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Attitudes are evaluations people make about objects, idea, events or other people.Attitude can
be in a way of positive or negative.Unique attitudes are conscious beliefs that can guide
decisions and behavior.Implicit attitudes are unconscious beliefs that can still influence decisions
and behavior.Attitude consists of three components which consists of cognitive, emotional, and
behavioral.Affection is explained based on one individuals emotion of how one feels.Behavioral
is what one does based on action.
Cognitive means knowledge of what one knows.Behavior does not always reflect
attitudes.However, attitudes do determine behavior in some situations.As an example, Mark has
an attitude that smoking is unhealthy.When he is at home, he does not smoke tobaccos at
all.However when he is at parties, he starts to smoke tobaccos.Behavior is also guided by
attitudes that come to mind easily.For an example, Jason has an attitude of mistrust and
annoyance toward telemarketers, he thinks that telemarketers are scammers, so he immediately
hangs up the phone whenever he realizes he is on the phone with marketers.
Attitude formation occurs in a person through a variety of ways.Attitudes and behaviors start
forming the day we are born and our environment is the main stimulus from which we
learn.Attitudes can form from classical conditioning.An example would be a child seeing their
parent frown when they encounter a homeless person or a disabled person.This action and the
stimulus of the homeless person from a vision in the childs mind and they may develop a
general negative attitude about homeless person.Another way in which attitudes can form is by
instrumental methods.This would be when someone is praised for showing an appropriate
attitude and punished for having an inappropriate attitude.Attitudes can also be formed by
observations of the people and environment.Observational attitude formation can be direct such
as observing parents behavior which is a role model to them or indirect which is based of social

An attitude formed through affect has a strong emotional component.Processes involved in
affective formation can be considered as conditioning.Clearly,people have attitudes, preferences,
likes and dislikes.Attitudes serves a purpose.It gives benefits.Attitudes serves a function in that
attitudes promote our basic survival in the most simple terms.For example,having a negative
attitude towards dark alleys servers as a safety mechanism because it is possible that something
bad could happen in a dark alley such as getting robbed.On the other hand, a positive attitude
towards work helps us to get along with others.It improves our social and economic position, and
live a higher quality life.Two other functions of attitudes are value-expressive and egodefensive.Ego defensive attitudes serves as defense mechanism when an individual encounters a
potential threat to their positive sense of self-concept.
For a few examples on how attitude is formed, one of the biggest influence of attitude on a
five year old boy is by their parents,Children see, they do.This has to be taken as a serious
matter.Some parent doesnt show a role model in front of their childrens. As for an example,
some parents curse in front of their children.This triggers a negative behavior of the kid.The kid
wouldnt know that it is wrong to curse so it will be used against his friends which he thinks that
he is not offending anyone he talks to.The other example is smoking, when childrens are in
public, they will be exposed to a lot of situation.Some kids will be exposed to strangers smoking
or the way they behave.In advance, kids will think that it is normal to smoke tobaccos.In the
future, childrens exposed to negative surroundings will tend to follow negative attitudes.
For my personal experience based on attitudes, when I was five years old, I love to watch
action movie such as Rocky or Terminator.As I did not know that hitting or hurting someone
in other ways is a bad and negative attitude.I dont watch cartoons as I feel that cartoon doesnt
interest me.This negative attitude made me think that it is just a normal thing to happen.So I
would always pick a fight with my friends.I tend to use violence to solve problems because I
enjoy it.One day I got into a serious trouble fighting with my friends.Because of this violence I
almost got kicked out of school.After that incident, I realize that it is very wrong to use violence
against people especially against women.This gave me heavy blow as it is a lesson that I need to
In conclusion, attitude is formed based on the exposure of surrounding to an individual.

(759 words)
Social loafing refers to the concept that people are prone to give less effort on a task if they are
in a group than when they work alone so that they could achieve something easily.The idea of
working in groups is to be seen as a way to work together and improve the accomplishment of a
task by combining the skills and talents of the individuals in that group.Social loafing has
negative consequences for both the group and also individuals in the group.The teamwork and
unity of a group is affected when certain individuals are seen as weak contributors to the group

purpose such as group assignments.It tends to split the group a lack of unity.For example, if only
seven of the ten members of a team are doing most of the work, it will create two groups which
is in group for those members who contributes work and out group for those members that did
not contribute as much or none.
Conflicts can easily build between the two factions which causes less productivity and more
tension than a cohesive group would experience.Individuals in a group might also be affected by
social loading.While there is a huge difference of effort between members of a group.Individuals
starts to compare their own effort based on what others are doing instead of maintaining a
standard of excellence work towards achieving the goal.This happens to lower the level of
satisfaction for the task in all members of the group.For example, if a hardworking and
motivated team member realises that others are relyinh on them to do most of the work, they
might reduce their working efforts or even stop collaborating with group members because they
no longer want to feel being used by the less productive members.
There are also few reason which promotes social loafing.One of them is affected by the size of
the group.The larger the group, the more likely it is that social loafing will occur.For example, if
you have ten members in a group working on an assignment, it is easier for individuals who are
not motivated or productive to hide because there are more people to pick up the slack.The
second reason which causes social loafing is also affected by members who lack
motivations.There are lots of unexpected reasons people may lack motivation for a group
task.Common reason is when an individual are assigned to a group, but dont want to be part of
the group especially when students are assigned to work in groups for a group assignment which
is based on academic assignments.Besides, some students hate group work and decide from the
start they dont want to contribute or participate.When motivation is low among individuals in a
group, they will often look for ways to assume the least amount of work and responsibility and
contribute as little as possible.This creates a problem on the remaining members of the group to
take on more task then they should.
Relating this matter to my personal experience, me myself have done social loafing not to
say encountering social loafing.I was a very lazy person who always procastinate on almost all
assignments.Which I got lucky that I was asked to join in a group with members who contributes
a lot.As I have mentioned,based on my team members contribution I assume they dont need me
as I am not good at doing task.Sometimes,I tried to avoid all task given which gives me more
time to go out and play with friends.I have been playing and slacking a lot throughout the whole
semester.I always try to look for groups that consists of members who can contribute and do
almost all the task given because my expectation is to see my team doing the work and I get the
marks which makes life easier.
As months passed by, assignments due date is around the corner but my group havent
complete the assignment yet.I tried to act like nothing serious is going to happen so I continued
playing and fooling around.One fine day, one of the member from my group told me to come for
meeting and they mentioned that there is a lot of work to do.I did not take it seriously.Only one
person in my group was doing all the work as all other members did nothing.During the day of
presentation,my group somehow finished all the work by burning midnight oil for few days
straight.After the presentation, my group leader evaluated me in the peer evalution as zero
contribution.My group somehow got an A for the presentation.In the end, me and few other of
the group members got lower grades.

(783 words)
Motivation is defined as a process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-achieving
behaviors.Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce
thirst or eat to reduce hunger.Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive
forces that triggers behavior.In daily life, the word motivation is used to describe why a person
does something or act that way.For example,a fat individual that is so motivated to have a
physical body to become a fitness model spends his afternoon going to the gym for
workout.Achieving such a goal requires the ability to break through obstacles to keep going till a
person reaches its goal.Besides from positive motivation, motivation could sometimes bring
negativity such as the sound is so annoying that many parents will give their kid anything he or
she wants in order to get the screaming to stop.The child will stop screaming when parents give
him or her candy.Therefore,the child used this method of screaming as an advantage to get what
he want.
Throughout my personal experience, motivation occurs everyday in my life.For example, it is
raining cats and dogs in the afternoon, but I have to make it to class in time, so I took a cab while
it is just a walking distance to my campus.When I was in primary school, I used to be very bad in
studies which I made my parents very disappointed in me.My parents would advice me to study
hard to have a brighter future or described as better life every morning on the way to school so
that I could improve on studies.Unfortunately, this does not give enough motivation for me to
study hard.Everyday I come back from school with pile of homeworks to do, but I never did any
of my homework.My parents even sent me for monthly tuition classes which is very
expensive.They did this hoping that I can learn and gain more knowledge.At the other side, I
went to tuition classes to play or chit chat with my friends and make noise in class.
In the final year of my primary school, final exam will be happening at the end of the year, my
parents told me that if I dont get good results for this final exam, my future will be dark which I
have to work under the sun with low salaries and suffer.This finally motivated me to study hard
as I finally realize this is my last year in my primary school.So I need to do my best because this
final exam will only happen to me once in a lifetime.Throughout the whole year, I met new
friends that were highly motivated in studies.They motivated me to challenge their results.This
makes me even more motivated study hard.As months passed by, release of result for my final
exam was surprisingly better than i expected which I passed with flying colours.That was one of
the happiest moment in my life.
As for my second personal experience based on motivation,it happened two years ago when I
got involved in an accident driving alone coming back from tuition classes.At that time I was
driving without a license.That happened accident because of a reckless driver who did not pay
attention while driving.This accident nearly killed me but no serious damage happened to me
thanks to the airbag.As I was driving without license, my parents were forced to make a fake
police report so that they can claim total loss from insurance.Luckily it was approved.After that
incident, my parents restricted me from driving.This made me struggle having no cars to go out
and meet my friends.Everytime I need to go somewhere, I have to ask my parents or friends to
give me a ride.Sometimes when I need to hang out with my friends, my friend couldnt fetch me

because of the distance between my house and their house.This made my life so hard.

This struggle motivated me wanting to get my driving license as soon as possible.As for me, I
am too lucky to be born on the 1st of January which I could get my driving license earlier than
my friends.After my birthday, I went to get my driving course which is a process of getting
driving license.In the process of achieving my goals, I had to go for exams and also practical
activities almost every afternoon.After a month of struggle, I finally made it.I got my driving
license in the end.I can now drive around and hang out with my friends.That was one memorable
moment of my life.

(760 words)
Compare and Contrast
In this essay of explaining the meaning of true story and genre contains two comparison
between movies about adventure and also disaster.True story can be explained as a nonfiction.As we have seen in the movies, some movies are based on fiction while some are based
on true stories.True stories pays a tribute to people who have made histories or memorable
moments in this world.True stories includes happenings such as world war two, terrorists attack
and tragic happenings around the globe.In genre fiction, there is an implied contract between
writer and reader that justice of a kind will be exacted.In genre theories, it can also be referred to
movie genre which consists of action, adventure, fiction or sci-fiction.However, under some of
the condition, true stories can have different genre which concludes its own meaning.
Two movies based on true stories about adventure and disaster has been included in this
essay.The two chosen stories were Everest and The Impossible.For synopsis of the movie
Everest,On the morning of May 10, 1996, climbers from two commercial expeditions start their
final ascent toward the summit of Mount Everest, the highest point of Earth.With a warning, a
violent storm strikes the mountain, engulfing the adventurers in one of the most fiercest blizzard
storm ever encountered by man.In the harshest conditions ever, the team must overcome breezy
winds and freezing temperature in an epic adventure,In the movie The Impossible,a regular
family traveled to Thailand to spend Christmas.They get an upgrade on a luxurious villa along
the beach.It was a perfect vacation until a distant noise becomes a roar.There is no time to escape
from the tsunami.They family got separated when the tsunami hits.This movie flows on how the
family survived and reunite.
The movie Everest genre is based on a true story which comes with adventure.The
similarities between these two movies are all about never giving up hope.
It explains about a team that goes for adventurous challenges by making up to the peak of Mount
Everest.The team is leaded mainly by Robert Edwin Hall.He is the first foreigner who made it to
peak of the worlds highest peak for five times.During the fifth time making up to the peak of the
mountain, a disastrous storm hits the area unexpectedly.Robert was trapped on the mountain for
two days, but their base camp rescue team never gave up hope on him.Unfortunately,the storm

hit twice which Robert couldnt make it for another night.In The Impossible movie is about a
family that struggles to survive after being hit by a disastrous tsunami which happened in
Thailand during their Christmas holiday.This tsunami happened right after having their
thanksgiving.In reality, it really happened to a family during the tsunami hits Thailand which is
caused by the Indian Ocean Earthquake on the 26th of December 2004.The family of four
members go separated during the hit, but they never gave up on each other by believing that both
sides survived.
The characters played by actors to represent the heroes in the movie shows a lot of motivation
of never to give up hope.For the movie Everest Robert was a good leader who motivates his
team to never give up hope during their journey to the peak of the mountain.He cares about his
team by consulting the team members not to force
themselves if they cant make it to the peak of the mountain under serious weather condition.He
was supposed to climb this mountain with his wife for the second time, but his wife was pregnant
for 7 months.So this leaves his wife back in home and hope for good news.The reason Robert got
trapped on top of the mountain is because of his friend Doug Hansen who got delayed during the
journey because of unstable health conditions.His friend Doug Hansen begged him to
accompany him up to the peak as his final wish.They got trapped on the mountain because of the
unexpected fierce storm which strikes in a sudden.Both mountain climbers did not make it in the
end.This unfortunate incident made history giving warning not to challenge the Mount Everest.In
The Impossible Movie, the family which consist of a pair of parent and two boys that got
separated into two groups struggled and overcome obstacle as they make their way to the
survival camp.Both sides however got transferred into the same section and reunited
together.After the reuniting, the family hugged together as they thought they would never see
each other again.
In conclusion, what I have learned while writing this essay thaught me not to give up hope
when things goes wrong.I have compared the similarities of both the movies which holds the
same moral value and their motive of struggling to survive.For example, Rob never gave up hope
on his friend Doug Hansen by risking his own life to help bring his friend down the
mountain.Other than that, this also thaught me the importance of having a family together in
peace.We should appreciate our family members especially our parents as no one could live
forever in this world.
Optimism bias which is originally referred to unrealistic optimism is the purpose of individuals
to underestimate the possibility that they will experience unwanted events such as lung cancer or
car accidents.As a result of this bias, some individuals might not take these precautions
seriously.They might not, for example, wear seatbelts.Several factors has been uncovered that
increases the probability that individuals will underestimate some risk.When an individual feel
anxious or unconfident, this instantly triggers optimism bias to diminish.Optimism bias tends to
be magnified when the risky even is regarded as controllable situation,when the event can be
prevented through caution or effort.This tendency toward the positive brings both advantages and
disadvantages.Overconfidence can boost self-esteem and ambition but can also lead to failed

plans, accidents, and other unwanted problems.For example, telling someone the risks of dying
from a particular habit such as smoking can actually make them more likely to believe that they
will not be negatively affected by the behavior.
People hugely underestimate their chances of getting divorced, losing their job or being
diagnosed with cancer and overestimate their likely life span.The belief that the future will be
much better than the past and present known as the optimism bias.Over positive expectations can
lead to disastrous miscalculation.The bias also protects and inspires us to keep us moving
forward rather than to nearest shortcut.Without optimism, our human race might be all
caveman,still sitting around together and dreaming of light and heat.Such faith helps motivate us
to pursue our goals.Optimism bias doesnt mean that we have an overly sunny outlook on our
own lives.It can also lead to poor decision-making,which can sometime have poor
outcomes.There are various causes that leads to optimism bias, including cognitive and
motivational factors.When we are evaluating our life, we come compare our own situation to that
of other people.We focus on ourselves instead of realistically looking at how we compare to
others.People who are depressed or anxious are less likely to encounter optimism bias.Actually,
experiencing certain events can also reduce the optimism bias.By comparing themselves to very
close loved one such as friends and family members are less likely to experience optimism bias.
Relating this matter to my personal experience, I tend to think that good and bad things
happens to me.But bad things such as car accidents, diagnosed with cancer, did not meet the
requirement for academic results would never happen to me as I was overconfidence about
myself.The belief that my future will be much better than the past and present is known as the
optimism bias.Some people would think that why were they born in such a poor family.A poor
family which is not financially stable or parents were divorced for some other reasons.When
anything bad beyond their expectation happens, individual tend to think think how or why such
things could happen to them.Example, a boy was living in a happy family.One day a tragic car
accident happened to the family, the boy somehow survived the accident but his parents couldnt
make it.The boy will start to think why this would happen to him.There is a possible way which
positive or negative effect will occur on this boy.In advance,this boy needs to be motivated.
As for my personal experience on optimism bias, this happened to me when I started my
college life, I tend to be overconfidence which I think that I could finish all my assignments
perfectly on time.I always think that I am always on top of others.I would think that every
classmate I meet are always not better than me.I will think that assignments are easy to be
done.Specifically, I always look down on others by judging their looks.As my first semester in
foundation is going on, I played and had a lot of fun times.During the early semester, I always
got good grades for assignments, which makes me even more confident of myself.After my midsem starts, assignments started to become even more challenging.I couldnt overcome my
assignments because it was too hard for me and I procrastinate a lot, but most of my friends
could overcome these assignments easily because they are smart and hardworking students.In the
end, most of my friends that I looked down got good grades for their first
semester.Unfortunately, I did not pass my first semester in foundation.I was so disappointed that
how could such thing happen to me in this way.I did not only disappointed myself, I disappointed
my parents my parents that they work so hard just to send me to college for further studies.From
that day on, I took this as a lesson to be learnt and I cant afford to repeat the same mistake I did.

(778 words)


STUDENT ID: 0323836