for in a consistent
and warm manner
Is not resolved once and for all in the first year of life.
Example
Children who leave infancy with a sense of trust can
still have their sense of mistrust activated at a later stage,
perhaps if their parents are separated or divorced
under conflicting circumstances.

THE DEVELOPING SENSE OF SELF


mirror technique ingenious strategy to test infants visual
self-regulation
MIRROR TECHNIQUE EXPERIMENT:
1. An infants mother first puts a dot of rouge on the
infants nose.
2. Then an observer watches to see how often the infant
touches its nose
3. The infant is placed in front of a mirror, and observes
and detect whether nose touching increases

2
SOCIAL ORIENTATION/ UNDERSTANDING
& ATTACHMENT
SOCIAL ORIENTATIONS & UNDERSTANDING
8 Relevant biological and cognitive factors:
SLIGCS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Social orientation
Locomotion
Intention
Goal-directed behavior
Cooperation
Social referencing

SOCIAL ORIENTATION
Face-to-face play caregiver-infant interactions when the infant
sis about 2 to 3 months of age.
- focus includes vocalizations, touch,
and gestures
- part of mothers motivation to create a positive
emotional state in their infants

WHY IMPORTANT?
Increased nose touching indicated that the infant
recognizes the self in the mirror and is trying to touch or
rub of the rogue because the rogue violates the infant
view of self.

NOTE:

2 years old children recognized themselves in the mirror

Still-face paradigm caregiver alternates between engaging


in face-to-face interaction with the infant and remaining
still and unresponsive.

Self-recognition infants develop such by 18 months of age


- self-understanding

NOTE:

INDEPENDENCE

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt


Important issue in the second year of life
Key developmental theme of the toddler years
Infants wants to do thing and learn things on their own.
It is important for parents to recognize the motivation of
toddlers to do what they are capable of doing at their
own pace.
Has important implications for the individuals future
development.

Frequency of face-to-face play interaction decreases


after 7 months of age as infants become more mobile.

Between 18 to 24 months of age, children markedly


increased their imitative and reciprocal play.
Coordinated actions of 1-year-old appear to be
coincidental
Coordinated actions of 2-year-old appear to be more
active cooperation to reach a goal.

LOCOMOTION
Gross motor skills- is the result of a number of factors including
the development of the nervous system, the goal the
infant is motivated to reach, and the environmental
support for the skill.

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

Locomotor skills- allow the infant to independently initiate


social interchanges on a more frequent basis.

INTENTION AND GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR


NOTE:

Joint attention and gaze following help the infant to


understand people have intention.

Joint attention caregiver and infant focus on the same object


7 to 8 months
10 to 11 months
12 months

ERIKSON
Physical comfort plays a role.
Physical comfort and sensitive care are key to basic trust
infants.
Infants sense of trust is the foundation for attachment and
sets the stage for a lifelong experience that the world will
be a good place to live.
BOWLBY
Newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment
behavior.
FOUR PHASES: 2 7 24 - on
1. Phase 1
Birth to 2 months

Joint attention
Follow caregivers gaze
Direct the caregivers attention to objects
that capture their interest.

Infants direct their attachment to human figures.


2. Phase 2
2 to 7 months

SOCIAL REFERENCING

Attachment becomes focused on one person,


usually the primary caregiver.
Baby learns to distinguish familiar from
unfamiliar people

Social referencing reading emotional cues in others to help


determine how to act in a particular way.
- better at social referencing in the
second year of life.
First year

Second year

3. Phase 3
7 to 24 months

A mothers facial expression influences


whether an infant will explore an
unfamiliar environment.
Infants become better at social
referencing.

Specifc attachment develops.


Baby actively seek contact with regular caregivers.
4. Phase 4
24 months and on

INFANTS SOCIAL SOPHISTICATION AND INSIGHT


NOTE:

The sophistication and insight is reflected in infants


perceptions of others actions as intentionally
motivated and goal-directed and their motivation to
share and participate in that intentionality by their
first birthday.

ATTACHMENT AND ITS DEVELOPMENT


attachment close emotional between two people
FREUD
Infants become attached to the person or object that provides
oral satisfaction
HARLOW
Infant monkeys from their mothers at birth; for six months
they were reared by surrogate (substitute) mothers.
One surrogate mother was made of wire, other of cloth.
Harlow frightened the monkeys, those raised by the cloth
mother ran to the mother and clung to it; those raised
by the wire mother did not.
BOTTOMLINE:
Feeding is not the crucial element in the attachment
process and that contact comfort is important.

Children become aware of others feelings, goals


and plans and begin to take these into account in
forming their own actions.
1
2
3
4

Birth to 2 months
2 to 7 months
7 to 24 months
24 months and so on

Human figures
One figure
Specific
Aware of others

Internal working model


a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship,
and the self as deserving of nurturant care.
- plays a pivotal role in the discovery f the links between the
attachment and subsequent emotional understanding,
conscience development, and self-concept.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTACHMENT


Strange Situation observational measure of infant
attachment in which the infant experiences a series of
introductions, separations, ad reunions.
- provide information about the infants
motivation and the degree to which the caregivers
presence provides the infant with security and confidence.
According to SS, babies are:
1. Securely attached babies
Use caregiver as a secure base

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.

caregiver in the room


Babies explore the room and examie the toys in it

Early secure attachment linked with positive emotional health,


high self-counselors and romantic partners in adolescence.

caregiver out the room


Mildly protest

THREE TYPES OF INSECURE ATTACHMENT:


1. Avoidant
2. Insecure resistant negative predictor of cognitive
development in elementary school
3. Disorganized attachment linked with externalizing
problems(aggression, hostility, opposition problems)

caregiver returns
Reestablish positive interaction
Resume playing with the toys inside the room

2.

Insecure avoidant babies


Avoids the caregiver
If contact is established, baby leans away
caregiver in the room
Engage in little interaction with the caregiver
caregiver out the room
Are not distressed

3.

caregiver returns
Do not reestablish contact
May turn their back on the caregiver
Insecure resistant babies
Cling to the caregiver
Resist her by fighting against the closeness
caregiver in the room
Cling to the caregiver
Will not explore the room
caregiver out the room

Insecure attachment at 18 was the occurrence of parental


divorce
Secure attachment and subsequent experiences
- linked with childrens later behavior and adjustment
CRITICISM:
Too much emphasis was place on the attachment bond
in infancy.
Infants are highly resistant and adaptive.
Genetic characteristics and temperament play more
important roles in a childs social competence.
It ignores the diversity of socializing agents and
contexts that exists in an infants world.
o
Infants in agricultural setting tend to form
attachment to older siblings.
Researchers recognize the importance of competent,
nurturant caregiving in an infants development
Short version of the 5-HTTLPR
- disorganized attachment style in infants develop.
5-HHTLPR - serotonin transporter

Cry loudly
caregiver returns
Pushes away if she tries to comfort them

4.

Insecure disorganized babies


Disorganized and disoriented
Babies appear dazed, confused and fearful
Babies must show strong patterns of avoidance
and resistance.

EVALUATING THE STRANGE SITUATION


NOTE:

It may be culturally biased


German infants are more likely to show an avoidant
attachment pattern because the caregivers
encourage them to be independent.
Japanese babies are resistant because their mothers
rarely let anyone unfamiliar with the babies care for
them.
Classification in every culture is secure attachment.

gene-environment interaction
- occur when mothers showed
responsiveness towards infants

low

of

secure attachment it reflects positive parent-infant relationship


- provides the foundation that supports
healthy socio-emotional development

CAREGIVING STYLES AND ATTACHMENT


Securely attached babies - have caregiver who are sensitive
top their signals and are consistently available to respond to
their infants needs
Insecurely attached babies caregivers tend to be unavailable
and rejecting
Resistant babes inconsistently available and are not very
affectionate
Disorganized babies caregivers often neglect or physically
abuse their babies.

INTERPRETING DIFFERENCES IN ATTACHMENT


Secure attachment provides foundation for the psychological
development

level

Securely
babies

attached

Sensitive to signals
Consistently available

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
Insecurely attached
babies
Resistant babies
Disorganized babies

Unavailable and rejecting

Inconsistently available
Not very affectionate
Neglect
Physically abuse babies

Maternal sensitivity - linked to attachment security in United


States and Colombia

3
SOCIAL CONTEXTS
THE FAMILY
Family constellation of subsystem a complex whole made up
of interrelated, interacting parts
defined in terms of generation, gender and role.
Subsystem a complex whole made up of interrelated,
interacting parts
- have reciprocal influences

understanding and becoming acquainted with


the baby,
resolving conflict, and
developing parenting skills.

RECIPROCAL SOCIALIZATION
Reciprocal socialization
- socialization is bidirectional
- children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children
mutual gaze aka eye contact
- engagement in variety of behavior increases
BEHAVIORS OF MOTHERS AND INFANTS INVOLVE:
1. substantial interconnection
2. mutual regulation
3. synchronization
parent-infant synchrony
- temporal coordination of social behavior
- 3 to 9 months of age: children were linked to self-regulation

HAVE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS ON EACH OTHER:


1. Marital relations
2. Infant behavior and development
3. Parenting

scaffolding parents time interactions so that infant experience


turn-taking with the parents.
- caregivers provide a positive reciprocal
framework in which they and their child interact.
- involves parental behavior that supports
childrens efforts, allowing them to be more skillful

Example of direct effect:


Influence of parents behavior on the child.

joint attention peek-a boo, turn-taking games

Example of indirect effect:


How the relationship between the spouses
mediates the way a parent acts toward the child.
Marital conflict
Marital conflict reduces the efficiency of parenting

MATERNAL AND PATERNAL CAREGIVING


NOTE:

Stay-at-home fathers were as satisfied with their


marriage as traditional parents, although they
indicated that they missed their daily life in the work
field.

THE TRANSITION TO PARENTHOOD


Parents face disequilibrium when they go through:
1. Pregnancy
2. Adoption
3. Separating

Aka pygmy culture Africa


- fathers spend as much time interacting
with their infants
maternal interaction center on child-care activities

Baby- places new restrictions on partners

paternal interaction center on rough- and tumble play

NOTE:

FATHERS ARE MORE INVOLVED IN CAREGIVING WHEN:


1. They worked fewer hours
2. Mothers worked more hours
3. Mother and fathers were younger
4. Mothers reported greater marital intimacy
5. Children were boys

Late pregnancy 3 years old


o Couples enjoyed more positive marital relations
before the baby was born.
There was an increase in marital satisfaction.
Being parents enhanced their sense of themselves
and gave them a new, more stable identity as a
couple.

CHILD CARE
Bringing Home Baby project
- workshop for new parents that emphasizes strengthening
the:
couples relationship,

PARENTAL LEAVE
FIVE TYPES OF PARENTAL LEAVE FROM EMPLOYMENT:
1. Maternity leave
Pre-birth leave is compulsory

Success isnt about winning. It is about staying in the game and not quitting, even if someone makes you quit.
6- to 8-week leave following birth
14-week maternity leave EU : 1922
2.

Paternity leave
Briefer than maternity leave
Important when a second child is born and the first
child requires care

3.

Parental leave
Gender-neutral leave
Follows a maternity leave
Allows either women or men to share the leave
policy or choose which of them will use it.
1998 EU mandated a three-month parental leave

4.

Child-rearing leave
Variation of parental leave
Supplement to a maternity leave
Longer than maternity leave
Paid at a much lower level

5.

Family leave
Covers reason other than birth
Can allow
o
Time off from employment to care for an ill
child or other family mother
o
Time to accompany a child to school for the
first time
o
Time to visit a childs school
14-week maternity leave EU : 1922

EU
US

E
16 weeks of unpaid leave
U
12 weeks of unpaid leave

Denmark unemployed mothers are eligible for extended


parental leave related to childbirth
Germany child-rearing leave is available to almost all parents

Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden


- have extensive gender-equity, family
leave policies for childbirth that emphasizes the contributors
of both men and women

VARIATIONS IN CHILD CARE


NOTE:

Increase in the number of child-care assignments


were linked to an increase in behavioral problems and a
decrease in prosocial behavior
Child-care quality makes a difference.
Infants from low-income families were more likely to
receive the lowest quality of care.
Higher quality of childcare was linked to fewer child
problems.

HQ CHILD-CARE: EHRE
1. Encourage the children to be actively engaged.
2. Have frequent, positive interactions.
3. Respond properly to the childs questions or request.
4. Encourage children to talk about their experiences,
feelings and ideas.
5. Providing children with a safe environment
6. Access to age-appropriate toys.
7. Participation in age-appropriate activities.
8. Low caregiver-child ratio.
HOW DOES QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF CHILD CARE
AFFECT CHILDREN:
1. Patterns of use
2. Quality of care
3. Amount of child care
4. Family and parenting influences.
STRATEGIES PARENTS CAN FOLLOW IN REGARD TO
CHILD CARE:
1. Recognize that the quality of your parenting is a key
factor in your childs development.
2. Monitor your childs development.
3. Take some time to find the best child care.