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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774
- 1875. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and
Debates, 1774 - 1875. Library of Congress, 1790. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.

This primary document shows the Naturalization Act, which said free white men of moral
character could become citizens. This was passed in 1790, and was a good piece of background
information for us.

Chinese Laborers, 1868. 1868. The Granger Collection/Universal Images Group, n.p.

This photo shows the large number of Chinese laborers that worked on the transcontinental
railroad. It was used in our website to show how even though most Chinese immigrants didnt
strike rich on gold, they found labor in other places.

Garrison, William Lloyd. Chinese Exclusion. The Advocate of Peace (1894-1920) 64.2 (1902):
3539. Web. 17 Jan. 2016.

This article is a primary source because it was written in that time period about the exclusion
acts. This article was by prominent writer William Lloyd Garrison, who had previously been a
leading advocate for abolitionism and later lobbied hard for social reform, shows a different
approach and opinion to the topic of Chinese exclusion. In this, Garrison argues against the
Chinese Exclusion Act, saying that it in invalid and unneeded. This is an important source
because it shows a side of the argument normally not seen from the public during that time.
Although the general opinion was that the Chinese were bad and unfit for citizenship, and that
the Exclusion Act was necessary and right, Garrisons article allows us to see a different side of

that argument and broaden our understanding of this controversy. Through this article, we are
better able to understand different public views.

Perkins, George C.. Reasons for Continued Chinese Exclusion. The North American Review
183.596 (1906): 1523. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.

This article is a primary source written in 1906 urging the continuation of Chinese exclusion.
George C. Perkins, the author of this article, was a California Senate member who was strongly
anti-Chinese. In fact, in 1880, he even proposed an official day of anti-Chinese demonstrations.
This article is his list of reasons for why the Chinese needed to be excluded. This was a
fascinating article to read, and we were able to see the public opinion that was so anti-Chinese.
Through this, we were able to have a more comprehensive view on this topic and also able to
attempt to understand the widespread anti-Chinese sentiment among the people, where that came
from, and the pressures that were being put on the government to pass even more anti-Chinese

Immigration from China, 1850-2008. 2008. Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of

Immigration Status, Washington, D.C.

This photograph is a graph depicting the number of Chinese immigrants that entered the United
States between 1850 and 2008 and was compiled by the Department of Homeland Security. We
used this graph in our website to talk about the legacy and future of Chinese immigrants after the
immigration acts.

Immigrant Labor, 1869. 1869. The Granger Collection/Universal Images Group, n.d.

This photo shows Chinese immigrants at work on the transcontinental railroad, showing both the
huge demand for labor and also ways the Chinese immigrants found work.

Keller, George Frederick. "A Statue for Our Harbor." The Ohio State University Cartoon
Research Library. San Francisco: Wasp, 1881. Print.

This cartoon was created after the huge influx of Chinese immigrants to San Francisco. This
cartoon clearly shows the anti-Chinese sentiment that was already brewing among the people,
and so it was used in our project to prove the hatred the Californians harbored for the Chinese

Lorenzo Sawyer. 1891. Stanford University Archives, Palo Alto.

This primary source photograph shows lawyer Lorenzo Sawyer from California, who was a
prominent defender of the Chinese along with another judge, Ogden Hoffman. This photograph
was used in our website.

Missouri: Chinese Labor. 1870. The Granger Collection/Universal Images Group, n.p.

This photograph shows many Chinese laborers at work on the transcontinental railroad, showing
how they found work in other areas other than mining.

Nast, Thomas. Pacific Chivalry. 1869. Cartoons of Thomas Nast: Reconstruction, Chinese
Immigration, Native Americans, Gilded Era, n.p.

This photo, originally a cartoon by Thomas Nast, was used in our project to show the antiChinese sentiment that was prevalent during that time.

N.d. California Digital Newspaper Collection. Riverside: UC Riverside, n.d. N. pag. Center for
Bibliographical Studies and Research. Web. 27 Jan. 2016.

This online database provides images of newspaper articles in California from 1846 to the
present. It is one of our most useful primary sources, as we are able to go through newspaper
articles from events and see public reactions and writings on them. Articles written within this
collection include events such as the Chinese Massacre and Chinese Protection Society, and
allow us to deepen our understanding of the public view. Having these primary sources at our
fingertips has been immensely helpful, and being able to use these images allows viewers to
broaden their knowledge over the topic. We are also able to further analyze the events when we
factor in public opinion.

N.d. Guide to the Chinese in California Virtual Collection. Berkeley: UC Berkeley, n.d. N. pag.
Online Archive of California. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This online database was a primary source filled with photographs, legal documents, and
information. It was immensely useful to us, as it contained documents from that time period and
allowed us to deepen our understanding through images. Many of these images and legal
documents were used in our final project. The photos here on Angel Island were especially useful
to us, and they were able to show the conditions we had previously only read about but now were
able to clearly see. They also provided us with images of the transcontinental railroad, a huge
part of the time period we were researching.

Railroad Construction 1867. 1867. The Granger Collection/Universal Images Group, n.d.

This photo is also of Chinese immigrants at work on the railroad. We used this photo in our
website to show ways these immigrants made a living in the United States.

ROCK SPRINGS MASSACRE. - The Rock Springs, Wyoming Massacre of 15 Chinese coal
miners by a mob of white coal miners on 3 September 1885. Contemporary American
newspaper engraving. Fine Art. Encyclopdia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 07 Feb

This image shows the massacre in 1885 of 15 Chinese coal miners, showing the deep-rooted
hatred against them by white Californians. This was used in our project to show the anti-Chinese

Saunders, William. East Gate Soochow. 1865. Hulton Archive/Hulton Archive/Getty Images/
Universal Images Group, n.p.

This photo shows a scene in the Taiping Rebellion, a main cause for Chinese to immigrant to the
United States. This was used in our project.

Soennichsen, John. All About Me. John Soennichsen, Writer. Weebly, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.

This article is on Mr. John Soennichsens personal website and is a biography written by himself.
It also includes a photograph.

The Only Way To Handle It, 1921. 1921. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

This photograph, originally part of an editorial cartoon published in 1921 and now saved in the
Library of Congress, showed public support and sentiment towards the 1921 Immigration Quota
Act. This photograph was used in our website.

The OAH Distinguished Lectureship Program. Organization of American Historians: Roger

Daniels. The Organization of American Historians, 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.

This website was a synopsis on a lecture done by Roger Daniels. We used it for a picture of Mr.
Daniels to put on our website, and also a quote about him.

Tiananmen Square, 1989 - 19891992 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. Tiananmen

Square, 1989 - 19891992 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. Office of the Historian,
Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State, 31 Oct. 2013. Web. 8 Feb.

This article was used for the photo within it. It is a primary source.

United States. Cong. Constitution of the State of California: Adopted in Convention at

Sacramento March 3d, 1879: Submitted to and Ratified by the People May 7th, 1879.
Cong. Bill. Sacramento, CA: BJ. D. Young, Supt. State Printing, 1881. Print.

This primary document was a bill passed in the California Congress in 1879. This bill covered a
variety of topics, including parts that stated that corporations were not allowed to hire Chinese
immigrants. This was a huge part of discrimination and anti-Chinese legislation, and helped us to
see how anti-Chinese sentiment was not just public opinion, but a large part of U.S. government
legislation. Seeing the facts laid out in front of us in an official congressional document allowed
us to have a more developed background on anti-Chinese legislation and sentiment, and also
helped us further analyze these events.

Warrior, William. My Night in the Wood House. Angel Island Immigration Station
Foundation. Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation, 21 Dec. 2009. Web. 10 Jan.

This article is by William Warrior on the night he spent in Angel Island. Mr. Warrior was one of
the people we interviewed, and we used this article for the photo and biography of him.

Secondary Sources

Angel Island Immigrant Journeys: Historical Background. Curriculum Guide. San Francisco:
Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation, 2004. Print.

This document is a curriculum guide produced by the Angel Island Immigration Station
Foundation, the official foundation behind the preservation and running of Angel Island today.
This document chronicles the impact this facility has had on American history, and the history of
the Chinese immigrants passing through it. Because of the huge amount of content and high
quality of information, this document was exceptionally useful to us. This document also
includes the legacy these Chinese immigrants had, even after the closing of Angel Island in 1940,
and how they affected the attitudes and legislation of the United States. It also has many primary
sources and first person accounts from Chinese immigrants, during the time Angel Island was in
service and after. Finally, it ends with information about the reopening of Angel Island as a
historic site. Because of all the content and information provided in this document, it has been a
great source of background information.

Angel Island Immigration Station. Museum. San Francisco, USA.

We had the opportunity to visit the Angel Island Immigration Station museum, which is standing
today in San Francisco. From this visit, we were awarded with a great deal of information and
pictures. The information provided here is both accurate and detailed, and extremely helpful in
our research and background. We were also able to interview Mr. William Warrior here, as he is a
volunteer at the station. He provided us with invaluable information and testimony. We were also
able to see first-hand the facility wed been researching and writing about, and apply our
knowledge to the actual station. Lastly, we were able to take many pictures of Angel Island,
many of which are on our website.

Asian Americans: Gold Rush Era to 1890s." Calisphere. University of California, 2016. Web.
14 Jan. 2016.

This website provides a very brief overview of Asian immigrants in the United States from the
Gold Rush to the 1890s. It tells about Chinese immigrants coming for the Gold Rush, and how
they later took other jobs to survive. It also briefly mentions the discrimination and violence
against the Chinese.

Baxter, R. Scott. The Response of California's Chinese Populations to the Anti-Chinese

Movement. Historical Archaeology 42.3 (2008): 2936. Web. 07 Jan. 2016.

This article provides an account of Chinese immigrants to Californias response to the antiChinese sentiment and movement, and tells of how they stood up for themselves and fought
back. Contrary to popular belief, which portrays most Chinese as passive and submissive during
this time period, Baxter argues that in fact most Chinese did stand up for themselves. This
provides a new and opposite view to the one we normally look at, allowing us to have a more
complete understanding of the situation and events that occurred during that time. This article
allows us to better analyze the reactions of the Chinese and see how the exclusion legislation
affected them.

Brimner, Larry Dane. Angel Island. New York: Children's, 2001. Print.

This book provided a clear overview of San Franciscos Angel Island, the main immigration
gateway for most Chinese immigrants in the 1900s. We were able to learn a lot of background
information from this book, such as the facilities and condition of Angel Island, as well as its
eventual opening as a state park. This book also told about Chinese discrimination, not just in the
detention facility but also once they had arrived, in labor and in culture. From this book, we
learned about how Angel Island was different from Ellis Island, and the exclusion acts that were
put in place in an attempt to stop Chinese immigration. We were also able to read about the
Chinese immigrants themselves, and their continued efforts to enter the country, through
coaching books and sometimes illegal smuggling. This book was extremely beneficial and

California Gold Rush (18481858). Open Collections Program: Immigration to the US,
California Gold Rush, 1848-1858. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, n.d.
Web. 2 Feb. 2016.

This source focuses on another reason why the Chinese migrated to the United States: the
California Gold Rush. The purpose of this article is to further investigate the reasons why
Chinese migrated to America. This article is very useful in helping us narrow down our topic to a
specific reason for Chinese immigration. It should be noted that this source is only an
introduction and does not provide very much description, however it is still a good starting point
for research.

Carson, Scott Alan. Chinese Sojourn Labor and the American Transcontinental Railroad.
Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) / Zeitschrift fr die gesamte
Staatswissenschaft 161.1 (2005): 80102. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.

This book covers the topic of the Chinese laborers on the transcontinental railroad. It considers a
variety of factors, such as what caused the Chinese to immigrate to the United States in the first
place, how their desperation for work and money combined with a lack of manpower resulted in
thousands of them working low-paying, dangerous jobs, and the racial prejudices that hindered
their progress. It also takes a look at the legacy these Chinese left, and how despite all the hatred
aimed towards them, they continued to stay and flourish. This book provided a detailed
description of the transcontinental railroad, and helped broaden our view of the pull factors that
caused so many Chinese to immigrate.

Cassel, Susie Lan. The Chinese in America: A History from Gold Mountain to the New
Millennium. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira, 2002. Print.

This book, by noted historian Susie Lan Cassel, was a volume of essays portraying two different
sides of Chinese immigrants in America. They were seen both as model employees and
foreigners, and it tells of the racial struggles and pressures that Chinese immigrants faced. This
book was helpful in allowing us to understand the clash of cultures that happened between
Chinese and white Californians.

Chang, Iris. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. New York: Viking, 2003. Print.

Iris Chang is a well known historian and author, most famous for her previous publication of The
Rape of Nanking. This is her third book, and it covers all Chinese immigration to the United
States. This book has been extremely useful and detailed, covering all sections from the Gold
Rush to the legacy these immigrants have left on the United States. She summarizes the reasons
why so many Chinese found themselves in California, and also talks about the struggles and
ethnic discrimination they faced. She clearly conveys the reasons why white Californians felt the
need to enact anti-Chinese laws, outlining the pressures and factors that led to this. This book has
been extremely useful and insightful, giving us not only a background but also diving deeper into
this conflict to unearth the motivations and struggles behind it. However, it is important to note
that although this book is filled with information, there is sometimes a bias to Changs words and
events are often exaggerated to paint the Chinese in a better light. However, because we are
aware of this, we are careful to view this book in a neutral light and extract information out of it
in an impartial way.

Chen, Jack. The Chinese of America. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980. Print.

This book uses government documents, photographs, and personal accounts to tell the stories of
Chinese immigrants. It details Chinese immigration extensively, even including accounts of the
early fishing industry on the west coast. This allows us to see immigration in a more personal
light, connecting it with average Chinese citizens looking for more opportunities and a better

future. This book tells in clear, concise terms the factors that made so many Chinese move, as
well as the life and struggles they encountered once theyd arrived.

CHINA AND AMERICA. New York Times (1857-1922): 5. Jul 15 1868. ProQuest.Web. 02
Feb. 2016.

This article very briefly discusses the Burlington Treaty, a treaty which stated that relationships
between the United States and China would be civil. The Exclusion Act of 1882 basically
repealed this act. However, judges such as Ogden Hoffman and Lorenzo Sawyer believed that
the Burlington Treaty was still the law, and that the Exclusion Act was the exception, leading
to them being active defendants of the Chinese. This article provided a good background for this

Chinese-American Contribution to the Transcontinental Railroad. Central Pacific Railroad

Photographic History Museum. Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum,
26 Oct. 2015. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

This article tells about the many Chinese immigrants that found work on the transcontinental
railroad, and how they helped build one of the most impressive projects at the time and had a
lasting impact on the United States. This also includes many quotes and firsthand recollections of
the Chinese working, which is extremely useful and informative to us. There are also many links
embedded into this website, allowing us to increase our information load. However, it is
important to note that because this website is sponsored by the Central Pacific Railroad
Photographic History Museum, it is possible it could be a little biased.

Chinese American Museum Los Angeles. Museum. Los Angeles, USA.

The Chinese American Museum Los Angeles was an extremely valuable resource in advancing
our research. The information it provided was comprehensive, spanning everything from the

earliest Chinese sojourners to contemporary Chinese America. The exhibits and pictures vastly
increased our knowledge and the photographs we took furnish our website, hopefully furthering
insight into our topic.

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web. 12

Jan. 2016.

This article, taken from the database ABC-CLIO, was tremendously helpful in understanding the
lives of Chinese immigrants once theyd arrived in the United States, and their response to the
very discriminatory laws that had been set against them. This article provided a clear, well
organized explanation of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, or the Six
Companies, one of the clearest examples of the Chinese fighting back and standing up for
themselves. This article helped further our understanding of how this discrimination affected
Chinese, and their response to it.

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882). American History. ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web. 03 Feb. 2016.

This article, taken from the database ABC-CLIO, an extremely reliable and easy source of
information, is a transcript of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. From reading this document,
we were able to further understand exactly what the exclusion act covered, which really helped
us deepen our understanding of the topic.

Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts - 18661898 - Milestones - Office of the
Historian. Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts - 18661898 Milestones - Office of the Historian. Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs,
United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2016.

This article, from the U.S. Department of State, provides a simple and basic overview on the
exclusion acts and immigration. Although it did not go in depth, it was a useful source for

background information. However it was a little limiting because it only provided a view of the
Americans and not of the Chinese emigrants.

Chinese Laborers Excluded from U.S. History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 25
Jan. 2016.

This popular history source offers a wide variety of articles relating to numerous topics in
history. This article will be used as a reference to why the Chinese migrated to America; it
addresses the reasons why they emigrated and their purpose. This allows readers to have deeper
insights on why the Chinese wanted to emigrate and what the benefits were of relocating.
However, this article does not address the exchange and exploration of the migration, it merely
just about why they were driven to migrate. This makes it somewhat limiting. However, overall it
is a useful source of background information.

Chinese Workers during the California Gold Rush. YouTube. YouTube, 28 Jan. 2015. Web. 5
Jan. 2016.

This video was used to emphasize how the Chinese found it difficult to become rich and survive
off gold mining. Instead, they usually had to find work and use their knowledge and talents to
survive. In this interview, a family member of a Chinese immigrant talks about how his
grandfather came over in search of gold but then realized he would live a better life if he worked
as a doctor, because he was a doctor in China before immigrating to the US. This video was
embedded in our project.

Colbert, David, ed. Eyewitness to America: 500 Years of America in the Words of Those Who
Saw It Happen. New York: Pantheon, 1997. Print.

This book was a compilation of works by people throughout history during important times.
However, because it covered the entire 500 years of American history, only one chapter in the
entire book was relevant to our topic.

Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850. Seattle:
U of Washington, 1988. Print.

This book, written by prominent historian Roger Daniels, was extremely useful to us in our
research and analyzation. Though it covers both Chinese and Japanese immigrants to the United
States, we used it for only the Chinese immigrants. This book covers the entire history of
Chinese immigrants, beginning from the Gold Rush and ending with the Chinese in America
today. It is a wonderful resource that provides a detailed, in-depth look at the factors that led to
one of the most discriminatory, repressive laws in the history of the United States, and how
Chinese immigrants were forced to live under that. It also covers the repeal of said law and how
that further affected Chinese immigrants. It also includes many first-hand accounts, and is easily
quotable. It is extremely easy to understand and beautifully written. Mr. Daniels has done a great
job putting history in an unbiased account, and the information provided is clear and concise. Mr.
Daniels also writes in footnotes that are immensely useful that lead us to other sources, which
gives us more information. This book gives us great context about our topic, and helps us further
understand the situation.

Daniels, Roger. Chinese Immigration to the United States. E-mail interview. 22 Jan. 2016.

This interview, conducted by Isabel Cheng over email to noted historian and author Roger
Daniels, was extremely useful and informative. Mr. Daniels was able to provide a clearer
background of the events that surrounded the Chinese exclusion act, and although much of the
information he provided was included in his book, hearing it from him in a more personal
interview shed it in a different light. Much of the information Mr. Daniels gave was helpful in
our application and analyzation of knowledge.

Daniels, Roger. Guarding the Golden Door: American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since
1882. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004. Print.

This book, again by widely acclaimed author and historian Roger Daniels, is a broad account of
all American immigration legislation and policy since 1882. It does not focus on any one group,
instead talking in generalities about the governments policies. This was one shortcoming,
because we got less information that hoped out of this book. However, this book proved to be
useful when it did talk about the Chinese policies. It was also able to put the Chinese exclusion
act in a broader context, and we were able to understand these policies interconnected with other
American policies.

Davis, Thomas J. Race Relations in America: A Reference Guide with Primary Documents.
Westport: Greenwood, 2006. Print.

This book provided a rich account of primary documents, detailing all the race relations within
America. These documents are insightful and allow us to truly understand the extent to which
race has shaped American history. One downside, however, is that because the book deals with
all race relations in America, it does not focus specifically on our topic. Therefore, the
information that was given that pertained exactly to our topic was quite minimal. However,
seeing the Chinese exclusion act among all other racial pressures in America allowed us to be
able to see the exclusion act as not a single act, but part of a broader movement and part of

FAQs. Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project. Stanford University, n.d. Web. 3
Feb. 2016.

This article, using a common question-and-answer format, provides a clear and detailed
background of Chinese workers on the transcontinental railroad. Focusing less on the factors that

resulted in so many Chinese being employed on the railroad and more on the conditions and lives
of Chinese workers once they were employed, this article provides us with a lot of information
previously unknown. It talks about the dangers and controversies the Chinese faced working on
the railroad. Though brief, this article is a wonderful source of information and provides a
fascinating account.

Freedman, Russell. Angel Island: Gateway to Gold Mountain. New York: Clarion, 2013. Print.

This book provided a close view of the facility that most Chinese immigrants arrived through,
Angel Island. In simple, concise terms, this book described the conditions that immigrants found
at the facility, and also revealed the difference between it and its Eastern counterpart, Ellis
Island. This last part was especially helpful to us, as it showed how the United States
immigration policy at that time was increasing discriminatory to the Chinese. This allowed us to
further analyze the situation and the factors that led to this, as well as the effects it had on both
the government legislation and the Chinese themselves. It provided us with a deeper
understanding of our topic. This book also included quotes and testimonials from Chinese
immigrants during our time period, which allowed us to see how real people were affected by the
laws put in place by the government, and how despite this, Chinese Americans are one of the
fastest growing ethnic groups in America today. Some of these quotes were also included in our
final project.

Gustaitis, Joseph Alan. Chinese Americans. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.

This book was a brief overview on the history of Chinese Americans, beginning with their first
immigration in the mid-1800s and ending with their impact on American culture and society and
the community today. This book was especially helpful in giving us background information on
Chinese immigrants as a whole, not focusing on any specific part. It even extended its
information past the exclusion act, talking also about Chinese Americans today and the impact

the Chinese have had in the country today. This book was very content based, and therefore an
extremely good source of information.

Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Chapel Hill: U
of North Carolina, 1998. Print.

Closing the Gate is Andrew Gyorys account of how race and politics played a part in the
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, one of the United States most ethnically discriminating laws
that affected thousands of Chinese. It tells the factors that led to this, from the mass exodus of
Chinese immigrants arrived in California as a result of increased job opportunities in California
and their need to escape the instability in China. It also tells about how most Californians looked
down on the Chinese, believing them to be yellow peril and that they were taking Americans
jobs. It shows how ultimately how all these pressures resulted in the governments passage of the
Exclusion Act. However, this book does not go much further than that act; it does not talk about
any later acts, or the repeal of this act, or how the Exclusion Act affected later legislation on
immigration or the legacy that Chinese immigrants left. Despite this, though, this book is still
immensely useful: it very clearly details each specific incident, painting them into a big picture
for the creation of the Exclusion Act.

History of Angel Island. Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation. Angel Island
Immigration Station Foundation, n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.

This article discusses how Chinese immigrants were forced to go through Angel Island before
reaching America, and how they were inspected and interrogated in often degrading manners.
This source allows views to grasp an idea on what it was like being a Chinese immigrant, the
difficulties they encountered and the discrimination they faced. However this source does not
include their life in America after Angel Island, only the small insight of going through Angel

Holder, Charles Frederick. Chinese Slavery in America. The North American Review 165.490
(1897): 288294. Web. 29 Dec. 2015.

This article tells about a part of Chinese history in America that is normally excluded or not
touched upon. Although Holder is a little biased on this topic, he generally provides a neutral
outlook on Chinese slavery in California among the new immigrants, including prostitution.
Although this does not fit perfectly with our topic, it was an extremely important piece of
background knowledge that allowed us to further understand the situation the immigrants were

Hom, Marlon K. Songs of Gold Mountain: Cantonese Rhymes from San Francisco Chinatown.
Berkeley: U of California, 1987. Print.

Although this book is more geared to immigrants from Hong Kong, it nevertheless shows the
struggle and discrimination that all Asian immigrants (especially those from China and Hong
Kong) faced. Included in this book are many translated songs that the immigrants sang, all filled
with sorrow and uncertainty. This illustrates the fear and worry that the anti-Chinese legislation
and sentiment caused them, and showed how all immigrants were affected. However, this book
does not go much further than that, it does not go deeply into the reasons why the immigrants
came to the United States or their lasting legacy.

Hsu, Madeline Yuan-yin. Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and

Migration between the United States and South China, 1882-1943. Stanford: Stanford
UP, 2000. Print.

This book was written by Madeline Y. Hsu, who is a professor of Asian American Studies at San
Francisco State University. Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home descriptively discusses the
challenges, discrimination, journey and life Chinese people faced during their migration and stay
in America, and provides an in-depth, insightful view on the situation. This book will be very

useful because it provides primary sources, data and scholarly writing on this topic, all of which
are used in our project.

Immigration and Its Opponents from the Gold Rush to 1965 (5.11). Immigration and Its
Opponents from the Gold Rush to 1965 (5.11). The Journal of American-East Asian
Relations 8.1/4 (1999): 152155. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.

This article, published in the Journal of American-East Asian Relations, chronicles the history of
American gatekeeping from the Gold Rush all the way to 1965. This article fits our time span of
Chinese immigration perfectly, and was therefore relevant and helpful for our topic. The
information in this was content-rich and clear, and really helped us mold our arguments and
thesis. However, it did not just talk about Chinese immigrants, but rather immigration as a whole.
While in some ways, this hindered us and made it harder for us to get information, this also
placed Chinese immigration in a bigger picture, on a broader scale, allowing us to see not only
our exclusion laws but American immigration and exclusion as a movement that affected all
different types of people.

Kanazawa, Mark. "Immigration, Exclusion, and Taxation: Anti-Chinese Legislation in Gold

Rush California." The Journal of Economic History 65.3 (2005): 779-805.ProQuest.
Web. 07 Feb. 2016.

This academic journal is written by Mark Kanazawa, who also has other articles relating to the
California Gold Rush and other ethnic discrimination. This article provides a helpful and
insightful background in this topic. This journal expresses the views on how the Chinese were
discriminated their immigration, and it elaborates on exclusion they faced and what the effects of
it were. This source will be used to further support the idea that Chinese People were
discriminated because of their race and were treated unjustly by the Americans. However, this
article does not offer the encounters and exchanges that occurred during their migration, it
mainly focuses on the discrimination of the Chinese.

Kristof, Nicholas D. Taishan Journal - The Wellspring of Chinatowns Still Bubbles Over. The
New York Times. The New York Times, 4 Nov. 1987. Web. 22 Jan. 2016.

This article, written by Nicholas D Kristof, a special to the New York Times, although published
almost three decades ago, is a great story about the Chinese American community over a century
after the first exclusion act went into place. This article tells about how most Chinese people in
the United States were doing well economically, and many often went back to visit their family
in Taishan. This shows the lasting legacy the Chinese have had, and are a clear indication that
they are an ethnic group that is here to stay. This article was very helpful in providing a
conclusion to our research.

Kwong, Peter, and Duanka Duana Mievi. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America's
Oldest New Community. New York: New, 2005. Print.

This book provides a comprehensive and exhaustive compilation of Chinese Americas history
and its roots. This book is broken up into well organized, easy to understand chapters or sections,
many of which are full of rich information essential to our research and project. Written by
esteemed historians Peter Kwong and Duanka Duana Mievi, this book provided us with
detailed background of our topic, ranging from conditions in China that the immigrants had left
behind, all the way to the modern day communities this ethnic group resides in. Because it
covers such a wide range of topics, though, it is often difficult to find information within this
book. However, the information that is found is irreplaceable and extremely useful to both
increase our context of the situation and help our analysis. This book has been essential to our

Lai, H. Mark., Genny Lim, and Judy Yung. Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on
Angel Island, 1910-1940. Seattle: U of Washington, 1980. Print.

This is a book of translated poetry written by and quotes said by Chinese immigrants that arrived
and were detained on Angel Island between 1910 and 1940. The poetry and words of these
immigrants showed their desperation and worry and allowed us to further understand the
situation most of these immigrants were in. We used many of the poems printed in this book to
allow viewers to more deeply understand how immigrants at Angel Island felt. We found this
extremely useful, especially became most of these poems are inaccessible anywhere else.

Lary, Diana. Chinese Migrations: The Movement of People, Goods, and Ideas over Four
Millennia. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. Print.

This book covers the history of China through the migration, a fascinating and innovative way of
seeing a countrys past. However, because it offers a broad overview of Chinas history, it does
not focus very much on our topic. There were a few pages that it did, though, helped us with

Lee, Erika. At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943.
Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina, 2003. Print.

Erika Lee has a PHD from the university of California at Berkley and teaches history at the
University of Minnesota. She also has written several books on Chinese immigration. This book
provided a very detailed description of the immigration process. It covered everything, from the
conditions immigrants found themselves in, to specific immigration officers and the policies that
they upheld. It included testimonies and personal recollections from immigration officers and
immigrants, allowing us to further our understanding of this time period. Although the topic
covered in this book was quite narrow, it fit the topic we were researching exactly, and therefore
was extremely beneficial to us. This book was very informative, covering all sides of the
immigration process, and opening our eyes to the events that occurred under the immigration
acts. This book also touched upon the legacy the Chinese immigration acts had, and how they
affected later legislation within the United States. This provided to be infinitely useful to us

during our research process. Although the book briefly touched on the prejudices the Chinese
faced, it did not detail the interactions between the Chinese and the Americans.

Lee, Erika. The Chinese Exclusion Example: Race, Immigration, and American Gatekeeping,
1882-1924. Journal of American Ethnic History 21.3 (2002): 3662. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.

Erika Lee has written numerous articles and books on Chinese immigration and the Chinese
Exclusion Act. She is a well known historian in this field and often writes on the reasons why
such legislation occurred, and how that affected the rest of American history. This particular
book links race and immigration, talking about how the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the
first time the United States used race as a basis for exclusion. This is a pivotal moment in
American history, and this book delves deep into that topic. This was especially useful for us in
our analysis of the topic. This book didnt just give us facts, it also made assertions and
connections which allowed us to form a thesis and argument based on race and immigration.
This book proved to be essential to our project.

Lei, Daphne. The Production and Consumption of Chinese Theater in Nineteenth-Century

California. Theater Research International 28.3 (2003): 289-302.ProQuest. Web. 13
Feb. 2016.

This article comes from the database Proquest and is written by Daphne Lei. This article talks
about the exchange of Chinese theater in California during the Chinese diaspora. This article
covers one of the NHD themes, exchange; Chinese immigrants introduced their form of theater
to America. This shows that their migration was not only being discriminated, but they were able
to impact the culture of America with their own arts and ideas. This article only covers the topic
of theater being exchanged so it would be useful to find other articles with more examples of
trade and exchange.

Lo, Shauna. Chinese Women Entering New England: Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files,
Boston, 1911-1925. The New England Quarterly 81.3 (2008): 383409. Web. 21 Jan.

This book is by Shauna Lo, a professor at the University of Boston in Massachusetts. This book
covers a part of Chinese immigration often skipped over or deemed unimportant: the women.
This is not only an account of the Exclusion Acts and how they affected the Chinese, this is an
account of a particular group of Chinese - the women - that are often not mentioned in texts.
Because of its rarity, that makes this book extremely useful to us. We are able to deepen our
understanding by not only learning about the most common group, bachelors, but also know
about the minorities. This is extremely important for us to know, and so this book is invaluable.
This book also includes many case files from Chinese women attempting to enter the country
during the exclusion period. These primary sources allow us to understand the situation and see a
first-hand account of the exclusion act playing out.

McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Chinese American Portraits: Personal Histories, 1828-1988. San
Francisco: Chronicle, 1988. Print.

This book includes personal recollections from Chinese immigrants between 1828 and 1988.
This book was useful to us, because it made the events so much more intimate and emotional,
and we were able to clearly track the effect the anti-Chinese laws had on average people.
However, because this only covered personal recollections and quotes, there were less actual
information than we had hoped.

Newman, Jason. "Asian Americans in U.S. history." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2016. Web.
13 Jan. 2016.

ABC-CLIO is a database that is composed of articles written by scholars. It provides scholarly

insight and evidence on historical topics. This article briefly describes the purpose of the Chinese

immigration to America, where they settled and the United States reactions. This article has
articles that are attached to it that provide deeper insight and information of specific topics. This
article will be beneficial because it will provide reasoning for why the Chinese migrated to
America and the effect it had on their lives and the lives of Americans.

Novas, Himilce, Lan Cao, and Rosemary Silva. "Chinese Americans. Everything You Need to
Know about Asian-American History. New York: Plume, 2004. 1-85. Print.

This book, using a simple question-and-answer format, proved to full of information and
extremely useful to us during our research process. The three authors cover a variety of topics,
beginning from the origins of Chinese immigrants, including their reasons for leaving their
country and coming to the United States, the conditions on the trip across the ocean and how
they paid for it, and the life they were greeted by once they had arrived. It even talked about
customs in use by the Chinese people. The concise, clear terms used in this book made it
informative and helpful, and we were able to find a wide variety of topics in this book that
enhanced our final project.

Soennichsen, John Robert. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2011.

This book covered from the Gold Rush to the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, meaning it
did not cover further legislation or the legacy that happened afterwards. However, it gave us
detailed explanations and delved deep into the time period that it did cover, proving to be
infinitely useful to us. It went over specific examples and reasons why the Chinese travelled to
the United States, such as the Panic of 1873, and also specific people like Denis Kearney, who
was extremely aggressive against Chinese. These people and events were usually not mentioned
or mentioned very briefly in most other sources we found, so this book was extremely useful in
providing new information and giving us more insight on our topic. The content was insightful
and informative.

Soennichsen, John Robert. "Chinese Immigration to the United States." E-mail interview. 31 Jan.

This interview to widely-acclaimed author John Soennichsen, who has previously written many
books on the topic of Chinese immigration, especially during and after the immigration exclusion
laws, was conducted by Isabel Cheng over email. This proved to be extremely helpful. Mr.
Soennichsen provided us with lengthly, insightful responses that were clear and easy to
understand. Mr. Soennichsen was able to give us a historians perspective about the events in a
more personalized, intimate way than books did. This also helped us further analyze the situation
and make our own conclusions based on facts. We are very grateful for Mr. Soennichsens
response and time.

Some State of California and City of San Francisco Anti-Chinese Legislation and Subsequent
Action. Curriculum Guide. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

This curriculum guide, though simple, effectively details all the legislation passed by California
that was discriminatory towards Chinese. This gave us a simple timeline to see all the negative
acts thrown upon the Chinese.

Takaki, Ronald T., and Rebecca Stefoff. Ethnic Islands: The Emergence of Urban Chinese
America. New York: Chelsea House, 1994. Print.

This book, one out of two written by Ronald Takaki and Rebecca Stefoff, explains the history of
Chinese Americans, beginning from the very first Gold Mountain Men, explaining the
discrimination and hatred they faced from native Californians, but also how they managed to rise
above that and both stand up for themselves and eventually flourish in the United States. It maps
out their journey from the boats that took them across the ocean to the second wave of
immigrants, and finally to the Chinatowns that are still alive and well today. This book provides

an insightful look on the repressive and discriminatory acts that the Chinese struggled under, as
well as the lasting legacy they had on the United States. This book was extremely detailed and
useful for us.

Takaki, Ronald T., and Rebecca Stefoff. Journey to Gold Mountain: The Chinese in 19thCentury America. New York: Chelsea House, 1994. Print.

This is a book written by noted professor Ronald Takaki, who worked at the University of
California at Berkeley before his death in 2009. Takaki was a professor of ethnic studies, and his
book details the reasons why so many Chinese immigrants arrived to California, and explains the
conditions they found there as well as their response. It provides a thorough background and
explains the factors that led the Chinese to the west coast of the United States, as well as the
struggles they encountered. This book includes many personal recollections by Asian Americans,
allowing us to fully understand what they went through. He covers the many types of
immigrants, not stopping at just bachelors looking for money but also scholars and prostitutes.
This book was extremely helpful in providing a detailed background at the topic we covered. We
also used many of the quotes within it.

Tchen, John Kuo Wei, and Dylan Yeats. Yellow Peril!: An Archive of Anti-Asian Fear. New York:
Verso, 2014. Print.

This book, by two professors at New York University, traces the anti-Asian sentiment in the
United States from its beginning to the present, beginning in the Enlightenment era and even
manifesting in the 2012 presidential elections. This book clearly illustrates how anti-Asian
sentiment has been a big part of American history, and how the Chinese exclusion acts were
simply part of a bigger picture. This was helpful to us in seeing the exclusion acts on a bigger
scale, and also allowed us to better analyze the information.

Warrior, William. Chinese Immigration to the United States. Personal interview. 30 Dec.

We had the honor of interviewing an Angel Island volunteer, William Warrior, for our project.
Mr. Warriors grandmother in law was a paper daughter at Angel Island, and therefore Mr.
Warrior has a personal connection to this topic and feels very strongly about it. Mr. Warriors
answers to our questions were in depth and well thought out, and really enhanced our
understanding of our topic. It was also interesting and relevant to hear the story of Chinese
immigration from someone who personally knew someone else who had gone through it. We
were able to better see how these laws had affected average Chinese people.

Werner, Emmy E. Passages to America: Oral Histories of Child Immigrants from Ellis Island
and Angel Island. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2009. Print.

This book was filled with oral accounts of child immigrants to both immigration facility. This
was a fascinating read, since it allowed us to see how real people had gone through and been
affected by these laws. It brought a more emotional aspect into our project. Also, many of the
quotes in this book were immensely useful to both our understanding and analysis of the topic.
However, because much of the book was filled with recollections from people on Ellis Island,
not Angel Island, it wasnt quite as useful as we had hoped.

Wu, Nina. A Retelling of Gold Rush History: The Lives of Chinese Miners. Inside Oakland.
UC Berkeley, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2016.

This article was originally a promotion for the Oakland Museum of Californias historical exhibit
(GOLD Rush! Californias Untold Stories) but in fact proved to be very helpful and informative.
This article gave us a brief background of the Chinese immigrants that arrived for the Gold Rush.
It also spoke briefly about the racial tensions that evolved, and how many Chinese went on from
miners to opening laundries and other businesses. However, this article did not spend very much

time talking about the factors that caused the Chinese to immigrate to California, nor did it talk
about the impact the racial tensions had.

Wu, Yuning. Chinese Exclusion Act | United States [1882]. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 4 Sept. 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

Britannica is an encyclopedia that offers reliable, accurate information that is written by experts.
This specific article is written by Yuning Wu. This article provides information on how the
Chinese Exclusion Act affected the Chinese immigrants, communities and families. This article
provides insight on the Exclusion Act and another source to further develop the understanding of
the act. However despite the information on the act itself, it neglects to provide the Unites States
reasoning for the act.

Yung, Judy, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark. Lai, comps. Chinese American Voices: From the
Gold Rush to the Present. Berkeley: U of California, 2006. Print.

This book, compiled and edited noted historians and authors Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and
Him Mark Lai, is a collection of recollections and words by Chinese Americans who went
through events beginning from the Gold Rush all the way to the present day, with comments by
the three authors. This book allows us to see the events we researched in a more intimate,
personal manner, and we saw how all Chinese immigrants were affected. This book covered
more than just the immediate Exclusion Act, also taking accounts from after the Exclusion Act,
which was very helpful when thinking about legacy. However, it is important to note that many
of these recollections could be biased.

Yung, Judy, and Him Mark Lai. Him Mark Lai: Reclaiming Chinese American History. The
Public Historian 25.1 (2003): 5169. Web. 03 Feb. 2016.

This book is an interview between Him Mark Lai and Judy Yung, two of the most highly
esteemed historians in this area. In this book, Him Mark Lai reflects on his own past and the
history of Chinese Americans. While this book was very well written and interesting, it didnt fit
very well with our topic and wasnt as helpful as we had hoped.

Zhou, Min. Contemporary Chinese America: Immigration, Ethnicity, and Community

Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2009. Print.

This book covers less the causes of immigration and how that affected Chinese immigrants, and
more the Chinese American community today. However, certain chapters did pertain to our topic,
such as the discussion of the Second Wave of immigrants after World War II, and the legacy
these Chinese immigrants left.