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Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]

Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

UiTM
Faculty of Civil
Engineering

ECS258 - LAB REPORT (CO4: PO4)

LAB :
LAB :
NO.
TITLE
LEVEL OF OPENNESS :
NO.

NO.

NAME

DATE :

GROUP MEMBERS
STUDENT
NO.

SIGNATURE

ASSESSMENT OF THE LAB ACTIVITIES


ELEMENT TO ASSESS
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

REMARK

STUDENT
2
3
4

INDIVIDUAL IN-LAB ACTIVITIES


PUNCTUALITIY
DISCIPLINE (DRESS CODE,SAFETY SHOES,SAFETY
REGULATIONS)
KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED LABORATORY
GROUP IN-LAB ACTIVITIES
LEADERSHIP SKILL
COMMUNICATION
ORGANISATION/TEAMWORK
LAB REPORT
INTRODUCTION
BASIC CONCEPTS
SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/ METHODS
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
DISCUSSION OF RESULT
CONCLUSION

LECTURERS SIGNATURE:

THE REPORT MUST BE SUBMITTED 1 WEEK AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE LAB.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To determine the relationship between the applied torque and the angle of twist and hence
obtain the shear modulus.

2.0 THEORY
In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting
actions. Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torque and torsion
members are found in many types of structures. Consider a solid circular rod of diameter D and
length L is fixed at A and free at B. The rod is subjected to a twisting moment or torsion, T at the free
end. This called pure torsion, since no bending or direct stress is involved. A gauge device attached by
bolts gives the angle of twist on the rod as the torque is applied. The torque twist data is used to
compute the shear strain and the stress on the rod. From the shear stress shear strain relational curve,
the shearing modulus of rigidity could be calculated, as well as the proportionality limit and the yield
limit for each applied torques.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

The torsion equation is


T/J = max/R = G/L Eq 1
where
T

= Torque of twisting moment (Nmm)

= Polar moment of inertia, (mm4)


= D4/32

max = Maximum shear stress (N/mm2)


R

= Radius of the rod or shaft (mm)

= Shear modulus (N/mm2)

= Angle of twist (radians)

= Length of the rod (mm)

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Take
T/J = G/L
G = GJ/L x . Eq 2

3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT


In many situations, we need to design members that will subject to rotating and twisting actions.
Twisting moments about the longitudinal axis of a member are termed torques and torsion members
are found in many types of structures. As a group you will be given a solid circular rod and the
appropriate apparatus available in the laboratory to compute the shear modulus of a structural material
such as steel, aluminium and etc.

4.0 APPARATUS

Figure 3.3: Torsion test apparatus

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

4.0 PROCEDURE
1. Measured the diameter of the rod with a vernier caliper and length with a scale of three
readings.
2. Fixed rod between the fixed end and the head assembly with the clutch torque chuck jaws.
3. Established the deflection angle of the rod, that known as the gage length.
4. Used a clamp fixed in the end, turned chuck to fix the original position after the specimen was
gripped at both ends and the mounting cost to be in place.
5. Set the vernier to zero on a scale of A and B.
6. Used the load (say 3N) to each hanger load and deflection angle of each vernier reading A and
B.
7. Increased the load on each hanger in the corresponding measures and the corresponding note
deflection angle of each vernier A and B at least for 5 times.
8. Scheduled an observation as shown.
9. Plotted a graph of torque 'T' on the y-axis and the angle of twist '' on the x-axis. Noted that
the graph is a straight line through the origin (notice the error, if not to request correction).
10. The slope of the graph T / yielding an average value. Replaced the T / in equation 2 and
calculated the value of 'G'.

11. Repeated the experiment with a rod of various materials. Calculated the 'G' of each material
and tabulate the results.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

5.0 DATA COLLECTIONS


Material

Aluminium

Length of rod (mm)

90

Diameter of rod (mm)

5.7

Polar moment of inertia, J ( mm

) :

103.63

Level arm (mm)

26

Initial angle of twist (degree)

Shear
Angle
of
twist
Elastic
Angle of twist
Modulus
experimental experimental
a
x
2/360
2
a = l - f
(kN/ mm
(degrees)
(radian)
)

Load Cell,
W (n)

Applied Torque
(W x Level Arm)

Final
Angle of
twist , f
(degrees)

26

0.4

0.4

0.007

32.26

52

1.0

1.0

0.017

26.57

78

1.6

1.6

0.028

24.19

104

2.1

2.1

0.037

24.41

130

2.7

2.7

0.047

24.02

156

3.1

3.1

0.054

25.09

182

3.8

3.8

0.066

23.95

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material

Brass

Length of rod (mm)

95

Diameter of rod (mm)

5.8

Polar moment of inertia, J ( mm

) :

111.10

Level arm (mm)

26

Initial angle of twist (degree)

Shear
Elastic
Modulus

Angle of twist Angle of twist


experimental experimental
a x 2/360
a = l - f
mm2
(kN/
(degrees)
(radian)
)

Load Cell,
W (n)

Applied Torque
(W x Level Arm)

Final
Angle of
twist , f
(degrees)

26

0.9

0.9

0.016

14.16

52

1.8

1.8

0.031

14.16

78

2.8

2.8

0.049

13.70

104

3.8

3.8

0.066

13.47

130

4.6

4.6

0.078

14.25

156

5.4

5.4

0.094

14.19

182

6.3

6.3

0.110

14.15

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

Material

Steel

Length of rod (mm)

95

Diameter of rod (mm)

5.8

Polar moment of inertia, J ( mm

) :

111.10

Level arm (mm)

26

Initial angle of twist (degree)

Shear
Elastic
Modulus

Angle of twist Angle of twist


experimental experimental
a x 2/360
a = l - f
mm2
(kN/
(degrees)
(radian)
)

Load Cell,
W (n)

Applied Torque
(W x Level Arm)

Final
Angle of
twist , f
(degrees)

26

0.0

0.0

0.000

0.00

52

0.1

0.1

0.002

247.02

78

0.3

0.3

0.005

128.26

104

0.4

0.4

0.007

127.04

130

0.6

0.6

0.010

111.16

156

0.8

0.8

0.014

95.28

182

0.9

0.9

0.016

97.27

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016

5.0 DISCUSSION
Torsion test is used for testing brittle materials such as mild steel and brittle materials. Many products
and components are subjected to torsional forces during their operation. Product such as biomedical catheter
tubing, switches, fasteners and automotive steering columns are example a few of device subject to such
torsional stresses. Modulus of a rigidity is a material stiffness properties. The torque is the product of tangential
force multiplied by the radial distance from the angle of twist and the tangent. Abbreviated by G, also known
as shear modulus, shear modulus of elasticity or torsional modulus. From the graph obtain, the angle of twist
for brass is higher compare to other material which is aluminium and steel. The strain hardening for the steel is
highest then the brass and aluminium as it is higher yield point but less in ductile.

6.0 CONCLUSION
From the experiment, the shear elastic modulus G, obtain from the graph have difference increases in
values. This is due of the value of applied torque even the length of specimen, polar moment of inertia are
constant. The error that influenced in getting an accurate result as theoretical is the apparatus used are not
functioning well as it was use more than one time.

7.0 REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Testing of Polymers (ed J.V Schmitz) 1966 Volumes 1 and 2, Wiley Interscience.
Timoshenko, S.P. and Gere, J.M. (1961) Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill.
Thompson, W.T. (1983) Theory of Vibrations with Applications, George Allen and Unwin.
Ives, G.C., Mead, J.A. Riley M.M. (1971) Handbook of Plastics test methods, The Plastics
Institute and Illfe Books.

Diploma in Civil Engineering [EC110]


Semester Dec 2015-April 2016