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EXERCISE 1 : CONTROL OF MICROBIAL GROWTH

A PHYSICAL METHODS OF CONTROL HEAT


Thermal death point- lowest temperature where bacteria are killed
Thermal death time shortest time of bacteria to be killed
MOIST HEAT
Method
1

Autoclaving / steam
under pressure

Bacillus stearothermophilus
- detect effectivitiy of
autoclave
- strip turns black
-

Boiling
-

Fractional/
tyndalization/
interminent

Inspissation

Action
Coagulation of
protein
Culture media

Coagulation of
protein
Kills only vegetative
not spores
Dental instruments.
Feeding bottles
Coagulation of
protein
Culture media that
cant withstand
autoclave

Germination spores
transformed into vegetative
cell then destroyed
- Coagulation of
protein
- Used with high
protein media
(which cant stand
autoclaving)
- Dorset egg medium,
Loffler serum,
Lowenstein jensen
HTST high temp short
time

Apparatus

Standard Condition

Autoclave

121C 15- 20 mins 15 psi

100C 10-20 mins


boiler
*timed when it starts to boil

100C for 30 mins for 3


consecutive days with
incubation
Arnolds sterilizer

Inspissator

*to allow bacteria to


germinate and to be killed
the following day

75C - 80C 2 hrs for 3


consecutive days

72C 15 s
LTH- low tem holding
5

Pasteurization

pasteurizer

60-63C 30 mins

UHT- ultra high temp


72-140-72C 3s
For dairy milk, alcoholic
beverages
DRY HEAT oxidation of cellular constituents of bacteria; less effective compared to moist heat because oxidation is
slower than coagulation

Method
1

Hot air

Open flame

Action
Oxidation
Glassware, petri dishes
Spore strip: green then black
Bacillus subtilis var. Niger
Burning to ashes
Needles, loops, inoculating needle (red
hot)

Apparatus

Standard Condition

Oven

160-180C for 1.5 2


hours

Bunsen
burner

Incenaration

Cremation

Burning to ashes
Waste products
Sputum cups, infected animals, wound
dressings
Cremate bodies with HIV

Incinerator