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training materail introduction to abaqus

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- ABAQUS for Geotechnical Engineers
- Abaqus Training Material2
- Contact Seminar Abaqus
- Abaqus
- Constraints and Connections in abaqus
- Abaqus Tutorial
- ABAQUS Training
- Abaqus
- l3 Materials Abaqus
- Material Damage and Failure in abaqus
- [Abaqus].Abaqus Examples Problems Manual
- Abaqus Tutorial
- ABAQUS Element Selection Criteria
- Fracture Lecture of Abaqus
- abaqus workshop
- abaqus tutor
- Abaqus Tutorial
- Adaptive Mesh
- Modeling+Rubber+and+Viscoelasticity+with+Abaqus-
- Abaqus Example

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Introduction to Abaqus/Standard

and Abaqus/Explicit

R 6.12

Course objectives

Complete finite element models using Abaqus keywords.

Submit and monitor analysis jobs.

View and evaluate simulation results.

Solve structural analysis problems using Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, including the effects of

material nonlinearity, large deformation and contact.

Targeted audience

Simulation Analysts

Prerequisites

None

3 days

Day 1

Lesson 1

Workshop 1

Lesson 2

Workshop 2

Lesson 3

Workshop 3

Multiple Load Cases

Nonlinear Statics

Day 2

Lesson 4

Workshop 4

Lesson 5

Workshop 5

Lesson 6

Workshop 6

Unloading Analysis

Seal Contact

Introduction to Dynamics

Dynamics

Day 3

Lesson 7

Workshop 7

Lesson 8

Workshop 8

Lesson 9

Workshop 9

Using Abaqus/Explicit

Additional Material

Element Selection Criteria

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 1

Legal Notices

The Abaqus Software described in this documentation is available only under license from Dassault

Systmes and its subsidiary and may be used or reproduced only in accordance with the terms of such

license.

This documentation and the software described in this documentation are subject to change without

prior notice.

Dassault Systmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or

omissions that may appear in this documentation.

No part of this documentation may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior written

permission of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary.

Dassault Systmes, 2012.

Printed in the United States of America

Abaqus, the 3DS logo, SIMULIA and CATIA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault

Systmes or its subsidiaries in the US and/or other countries.

Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective

owners. For additional information concerning trademarks, copyrights, and licenses, see the Legal

Notices in the Abaqus 6.12 Release Notes and the notices at:

http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/portfolio/product-os-commercial-programs.

Revision Status

Lecture 1

5/12

Workshop 1

5/12

Lecture 2

5/12

Workshop 2

5/12

Lecture 3

5/12

Workshop 3

5/12

Lecture 4

5/12

Workshop 4

5/12

Lecture 5

5/12

Workshop 5

5/12

Lecture 6

5/12

Workshop 6

5/12

Lecture 7

5/12

Workshop 7

5/12

Lecture 8

6/12

Minor edits

Workshop 8

5/12

Lecture 9

5/12

Workshop 9

5/12

Appendix 1

5/12

Appendix 2

5/12

Appendix 3

5/12

Notes

Notes

L1.1

Lesson content:

Introduction

Documentation

Components of an Abaqus Model

Details of an Abaqus Input File

Abaqus Input Conventions

Abaqus Output

Example: Cantilever Beam Model

Parts and Assemblies (optional)

Workshop Preliminaries

Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (IA)

Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L1.2

Introduction (1/14)

SIMULIA is the Dassault Systmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions

including

The Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA

Lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property

Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA

R&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, France

L1.3

Introduction (2/14)

Course preliminaries

This course introduces Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit; basic knowledge of finite element

analysis is assumed.

This course introduces concepts in a manner that gives users a working knowledge of Abaqus as

quickly as possiblethe lecture notes do not attempt to cover all the details of Abaqus completely.

There are several sources for additional information on the topics presented in this course:

SIMULIA Home Page (available via the Internet at

http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview).

Abaqus documentationall usage details are covered in the users manuals.

Extensive library of courses developed by SIMULIA on particular topics (course descriptions

available at http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview).

L1.4

Introduction (3/14)

L1.5

Introduction (4/14)

Abaqus/CAE

for modeling, managing, and monitoring

Abaqus analyses, as well as visualizing

results.

Intuitive and consistent user interface

throughout the system.

Based on the concepts of parts

and assemblies of part instances, which are

common to many CAD systems.

Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE or

imported from other systems as geometry

(to be meshed in Abaqus/CAE) or as

meshes.

Built-in feature-based parametric modeling

system for creating parts.

L1.6

Introduction (5/14)

Analysis modules

Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit provide

the user with two complementary analysis

tools.*

Abaqus/Standards capabilities:

General analyses

Static stress/displacement

analysis:

I. Rate-independent response

II. Rate-dependent

(viscoelastic/creep/viscoplastic)

response

Transient dynamic stress/displacement

analysis

Transient or steady-state heat transfer

analysis

Transient or steady-state mass diffusion

analysis

Steady-state transport analysis

Articulation of an automotive

boot seal

analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.

L1.7

Introduction (6/14)

Multiphysics:

Thermal-mechanical analysis

Structural-acoustic analysis

Thermal-electrical (Joule heating)

analysis

Thermal-electrical-structural analysis

pore fluid flow-deformation

Fluid-structure interaction

L1.8

Introduction (7/14)

Linear perturbation analyses

Harmonic excitation

of a tire

I. Linear static

stress/displacement analysis

II. Eigenvalue buckling

load prediction

Dynamic stress/displacement analysis:

I. Determination of natural modes and frequencies

II. Transient response via modal superposition

III. Steady-state response resulting from harmonic loading

Includes alternative subspace projection method for efficient analysis of large

models with frequency-dependent properties (like damping)

IV. Response spectrum analysis

V. Dynamic response resulting from random loading

10

L1.9

Introduction (8/14)

Abaqus/Explicits capabilities:

High-speed dynamics

Quasi-static analysis

Adaptive meshing using ALE

Multiphysics

Thermal-mechanical analysis

I. Fully coupled: Explicit algorithms

for both the mechanical and

thermal responses

II. Can include adiabatic heating

effects

Structural-acoustic analysis

Fluid-structure interaction

L1.10

Introduction (9/14)

Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Abaqus/Standard

Abaqus/Explicit

program.

I. Nonlinear problems require

iterations.

program for explicit dynamics.

I. Solution procedure does not

require iteration.

structural simulations.

dynamic problems efficiently.

for analyzing many different types of

problems.

I. Nonstructural applications.

II. Coupled or uncoupled response.

I. Thermal-mechanical

II. Structural-acoustic

III. FSI

11

L1.11

Introduction (10/14)

Interactive postprocessing

of Abaqus/CAE.

stand-alone product

whether or not the model was created in

Abaqus/CAE

Provides efficient visualization of large

models

wheel hitting a curb in

Abaqus/Viewer

L1.12

Introduction (11/14)

12

Introduction to the analysis modules and

interactive postprocessing

Details of using Abaqus to solve a variety of

structural analysis problems:

Linear Static Analysis

Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output

analysis of forces on a connecting lug

Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a

Cantilever Beammultiple load cases

L1.13

Introduction (12/14)

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Workshop 3: Nonlinear Staticslarge

deformation analysis of a skew plate

Simulations with Several Analysis Steps

Workshop 4:Unloading analysisunloading

of a skew plate

Workshop 5: Seal Contactcompression

analysis of a rubber seal.

L1.14

Introduction (13/14)

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

Workshop 6: Dynamicsfrequency analysis

and implicit and explicit free

vibration analysis of a cantilever beam

High-Speed Dynamics in Abaqus/Explicit

pipe whip problem

13

L1.15

Introduction (14/14)

Quasi-Static Combined Analysis in

Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Workshop 8 (Optional): Quasi-Static

Analysisdeep drawing of a can bottom

Workshop 9 (Optional): Import Analysis

springback analysis of formed can bottom

Nonstructural applicationssuch as heat

transfer, soils consolidation, and acoustics

are not discussed.

All Abaqus analysis techniques use the

same framework.

The knowledge gained in this course will

help in learning to use Abaqus for other

applications.

L1.16

Documentation (1/7)

14

Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

Abaqus/CAE Users Manual

Abaqus Example Problems Manual

Abaqus Benchmarks Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual

Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual

Abaqus Theory Manual

All documentation is available in HTML and PDF format

The documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar of Abaqus/CAE.

L1.17

Documentation (2/7)

Additional reference materials

Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide (print version available)

Installation instructions

Abaqus Release Notes

Explains changes since previous release

Advanced lecture notes on various topics (print only)

Tutorials

Getting Started with Abaqus: Interactive Edition

Getting Started with Abaqus: Keywords Edition

Programming

Scripting and GUI Toolkit manuals

SIMULIA home page

http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview/

L1.18

Documentation (3/7)

HTML documentation

The documentation for Abaqus is organized into a collection, with manuals grouped by function.

Viewed through a web browser.

Can search entire collection or individual manuals

15

L1.19

Documentation (4/7)

Enter one or more search terms in the search field

Appear in any order

May or may not be adjacent

Appear within the proximity criterion

(default is a single section)

entry is highlighted

The text frame displays the

corresponding section

L1.20

Documentation (5/7)

Use quotes to search for exact strings

16

L1.21

Documentation (6/7)

Advanced search

Advanced search allows you to control the proximity criterion

L1.22

Documentation (7/7)

17

L1.23

The Abaqus analysis modules run as batch programs.

The primary input to the analysis modules is an input file, which contains options from element,

material, procedure, and loading libraries.

These options can be combined in any reasonable way, allowing a tremendous variety of problems to be

modeled.

The input file is divided into two parts: model data and history data.

Model data

Material options

Other model options

History data

Procedure options

Loading options

Output options

L1.24

Discretized model

geometry

nodes,elements

Material properties

18

L1.25

Model data

ENCASTRE

pin

dof 2 fixed

Fixed constraints

v0

Initial conditions

L1.26

Types of analysis proceduresstatic, dynamic, soil, heat transfer, etc.

Loadings

Prescribed constraints

Output requests stresses, strains, reaction forces, contact pressure, etc.

ENCASTRE

X-symmetry

Y-symmetry

19

L1.27

History subdivided into analysis steps

Different steps can contain different analysis proceduresfor example, static followed by dynamic.

General steps define a sequence of events that follow one another.

I. The state of the model at the end of the previous general step provides the initial conditions

for the start of the next general step.

II. This is needed for any history-dependent analysis.

Linear perturbation steps provide the linear response about the base state, which is the state at

the end of the most recent general step.

L1.28

Example: Bow and arrow simulation

Step 3 = natural

frequency extraction

Step 1 = pretension

Step 2: Pull back on the bow string

Step 3: Linear perturbation step to extract the natural frequencies of the system

has no effect on subsequent steps

Step 4: Release the arrow

20

L1.29

Option blocks

All data are defined in option blocks that describe specific aspects of the problem definition, such as an

element definition, etc. Together the option blocks build the model.

Property reference

option block

Model

data

Material option

block

Element option

block

Contact option

block

History

data

Analysis procedure

option block

Boundary conditions

option block

Initial conditions

option block

Output request

option block

L1.30

Each option block begins with a keyword line (first character is *).

Comment lines, starting with **, can be included anywhere.

Names can be up to 80 characters long and must begin with a letter. For example, the following would

be a permissible name:

nodes_at_the_top_of_the_block_next_to_the_gasket

Note: Regardless of whether you specify only a file name, a relative path name, or a full path

name, the complete name including the path can have a maximum of 80 characters .

21

L1.31

Keyword lines

May include a combination of required and optional parameters, along with their values, separated by

commas.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*MATERIAL, NAME=material name

L1.32

Data lines

Define the bulk data for a given option; for example, element definitions.

A keyword line may have many data lines associated with it.

Example: An element option block defines elements by specifying the element type, the element

numbers, and the nodal connectivity.

*ELEMENT,

560, 101,

564, 102,

572, 103,

:

:

TYPE=B21

102

103

104

keyword line

data lines

for beam B21 elements)

element numbers

22

L1.33

Example: The elastic material option block defines the type of elasticity model as well as the elastic

material properties.

*ELASTIC, TYPE=ISOTROPIC

200.0E4, 0.30, 20.0

150.0E3, 0.35, 400.0

keyword line

data lines

temperature

Poissons ratio

modulus of

elasticity

L1.34

Ordering of option blocks

Each option block belongs in either the model data or the history dataone or the otheras specified in

the users manual.

The ordering within the model data or history data is arbitrary, except for a few cases.

Examples:

*HEADING must be the first option in the input file.

*ELASTIC, *DENSITY, and *PLASTIC are suboptions of *MATERIAL. As such, they must

follow *MATERIAL directly. Suboptions have no name references of their own.

Procedure options (*STATIC, *DYNAMIC, and *FREQUENCY, etc.) must follow *STEP to

specify the analysis procedure for the step.

23

L1.35

Node sets and element sets

Allow you to refer to a set all at once instead of each node or element individually.

*NODE, NSET=TOPNODES

101, 0.345, 0.679, 0.223

102, 0.331, 0.699, 0.234

.

.

*BOUNDARY, TYPE=DISPLACEMENT

TOPNODES, YSYMM

Node set

TOPNODES contains

nodes 101,102, ...

Boundary condition

applied to all nodes in

node set TOPNODES

L1.36

24

560, 101, 102,

Element set SEATPOST

564, 102, 103

contains elements 560,

.

564, ...

.

*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=PIPE, MATERIAL=STEEL,

ELSET=SEATPOST

These beam cross-section

0.12, 0.004

properties apply to all

elements in element set

wall thickness

SEATPOST

pipe radius

L1.37

Including data from other files

Abaqus reads data from an include file as if the data were directly in the Abaqus input file.

An include file can include any portion of an input file and can contain references to other include files.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Data must be in the same format as required for input file dataall rules that apply to input file syntax

apply to data from included files.

Example: Input file referencing an include file

*HEADING

*INCLUDE, INPUT=node_and_element_numbers.txt

.

.

Contents of include file node_and_element_numbers.txt:

*NODE, NSET=TOPNODES

101, 0.345, 0.679, 0.223

102, 0.331, 0.699, 0.234

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=SEATPOST

560, 101, 102,

564, 102, 103

L1.38

Units

Abaqus uses no inherent set of units.

It is the users responsibility to use consistent units.

Example:

I. N, kg, m, s

or

II. N, 103 kg, mm, s

etc.

25

L1.39

Quantity

U.S. units

SI units

Conductivity

28.9 Btu/ft hr F

50 W/m C

2.4 Btu/in hr F

Density

7800 kg/m3

0.282 lbm/in3

Elastic modulus

30 106 psi

207 109 Pa

Specific heat

0.11 Btu/lbm F

460 J/kg C

Yield stress

30

207 106 Pa

103

psi

L1.40

Time measures

Abaqus keeps track of both total time in an analysis and step time for each analysis step.

Time is physically meaningful for some analysis procedures, such as transient dynamics.

26

Time is not physically meaningful for some procedures. In rate-independent, static procedures time is

just a convenient, monotonically increasing measure for incrementing loads.

L1.41

Coordinate systems

Specify an alternative system using *SYSTEM or *NODE, SYSTEM=[RECTANGULAR |

CYLINDRICAL | SPHERICAL].

Do not affect loading or output because automatically converted internally to the global

rectangular Cartesian system.

L1.42

For nodal loads, boundary conditions, initial conditions:

Specify an alternative system using the *TRANSFORM option.

Example: Boundary conditions on a skew edge.

Use *TRANSFORM on

these nodes with YSYMM

boundary conditions

27

L1.43

For material point directions (directions

associated with each elements material or

integration points):

Affect input: Anisotropic material

directions.

directions.

The default depends on the element

type.

I. Solid elements use a global

rectangular Cartesian system.

II. Shell and membrane elements

use a projection of the global

Cartesian system onto the

surface.

membrane elements

L1.44

Alternative local material coordinate systems can be specified using the *ORIENTATION option.

1

28

L1.45

Degrees of freedom

Each degree of freedom is labeled with a number: 1=x-displacement, 2=y-displacement,

11=temperature, etc.

L1.46

Output

Neutral binary output can be written to the output database (.odb) file using the *OUTPUT option

and related suboptions.

Printed output can be written to the data (.dat) file.

Restart output can be written to the restart (.res) file using the *RESTART option for the

purpose of conducting restart analyses (discussed in Lecture 4).

Results (.fil) file output can be written for use with third-party postprocessors.

29

L1.47

Output to the output database file

Abaqus/Viewer.

An interface (API) is available

in Python and C++ to use for external

postprocessing (e.g.,

to add data to display in

Abaqus/Viewer).

Two types of output data: field and history

data.

Field data is used for model (deformed,

contour, etc.) and

XY plots:

*OUTPUT, FIELD

History data is used for XY plots:

*OUTPUT, HISTORY

L1.48

Frequency of output for either type can be controlled

30

*OUTPUT, FIELD, FREQUENCY=n

Every n increments

Number of intervals

*OUTPUT, FIELD, NUMBER INTERVAL=n

Time intervals

*OUTPUT, FIELD, TIME INTERVAL=x

Time points

*OUTPUT, FIELD, TIME POINTS=t_out

*TIME POINTS, name = t_out

At user-specified time

points

L1.49

History output can be requested according to:

Number of increments

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=n

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, NUMBER INTERVAL=n

Time intervals

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, TIME INTERVAL=x

Time points (Abaqus/Standard only)

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, TIME POINTS=t_out

*TIME POINTS, name=t_out

L1.50

Requesting output to the output database file

If you have no output requests in your model, behavior depends on environment file (abaqus_v6.env)

settings:

I. This is the default setting; output depends on the procedure type

odb_output_by_default=OFF: no ODB will be generated for your analysis

Default output can be overridden using any of the following suboptions of *OUTPUT :

*NODE OUTPUT

*ELEMENT OUTPUT

*ENERGY OUTPUT

*CONTACT OUTPUT

*INCREMENTATION OUTPUT (Abaqus/Explicit only)

31

L1.51

Pre-selected ODB output

For example, for a general static procedure:

Stresses S

Total Strains E (or logarithmic strain LE if NLGEOM is active)

Plastic Strains PE, PEEQ, and PEMAG

Displacements and Rotations U

Reaction Forces and Moments RF

Concentrated (applied) Forces and Moments CF

Contact Stresses CSTRESS

Contact Displacements CDISP

The default history output request includes all model energies

For other procedures, see the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

L1.52

Output to the printed output file

These options allow tabular data to be written to an ASCII file that can be read with a text editor.

These options are available only for Abaqus/Standard.

Syntax:

32

*NODE PRINT

*EL PRINT

*ENERGY PRINT

L1.53

Output to the restart file

If a simulation stops prematurely, the restart data can be used to start the simulation from some

intermediate point without repeating any calculations.

*RESTART, WRITE

This option is discussed further in Lecture 4.

Output to the results file

The results file can be used by third-party postprocessors.

*FILE OUTPUT

*NODE FILE

*EL FILE

*ENERGY FILE

L1.54

boundary conditions

node number

element number

point load

33

L1.55

Abaqus input file with some annotations

This line will appear on each page of output.

Model data

*HEADING

CANTILEVER BEAM EXAMPLE

UNITS IN MM, N, MPa

*NODE

1, 0.0, 0.0

:

11, 200.0, 0.0

*NSET, NSET=END

11,

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=BEAMS

1, 1, 3

:

5, 9, 11

*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1

50.0, 5.0

** Material from XXX testing lab

*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1

*ELASTIC

elastic option block

2.0E5, 0.3

*BOUNDARY

1, ENCASTRE

property reference

option block

comment line

material option block

fixed boundary condition

option block

L1.56

History data

34

*STEP

APPLY POINT LOAD

*STATIC

*CLOAD

11, 2, -1200.0

*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT, FREQUENCY=10

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1

*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=END

U,

*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=10

S, E

*NODE FILE, FREQUENCY=5

U,

*END STEP

the first *STEP option.

the last *END STEP option.

L1.57

Property references using set names

1, 1, 3

*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1

50.0, 5.0

*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1

*ELASTIC

2.0E5, 0.3

The property reference *BEAM SECTION associates the element set BEAMS with the material definition

MAT1.

The option can also provide geometric information. In this case the

cross-section type is rectangular (RECT); the width is 50.0, and the height is 5.0.

All elements in a model must have an appropriate property reference. Solid elements reference *SOLID

SECTION, shell elements reference *SHELL SECTION, etc.

L1.58

Material data

*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1

*ELASTIC

2.0E5, 0.3

material name

Poissons ratio

elastic modulus

Abaqus interprets the options following a *MATERIAL option as part of the same material option block

until the next *MATERIAL option or the next nonmaterial property option, such as the *NODE option, is

encountered.

Options such as *ELASTIC are called suboptions and must be used in conjunction with the *MATERIAL

option.

35

L1.59

Fixed boundary conditions

*BOUNDARY

1, 1, 6

range of degrees of freedom or type of BC (pinned, encastre, symmetry, antisymmetry)

node or node set

Prescribed nonzero boundary conditions can be included only in the history data.

Abaqus activates only the necessary degrees of freedom at a node. Thus, for this two-dimensional

example with only degrees of freedom 1, 2, and 6 active, the following are equivalent input data:

1,

1,

or

1,

or

1,

1, 2

6, 6

1, 6

inactive degrees of freedom.

ENCASTRE

L1.60

History definition

*STEP

APPLY POINT LOAD

*STATIC

This line appears on every page of results

Specifies a static analysis procedure

36

L1.61

Loading

Definition of a concentrated load in the global negative 2-direction:

*CLOAD

11, 2, -1200.0

magnitude

degree of freedom

node or node set

Many distributed loadings are also available, including surface pressure, body forces, centrifugal and

Coriolis loads, etc.

L1.62

Output requests

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1

*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=END

U,

database file

In this case we have requested field output of a preselected set of the most commonly used output

variables.

We have also requested history output of displacements for the previously defined node set END.

Since history output is usually requested at relatively high frequencies, the sets should be as

small as possible.

Each output request includes a FREQUENCY parameter.

If the analysis requires many increments, the FREQUENCY parameter specifies how often

results will be written.

37

L1.63

*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=10

S, E

*NODE FILE, FREQUENCY=5

U,

Output to the results file

Tabular output is printed to the data (.dat) file for visual inspection using the *EL PRINT option.

In this case we have requested output of the stress (S) and strain (E) components.

Binary output is written to the legacy Abaqus results (.fil) file using the *NODE FILE option; output is

used for postprocessing in other postprocessors.

In this case we have requested output of the displacement (U) components.

L1.64

End of step

*END STEP

ends the

analysis step

The final option in the input file is the *END STEP option for the final analysis step.

38

L1.65

The input file can be defined in terms of parts, part instances, and an assembly.

Provides an inherent means of referring to distinct regions of the model. The user need not define

separate sets for this purpose.

Allows reuse of part definitions, which is valuable for creating large, complex models.

Labelsnode and element numbers, set namesneed be unique only within the level in which they are

defined.

L1.66

Defining parts

A part is defined by using the *PART and *END PART options, which must appear outside of the

assembly definition. Each part must have a unique name.

A part instance is defined by using the *INSTANCE and *END INSTANCE options within the assembly

definition. Each part instance must have a unique name.

Defining an assembly

The assembly is defined by using the *ASSEMBLY and *END ASSEMBLY options. Only one assembly

can be defined in a model.

Additional sets and surfaces, as well as constraints and rigid body definitions, must appear in the

assembly definition.

39

L1.67

Example assembly input file

*HEADING

...

*PART, NAME=Tire

*END PART

*PART, NAME=Rim

*END PART

...

*ASSEMBLY, NAME=Tire_and_rim

*INSTANCE, NAME=I_Tire, PART=Tire

<positioning data>

set and surface definitions (optional)

*END INSTANCE

*INSTANCE, NAME=I_Rim, PART=Rim

<positioning data>

set and surface definitions (optional)

...

*MATERIAL, NAME=Rubber

*AMPLITUDE

*INITIAL CONDITIONS

*PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

...

*STEP

*STATIC

*BOUNDARY

I_Rim.101, 1, 3, 0.0

*CLOAD

I_Tire.514, 2, 1000.0

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=10

*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=Output

RF, CF

*END STEP

*END INSTANCE

*NSET, NSET=Output

I_Tire.514, I_Tire.520

I_Rim.101, I_Rim.102

*END ASSEMBLY

L1.68

Node labels for parts and the assembly

Part: Rim

node label:

514

Part: Tire

40

Assembly: Tire_and_rim

L1.69

1. Objectives

a. When you complete this exercise you will be able to extract all the files necessary to complete the

demonstrations and workshops associated with this course

2. Workshop file setup (option 1: installation via plug-in)

a. From the main menu bar, select

Plug-insTools Install Courses.

b. In the Install Courses dialog box:

i. Specify the directory to which the files will be written.

ii. Chooses the course(s) for which the files will be

extracted.

iii. Click OK.

5 minutes

L1.70

a. Find out where the Abaqus release is installed by typing

abqxxx whereami

where abqxxx is the name of the Abaqus execution procedure on your system. It can be defined to

have a different name. For example, the command for the 6.121 release might be aliased to abq6121.

This command will give the full path to the directory where Abaqus is installed, referred to here as

abaqus_dir.

b. Extract all the workshop files from the course tar file by typing

UNIX:

Windows NT:

abqxxx perl abaqus_dir\samples\course_setup.pl

c. The script will install the files into the current working directory. You will be asked to verify this and to

choose which files you wish to install. Choose y for the appropriate lecture series when prompted. Once

you have selected the lecture series, type q to skip the remaining lectures and to proceed with the

installation of the chosen workshops.

5 minutes

41

1.

L1.71

Workshop tasks

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Use some of the Abaqus utility programs.

2. Open the online documentation, and search for useful information.

3. Use the online documentation to determine the syntax for various options.

4. Complete the model of a connecting lug.

5. Submit analyses a few different ways (datacheck only, complete analysis, interactive, and batch

submission).

6. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

7. Become familiar with the contents of the printed output files.

8. Modify the model, and understand the changes to the results.

1 hour

1.

Workshop tasks

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Use some of the Abaqus utility programs.

2. Open the online documentation, and search for useful information.

3. Use the online documentation to determine the syntax for various options.

4. Add some details to an existing input file to complete the model of a connecting lug.

5. Submit analyses a few different ways (datacheck only, complete analysis, interactive, and batch

submission).

6. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

7. Become familiar with the contents of the printed output files.

8. Modify the model, and understand the changes to the results.

1 hour

42

L1.72

Notes

43

Notes

44

L2.1

Lesson content:

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases

Multiple Load Case Usage

Examples

Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (IA)

Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L2.2

A fundamental concept in Abaqus is the division of the problem history into steps.

A step is any convenient phase of the historya thermal transient, a creep hold, a dynamic

transient, etc.

In its simplest form a step can be just a static analysis of a load change from one magnitude to

another.

This choice defines the type of analysis to be performed during the step: static stress analysis,

dynamic stress analysis, eigenvalue buckling, transient heat transfer analysis, etc.

The rest of the step definition consists of load, boundary, and output request specifications.

45

L2.3

For example, consider the bow and arrow in the

figure. The analysis consists of four steps:

(static response).

extraction

(static response).

Step 3: Investigate the natural

frequencies of the loaded

system.

Step 4: Release the bowstring

(dynamic response).

L2.4

Abaqus distinguishes between two kinds of analysis procedures:

Response can be linear or nonlinear.

The starting point for each general step is the state of the model at the end of the last general

step.

Linear perturbation procedures

Response can only be linear.

The linear perturbation is about a base state, which can be either the initial or the current

configuration of the model.

I. Response prior to reaching the base state can be nonlinear.

Steps that use linear procedures are known as perturbation steps.

46

L2.5

General procedures

Linear procedures

Static

Static

Direct cyclic

Eigenvalue buckling

Dynamic (transient)

Linear dynamics

Implicit

Explicit

Heat transfer

Steady-state dynamics

Mass diffusion

Coupled-field analysis

Thermal-mechanical

Thermal-electrical

Thermal-electrical-structural

Pore fluid diffusion/stress

L2.6

Different defaults for different analysis procedures

AMPLITUDE=RAMP for procedures without natural time scales:

*STATIC

*HEAT TRANSFER, STEADY STATE

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, STEADY STATE

*SOILS, STEADY STATE

*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL, STEADY STATE

*STEADY STATE TRANSPORT

47

L2.7

AMPLITUDE=STEP for procedures with natural time scales:

*DYNAMIC

*VISCO

*HEAT TRANSFER (transient)

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT (transient)

*DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, EXPLICIT

*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL (transient)

*SOILS, CONSOLIDATION

*STEADY STATE DYNAMICS

Note: Frequency domain proceduresamplitude

*RANDOM RESPONSE

references define load versus frequency.

*MODAL DYNAMIC

A nonzero displacement boundary condition prescribed in an explicit dynamic procedure

(*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT) must refer to an amplitude option.

L2.8

48

Static analysis is the only procedure that can be performed as either a general or perturbation step:

General step: response can be linear or nonlinear

*STEP

*STATIC

Perturbation step: linear response

*STEP, PERTURBATION

*STATIC

One advantage of static linear perturbation steps is that they can consider multiple load cases.

A load case defines a set of loads and boundary conditions and may contain the following:

Concentrated and distributed loads

Boundary conditions (may change from load case to load case)

Inertia relief

In addition to the static linear perturbation procedure, multiple load cases can also be used for steadystate dynamic (SSD) analysis (either direct or SIM-based modal analysis).

For SIM-based SSD analysis, base motion may also be defined

as part of a load case.

L2.9

Multiple load cases are advantageous when analyzing components that are subjected to many different types

of loads.

Common in many industries.

For example, an aircraft experiences different loads during take-off, climb, cruise, descent, landing, and

taxiing.

Each load case is applied independently.

If the stiffness of the structure is assumed constant over all phases of the loading history (linear

assumption), a multiple load case analysis is an attractive option to determine the loading

envelope.

When investigating the linear static response of a structure subjected to distinct sets of loads and

boundary conditions, it is convenient (and generally more efficient) to use multiple load cases in a single

linear perturbation step rather than using multiple general or linear perturbation steps.

L2.10

Element loop

(stiffness/

multiple RHS)

Element loop

(stiffness/

single RHS)

Primary factorization

(w/ possibly multiple

small factorizations)

Factorization

(or read factorized

matrix from .fct file)

Simultaneous

backsubstitution

Backsubstitution

Element loop

(simultaneous

recovery)

Element loop

(recovery)

Next *STEP

49

L2.11

This is an agricultural implement attached to and towed behind a tractor through a 3-point hitch.

The purpose of the hitch is to transfer towing loads to the implement, but otherwise to allow the

implement to float and move more or less independently of the tractor.

L2.12

The connection is very flexible and the loads on the implement are not well defined, but are a

combination of many different types of loads.

Forward Loads

Lateral Loads

Vertical Loads

50

L2.13

*Step, perturbation

*Static

*Load Case, name="Bending A"

*Boundary

right, 1, 6

*Cload

left, 3, 1.

*End Load Case

*Load Case, name="Bending B"

*Boundary

left, 1, 6

*Cload

right, 3, 1.

*End Load Case

*End Step

Bending A

Node set left

Bending B

L2.14

Basic rules

Load case names (Load Case, name=...) must be unique.

Load options specified outside of load cases apply to all load cases.

Base state boundary conditions propagate to all load cases.

Rules for using OP=NEW:

If used anywhere in a load case step, must be used everywhere in that step.

If used on any BOUNDARY in a load case step, propagated boundary conditions will be

removed in all load cases.

LOAD CASE options do not propagate.

51

L2.15

Changing boundary conditions from load case to load case

No performance penalty when boundary conditions change only in magnitude.

Limit number of boundary conditions that change location from load case to load case.

Depending on number and distribution of boundary conditions that change location, multiple load

case analysis may be significantly slower than equivalent multiple step analysis (very problem

dependent).

If in doubt, run datacheck analyses (multiple step versus multiple load case) and compare solver

information in data (.dat) file (e.g., memory requirements, number of floating point operations,

etc.).

L2.16

52

Problem size

Combination of number of degrees of freedom and number of load cases determines problem size.

Multiple load case analyses may require more:

Memory than equivalent multiple step analyses (e.g., all right-hand sides must be kept in core

during backsubstitution).

Disk space (element and nodal databases).

If necessary, spread load cases over several steps to reduce memory/disk usage per step.

Worst case: Resort to multiple perturbation steps (again, compare solver information in data

(.dat) file).

L2.17

Output

Output requested per step (not per load case)

Available for the output database (.odb) and

data (.dat) files

For the output database file:

All output variables for a load case are

mapped to a frame.

I. Similar to the way increments are

mapped to frames.

Frame contains load case name.

Field output only (no history output).

L2.18

Operations on entire frames supported

For selected frames, can create:

Linear combinations (e.g., linear

combination of load cases)

Min/Max envelope (e.g., find max

stresses over all load cases)

53

L2.19

frames

L2.20

Examples (1/5)

Square plate benchmark

Model

54

# nodes/edge

# variables

(# dof)

101

61206

201

242406

501

1506006

751

3384006

Changing BCs

*Static, perturbation

Changing boundary condition locations at corners

Default output

L2.21

Examples (2/5)

Performance results: Total CPU time

4.E+04

8 Steps

8 Load Cases

3.E+04

16 Steps

16 Load Cases

2.E+04

1.E+04

0.E+00

0.E+00

1.E+06

2.E+06

3.E+06

4.E+06

Number of variables

L2.22

Examples (3/5)

Performance: Details for 751 751 model

8 steps/8 load Cases

Solver

7.52

14.3

Total

5.04

7.48

55

L2.23

Examples (4/5)

Modify 501 501 model

8 load cases

Boundary conditions on opposite edges

changing per load case

(multiple load case ~6.6 slower!)

Watch number and location of changing

boundary conditions!

Changing BCs

L2.24

Examples (5/5)

mobility analysis

Number of variables: 534,000

Number of equations: 483,000

Number of load cases: 60

*Steady-state dynamics, direct

(10 frequency points)

Output: U (output database)

56

60 steps (projected

based on 1 step)

60 load cases

Solver

1290 60 = 77,400

Total

1965 60 = 117,600

1.

L2.25

or keywords version of this workshop.

Objectives

i. Run a linear static analysis using a perturbation procedure with linear load cases

ii. Combine load case results and create envelope plots

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

1 hour

1.

L2.26

or keywords version of this workshop.

Objectives

i. Run a linear static analysis using a perturbation procedure with linear load cases

ii. Combine load case results and create envelope plots

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

1 hour

57

58

Notes

59

Notes

60

L3.1

Lesson content:

Equations of Motion

Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods

Nonlinear Analysis Using Explicit Methods

Input File for Nonlinear Analysis

Status File

Message File

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis

Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (IA)

Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L3.2

Sources of nonlinearity

Material nonlinearities:

Nonlinear elasticity

Plasticity

Material damage

Failure mechanisms

Etc.

Note: material dependencies on temperature or field variables do not introduce nonlinearity if the

temperature or field variables are predefined.

61

L3.3

Boundary nonlinearities:

Contact problems

I. Boundary conditions change

during the analysis.

II. Extremely discontinuous form of

nonlinearity.

Problem 1.1.17, Compression of a jounce

bumper

L3.4

Geometric nonlinearities:

Large deflections and deformations

Large rotations

Structural instabilities (buckling)

Preloading effects

keyboard dome

62

L3.5

Typical nonlinear problems have all three forms of nonlinearity.

Generally, the nonlinear equations for each degree of freedom are coupled.

L3.6

Static equilibrium

The basic statement of static equilibrium is that the internal forces exerted on the nodes I (resulting from

the element stresses) and external forces P acting at every node must balance:

P I 0.

Dynamic equilibrium

The major difference between a static and a dynamic analysis is the inclusion of the inertial forces Mu :

P I Mu,

where M is the mass and u is the acceleration of the structure.

This equation is simply Newtons second law of motion.

63

L3.7

L3.8

Incremental solution schemes

Nonlinear problems are generally solved in an incremental fashion.

For a static problem a fraction of the total load is applied to the structure and the equilibrium

solution corresponding to the current load level is obtained.

I. The load level is then increased (i.e., incremented) and the process is repeated until the full

load level is applied.

For a dynamic problem, the equations of motion are numerically integrated in time using discrete

time increments.

There are two techniques available to solve the nonlinear equations:

Implicit method

Can solve for both static and dynamic equilibrium.

Requires direct solution of a set of matrix equations to obtain the state at the end of the

increment.

I. Iteration required.

This method is used by Abaqus/Standard and is the focus of this lecture.

Explicit method

Can only solve the dynamic equilibrium equations.

I. Can perform quasi-static simulations, however.

The state at the end of the increment depends solely on the state at the beginning of the

increment

I. No iteration required.

This method is used by Abaqus/Explicit and will be discussed in a later lecture.

64

L3.9

Steps, increments, and iterations

Analysis steps

The load history for a simulation consists of one or more steps.

Increments

An increment is part of a step.

I. In static problems the total load applied in a step is broken into smaller increments so that

the nonlinear solution path may be followed.

II. In dynamic problems the total time period is broken into smaller increments to integrate the

equations of motion.

Iterations

An iteration is an attempt at finding the equilibrium solution in an increment.

Newton-Raphson method

Abaqus/Standard uses an incremental-iterative solution technique based on the Newton-Raphson

method.

The method is unconditionally stable (any size increments can be used).

Accuracy in dynamic analysis is affected by the increment size.

Each increment usually requires several iterations to achieve convergence, and each step is usually

made up of several increments.

L3.10

Additional iterations

not shown

1 Small residuals

Residual

Internal force

Small corrections

Correction

65

L3.11

1. Apply an increment of load or time.

2. Iterate until the sum of all forces acting on each node is small (statics) or is equal to the inertia force

(dynamics).

3. Update the state once equilibrium has been satisfied.

4. Go back to Step 1, and apply the next increment.

L3.12

66

Abaqus automatically adjusts the size of the increments so that nonlinear problems are solved easily

and efficiently.

Heuristic algorithm (based on many years of experience).

In static problems it is based on number of iterations required to converge.

Convergence is easily achieved:

I. increase increment size

Convergence difficult or divergence occurs:

I. cut back increment size

Otherwise:

I. maintain same increment size

Tip: For highly nonlinear problems, it is recommended that the initial time increment be chosen as a

small fraction (e.g., 10%) of the total step time.

In implicit dynamic problems, automatic time incrementation is based on the convergence behavior of

the Newton iterations and the accuracy of the time integration.

Details of the time increment control algorithm depend on the type of dynamic application.

Discussed further later.

Automatic time incrementation works very well. You should not change it without good reason.

L3.13

Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium using an explicit solution scheme:

(t )

M 1 ( P I )

(t ) .

Solution is trivial:

Diagonal mass matrix.

No iteration is required!

Conditionally stable.

The size of the time increment must be controlled.

Explicit methods generally require many, many more time increments than implicit methods for

the same problem.

Discontinuous forms of nonlinearity (e.g., contact) are handled more easily by explicit methods.

Explicit dynamics will be discussed further later.

L3.14

*HEADING

CANTILEVER BEAM EXAMPLE--LARGE DISPLACEMENT

*NODE

1, 0., 0.

11, 200., 0.

*NGEN

1, 11, 1

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21

1, 1, 3

*ELGEN, ELSET=BEAMS

1, 5, 2, 1

*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1

50., 5.

*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1

*ELASTIC

2.E5, .3

*BOUNDARY

1, 1, 6

*AMPLITUDE, NAME=RAMP

0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 0.3, 1.0, 1.0

*RESTART, WRITE,FREQ=3

67

L3.15

time period of

the step

*STATIC

suggested initial

time increment

major differences

from linear input

minimum time

increment

maximum time

increment

*CLOAD, AMPLITUDE=RAMP

11, 2, -1200.

*END STEP

major differences

from linear input

previously defined

amplitude function for

load application

L3.16

Step and procedure input

68

Large deflections, rotations, deformation.

Preloading (initial stresses).

Load stiffness.

If the above effects are not significant, the predicted response of the model will be the same as with

NLGEOM=NO (default), but the analysis will be more expensive.

INC=25: maximum of 25 increments allowed in this example:

Abaqus will stop if the maximum number of increments is reached before the total load is applied.

Keeps the analysis from running too longyou can always restart.

Default value is 100.

L3.17

Similar time incrementation data exist for all transient procedures, which include

*STATIC

*DYNAMIC

*HEAT TRANSFER

*VISCO

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT

*SOILS

*MODAL DYNAMIC (allows only fixed time incrementation)

*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRIC

Physical or normalized time scale depending on the procedure and the presence of time-dependent or

rate-dependent behavior.

L3.18

Status File

Status (.sta) file

You can check the status file while the job is running.

One line written after each successful increment.

STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL

DISCON ITERS ITERS

ITERS

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

2

2

2

4

2

3

2

2

2

4

2

TOTAL

TIME/

FREQ

0.100

0.200

0.350

0.575

0.913

1.00

STEP

TIME/LPF

0.100

0.200

0.350

0.575

0.913

1.00

INC OF

TIME/LPF

DOF

IF

MONITOR RIKS

0.1000

0.1000

0.1500

0.2250

0.3375

0.08750

69

L3.19

Message File

All convergence controls:

The *CONTROLS option overrides defaultsnot usually needed

Details about certain model features:

Nondefault model features

Use of NLGEOM

Frequency of restart writes

All iteration details

Useful troubleshooting information:

Locations of highest residuals

Locations of excessive deformation

Locations of contact changes

Solver messages

Numerical singularities

These indicate that so many digits are lost during linear

equation solution that the results are not reliable. The most

common cause is an unconstrained rigid body mode in a static

stress analysis.

Zero pivots

These occur during linear equation solution when there is a

force term but no corresponding stiffness. Common causes are

unconstrained rigid body modes and overconstrained degrees

of freedom.

Negative eigenvalues

Negative eigenvalues indicate that the stiffness matrix is not

positive definite. For example, a buckling load may have been

exceeded.

L3.20

S T E P

S T A T I C

A N A L Y S I S

70

AND A TOTAL TIME PERIOD OF

THE MINIMUM TIME INCREMENT ALLOWED IS

THE MAXIMUM TIME INCREMENT ALLOWED IS

LINEAR EQUATION SOLVER TYPE

0.100

1.00

1.000E-03

1.00

DIRECT SPARSE

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE

FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

CRITERION FOR DISP.

CORRECTION IN A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

INITIAL VALUE OF TIME AVERAGE FORCE

AVERAGE FORCE

IS TIME AVERAGE FORCE

ALTERNATE CRIT. FOR RESIDUAL FORCE

FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

CRITERION FOR ZERO FORCE

RELATIVE TO TIME AVRG. FORCE

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE

WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX

CRITERION FOR DISP.

CORRECTION WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE

FOR A LINEAR INCREMENT

FIELD CONVERSION RATIO

CRITERION FOR ZERO FORCE

REL. TO TIME AVRG. MAX. FORCE

CRITERION FOR ZERO DISP.

RELATIVE TO CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH

5.000E-03

1.000E-02

1.000E-02

2.000E-02

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

1.000E-03

1.000E-08

1.00

1.000E-05

1.000E-08

L3.21

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT

FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

CRITERION FOR ROTATION CORRECTION IN A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

INITIAL VALUE OF TIME AVERAGE MOMENT

AVERAGE MOMENT

IS TIME AVERAGE MOMENT

ALTERNATE CRIT. FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT

FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM

CRITERION FOR ZERO MOMENT

RELATIVE TO TIME AVRG. MOMENT

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT

WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX

CRITERION FOR ROTATION CORRECTION WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX

CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT

FOR A LINEAR INCREMENT

FIELD CONVERSION RATIO

CRITERION FOR ZERO MOMENT

REL. TO TIME AVRG. MAX. MOMENT

AXIAL STRAIN COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR HYBRID BEAMS

TRANS. SHEAR STRAIN COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR HYBRID BEAMS

SOFT CONTACT CONSTRAINT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR P>P0

SOFT CONTACT CONSTRAINT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR P=0.0

CONTACT FORCE ERROR TOLERANCE FOR CONVERT SDI=YES

DISPLACEMENT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR DCOUP ELEMENTS

ROTATION COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR DCOUP ELEMENTS

5.000E-03

1.000E-02

1.000E-02

2.000E-02

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

1.000E-03

1.000E-08

1.00

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

5.000E-03

0.100

1.00

1.000E-05

1.000E-05

L3.22

FIRST EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION FOR CONSECUTIVE DIVERGENCE CHECK

EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION AT WHICH LOG. CONVERGENCE RATE CHECK BEGINS

EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION AFTER WHICH ALTERNATE RESIDUAL IS USED

MAXIMUM EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS ALLOWED

EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION COUNT FOR CUT-BACK IN NEXT INCREMENT

MAXIMUM EQUILIB. ITERS IN TWO INCREMENTS FOR TIME INCREMENT INCREASE

MAXIMUM ITERATIONS FOR SEVERE DISCONTINUITIES

MAXIMUM CUT-BACKS ALLOWED IN AN INCREMENT

MAXIMUM DISCON. ITERS IN TWO INCREMENTS FOR TIME INCREMENT INCREASE

CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER DIVERGENCE

0.2500

CUT-BACK FACTOR FOR TOO SLOW CONVERGENCE

0.5000

CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER TOO MANY EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS

0.7500

CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER TOO MANY SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS

0.2500

CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER PROBLEMS IN ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

0.2500

INCREASE FACTOR AFTER TWO INCREMENTS THAT CONVERGE QUICKLY

1.500

MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED

1.500

MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED (DYNAMICS)

1.250

MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED (DIFFUSION)

2.000

MINIMUM TIME INCREMENT RATIO FOR EXTRAPOLATION TO OCCUR

0.1000

MAX. RATIO OF TIME INCREMENT TO STABILITY LIMIT

1.000

FRACTION OF STABILITY LIMIT FOR NEW TIME INCREMENT

0.9500

TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR BEFORE A TIME POINT

1.000

GLOBAL STABILIZATION CONTROL IS NOT USED

4

8

9

16

10

4

50

5

50

71

L3.23

INCREMENTS

INCREMENTS

25

LINEAR EXTRAPOLATION WILL BE USED

CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENT LENGTH

40.0

PRINT OF INCREMENT NUMBER, TIME, ETC., TO THE MESSAGE FILE EVERY

INCREMENTS

COLLECTING MODEL CONSTRAINT INFORMATION FOR OVERCONSTRAINT CHECKS

COLLECTING STEP CONSTRAINT INFORMATION FOR OVERCONSTRAINT CHECKS

L3.24

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

72

0.100

1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

1.251E+03

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-4.637E+03

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

1.251E+03

DOF 1

DOF 2

0.005

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

7.200E+03

TIME AVG. MOMENT

7.200E+03

RESIDUAL MOMENT

28.8

AT NODE

9

DOF 6

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

0.005

ROTATION CORRECTION TOO LARGE COMPARED TO ROTATION INCREMENT .

36

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

37.8

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

0.215

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-1.007E-02

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

37.8

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

7.200E+03

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-0.346

AT NODE

5

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

5.898E-07

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

7.200E+03

0.005

DOF 6

DOF 6

36

DOF 6

6.25

0.005

0.2

L3.25

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

37.7

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-2.281E-06

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

3.349E-05

AT NODE

11

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

37.7

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

7.200E+03

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

1.523E-05

AT NODE

7

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

3.637E-07

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

7.200E+03

0.005

DOF 6

DOF 6

36

DOF 6

0.005

0.2

3 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 3 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.100

0.100

,

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

4 or fewer

iterations

(do this again

and Dt

can increase)

0.100

0.100

L3.26

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

0.100

no increase

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

75.6

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

0.861

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-2.013E-02

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

56.7

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

1.440E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-1.38

AT NODE

5

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

3.914E-06

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

1.080E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

73

L3.27

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

144.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-6.928E-05

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-1.84

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

1.701E-04

AT NODE

11

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

90.9

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

1.600E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

1.160E+04

RESIDUAL MOMENT

1.218E-04

AT NODE

7

DOF 6

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-1.382E-02

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

1.804E-06

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

2 consecutive increments with

TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO

0.150

4 or fewer iterations: Dt = 1.5Dtold

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:

2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.100

0.200

,

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.200

0.200

L3.28

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

74

0.150

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

133.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

3.02

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-2.75

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-3.764E-02

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

105.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

2.518E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-4.47

AT NODE

5

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-2.071E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

1.722E-05

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

1.613E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

L3.29

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

252.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-7.965E-04

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-2.75

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

5.629E-04

AT NODE

11

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

145.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

2.798E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

7.461E-04

AT NODE

7

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-2.070E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

5.967E-06

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO

0.225

1.706E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.150

0.350

,

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

AFTER INCREMENT

4 or

fewer

0.350

0.350

3

L3.30

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

0.225

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

1.528E+03

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-4.550E+03

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-5.95

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-1.82

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

490.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

4.853E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-344.

AT NODE

9

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-4.477E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

-1.371E-02

AT NODE

11

MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

2.493E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

75

L3.31

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

281.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

0.349

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-5.94

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-9.348E-03

AT NODE

11

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

179.

DOF 2

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

4.847E+04

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-2.26

AT NODE

5

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-4.471E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

5.353E-05

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO

0.338

2.491E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.225

0.575

,

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.575

0.575

L3.32

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

76

0.338

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

1.248E+04

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-3.911E+04

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-14.2

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-5.31

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

2.638E+03

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

1.049E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-4.323E+03

AT NODE

9

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-0.107

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

-4.037E-02

AT NODE

11

MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

4.090E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

556.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

16.6

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-14.2

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-8.119E-02

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

254.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

1.044E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-42.5

AT NODE

5

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-0.107

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

1.095E-04

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

4.080E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

L3.33

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

INCREMENT OF DISP.

CORRECTION TO DISP.

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT

559.

TIME AVG. FORCE

-28.9

AT NODE

11

-14.1

AT NODE

11

0.130

AT NODE

11

ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

255.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE MOMENT

1.153E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

4.299E+04

LARGEST RESIDUAL MOMENT

3.833E-02

AT NODE

5

DOF 6

LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-0.106

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION

1.112E-03

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

ESTIMATE OF ROTATION CORRECTION

-1.004E-06

MOMENT

EQUILIB. ACCEPTED BASED ON SMALL RESIDUAL AND ESTIMATED CORRECTION

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

4

correction is too large. The estimate of the rotation

of the FORCE

next iteration is acceptably

small.

FORCE

1.053E+03 correction

TIME AVG.

354.

RESIDUAL FORCE

1.092E-03

AT NODE

11

DOF 2

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-14.1

AT NODE

11

DOF 2

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-2.092E-04

AT NODE

11

DOF 2

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

MOMENT

1.153E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

-2.910E-02

AT NODE

7

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-0.106

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

-1.875E-06

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

4.299E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

3 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 3 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.338

0.913

,

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.913

0.913

L3.34

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

8.750E-02

FORCE

641.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

74.0

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-3.55

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

-0.180

AT NODE

11

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

402.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 1

AVERAGE MOMENT

1.179E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

5.547E+04

LARGEST RESIDUAL MOMENT

-99.4

AT NODE

5

DOF 6

LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-2.702E-02

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION

5.186E-04

AT NODE

11

DOF 6

ESTIMATE OF ROTATION CORRECTION

-1.594E-05

MOMENT

EQUILIB. ACCEPTED BASED ON SMALL RESIDUAL AND ESTIMATED CORRECTION

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

695.

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-0.505

AT NODE

11

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-3.53

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO DISP.

1.386E-02

AT NODE

11

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

411.

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

MOMENT

1.309E+05

TIME AVG. MOMENT

RESIDUAL MOMENT

8.716E-02

AT NODE

7

INCREMENT OF ROTATION

-2.687E-02

AT NODE

11

CORRECTION TO ROTATION

1.493E-04

AT NODE

11

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

5.764E+04

DOF 6

DOF 6

DOF 6

77

L3.35

2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

8.750E-02,

1.00

,

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

AFTER INCREMENT

1.00

1.00

6

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:

TOTAL OF

6

0

15

15

15

Look here for warning

0

and error messages.

1

Search the message

0

file and data file to

0

determine the causes

3

of these messages.

0

0

0

0

INCREMENTS

CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION

ITERATIONS INCLUDING CONTACT ITERATIONS IF PRESENT

PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

INVOLVE MATRIX DECOMPOSITION, INCLUDING

DECOMPOSITION(S) OF THE MASS MATRIX

REORDERING OF EQUATIONS TO MINIMIZE WAVEFRONT

ADDITIONAL RESIDUAL EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES

ADDITIONAL OPERATOR EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES

WARNING MESSAGES DURING USER INPUT PROCESSING

WARNING MESSAGES DURING ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NUMERICAL PROBLEM MESSAGES

ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NEGATIVE EIGENVALUE MESSAGES

ERROR MESSAGES

L3.36

rotational degrees of freedom

the model where the largest

residuals and displacement

increments and corrections

occur.

78

L3.37

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Workshop tasks

1. Define alternate material directions

corresponding to the skew angle of the plate.

2. Analyze the deformation of the skew plate with and

without considering nonlinear geometric effects.

3. Include plasticity in the material definition.

4. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

1 hour

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Workshop tasks

1. Define alternate material directions

corresponding to the skew angle of the plate.

2. Analyze the deformation of the skew plate with and

without considering nonlinear geometric effects.

3. Include plasticity in the material definition.

4. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

L3.38

1 hour

79

80

Notes

81

Notes

82

L4.1

Lesson content:

Multistep Analyses

Restart Analysis in Abaqus

Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (IA)

Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

1 hour

L4.2

so that loads or boundary conditions can be applied in steps or output requests can be modified.

Usually there are several general analysis steps.

Response can be linear or nonlinear

General steps can be punctuated by perturbation steps.

Response is linear perturbation about a base state

What is the base state?

The base state is the current state of the model at the end of the last general analysis step (prior to the

linear perturbation step).

83

L4.3

Possible step sequences

General step followed by another general step

General step continues from where previous general step ended

Loads are considered total loads

General step followed by perturbation step

Perturbation response about preceding general step

Loads are considered perturbation loads

Perturbation step followed by another perturbation step

These act as a series of independent steps in the analysis

Some ordering rules apply (e.g., frequency extraction before modal dynamics)

Perturbation step followed by a general step

General step continues from end of previous general step (if any)

The perturbation response is ignored in the general step that follows

L4.4

84

Perturbation step results are perturbations about the base state.

If geometric nonlinearity is included in the general analysis upon which a linear perturbation study

is based, stress stiffening or softening effects and load stiffness effects (from pressure and other

follower forces) are included in the linear perturbation analysis.

Eigenvalue buckling analyses are an exception:

I. The base state in a buckling analysis always includes the effects of stresses from previous

general steps even if geometric nonlinearity was not considered.

The contact state of the most recent general step is enforced in the perturbation step.

L4.5

Step

Action

Step type

Stretch cable

Frequency

extraction

condition of Step 1 (base state)

More stretching

condition of Step 1 (last nonlinear step)

Another frequency

extraction

condition of Step 3 (new base state)

L4.6

The history could be modified to be a series of separate general analysis steps to obtain the

eigenfrequency of the lowest mode:

Step

Action

Stretch cable

85

L4.7

History definition:

*STEP, NLGEOM

STEP 1: STRETCH CABLE

*STATIC

*CLOAD

This load remains throughout

13, 1, 500.

the analysis unless it is

*RESTART, WRITE

explicitly modified or removed.

*NODE FILE

U

*EL PRINT

S, MISES, E

*NODE PRINT

U, RF, CF

*END STEP

**

*STEP, NLGEOM

STEP 2: DEFLECT MIDPOINT

*STATIC

.1, 1.

*BOUNDARY, OP=MOD The midpoint deflection is added to the

other boundary conditions specified in the

7, 2, 2, -1.

model definition.

*END STEP

L4.8

86

**

*STEP, NLGEOM, INC=200

STEP 3:RELEASE & SEE VIBRATE

*DYNAMIC

** use fixed time incs for

** this example

** dtinit, ttot, dtmin, dtmax

.0002, .04

*BOUNDARY, OP=NEW

All previously specified boundary conditions are

1, 1, 2

removed, and the pin and roller conditions are

13, 2

redefined. The midpoint deflection is removed

*PRINT, FREQUENCY=100

since it is not redefined.

*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=0

*NODE PRINT, FREQUENCY=0

*END STEP

L4.9

SUMMARY OF JOB INFORMATION:

STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL TOTAL

STEP

INC OF

DOF

IF

DISCON ITERS ITERS

TIME/

TIME/LPF

TIME/LPF

MONITOR RIKS

ITERS

FREQ

1

1

1

0

2

2

1.00

1.00

1.000

2

1

1

0

2

2

1.10

0.100

0.1000

2

2

1

0

1

1

1.20

0.200

0.1000

2

3

1

0

1

1

1.35

0.350

0.1500

2

4

1

0

1

1

1.58

0.575

0.2250

2

5

1

0

1

1

1.91

0.913

0.3375

2

6

1

0

1

1

2.00

1.00

8.7500E-02

3

1

1

0

1

1

2.00

2.000E-04 2.0000E-04

3

2

1

0

1

1

2.00

4.000E-04 2.0000E-04

3

3

1

0

1

1

2.00

6.000E-04 2.0000E-04

--------------------------------------------------------------.

.

.

--------------------------------------------------------------3 195

1

0

1

1

2.04

3.900E-02 2.0000E-04

3 196

1

0

1

1

2.04

3.920E-02 2.0000E-04

3 197

1

0

1

1

2.04

3.940E-02 2.0000E-04

3 198

1

0

1

1

2.04

3.960E-02 2.0000E-04

3 199

1

0

1

1

2.04

3.980E-02 2.0000E-04

3 200

1

0

1

1

2.04

4.000E-02 2.0000E-04

L4.10

87

L4.11

Restart files are used to:

Continue analyses that stop at intermediate points.

A job may stop because:

I. The maximum number of increments specified for the step was reached.

II. There was not enough disk space, or the machine failed.

III. The job failed to converge.

You may wish to continue the job after:

I. Examining results up to a particular point.

II. Modifying history: procedure, loading, output, or controls.

Import results between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit.

L4.12

Restart option syntax: Abaqus/Standard

*RESTART, READ, STEP= , INC= , END STEP, WRITE, FREQUENCY | NUMBER INTERVAL= ,

TIME MARKS=, OVERLAY

88

Used to specify that restart data from a previous analysis should be read at

a particular step and increment. (The default is to read from the last

available restart data.)

END STEP

WRITE, FREQUENCY,

NUMBER INTERVAL,

Control when restart data are written during an analysis. Restart data and

TIME MARKS are always written at the end of a step if WRITE is specified.

OVERLAY

Causes Abaqus to save only the last set of restart data. (There will be only

one set of restart data per step.)

L4.13

Restart option syntax: Abaqus/Explicit

The Abaqus/Explicit restart files allow an analysis to be completed up to a certain point (an interval of

restart output) in a particular run and restarted and continued in a subsequent run.

The package, state, and initial restart files are needed to restart an Abaqus/Explicit simulation.

The syntax for restarting an Abaqus/Explicit simulation is just slightly different from that used for

Abaqus/Standard:

In this example the analysis is restarted just after the completion of interval Q of step P.

L4.14

Submission of a restart job:

name of the

name of the

restart file

new input file

created by the

previous run

The following model data can be changed in a restart analysis:

Amplitude definitions

Node sets

Element sets

89

L4.15

Another approach to the vibrating cable simulation is to perform a restart analysis.

Analysis Job 1

Step 1

Apply tension

Write restart data

Analysis Job 2

Step 2

Deflect midpoint of cable

Step 3

L4.16

90

*HEADING

READ SOLUTION AT END OF STEP 1 AND

CONTINUE

THE VIBRATING CABLE SIMULATION

*RESTART, READ, STEP=1, INC=1

**

*STEP, NLGEOM

STEP 2: DEFLECT MIDPOINT

*STATIC

.1, 1.

*BOUNDARY, OP=MOD

7, 2, 2, -1.

*END STEP

**

*STEP, NLGEOM, INC=200

STEP 3: RELEASE & SEE VIBRATE

*DYNAMIC

.0002, .04

*BOUNDARY, OP=NEW

1, 1, 2

13, 2

*END STEP

data are read from the restart

file that was produced by the

original analysis.

L4.17

The flexible restart capabilities in Abaqus are very helpful for managing complex analyses. There are

three important rules to remember:

1 It is not possible to append to a restart file.

I. Abaqus always reads from an old restart file and writes to a new one.

II. Analyses consisting of several restarts will also have several restart files.

III. Like the restart file, the output database (.odb) file is not appended to.

2

3

IV. The results (.fil) file for a restarted run contains the previous results plus the results from

the current analysis (by default).

All output requests and loads from the previous run remain in effect upon job restart unless

explicitly modified in a new step.

If Abaqus is restarting from an unfinished run, it will first try to finish the step it was working on

during the original analysis before starting any new steps.

I. Abaqus will finish only the step it was working on during the original analysis.

It will not attempt any additional steps defined in the original analysis.

Those steps must be included in the restart analysis input file if they are to be

performed.

II. Use the END STEP parameter to terminate the step from which the restart is read before

continuing with a newly defined step.

III. Use the END STEP parameter to continue an analysis that stopped because the maximum

number of increments was reached.

Workshop tasks

a. Perform a restart analysis.

i.

Unload the plate.

b. Postprocess the results.

or keywords version of this workshop.

1.

L4.18

30 minutes

91

Workshop tasks

a. Perform a restart analysis.

i.

Unload the plate.

b. Postprocess the results.

1.

30 minutes

92

L4.19

or keywords version of this workshop.

Notes

93

Notes

94

L5.1

Lesson content:

Constraints

Tie Constraints

Rigid Bodies

Shell-to-solid Coupling

Contact

Defining General Contact

Defining Contact Pairs

Contact Pair Surfaces

Local Surface Behavior

Relative Sliding of Points in Contact

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact

Contact Output

Workshop 5: Seal Contact (IA)

Workshop 5: Seal Contact (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2.5 hours

L5.2

Constraints (1/4)

What are constraints?

Constraints allow you to model kinematic relationships between points.

These relationships are defined between degrees of freedom in the model.

Examples:

Tie constraints

Rigid body constraints

Shell-to-solid coupling

Multi-point constraints

95

L5.3

Constraints (2/4)

Tie constraints

Allow you to fuse together two regions even though the meshes created on the surfaces of the

regions may be dissimilar.

containing hexahedral and

tetrahedral elements.

L5.4

Constraints (3/4)

Allow you to constrain the motion of

regions of the assembly to the motion of

a reference point.

Used to model parts which are massive

and stiff compared to other bodies in the

assembly (e.g., tools in a forming

analysis).

Rollers are

modeled as rigid

Rolling of a symmetric I-section

Shell-to-solid coupling

Couples the motion of a shell edge to

the motion of an adjacent solid face

96

L5.5

Constraints (4/4)

Multi-point constraints (MPCs)

Linear or nonlinear constraints between nodes.

Linear equations are a form of MPC

i th node

u1i u1bot 0

This linear equation

constraint is applied to all

nodes on the right-hand

edge of the model to

impose generalized plane

strain conditions.

bot

L5.6

A tie constraint provides a simple way to bond surfaces together permanently.

Easy mesh transitioning.

Surface-based constraint using a master-slave formulation*.

The constraint prevents slave nodes from separating or sliding relative to the master surface.

Tie constraints

steps to define surfaces will be discussed shortly.

97

L5.7

Syntax:

[POSITION TOLERANCE | TIE NSET]

SLAVE, MASTER

The POSITION TOLERANCE parameter defines the distance within which nodes on the slave

surface must lie from the master surface to be tied.

I. Nodes on the slave surface that are farther away from the master surface than this distance

will not be tied.

Alternatively, the TIE NSET parameter can be used to indicate the node set that includes the

nodes on the slave surface that will be tied to the master surface.

I. Nodes included in the slave surface but not included in this node set will not be tied.

L5.8

The ADJUST parameter is optional.

Setting it to YES moves all slave nodes (within the distance defined by the optional POSITION

TOLERANCE parameter) onto the master surface in the initial configuration, without any strain.

The status of a slave node (open or closed) is given in the data (.dat) file.

A warning is issued in the printed output file for slave nodes in tie constraints that are not in

contact.

By default, both translational and rotational degrees of freedom are constrained.

Use the NO ROTATION parameter if rotation degrees of freedom should not be constrained.

Do not apply boundary conditions, equations, or MPCs to the slave nodes of a tie constraint; this will

cause the nodes to be overconstrained, resulting in errors in the analysis.

Symptoms:

I. Zero pivot warnings in the message (.msg) file in Abaqus/Standard

II. Deformation wave speed errors in Abaqus/Explicit

98

L5.9

Abaqus has a general rigid body capability.

A rigid body is a collection of nodes and elements whose motion is governed by the motion of a

single node called a reference node.

A rigid body can undergo arbitrarily large rigid body motions.

Rigid bodies are computationally efficient.

Their motion is described completely by no more than six degrees of freedom.

There are no element calculations for elements making up a rigid body.

Model a body as rigid if it is much stiffer than other bodies with which it will come in contact; for

example, dies in a metal forming simulation.

L5.10

Define a rigid body using a combination of element types (including rigid elements) and declaring

the body to be rigid.

I. Discrete geometry of general shape

Define an analytical rigid surface.

I. Surface geometry of limited shape

Write a user subroutine (RSURFU; Abaqus/Standard only).

The first two approaches are discussed in this lecture.

99

L5.11

A rigid body definition consists of

1 reference node

and at most:

1 element set (discrete rigid body)

1 tie node set

1 pin node set

1 analytical surface

Each rigid body definition must be unique.

Rigid body definitions cannot share nodes, elements, or reference nodes.

L5.12

Most element types can be part of a rigid body.

For example, solid elements or rigid elements can be used to model the same effect as long as a

*RIGID BODY option is used to assign the elements to the rigid body.

Example of defining a rigid body containing solid elements:

100

...

*SOLID SECTION, ELSET=SOLID1, MATERIAL=STEEL

*MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL

*ELASTIC

200.0E9, 0.3

*DENSITY

7800.0,

*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=10000, ELSET=SOLID1

L5.13

Pin vs. Tie nodes

Each rigid body slave node can be specified to be one of two types: a pin node or a tie node

Even when rigid bodies contain elements, additional node sets can be included in the constraint to

provide more connection points for deformable elements.

Pin nodes have only their translational degrees of freedom associated with the rigid body.

Connections from a rigid body to deformable elements through a pin node transmit only

displacement and force.

Tie nodes have both their translational and rotational degrees of freedom associated with the rigid body.

Connections from a rigid body to deformable elements through a tie node transmit rotation and

moment in addition to displacement and force.

L5.14

rigid

tie node

pin node

deformable

Initial configuration

counterclockwise rotation through

45

101

L5.15

The default tie classification takes precedence for nodes attached to more than one element type.

For example, if a node is attached to both CPE3 and B21 elements, the node will be a tie node by

default.

Default node types can be overridden by including the same node in a pin or tie node set.

*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set, PIN NSET=node set,

TIE NSET=node set

thickness

L5.16

Analytical rigid surfaces

Three types of analytical surfaces are available using the *SURFACE option:

Use TYPE=SEGMENTS to define a two-dimensional rigid surface.

Use TYPE=CYLINDER to define a three-dimensional rigid surface that is extruded infinitely in the

out-of-plane direction.

Use TYPE=REVOLUTION to define a three-dimensional surface of revolution.

102

Analytical rigid surfaces are not smoothed automatically. Contact calculations are easier with smoothed

surfaces, however.

Use the FILLET RADIUS parameter to provide the radius used to smooth segments of the

analytical rigid surface.

Use the *RIGID BODY option to assign the surface to a rigid body and assign the reference node.

L5.17

TYPE=SEGMENTS

START, 15.0, 5.0

Order of segments determines normal n by defining s. n = z s, where z

CIRCL, 10.0, 0.0, 10.0, 5.0

is a unit vector parallel to the z-axis and contact is in the direction of n.

LINE, 5.0, 0.0

*RIGID BODY, ANALYTICAL SURFACE=SRIGID, REF NODE=10000

L5.18

The motion of a rigid body is controlled by the motion of the rigid body reference nodeeither by

boundary conditions or by forces applied to the rigid body.

The other nodes forming the rigid body are called rigid body slave nodes.

103

L5.19

You can place the rigid body reference node anywhere in a model.

The location is important if the rigid body is to move freely under applied loads during the analysis; in

this case the node should be placed at the center of mass of the rigid body.

Abaqus can calculate the center of mass and relocate the reference node to this location automatically.

Abaqus will use the mass distribution from the elements making up the rigid body to determine the center

of mass.

If the reference node is relocated at the center of mass of the rigid body, the new coordinates of the

reference node are also printed out at the end of the printed output file.

Syntax:

*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set,

POSITION=CENTER OF MASS

L5.20

The mass and rotary inertia of a meshed rigid body can be calculated based on the contributions from

its elements, or they can be assigned specifically by using MASS and ROTARYI elements defined at the

slave nodes of a rigid body or the rigid body reference node.

The mass, the center of mass, and the moments of inertia about the center of mass of each rigid

body appear in the printed output file.

104

It may be useful to specify parts of a model as rigid for model verification purposes.

For example, in complex models where all potential contact conditions cannot be anticipated,

elements far away from the region of interest could be included as part of a rigid body, resulting in

faster run times while developing a model.

When you are satisfied with the model and contact pair definitions, rigid body definitions can be

removed and an accurate deformable finite element representation can be incorporated

throughout.

L5.21

The interactions between the ball and the strings are of

primary interest. Since the frame is very stiff, it is initially

modeled as a rigid body for computational efficiency.

Once this analysis has been verified, the rigid body

definition can be removed to consider deformation of

the racket.

L5.22

Allows for a transition from shell element

modeling to solid element modeling

Useful when local modeling requires 3D solid

elements but other parts of the structure can

be modeled as shells

Couples the motion of a line of nodes along

the edge of a shell model to the motion of a set

of nodes on a solid surface

Uses a set of internally defined

distributing coupling constraints

105

L5.23

shell_surface, solid_surface

solid_surface (face)

shell_surface_E1, E1

an edge identifier

shell_surface (edge)

L5.24

Contact (1/12)

What is contact?

When two solid bodies touch, force

is transmitted across their common

surface.

contact surfaces are transmitted.

106

If friction is present, a limited amount of force tangent to the contact surfaces also can be

transmitted.

I. Frictional forces cause shear stresses along the contact surfaces.

General objective: Determine contacting areas and stress transmitted.

Contact is a severely discontinuous form of nonlinearity.

Either a constraint must be applied (that the surfaces cannot interpenetrate) or the constraint is

ignored.

L5.25

Contact (2/12)

Contact examples

Gap contact

Point contact is modeled as node-to-node contact.

Example Problem 2.1.2 in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.26

Contact (3/12)

Hertz contact

Small displacements of the contact surfaces relative to each other.

Contact over a distributed surface area.

Typical Examples: bearing design, hard gaskets, and shrink fits. The

example shown here comes from Coolant manifold cover gasketed

joint, Example Problem 5.1.4 in the Abaqus Example Problems

Manual.

107

L5.27

Contact (4/12)

Large-sliding contact between deformable

bodies

This is the most general category of

contact.

Example: threaded connector.

These problems typically involve an

initial interference fit (because of the

tapered thread), followed by finite

sliding between bodies made of

similar strength materials.

Contact pressure

distribution due to

interference

resolution

This example is loosely based on Axisymmetric analysis

of a threaded connection, Example Problem 1.1.20 in the

Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.28

Contact (5/12)

Self-contact

Self-contact is contact of a single

surface with itself. It is available in twoand three-dimensional models in

Abaqus.

It is convenient when a surface will

deform severely during the analysis and

it is not possible, or it is very difficult, to

determine individual contacting regions

in advance.

Self-contact is defined by specifying a

single contact surface as a contact pair

instead of two different surfaces.

SURF1

(rigid)

SURF2

Example: Compression of a rubber gasket

(taken from Self-contact in rubber/foam

components: rubber gasket, Example Problem

1.1.18 in the Abaqus Example Problems

Manual).

108

L5.29

Contact (6/12)

Deformable to rigid

body contact

Finite sliding between

the surfaces (large

displacements).

Finite strain of the

deforming components.

Typical examples:

I. Rubber seals

II. Tire on road

III. Pipeline on seabed

IV. Forming simulations

(rigid die/mold,

deformable component).

forming of a rectangular box, Section 1.3.2

in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.30

Contact (7/12)

Abaqus provides two approaches for modeling

surface-based contact:

General contact allows you to define contact

between many or all regions of a model with a

single interaction.

The surfaces that can interact with one

another comprise the contact domain

and can span many disconnected

regions of a model.

Contact pairs describe contact between two

surfaces.

Requires more careful definition of

contact.

I. Every possible contact pair

interaction must be defined.

Has many restrictions on the types of

surfaces involved.

109

L5.31

Contact (8/12)

The general contact algorithm

The contact domain spans multiple bodies

(both rigid and deformable)

Default domain is defined automatically

via an

all-inclusive element-based surface

The method is geared toward models with

multiple components and complex topology

Greater ease in defining contact model

L5.32

Contact (9/12)

Requires user-specified pairing of individual surfaces

Often results in more efficient analyses since contact surfaces are limited in scope

contact pair analysis

110

L5.33

Contact (10/12)

The choice between general contact and contact pairs is largely a trade-off between ease of defining contact

and analysis performance

Robustness and accuracy of both methods are similar

In some cases, the contact pair approach is required in order to access specific features not available with

general contact.

These include:

Analytical rigid surfaces (Abaqus/Standard)

Two-dimensional models (Abaqus/Explicit)

Node-based surfaces

Small sliding

Rough or Lagrange friction (Abaqus/Standard)

See the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual for a complete list of general contact limitations

L5.34

Contact (11/12)

Some additional details

Abaqus/Standard

Contact pairs: "Node-to-surface" contact

discretization is used by default:

I. Nodes on one surface

(the slave surface) contact the discretized

segments on the other surface (the master surface).

II. Also known as a strict master/slave formulation

General contact: Surface-to-surface" contact discretization

I. Contact is enforced in an average sense.

II. This form of contact discretization may also be used with contact pairs

Abaqus/Explicit

A balanced master/slave formulation is used in most cases.

I. The contact constraints are applied twice and averaged, reversing the master and slave

surfaces on the second application.

II. Decreases potential contact penetrations.

Shell thickness in contact

By default, Abaqus considers shell thickness in contact calculations with the exception of finitesliding, node-to-surface contact in Abaqus/Standard.

To ignore thickness effects, use the NO THICKNESS parameter on the *CONTACT PAIR option.

111

L5.35

Contact (12/12)

Contact pairs in Abaqus/Standard

The default strict master/slave formulation

used in Abaqus/Standard has certain

implications.

Slave nodes cannot penetrate master

surface segments.

Nodes on the master surface can

penetrate slave surface segments.

The contact direction is always normal

to the master surface.

I. The contact condition is checked

along the normal to the master

surface.

II. Normal contact forces are

transmitted along the normal

direction.

III. Frictional forces are transmitted

tangent to the contacting surfaces.

L5.36

The simplest definition of contact quite common:

*CONTACT

*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR

Automatic contact for entire model

The contact definition can gradually become more detailed, as called for by the analysis

112

User control of contact thickness (especially for shells)

Pair-wise specification of contact domain (instead of ALL EXTERIOR)

L5.37

Main option

*CONTACT

Suboptions

Commonly used:

*CONTACT INCLUSIONS

*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT

Less commonly used:

*SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT

*CONTACT EXCLUSIONS

L5.38

*CONTACT

*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR

*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT

, , prop_1

alum_surf, steel_surf, prop_2

alum_surf, alum_surf, prop_3

(local modification)

(local modification)

113

L5.39

1

defined geometry, or underlying nodes.

L5.40

input file:

*SURFACE, NAME=ASURF

SLIDER, S1

*SURFACE, NAME=BSURF

BLOCK, S3

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1

ASURF, BSURF

*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRIC1

1.0,

*FRICTION

0.4,

114

L5.41

Defining surfaces

The surfaces are defined using the *SURFACE option.

The faces of each element set are specified using face label identifiers.

Either element set names or element numbers can be used to specify surfaces.

*SURFACE, NAME=ASURF

SLIDER, S1

*SURFACE, NAME=BSURF

BLOCK, S3

Contact occurs on top (S3) face of element set BLOCK

L5.42

Once you have defined surfaces, you can define contact pairs.

Each contact pair specifies two surfaces that can contact each other during the analysis.

In Abaqus/Standard the first surface is the slave surface and the second surface is the master

surface.

In Abaqus/Explicit the order of the surfaces does not usually affect the contact calculations.

ASURF, BSURF

115

L5.43

Defining surface interaction properties

The *SURFACE INTERACTION option block defines the surface interaction properties.

Defines surface behavior properties such as friction.

Defines contact interface out-of-plane thickness for two-dimensional cases.

This option is always necessary in Abaqus/Standard, even when additional properties are not

specified.

I. It is optional in Abaqus/Explicit.

The *CONTACT PAIR option refers to a *SURFACE INTERACTION option by name.

ASURF, BSURF

*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRIC1

Out-of-plane thickness

1.0,

*FRICTION

List surface constitutive

0.4,

properties as suboptions of

*SURFACE INTERACTION

L5.44

Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=ELEMENT option to define surfaces on deformable bodies or meshed rigid

bodies.

or

Allow Abaqus to automatically determine the free surfaces of a body of continuum elements

116

Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=[SEGMENTS | CYLINDER | REVOLUTION] option with the *RIGID BODY

option to define analytical rigid surfaces.

Discussed earlier in the context of rigid bodies

Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=NODE option to specify individual nodes that may experience contact.

L5.45

Using face label identifiers

Example: 4-node quad element (CPE4, CAX4,

etc.)

*SURFACE, NAME=EXAMPLE1

1, S4

1, S1

2, S1

2, S2

...

L5.46

*SURFACE, NAME=EXAMPLE2

ELSET1,

No face identifier

117

L5.47

Defining surfaces on structural elements (shell,

membrane, rigid, beam)

Structural element normals dictate the direction

of expected contact.

Normals are based on element local node

numbering.

Positive normal direction = SPOS

surface.

Negative normal direction = SNEG

surface.

(S4R,S8R,M3D4,etc.)

(B21,T2D2,etc.)

L5.48

118

surface definition.

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=BOTTOM

10, 1, 2

11, 2, 3

12, 3, 6

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=TOP

20, 4, 5

21, 5, 6

*ELSET, ELSET=BEAMS

BOTTOM, TOP

*SURFACE, NAME=SURF1

BEAMS, SPOS

*SURFACE, NAME=SURF1

BOTTOM, SPOS

TOP, SNEG

L5.49

Node-based surfaces

Alternative way to define points for contact.

Instead of specifying element faces as a contact surface, a node-based surface contains only

nodes.

Node-based surfaces are always considered slave surfaces.

Strings: nodebased surface

STRINGS,

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=SMOOTH

STRINGS, BALL

contact nodes

previously defined

surface

L5.50

General rules

All elements underlying a surface must be

compatible. They must be:

Of the same dimension (two- or threedimensional).

I. For two-dimensional surfaces: all

planar or all axisymmetric (but not

both).

Of the same order of interpolation (firstor second-order).

All deformable or all rigid (but not both).

Additional restrictions

Surface normals

Master surface normals must be

consistent

Master surface normals should point

toward the slave surface.

I. Otherwise convergence difficulties

will occur.

Rigid surfaces

All surfaces defined on rigid bodies

must be specified as master surfaces.

119

L5.51

Master contact pair surfaces in Abaqus/Standard (when using the default node-to-surface algorithm) and

all contact pair surfaces in Abaqus/Explicit have an additional restriction:

It must be possible to traverse between any two points on the surface without leaving the surface,

passing through it, or passing through a single point.

place through a point.

Traversal requires

passing through or

leaving the surface.

L5.52

normal and

tangential

contact directions.

Other contact interaction properties include contact damping and geometric properties such as out-ofplane thickness.

120

L5.53

Hard contact

Hard contact is the default local

behavior in all contact problems.

Contact constraints enforced via a:

Direct method (contact pairs only)

Pressure-clearance relationship

Precise kinematic compliance for

Abaqus/Explicit

Penalty method (default for general

contact)

*surface interaction, name=...

*surface behavior, penalty

(Abaqus/Standard)

(Abaqus/Explicit)

*surface behavior, augmented lagrange

(Abaqus/Standard only)

L5.54

Alternatives to hard contact

The *SURFACE BEHAVIOR

option is used as a suboption

of the *SURFACE

INTERACTION option to

specify:

Softened contact

(exponential or tabular

pressure-clearance

relationship)

Contact without separation

Other options:

Clearance-dependent viscous damping (*CONTACT DAMPING).

Contact with overclosure or tensile contact forces (*CONTACT CONTROLS; Abaqus/Standard

only).

121

L5.55

Behavior in the contact tangential direction

Frictional shear stresses, , may develop at the interface between contacting bodies.

If the magnitude reaches a critical value, the bodies will slip; otherwise they will stick.

L5.56

Friction is a highly nonlinear effect.

Solutions are more difficult to obtain.

Do not use unless physically important.

Friction is nonconservative.

UNSYMM=YES option is used automatically for high ( >0.2) .

122

Using UNSYMM=NO will give slower convergence, but the solution will be correct (if obtained). It

may also use less disk space.

This behavior is not an issue with Abaqus/Explicit, where there are no systems of equations to

solve.

L5.57

Abaqus uses the Coulomb friction model by default.

The critical frictional stress depends on contact pressure:

cr = p.

Basic syntax:

*FRICTION

The friction coefficient, , can be a function of the relative slip velocity, pressure, temperature,

and field variables ( eq , p, , f i ).

For computational reasons the default friction model in Abaqus/Standard uses an approximation

to the ideal behavior, allowing a small amount of elastic slip before nonrecoverable slip occurs:

p2

p1

G2

G1

cr

L5.58

A combined static kinetic friction model can be defined.

Exponential decay, as a function of , of from s (static) to k (kinetic).

Other alternatives are available for frictional behavior, including user-defined friction models:

123

L5.59

Finite sliding

*CONTACT PAIR

between surfaces and large rotations are allowed. Contact is governed by

evolving contact surfaces in current configuration.

Small-sliding

surfaces, as long as the surfaces do not move significantly relative to each

other.

Contact governed by the presence of local contact planes/lines defined in

the initial configuration.

Computationally less expensive than finite sliding since does not require the

generality of the finite-sliding algorithm.

Only available for contact pairs

*CONTACT PAIR,

SMALL SLIDING

L5.60

124

small sliding will be illustrated by example.

Consider the model shown at right.

The rigid punch is displaced horizontally while

maintaining the clearance indicated in the

figure. Afterwards, it is pushed downward into

the deformable body.

With finite sliding, no contact occurs while the

clearance is maintained (as expected).

L5.61

Now consider the case of small sliding.

Recall that small sliding contact is governed by

the presence of local contact planes (3D) or

lines (2D/axisymmetric).

In the figure at right the local contact lines are

highlighted.

The slave nodes highlighted in the figure will

establish contact with the local contact lines as

the punch is dragged horizontally even though

a physical clearance is maintained between

the two parts!

Contact

lines

L5.62

The initial positions of the nodes on the contact surfaces can be adjusted without stress or strain prior to

the analysis.

Abaqus/Standard: default treatment of initially overclosed nodes depends on contact modeling

approach

I. General contact: By default, small initial overclosures are adjusted free of strain (i.e., nodes

are adjusted prior to the analysis) such that surfaces are just-touching; alternatively, these

can be treated as interference fits

II. Contact pairs: By default, all initial overclosures are treated as interference fits;

alternatively; may adjust position without strain

III. For either approach may also choose to specify precise clearance or interference (not

discussed here)

Abaqus/Explicit: does not allow an initial overclosure of contact surfaces.

I. The nodes on the contact surfaces will be adjusted automatically to remove any initial

overclosure prior to the analysis. In subsequent steps the adjustments will cause strains.

Gross adjustments can severely distort initial element shapes.

If you see error messages that suggest this is a problem, run a datacheck analysis and look for

the problem in Abaqus/Viewer.

125

L5.63

Adjusting slave nodes using general contact (Abaqus/Standard)

Large initial overclosures and initial gaps can be adjusted

Specify search distances above and below the surfaces

I. Search above to close gaps

II. Search below to increase default overclosure tolerance

The adjustments are applied to surface pairs

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

name=adjust-1,

SEARCH ABOVE=1e-05,

SEARCH BELOW=0.02

allHeads , topFlange_outer , adjust-1

L5.64

(Abaqus/Standard)

Specifying an absolute distance to adjust:

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1,

ADJUST=a

126

within the adjust band (a) are moved

onto the master surface.

measured along the normal direction to

the master surface.

All initially overclosed slave nodes are

relocated to the surface.

L5.65

Specifying a node set of slave nodes to adjust:

Overclosed slave nodes not in the node set will remain overclosed and will cause strains when

forced back onto the contact surface during the analysis.

*NSET, NSET=CONNODE, GENERATE

1, 8, 1

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=RIG, ADJUST=CONNODE

L5.66

Visualizing strain-free adjustments

In Abaqus/Standard, output variable STRAINFREE is provided to visualize strain-free adjustments

This output variable is written by default if any initial strain-free adjustments are made

Symbol plot of

STRAINFREE

Initial configuration

without contact

127

L5.67

The following inconsistency exists between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit with respect to strain-free

adjustments:

x = xo + u

Abaqus/Explicit adjusts u

Abaqus/Standard adjusts xo

Technique in Abaqus/CAE

Abaqus/Standard model

Abaqus/Explicit model

Adjusted configuration

shape at t=0

Configuration prior to

adjustments

deformed plot (t=0)

Undeformed shape

L5.68

128

For both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit:

Contact stresses: CSTRESS (contact pressure CPRESS and frictional shear stresses CSHEAR1

and CSHEAR2)

Contact forces (CFORCE)

For Abaqus/Standard you can also request:

Contact displacements: CDISP (contact opening COPEN, relative tangential motions CSLIP1 and

CSLIP2)

Nodal contact areas (CNAREA)

Contact status (CSTATUS)

For Abaqus/Explicit you can also request:

Slip velocity: FSLIPR

Accumulated slip displacements: FSLIP

L5.69

Output

variable

Description

CAREA

CFN

CFS

Total force vector due to contact pressure and frictional shear stress of slave

surface, respectively

CMN

CMS

Total moment vector about the origin due to contact pressure and frictional

shear stress of slave surface, respectively

CFT

CMT

XN

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the contact

pressure on a slave surface is equal to zero

XS

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the frictional stress

on a slave surface is equal to zero

XT

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the contact

pressure and frictional stress on a slave surface is equal to zero

L5.70

129

L5.71

Two other options exist for generating printed output relevant to Abaqus/Standard contact analyses:

*PREPRINT, CONTACT=YES:

I. Controls output to the printed output file during preprocessing

II. Gives details of internally generated contact elements

III. Recommended for small-sliding contact problems to verify master-slave node interaction

IV. Use to check that surface definitions and interactions are correct

*PRINT, CONTACT=YES:

I. Controls output to the message file during the analysis phase

II. Gives details of the iteration process

III. Use to understand where difficulties are occurring during contact

1.

Workshop tasks

1. Evaluate a hyperelastic material model.

2. Define contact

1. Contact pairs

2. General contact

3. Apply boundary conditions

4. Perform large displacement analysis

5. Visualize the results.

1 hour

130

L5.72

or keywords version of this workshop.

1.

Workshop tasks

1. Evaluate a hyperelastic material model.

2. Define contact

1. Contact pairs

2. General contact

3. Apply boundary conditions

4. Perform large displacement analysis

5. Visualize the results.

L5.73

or keywords version of this workshop.

1 hour

131

132

Notes

133

Notes

134

L6.1

Lesson content:

Equations for Dynamic Problems

Linear Dynamics

Nonlinear Dynamics

Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Nonlinear Dynamics Example

Workshop 6: Dynamics (IA)

Workshop 6: Dynamics (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L6.2

A problem is dynamic when the inertial forces (dAlembert forces) are significant and vary rapidly in time.

Inertial forces are proportional to the acceleration of the mass in the structure.

Solving a dynamic problem may require the integration of the equations of motion in time.

II. Modal Transient (Effective for Linear Problems)

Many dynamic vibration problems can be studied effectively in the frequency domain.

I. Frequency Response or Steady State Dynamics implies Harmonic Excitation and Response

and thus does not require integration

Sometimes we have large inertia loads but can do static analyses because the loads vary slowly

with time (constant acceleration, centrifugal loads)

I. However, centrifugal loads in flexible systems may lead to whirls (Complex Eigenvalues)

135

L6.3

Dynamic equilibrium

The dynamic equilibrium equations are written for convenience with the inertial forces isolated from the

other forces:

Mu I P 0

Assumptions:

I and P may depend on nodal displacements and velocities but not on any higher-order time

derivatives.

I. Thus, the system is second order in time, and damping/dissipation are included in I and P.

If

They apply to the behavior of any mechanical system and contain all nonlinearities.

When the first termthe inertial or dynamic forceis small enough, the equations reduce to the

static form of equilibrium.

L6.4

Linear dynamics problems require the use of an implicit solution scheme (i.e., Abaqus/Standard).

Several classes of linear dynamics problems can be solved with Abaqus:

Natural frequency extraction *

Modal superposition

Implicit (direct-integration) dynamics

Harmonic loading *

Response spectrum analysis *

Random loading *

In this section we focus on natural frequency extraction and give a brief overview of modal-superposition

methods.

136

L6.5

Natural frequency analysis

Studies of the vibration characteristics of a structural system often begin with a natural frequency (or

eigenvalue) analysis.

The *FREQUENCY procedure in Abaqus/Standard extracts eigenvalues of an undamped system:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Mu Ku 0

Eigenvalues and mode shapes describe the free vibration or the frequency content of the structure.

Any preload applied prior to calculation of the eigenvalues will affect the results if nonlinear geometry is

used.

Setting NLGEOM=YES on the *STEP option causes Abaqus to consider nonlinear geometry

effects, including preloads (preloads contribute to K).

L6.6

Three eigensolvers are available for symmetric real eigenvalue extraction problems.

I. Most efficient solver when a large number of eigenvalues are required

Lanczos (default)

I. For very large models, use SIM architecture*

Subspace iteration

The structure may be unconstrained or constrained.

If constrained, preload effects may be included.

137

L6.7

Example: Frequency extraction of an engine block

Linear elastic material model

Steel

The structure is unrestrained.

L6.8

Step definition

# modes

requested

Natural frequency

extraction procedure

*STEP

*FREQUENCY,EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS, SIM

100, 1., ,

Set equal to LANCZOS to invoke the

LANCZOS eigensolver.

rigid body modes.

*OUTPUT, FIELD

*NODE OUTPUT

U

*END STEP

you get all 100 modes

Output is restricted to nodal

displacements for the purpose of

visualizing mode shapes.

Note: It is not necessary to specify the number of modes; simply specify a maximum frequency of

interest

138

L6.9

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 4

Mode 7

Mode 3

Mode 5

Mode 8

Mode 6

Mode 9

Mode 10

L6.10

Modal superposition

The eigenmodes of a structure can be used in several different mode-based procedures to study its

linear dynamic response:

Modal dynamics

II. Direct integration also available

Steady-state dynamics

I. Calculates dynamic response due to harmonic excitation

Response spectrum

I. Estimates peak response to dynamic motion

Random response

I. Predicts response to random continuous excitation

139

L6.11

Steady-state dynamics

When a damped structure is excited with a harmonic load, it has a transient response that disappears

rather quickly and is rarely of much interest.

Eventually the structure reaches a steady state that is characterized by a harmonic response.

The STEADY STATE DYNAMICS procedure provides the solution to the linear dynamic equations of

motion when the loading is harmonic.

Three options are available for steady-state dynamic analysis:

Direct

Mode-based

Subspace projection

L6.12

Example: Harmonic excitation of a tire

about a static footprint solution.

load that is applied to the reference point of the

road.

Reference: Subspace-based steady-state

dynamic tire analysis, Section 3.1.3 of the

Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

rigid surface.

140

L6.13

Step definitions

*STEP, NLGEOM=YES

*STATIC

*BOUNDARY

RIM, 1, 3

ROAD, 1, 2

ROAD, 4, 6

*DSLOAD

INSIDE, P, 200.E3

*CLOAD

ROAD, 3, 3300.

*END STEP

Static preload

(footprint step)

L6.14

Frequency

extraction

Frequency

range

*STEP

*FREQUENCY,EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS

20

Subspace-based steady-state

*END STEP

dynamics procedure

*STEP,NLGEOM=YES

*STEADY STATE DYNAMICS,

SUBSPACE PROJECTION=ALL FREQUENCIES,

INTERVAL=EIGENFREQUENCY, FREQUENCY SCALE=LINEAR

80, 130, 3

*CLOAD

The load is purely inROAD, 3, 200.

phase:

*END STEP

Fz 200cos t

141

L6.15

Results

L6.16

142

Overview

Abaqus/Standard

Uses implicit time integration to calculate the transient dynamic or quasi-static response of a

system.

Three application types:

I. dynamic responses requiring transient fidelity and involving minimal energy dissipation;

II. dynamic responses involving nonlinearity, contact, and moderate energy dissipation; and

III. quasi-static responses in which considerable energy dissipation provides stability and

improved convergence behavior for determining an essentially static solution.

Abaqus/Explicit

Uses explicit time integration scheme to calculate the transient dynamic or quasi-static response

of a system.

L6.17

Time integration of the equations of motion

The spatial discretization (finite element approximation) turns the partial differential equations describing

dynamic equilibrium into a set of coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations in time.

Time integration is needed to solve this system of ordinary differential equations.

The methods used to integrate these equations through time distinguish Abaqus/Standard and

Abaqus/Explicit.

L6.18

Abaqus/Standard

Uses a second-order accurate, implicit scheme called the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor (HHT) rule unless

the application type is quasi-static.

Second-order accurate means the scheme integrates a constant acceleration exactly.

The method is unconditionally stable: any size time increment can be used and the solution will

remain bounded.

Abaqus/Explicit

Uses a second-order accurate, explicit integration scheme to calculate the transient dynamic or

quasi-static response of a system.

The method is conditionally stableit gives a bounded solution only when the time increment is

less than a critical value.

143

L6.19

Automatic time incrementation in Abaqus/Standard

Incrementation scheme depends on dynamic application type

Transient fidelity applications (default for models without contact)

I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION=TRANSIENT FIDELITY

II. Require minimal energy dissipation

III. Small time increments required to accurately resolve the vibrational response of the

structure, and numerical energy dissipation is kept at a minimum

Moderate dissipation (default for models with contact)

I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION= MODERATE DISSIPATION

II. A moderate amount of energy is dissipated by plasticity, viscous damping, or other effects

III. Accurate resolution of high-frequency vibrations is usually not of interest

IV. Improved convergence for analyses involving contact

Quasi-static

I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION=QUASI-STATIC

II. These problems typically show monotonic behavior, and inertia effects are introduced

primarily to regularize unstable static behavior

L6.20

Application

Transient fidelity

Default incrementation

scheme

Default

half-increment residual

tolerance*

Time integration

method

HHT

a 0.05

b 0.275625

g 0.55

use conservative

incrementation

HHT

a 0.41421

b 0.5

g 0.91421

Not considered

Backward Euler

N/A

Conservative:

a. Same rules as for

static analyses

b. Dtmax0.01*Tstep

c. Limit on half

increment residual

(no contact)

Moderate

dissipation

static analyses

b. Dtmax0.1*Tstep

Quasi-static

Aggressive:

a. Same rules as for

static analyses

10000*time average

force (with contact)

exists halfway through a time increment.

144

Integration

parameters

L6.21

Automatic time incrementation in Abaqus/Explicit

The time increment size is controlled by the stable time increment.

The explicit dynamics procedure gives a bounded solution only when the time increment is less

than a critical or stable time increment.

The stability limit is given in terms of the highest eigenvalue in the model max and the fraction of critical

damping ( ) in the highest mode:

Dtmin

max

( 1 2 ).

Not feasible to compute max, so easy-to-compute conservative estimates are used instead.

L6.22

The concept of a stable time increment is explained easily by considering a one-dimensional problem.

One-dimensional problem

The stable time increment is the minimum time that a dilatational wave takes to move across any

element in the model.

A dilatational wave consists of volume expansion and contraction.

The dilatational wave speed, cd , can be expressed for a one-dimensional problem as

cd

Based on the current geometry each element in the model has a characteristic length, Le.

145

L6.23

Thus, the stable time increment can be expressed as

Dt

Le

.

cd

Decreasing Le and/or increasing cd will reduce the size of the stable time increment.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Increasing material stiffness increases cd.

Decreasing material compressibility increases cd.

Decreasing material density increases cd.

Abaqus/Explicit monitors the finite element model throughout the analysis to determine a stable time

increment.

L6.24

Abaqus/Standard

146

Abaqus/Explicit

time increments required to complete a given

simulation.

time increments are required to complete a given

simulation.

the solution for a set of simultaneous equations is

required for each.

because the solution of a set of simultaneous

equations is not required.

Most of the computational expense is associated with

element calculations (forming and assembling I).

L6.25

Abaqus/Standard

interest is long compared to the vibration frequency

of the model.

Difficult to use explicit dynamics effectively

because of the limit on the time increment

size.

Use for problems that are mildly nonlinear and where

the nonlinearities are smooth (e.g., plasticity).

With a smooth nonlinear response

Abaqus/Standard will need very few iterations

to find a converged solution.

Abaqus/Explicit

Ideal for high-speed dynamic simulations

Require very small time increments; implicit dynamics

inefficient.

Usually more reliable for problems involving

discontinuous nonlinearities.

Contact behavior is discontinuous and involves

impacts, both of which cause problems for implicit

time integration.

Other sources of discontinuous behavior include

buckling and material failure.

L6.26

Example of a problem well suited for Abaqus/Explicit

Pipe whip

This example simulates

a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the

rupture of a high-pressure line in

a power plant.

A sudden release of fluid causes one

segment of the pipe to rotate about

its support and strike a neighboring

pipe.

147

L6.27

Reference: Double cantilever elastic beam under point load, Section 1.3.2 in the Abaqus Benchmarks

Manual.

L6.28

148

*HEADING

NONLINEAR ELASTIC BEAM

*NODE

1, 0.

6, 10.

*NGEN

1, 6

*NSET, NSET=NFIL

6,

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B23

1, 1, 2

*ELGEN, ELSET=BEAM

1, 5

*BEAM SECTION, ELSET=BEAM,

SECTION=RECT, MATERIAL=A1

1., .125

0., 0., -1.

3

*MATERIAL, NAME=A1

*ELASTIC

30.E6,

*DENSITY

2.5362E-4,

*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=10

*DYNAMIC

25.E-6, 5.E-3

*BOUNDARY

1, 1, 2

1, 6

6, 1

6, 6

*CLOAD

6, 2, 320.

*END STEP

L6.29

The results obtained with the default incrementation schemes show excellent agreement.

Using a tighter half-increment residual tolerance for the implicit analysis further improves the

agreement.

half-increment scale factor was set to 0.05

(the default value is 1000)

Workshop tasks

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Complete the model and

perform a frequency extraction analysis.

2. Examine the printed output for relevant frequency results.

3. View the eigenmodes in Abaqus/Viewer.

4. Evaluate the effects of mesh density and element dimension and order.

5. Perform a free-vibration analysis using the implicit dynamics method.

1.

L6.30

1 hour

149

Workshop tasks

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Modify an existing input file, and

perform a frequency extraction analysis.

2. Examine the printed output for relevant frequency results.

3. View the eigenmodes in Abaqus/Viewer.

4. Evaluate the effects of mesh density and element dimension and order.

5. Perform a free-vibration analysis using the implicit dynamics method.

1.

1 hour

150

L6.31

Notes

151

Notes

152

L7.1

Lesson content:

Abaqus/Explicit Syntax

Rigid Bodies

Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (IA)

Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L7.2

The explicit dynamics procedure is often complimentary to an implicit solver such as Abaqus/Standard.

From a user standpoint the distinguishing characteristics of the explicit and implicit methods are:

Explicit methods require a small time increment size.

Depends solely on the highest natural frequencies of the model.

Simulations generally take on the order of 104 to 106 increments, but the computational cost per

increment is relatively small.

Implicit methods do not place an inherent limitation on the time increment size.

Increment size is generally determined from accuracy and convergence considerations.

Implicit simulations typically take orders of magnitude fewer increments than explicit simulations.

However, since a global set of equations must be solved in each increment, the cost per

increment of an implicit method is far greater than that of an explicit method.

Knowing these characteristics of the two procedures can help you decide which methodology is

appropriate for your problems.

153

L7.3

This stress wave propagation example illustrates how the explicit dynamics solution procedure works

without iterating or solving sets of linear equations.

We consider the propagation of a stress wave along a rod modeled with three elements. We study the

state of the rod as we increment through time.

Mass is lumped at the nodes.

concentrated load, P, at the free end

L7.4

u1

u

P

u1 u1dt el1 1 d el1 el1dt

M1

l

Configuration at the end of Increment 1

154

L7.5

u1

P Fel1

u1 u1old u1dt

M1

u2

Fel1

u 2 u2 dt

M2

el1

u 2 u1

d el1 el1dt

l

el1 1 d el1

el1 E el1

L7.6

Example of a problem well suited for Abaqus/Explicit

Pipe whip

This example simulates

a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the

rupture of a high-pressure line in

a power plant.

A sudden release of fluid causes one

segment of the pipe to rotate about

its support and strike a neighboring

pipe.

155

L7.7

Hydroforming

Uses fluid pressure to form a component.

Abaqus/Explicit captures the unstable

wrinkling of excess blank material.

A draw cap is

added to

decrease the

wrinkling effects.

L7.8

The basic input structure and options for an Abaqus/Explicit model are the same as those for an

Abaqus/Standard model.

This allows users to leverage their knowledge of Abaqus/Standard toward learning Abaqus/Explicit.

An Abaqus/Explicit analysis is performed when the input file contains the *DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT procedure

option.

156

In the majority of Abaqus/Explicit analyses you provide just the total step time and the time increment size is

chosen automatically so that it always satisfies the stability limit.

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

, 70.E-3

Options for controlling the time increment size are available for special circumstances.

L7.9

Unlike Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit uses a finite-strain, large-displacement, large-rotation formulation by

default.

The NLGEOM parameter is not needed on the *STEP option.

The numerics of the explicit dynamic procedure require that elements with lumped mass matrices be used.

Since solution efficiency is usually an important factor when using Abaqus/Explicit, only first-order reducedintegration elements are generally available.

Exceptions:

Modified triangles and tetrahedrals (CPS6M, CPE6M, C3D10M),

second-order beam elements (B22 and B32),

fully-integrated membrane element (M3D4),

fully-integrated shell elements (S4, S4T), and

fully-integrated first-order hex elements (C3D8, C3D8I, C3D8T).

L7.10

Some options unique to Abaqus/Explicit

The following model definition and history options are available only in Abaqus/Explicit (output and

control options are not listed):

Analysis

procedures

and that Abaqus/Explicit will be the solver program.

*DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, EXPLICIT: This procedure

specifies a coupled thermal-mechanical step.

*ANNEAL: This procedure sets all nodal velocities to zero and sets all state

variables, such as stress and plastic strain, to zero.

Material

hydrodynamic (explosive) material or a nearly incompressible fluid.

*EXTREME VALUE: This option specifies critical variables whose extreme

values will be monitored every increment.

*TRACER PARTICLE: This option defines tracer particles that track material

points in an adaptive mesh domain.

157

L7.11

Rigid Bodies

As noted previously, Abaqus has a general rigid body capability.

Two additional points are relevant when using this capability with Abaqus/Explicit.

The elements in a rigid body do not affect the stable time increment.

It is possible to define the thickness and density of rigid elements on the *RIGID BODY option.

*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set, DENSITY=#

thickness

A constant thickness can be specified as a value on the data line following the *RIGID BODY

option.

A variable thickness can be specified by using the NODAL THICKNESS parameter on the *RIGID

BODY option.

1. Workshop tasks

a. Define general contact between

the two pipes.

b. Assign boundary conditions and initial velocities.

c. Perform impact analysis.

d. View deformation and energy histories.

1 hour

158

L7.12

or keywords version of this workshop.

or keywords version of this workshop.

1. Workshop tasks

a. Define general contact between

the two pipes.

b. Assign boundary conditions and initial velocities.

c. Perform impact analysis.

d. View deformation and energy histories.

L7.13

1 hour

159

160

Notes

161

Notes

162

L8.1

Lesson content:

Introduction

Solution Strategies

Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics

Energy Balance

Example: Load Rates

Example: Mass Scaling

Adaptive Meshing

Summary

Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (IA)

Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L8.2

Introduction (1/3)

In the previous lectures we discussed how to solve nonlinear static and dynamic problems using

Abaqus.

We now revisit the subject of nonlinear static problems with a particular focus on problems involving:

Very complex contact conditions

Very large deformations

I. Mesh distortion possible

Typical application: metal forming simulations

Bulk forming (drawing, rolling, extrusion, upsetting, etc.)

Sheet metal forming (stretching, drawing)

163

L8.3

Introduction (2/3)

Upsetting

Rolling

L8.4

Introduction (3/3)

Hydroforming

Uses fluid pressure to form a component.

Unstable wrinkling of excess blank material.

A draw cap is

added to

decrease the

wrinkling effects.

164

L8.5

Two solvers:

Implicit solver (Abaqus/Standard)

Solves for either true static or true dynamic equilibrium.

Explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit)

Solves for true dynamic equilibrium.

At first glance it appears the implicit solver would be the appropriate choice for modeling highly

nonlinear static problems.

However, explicit solvers are more efficient for this class of problems.

This is especially true for three-dimensional problems involving contact and very large

deformations.

L8.6

Example: Simulation of a deep drawing process used

to form an oil pan

The pan is formed by displacing the punch

downward while holding the die and blank

holder fixed.

The blank is modeled with shell elements; the

tools are assumed rigid.

Analysis performed with both implicit

(Abaqus/Standard) and explicit

(Abaqus/Explicit) solvers.

blank holder

punch

die

blank

165

L8.7

The final deformed configuration is shown at

right.

Near the end of the punch stroke, the

blank pulls through the blank holder and

begins to wrinkle.

The Abaqus/Standard job was about 20 times

more expensive (in terms of CPU cost) than

the Abaqus/Explicit job.

Abaqus/Standard fails to converge at the point

where the blank begins to wrinkle.

L8.8

Introduction

The explicit dynamics procedure is a true dynamic procedure. It was originally developed to model highspeed impact events.

Explicit dynamics solves for the state of dynamic equilibrium where inertia can play a dominant

role in the solution.

Application of explicit dynamics to model quasi-static events, such as metal forming processes, requires

special consideration:

It is computationally impractical to model the process in its natural time period.

I. Recall that stability considerations limit the size of the allowable increment:

Le

.

cd

Artificially increasing the speed of the process in the simulation is necessary to obtain an

economical solution.

166

L8.9

Two approaches to obtaining economical quasi-static solutions with an explicit dynamics solver

Increased load rates

Artificially reduce the time scale of the process by increasing the loading rate.

Material strain rates calculated in the simulation are artificially high by the same factor applied to

increase the loading rate.

I. This is irrelevant if the material is rate insensitive.

Mass scaling

If strain rate sensitivity is being modeled, erroneous solutions can result if the load rates are

increased. Mass scaling allows you to model processes in their natural time scale when

considering rate-sensitive materials.

I. Artificially increasing the material density by a factor of f 2 increases the stable time

increment by a factor of f.

L8.10

How much can I increase the load rate or scale the mass?

Increased load rates and mass scaling achieve the same effect.

Increased load rates reduce the time scale of the simulation.

Mass scaling increases the size of the stable time increment.

With both approaches, fewer increments are needed to complete the job.

As the speed of the process is increased, a state of static equilibrium evolves into a state of dynamic

equilibrium.

Inertia forces become more dominant.

The goal is to model the process in the shortest time period (or with the most mass scaling) in which

inertia forces are still insignificant.

167

L8.11

Suggested approach

Run a series of simulations in the order from the fastest load rate to the slowest (or largest mass scaling

to the smallest), since the analysis time is greater for slower load rates (or smaller mass scaling).

Examine the results (deformed shapes, stresses, strains, energies) to get an understanding for the

effects of varying the model.

For example, excessive tool speeds in explicit sheet metal forming simulations tend to suppress

wrinkling and to promote unrealistic localized stretching.

Excessive tool speeds in explicit bulk forming simulations cause jettinghydrodynamic-type

response.

L8.12

Jetting

Consider the following bulk forming process (180 section of an axisymmetric model).

When the tool speed is too large, highly localized deformation develops (jetting).

jetting

168

L8.13

This figure shows a simple model of a standard door beam intrusion test for an automobile door.

The circular beam is fixed at each end, and the beam is deformed by a rigid cylinder.

The actual test is quasi-static.

L8.14

At an extremely high impact velocity,

400 m/sec, there is highly localized

deformation and no structural response

by the beam.

The dominant response in a static test

will be in the first structural mode of the

beam. The frequency of this mode is

used to estimate the impact velocity.

The frequency of the first mode is

approximately 250 Hz.

This rate corresponds to a period

of 4 milliseconds.

Using a velocity of 25 m/sec, the

cylinder will be pushed into the

beam 0.1 m in 4 milliseconds.

Localized effect

0.1 m

Velocity 25 m/s:

169

L8.15

Why is the velocity 25 m/sec appropriate?

The frequency ( f ) of the first mode is approximately 250 Hz.

During this period, the rigid cylinder is pushed into the beam d = 0.1 m.

Thus, the velocity v is estimated to be v = d / t = 0.1/0.004 = 25 m/sec.

Recall, the wave speed of metals is about 5000 m/sec, so the impact velocity 25 m/sec is about 0.5% of

the wave speed.

The impact velocity should be limited to less than 1% of the wave speed of the material.

A more accurate solution could be obtained by ramping up the velocity smoothly from zero over the

analysis step.

L8.16

170

A quasi-static solution is also promoted by applying loads gradually:

A constant velocity condition applied to a tool results in a sudden impact load onto the metal

blank.

This may induce propagation of a stress wave through the blank, producing undesired results.

Ramping up the tool velocity gradually from zero minimizes these adverse effects.

Ramping down the tool velocity to zero as the tool is moved to its final position is also

recommended for the same reasons.

L8.17

The SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition

creates a fifth-order polynomial transition

between two amplitude values such that the

first and second time derivatives are zero at

the beginning and the end of the transition.

When the displacement time history is defined

using the SMOOTH STEP definition, the

velocity and the acceleration will be zero at

every amplitude value specified.

0.0, 0.0, 1.0E-5, 1.0

*BOUNDARY, TYPE=DISPLACEMENT, AMP=SSTEP

12, 2, 2, 2.5

L8.18

An energy balance equation can be used to help evaluate whether a simulation is yielding an appropriate quasistatic response.

In Abaqus/Explicit this equation is written as

where

by propelling added mass due to mass scaling

EKE

EI

is the internal energy (both elastic and plastic strain energy and the artificial energy associated

with hourglass control),

EV

EFD

EW

ETOT

171

L8.19

specimen.

If the physical test is quasi-static, the work

applied by the external forces in stretching the

specimen equals the internal energy in the

specimen.

L8.20

172

appear as shown in the figure at right:

Inertia forces are negligible.

The velocity of material in the test specimen is

very small.

Kinetic energy is negligible.

As the speed of the test increases:

The response of the specimen becomes less

static, more dynamic.

Material velocities and, therefore, kinetic

energy become more significant.

Energy history for quasi-static pull test

L8.21

Hence, examination of the energy content provides another measure to evaluate whether the results from an

Abaqus/Explicit metal forming simulation reflect a quasi-static solution.

The kinetic energy of the deforming material should not exceed a small fraction of its internal energy

throughout the majority of the forming process.

A small fraction typically means 15%.

I. It is generally not possible to achieve this in early stages of the process since the blank will

be moving before it develops any significant deformation.

II. Use smooth step amplitude curves to improve early response.

Not interested in kinetic energy of the tools.

I. Subtract their contribution from global model kinetic energy or restrict energy output to

deforming components.

L8.22

Cylindrical cup deep drawing

The quarter-symmetric finite element model is

shown in the figure.

Friction is modeled along all contact interfaces:

Punch and blank: m = 0.25.

Blank holder and blank: m = 0.

The deep drawing simulation is conducted by

applying a downward force of 22.87 kN to the

blank holder, then displacing the punch

downward 36 mm.

deep drawing

173

L8.23

3 m/s

30 m/s

150 m/s

The computation cost of each cylindrical cup deep drawing simulation is summarized in the following

table:

Punch speed

(m/s)

Time increments

3 (1X)

27929

1.0

30 (10X)

2704

0.097

150 (50X)

529

0.019

L8.24

Contours of blank thickness in final

formed configuration

Excessive punch speeds lead

to results that do not

correspond to the physics. At

150 m/s unrealistic thinning

of the blank is predicted.

Results obtained at 30 m/s and

3 m/s are very similar, even

though the difference in

computation cost is a factor of

10.

Vpunch = 30 m/s

Vpunch = 3 m/s

174

L8.25

Comparison of internal and kinetic energies

At a punch speed of 150 m/s the kinetic energy of the blank is a significant fraction of its internal energy.

At punch speeds of 3 m/s and 30 m/s the kinetic energy is only a small fraction of the internal energy

over the majority of the forming process history.

L8.26

Uniaxial tension test

tension test on a plane strain bar with the

material properties of a mild steel.

MASS SCALING option.

Mass scaling applied at the beginning of

a step.

Syntax:

*FIXED MASS SCALING,

ELSET=name, FACTOR= f 2

The density of every element in the

specified element set is increased by f 2,

thus increasing each elements stable

time increment by f .

175

L8.27

This figure shows the results of three different

analyses.

The results on the left and in the center

are almost identical.

The solution for the results in the

center requires one-fifth the

computer time of the first solution.

The solution on the right gives an

essentially meaningless result compared

to the original static solution.

Mass

scaling

factor

25

10000

Contours of PEEQ

L8.28

Motivation

In many nonlinear simulations the material in the structure or process undergoes very large

deformations.

These deformations distort the finite element mesh, often to the point where the mesh is unable

to provide accurate results or the analysis terminates prematurely for numerical reasons.

In such simulations it is necessary to use adaptive meshing tools to minimize the distortion in the

mesh periodically.

176

Note: In this course we restrict our attention to the ALE adaptive meshing capability available in

Abaqus/Explicit.

The adaptive remeshing capability available in Abaqus/Standard and the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian

capability available in Abaqus/Explicit are not discussed here.

L8.29

Adaptive meshing is useful in a broad range of applications:

Can be used as a continuous adaptive meshing tool for transient analysis problems undergoing

large deformations, such as:

I. Dynamic impact

II. Penetration

III. Sloshing

IV. Forging

Can be used as a solution technique to model steady-state processes, such as:

I. Extrusion

II. Rolling

Can be used as a tool to analyze the transient phase in a steady-state process.

L8.30

Adaptive meshing basics

Adaptive meshing is performed in Abaqus/Explicit using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)

method. The primary characteristics of the adaptive meshing capability are:

The mesh is smoothed at regular intervals to reduce element distortion and to maintain good

element aspect ratios.

The same mesh topology is maintainedthe number of elements and nodes and their

connectivity do not change.

It can be used to analyze Lagrangian (transient) problems and Eulerian (steady-state) problems.

177

L8.31

Lagrangian

Nodes move exactly with material points.

description

It is easy to track free surfaces and apply boundary conditions.

The mesh will become distorted with high strain gradients; default description in Abaqus.

Eulerian

description

It is more difficult to track free surfaces.

No mesh distortion because mesh is fixed.

Available using the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) capability.

ALE

Mesh motion is constrained to the material motion only where necessary (at free

boundaries), but otherwise material motion and mesh motion are independent.

L8.32

178

L8.33

ALE simulation of an axisymmetric forging problem

Undeformed model

L8.34

By using the adaptive meshing capability, a high-quality mesh can be maintained throughout the entire

forging process.

with the material in the direction normal

to the materials surface. They are

allowed to adapt (adjust their position)

tangent to the free surface.

ALE simulation: deformed mesh at 100% of die travel

179

L8.35

In a transient (Lagrangian-type) problem, such as this forging simulation, minimal additional input is

required to invoke the adaptive meshing capability.

*HEADING

....

*ELSET, ELSET=BLANK

....

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

....

*ADAPTIVE MESH, ELSET=BLANK [, FREQUENCY=..., MESH SWEEPS=...]

....

*END STEP

Adaptive meshing is available for all first-order, reduced-integration continuum elements.

Other element types may exist in the model.

L8.36

Summary

180

Excessive loading rates can produce solutions with significant inertia effects.

A general guideline is to restrict loading rates so that, for example, tool speeds are less than 1% of the

material wave speed.

Ramping loads up from zero also promotes a quasi-static response.

Use the SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition.

Mass scaling can be used for problems with rate-dependent material behavior, allowing the process to

be modeled in its natural time period.

The energy balance can be used to assist in evaluating whether a given solution represents a quasistatic response to applied loads.

Since results can depend strongly on the process speed (real or artificially adjusted by mass scaling), it

is vital to ensure that unrealistic results are not being generated by excessive artificial process speed

scaling.

To confirm that the Abaqus/Explicit results are realistic, it may be useful to study a simplified

version of the problem as a static analysis in Abaqus/Standard for comparison.

The easiest way to create a suitable simplified test case for this purpose is often to define a twodimensional version of part of the problem.

Adaptive meshing is used to maintain a high-quality mesh in the presence of very large deformations.

1.

2.

L8.37

Exercise simulates the deep drawing of a

or keywords version of this workshop.

can bottom

Workshop tasks include:

This workshop is optional.

1. Perform a frequency extraction analysis to

determine an appropriate analysis time for this quasi-static process.

2. Complete the geometry definition of the rigid tools, and include contact and material definitions.

3. Include a SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition to improve quasi-static behavior.

4. Include mass scaling to reduce the analysis time without degrading the results.

5. Perform the analysis, and determine whether or not the results are acceptable.

1 hour

1.

2.

L8.38

Exercise simulates the deep drawing of a

or keywords version of this workshop.

can bottom

Workshop tasks include:

This workshop is optional.

1. Perform a frequency extraction analysis to

determine an appropriate analysis time for this quasi-static process.

2. Complete the geometry definition of the rigid tools, and include contact and material definitions.

3. Include a SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition to improve quasi-static behavior.

4. Include mass scaling to reduce the analysis time without degrading the results.

5. Perform the analysis, and determine whether or not the results are acceptable.

1 hour

181

182

Notes

183

Notes

184

L9.1

Lesson content:

Introduction

Abaqus Usage

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard

Workshop 9: Import Analysis (IA)

Workshop 9: Import Analysis (KW)

of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

1 hour

L9.2

Introduction (1/3)

Abaqus provides a capability to transfer a deformed mesh and an associated state between an

Abaqus/Explicit analysis and an Abaqus/Standard analysis.

This capability provides great flexibility, for example, in modeling springback in metal forming processes.

The deformed model can be transferred from Abaqus/Explicit to Abaqus/Standard to, for example:

Obtain the final static configuration after a dynamic event.

Simulate springback after a metal forming operation.

Perform eigenvalue or buckling simulations on a formed part.

Simulate the movement of rigid tools more efficiently.

The deformed model can be transferred from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit to, for example:

Simulate additional forming steps after an intermediary springback phase.

Simulate forming processes that occur after a part cools down from a heat treatment phase (thermal

stresses are calculated in Abaqus/Standard).

Continue a simulation following a phase of the analysis that was done more efficiently in

Abaqus/Standard.

Follow the steady-state rolling of a tire in Abaqus/Standard with a transient rolling along a bumpy road in

Abaqus/Explicit.

185

L9.3

Introduction (2/3)

Import summary

The ability to import the material state and the nodal positions is the main requirement of importing

results between the analysis modules.

The following table summarizes the import capabilities:

Can be imported

Need to be respecified

Cannot be imported

Material state *

Boundary conditions

Some materials *

Nodal positions

Loads

Contact definitions

Output requests

Temperatures

Multi-point constraints

Nodal transformations

Amplitude definitions

L9.4

Introduction (3/3)

186

Only the material states for the some materials are imported correctly for further analysis. These

include:

Linear elastic

Hyperelastic

Mullins effect

Hyperfoam

Mises plasticity (including the kinematic hardening models)

Viscoelastic

User-defined materials (UMAT and VUMAT)

See Section 9.2.1 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual for a complete list of supported materials

L9.5

Performing an import analysis requires the following:

I. analysis database (.mdl and .stt),

II. part (.prt), and

III. output database (.odb) files.

If transferring from Abaqus/Explicit to Abaqus/Standard, also require the

I. state (.abq),

II. analysis database (.stt),

III. package (.pac),

IV. part (.prt), and

V. output database (.odb) files.

The additional files noted above are written by default; do not delete them if planning on

performing a restart analysis.

A new input (.inp) file for the next analysis stage that contains:

The *IMPORT option directly after the *HEADING option

Any additional model data

History data for the next stage of the simulation

L9.6

Executing an import analysis

During an Abaqus/Explicit or Abaqus/Standard simulation, a restart file must be written at the time when

transfer of the models state is desired.

Using the Abaqus driver, set the job parameter to the new job name and set the oldjob parameter to the

job name associated with the restart file from the previous analysis stage.

abaqus job=new_jobname oldjob=previous_jobname

Importing from Abaqus/Explicit into an Abaqus/Standard model:

The *IMPORT option specifies the STEP and INTERVAL of the restart file from which the model

state is to be imported:

*IMPORT, STEP=step number, INTERVAL=interval number

Importing from Abaqus/Standard into an Abaqus/Explicit model:

The *IMPORT option specifies the STEP and INCREMENT of the restart file from which the

model state is to be imported:

*IMPORT, STEP=step number, INC=increment number

187

L9.7

Elements and nodes

Specify the element sets that are to be imported on the data line of the *IMPORT option.

*IMPORT, STEP=step

Each element set name specified on the data line of the *IMPORT option must have been used in

a section definition option (e.g., *SOLID SECTION) in the original analysis.

The current thickness of shell and membrane elements is imported automatically and becomes the initial

thickness for the element if UPDATE=YES.

All nodes attached to imported elements are imported.

Additional nodes and elements can be defined in the new analysis.

L9.8

Material state and reference configuration

By default, the material state (for supported materials) is imported in an import analysis (STATE=YES on

the *IMPORT option).

For the analysis to continue without resetting the reference configuration, set UPDATE=NO on the

*IMPORT option:

*IMPORT, UPDATE=NO

In some cases it may be desirable to obtain springback displacements and strains relative to the

geometry at the start of the springback analysis (reset to zero at the start of the springback step). Set

UPDATE=YES on the *IMPORT option:

*IMPORT, UPDATE=YES

UPDATE=YES should not be used if additional forming stages will follow because the reference

configuration will not be consistent.

Other combinations of the STATE and UPDATE parameters are available but are not discussed here.

The setting of NLGEOM is imported and becomes the setting for the new analysis.

188

L9.9

The blank shown in the figure at right undergoes

large deformations during the sheet metal forming

process.

confining tools are removed, the blank will

attempt to recover its elastic deformation.

This springback phenomenon may lead to

unacceptable warping of the formed product.

Forming tools must be designed to

compensate for springback effects.

L9.10

For the calculation of springback associated with sheet metal forming processes:

Generally, the forming process is simulated using Abaqus/Explicit because it is more efficient for such

analyses.

The deformed mesh of the blank and its associated material state at the end of the forming process are

imported into an Abaqus/Standard model to analyze springback.

The displacements that Abaqus/Standard calculates are the totals from the forming and springback

stages if UPDATE=NO is used on the *IMPORT option.

189

L9.11

Equilibrium

Upon importing the deformed blank and its current state into Abaqus/Standard, the model is not in static

equilibrium. Dynamic forces, contact forces, and boundary conditions that exist in Abaqus/Explicit but

not in Abaqus/Standard contribute to this condition:

Dynamic forces:

The forming process is simulated using a dynamic procedure, so the deformed blank is in a state

of dynamic equilibrium. Inertia and damping forces are present.

In a quasi-static forming simulation the state of dynamic equilibrium is relatively close to a state of

static equilibrium.

Contact forces are not imported.

Boundary conditions can be modified in the import analysis.

L9.12

Achieving static equilibrium during springback analysis

When the deformed blank is imported with the material state into Abaqus/Standard, a set of artificial

internal stresses are automatically applied that equilibrate the imported stresses so that static

equilibrium is obtained at the start of the analysis.

These artificial stresses are ramped off during the springback calculation step.

190

As these stresses are removed, the blank deforms further (referred to as springback) as a result of

redistribution of internal forces.

The final configuration following springback is achieved after complete removal of the artificial stresses

or initial out-of-balance forces.

L9.13

Example: Springback calculation for cylindrical cup

*HEADING

Springback Calculation

*IMPORT, STEP=1, INTERVAL=10, UPDATE=YES, STATE=YES

BLANK,

*STEP, NLGEOM

*STATIC

0.1, 1.

*BOUNDARY

NodeX, XSYMM

Must have sufficient boundary conditions to

NodeY, YSYMM

1, 3, 3, 0.0 prevent rigid body motion

*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=5

*EL PRINT, ELSET=BLANK, FREQUENCY=99

S,

*END STEP

L9.14

Element set BLANK is the only element set whose state is imported into Abaqus/Standard.

Node set definitions NodeX and NodeY are imported and subsequently used to define symmetry

boundary conditions.

The z-translation of node 1 is restrained to preclude rigid body motion of the deformed blank.

The NLGEOM parameter must be used with the *STEP option, since Abaqus/Explicit includes nonlinear

geometry by default.

The *STATIC procedure is carried out incrementally.

The initial out-of-balance forces are ramped down in accordance with the time incrementation.

191

L9.15

The configuration after springback is shown in the figure. A magnification factor of 10 is applied to the

displacements for visualization purposes.

L9.16

1.

formed can bottom

2.

or keywords version of this workshop.

This workshop is optional.

1.

30 minutes

192

L9.17

1.

formed can bottom

2.

or keywords version of this workshop.

This workshop is optional.

1.

30 minutes

193

194

Notes

195

Notes

196

A1.1

Lesson content:

Elements in Abaqus

Structural (Shells and Beams) vs. Continuum Elements

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements

Stress Concentrations

Contact

Incompressible Materials

Mesh Generation

Solid Element Selection Summary

1.5 hours

A1.2

The wide range of elements in the Abaqus element library provides flexibility in modeling different geometries

and structures.

Each element can be characterized by considering the following:

Family

Number of nodes

Degrees of freedom

Formulation

Integration

197

A1.3

Family

A family of finite elements is the broadest category used to classify elements.

Elements in the same family share many basic features.

There are many variations within a family.

shell elements

membrane elements

rigid elements

beam elements

truss elements

special-purpose

elements like springs,

dashpots, and masses

infinite elements

A1.4

An elements number of nodes determines how the nodal degrees of freedom will be interpolated over

the domain of the element.

Abaqus includes elements with both first- and second-order interpolation.

First-order

interpolation

198

Second-order

interpolation

A1.5

Degrees of freedom

The primary variables that exist at the nodes of an element are the degrees of freedom in the finite

element analysis.

Examples of degrees of freedom are:

Displacements

Rotations

Temperature

Electrical potential

Some elements have internal degrees of freedom that are not associated with the user-defined nodes.

A1.6

Formulation

The mathematical formulation used to describe the behavior of an element is another broad category

that is used to classify elements.

Examples of different element formulations:

Plane strain

Small-strain shells

Plane stress

Finite-strain shells

Hybrid elements

Thick-only shells

Incompatible-mode elements

Thin-only shells

Integration

The stiffness and mass of an element are calculated numerically at sampling points called integration

points within the element.

The numerical algorithm used to integrate these variables influences how an element behaves.

199

A1.7

Full integration:

I. The minimum integration order required for exact integration of the strain energy for an

undistorted element with linear material properties.

Reduced integration:

I. The integration rule that is one order less than the full integration rule.

Full

integration

Reduced

integration

Firstorder

interpolation

2x2

1x1

3x3

2x2

Secondorder

interpolation

A1.8

Element naming conventions: examples

1st-order interpolation

CAX8R: Continuum,

AXisymmetric, 8-node,

Reduced integration

Continuum, 3-D, 4-node

200

integration, Temperature

8-node, Pore pressure, Hybrid

Continuum, 1-D, 2-node, Electrical

A1.9

Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit element libraries

Both programs have essentially the same element families: continuum, shell, beam, etc.

Abaqus/Standard includes elements for many analysis types besides stress analysis: heat transfer, soils

consolidation, acoustics, etc.

Acoustic elements are also available in Abaqus/Explicit.

Abaqus/Standard includes many more variations within each element family.

Abaqus/Explicit includes mostly first-order reduced-integration elements.

Exceptions: second-order triangular and tetrahedral elements; second-order beam elements;

first-order fully-integrated brick (including incompatible mode version), shell, and membrane

elements.

Many of the same general element selection guidelines apply to both programs.

A1.10

Continuum (solid) element models can be large and expensive, particularly in three-dimensional problems.

If appropriate, structural elements (shells and beams) should be used for a more economical solution.

A structural element model typically requires far fewer elements than a comparable continuum element

model.

For structural elements to produce acceptable results, the shell thickness or the beam cross-section

dimensions should be less than 1/10 of a typical global structural dimension, such as:

The distance between supports or point loads

The distance between gross changes in cross section

The wavelength of the highest vibration mode

201

A1.11

Shell elements

deformations efficiently.

If a detailed analysis of a region is needed, a

local three-dimensional continuum model can

be included using multi-point constraints or

submodeling.

3-D continuum

surface model

to a projectile impact

A1.12

Beam elements

efficiently.

available.

3-D continuum

line model

specified by providing engineering

constants.

beam elements

202

A1.13

xx

The axial strain xx varies linearly through the thickness.

The strain in the thickness direction yy is zero if = 0.

No membrane shear strain.

Implies that lines parallel to the beam axis lie on a circular arc.

A1.14

Second-order full- and reduced-integration solid elements model bending accurately:

The axial strain equals the change in length of the initially horizontal lines.

The thickness strain is zero.

The shear strain is zero.

lines that are initially vertical do not

change length (implies yy= 0).

shape, the angle between the deformed isoparametric

lines remains equal to 90o (implies xy= 0).

203

A1.15

Modeling bending using first-order fully-integrated solid elements (CPS4, CPE4, C3D8)

These elements detect shear strains at the integration points.

Nonphysical; present solely because of the element formulation used.

Overly stiff behavior results from energy going into shearing the element rather than bending it

(called shear locking).

integration point

remain straight, the angle between the

deformed isoparametric lines is not

equal to 90 (implies xy 0 ).

A1.16

These elements eliminate shear locking.

However, hourglassing is a concern when using these elements.

Only one integration point at the centroid.

A single element through the thickness does not detect strain in bending.

Deformation is a zero-energy mode (deformation but no strain; called hourglassing).

is detected at the integration point).

reduced-integration element

204

A1.17

Hourglassing can propagate easily through a mesh of first-order reduced-integration elements, causing

unreliable results.

Hourglassing is not a problem if you use multiple elementsat least four through the thickness.

Each element captures either compressive or tensile axial strains but not both.

The axial strains are measured correctly.

The thickness and shear strains are zero.

Cheap and effective elements.

A1.18

Hourglassing can usually be seen in deformed shape plots.

Example: Coarse and medium meshes of a simply supported beam with a center point load.

Abaqus has built-in hourglass controls that limit the problems caused by hourglassing.

Verify that the artificial energy used to control hourglassing is small (<1%) relative to the internal

energy.

(1000)

205

A1.19

internal energy

internal energy

artificial energy

Ratio of artificial to internal energy is 2%

artificial energy

of artificial to internal energy is 0.1%

A1.20

206

(CPS4I, )

Perhaps the most cost-effective solid continuum elements for bending-dominated problems.

Compromise in cost between the first- and second-order reduced-integration elements, with many of the

advantages of both.

Model shear behavior correctlyno shear strains in pure bending.

Model bending with only one element through the thickness.

No hourglass modes, and work well in plasticity and contact problems.

The advantages over reduced-integration first-order elements are reduced if the elements are severely

distorted; however, all elements perform less accurately if severely distorted.

A1.21

Parallel distortion

Trapezoidal distortion

A1.22

Summary

xx

yy

xy

Physical behavior

Second-order

through thickness

thickness

Element type

First-order, reduced

integration

Incompatible mode

Notes

OK

Shear locking

207

A1.23

Second-order elements clearly outperform first-order elements in problems with stress concentrations and are

ideally suited for the analysis of (stationary) cracks.

Both fully-integrated and reduced-integration elements work well.

Reduced-integration elements tend to be somewhat more efficientresults are often as good or better

than full integration at lower computational cost.

A1.24

Second-order elements capture geometric features, such as curved edges, with fewer elements than

first-order elements.

Physical model

elementselement faces

are straight line segments.

208

elements

element faces are

quadratic curves.

A1.25

Both first- and second-order quads and bricks become less accurate when their initial shape is distorted.

First-order elements are known to be less sensitive to distortion than second-order elements and,

thus, are a better choice in problems where significant mesh distortion is expected.

Second-order triangles and tetrahedra are less sensitive to initial element shape than most other

elements; however, well-shaped elements provide better results.

ideal

undistorted

okay

bad

distorted

A1.26

A typical stress concentration problem, a NAFEMS benchmark problem, is shown at right. The analysis

results obtained with different element types follow.

elliptical shape

209

A1.27

First-order elements (including incompatible mode elements) are relatively poor in the study of stress

concentration problems.

Element

s yy at D (Target=100.0)

type

Coarse mesh Fine mesh

CPS3

55.06

76.87

CPS4

71.98

91.2

CPS4I

63.45

84.37

CPS4R

43.67

60.6

CPS6

96.12

101.4

CPS8

91.2

100.12

CPS8R

92.56

97.16

A1.28

Second-order elements such as CPS6, CPS8, and CPS8R give much better results.

Well-shaped, second-order, reduced-integration quadrilaterals and hexahedra can provide high

accuracy in stress concentration regions.

Distorted elements reduce the accuracy in these regions.

210

A1.29

Contact

If the surface-to-surface contact discretization is used:

No fundamental issues or element type restrictions

Abaqus/Standard always uses this formulation for general contact

If the node-to-surface contact discretization is used:

Best to avoid having second-order tetrahedral elements (C3D10, C3D10I) underlying the slave surface

with this contact discretization

Susceptible to poor convergence and extreme contact pressure noise

Use modified versions of these elements (C3D10M) instead

Sometimes C3D10 or C3D10I elements work fine if penalty enforcement of contact is specified

Abaqus automatically activates supplementary constraints for this combination of features

But the extra (supplementary) constraints can be another source of convergence problems

A1.30

Many nonlinear problems involve incompressible materials ( = 0.5) and nearly incompressible materials

( > 0.475).

Rubber

Metals at large plastic strains

Conventional finite element meshes often exhibit overly stiff behavior due to volumetric locking, which is

most severe when these materials are highly confined.

locking

correct behavior of an

elastic-plastic material

211

A1.31

For an incompressible material each integration points volume must remain almost constant. This

overconstrains the kinematically admissible displacement field and causes volumetric locking

For example, in a refined three-dimensional mesh of 8-node hexahedra, there ison average1

node with 3 degrees of freedom per element.

The volume at each integration point must remain fixed.

Fully integrated hexahedra use 8 integration points per element; thus, in this example, we have

as many as 8 constraints per element, but only 3 degrees of freedom are available to satisfy

these constraints.

The mesh is overconstrainedit locks.

Volumetric locking is most pronounced in fully integrated elements.

Reduced-integration elements have fewer volumetric constraints.

Reduced integration effectively eliminates volumetric locking in many problems with nearly

incompressible material.

A1.32

Fully incompressible materials modeled with solid elements must use the hybrid formulation (elements

whose names end with the letter H).

In this formulation the pressure stress is treated as an independently interpolated basic solution

variable, coupled to the displacement solution through the constitutive theory.

Hybrid elements introduce more variables into the problem to alleviate the volumetric locking

problem. The extra variables also make them more expensive.

The Abaqus element library includes hybrid versions of all continuum elements (except plane

stress elements, where this is not needed).

212

All meshes with strictly incompressible materials, such as rubber.

Refined meshes of reduced-integration elements that still show volumetric locking problems.

Such problems are possible with elastic-plastic materials strained far into the plastic range.

Even with hybrid elements a mesh of first-order triangles and tetrahedra is overconstrained when

modeling fully incompressible materials.

Hence, these elements are recommended only for use as fillers in quadrilateral or brick-type

meshes with such material.

A1.33

Meshes

Typical element shapes are shown at right.

Most elements in Abaqus are topologically

equivalent to these shapes.

For example, CPE4 (stress), DC2D4

(heat transfer), and AC2D4 (acoustics)

are topologically equivalent to a linear

quadrilateral.

A1.34

Of particular importance when generating a mesh is the decision regarding whether to use quad/hex or

tri/tet elements.

Quad/hex elements should be used wherever possible.

They give the best results for the minimum cost.

When modeling complex geometries, however, the analyst often has little choice but to mesh with

triangular and tetrahedral elements.

tetrahedral elements

213

A1.35

First-order tri/tet elements (CPE3, CPS3, CAX3, C3D4, C3D6) are poor elements; they have the

following problems:

Poor convergence rate.

I. They typically require very fine meshes to produce good results.

Volumetric locking with incompressible or nearly incompressible materials, even using the

hybrid formulation.

These elements should be used only as fillers in regions far from any areas where accurate results are

needed.

Second-order tri/tet elements (C3D10, C3D10I, etc.)

Suitable for general usage

Less sensitive to initial element shape that quads/hex but convergence rate is slower

Guidelines for contact analysis

I. Surface-to-surface contact discretization

No restriction on element type (use C3D10, C3D10I, C3D10M, etc.)

II. Node-to-surface contact discretization

Restrict usage to modified second-order elements (e.g., C3D10M)

A1.36

214

Use a sufficiently refined mesh to ensure that the results from your Abaqus simulation are adequate.

Coarse meshes tend to yield inaccurate results.

The computer resources required to run your job increase with the level of mesh refinement.

It is rarely necessary to use a uniformly refined mesh throughout the structure being analyzed.

Use a fine mesh only in areas of high gradients and a coarser mesh in areas of low gradients.

Can often predict regions of high gradients before generating the mesh.

Use hand calculations, experience, etc.

Alternatively, you can use coarse mesh results to identify high gradient regions.

Some recommendations:

Minimize mesh distortion as much as possible.

A minimum of four quadratic elements per 90o should be used around a circular hole.

A minimum of four elements should be used through the thickness of a structure if first-order,

reduced integration solid elements are used to model bending.

Other guidelines can be developed based on experience with a given class of problem.

A1.37

Simulate the problem using progressively finer meshes, and compare the results.

I. The mesh density can be changed very easily using Abaqus/CAE since the definition of the

analysis model is based on the geometry of the structure.

When two meshes yield nearly identical results, the results are said to have converged.

I. This provides increased confidence in your results.

A1.38

Class of problem

Avoid using

deformable bodies

First-order quad/hex

Incompatible mode

second-order elements with the node-tosurface contact discretization

Second-order quad/hex

Stress concentration

Second-order

First-order

Nearly incompressible

( >0.475 or large strain

plasticity pl >10%)

elements

215

A1.39

216

Class of problem

Completely incompressible

(rubber = 0.5)

are anticipated

(high mesh distortion)

(linear material, no contact)

distorted) or second-order tet/tri (because of

meshing difficulties)

(nonlinear problem or contact)

distorted). If meshing requirements dictate,

use second-order tet/tri (modified form; use

regular form only with surface-to-surface

contact discretization)

Natural frequency

(linear dynamics)

Second-order

First-order

Avoid using

Second-order

quad/hex

Second-order

Notes

217

Notes

218

A2.1

Lesson content:

Mesh Density Considerations

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard

30 minutes

A2.2

For Abaqus/Standard the entire contact definition is model data (it must appear before the first *STEP

option).

Contact pairs can be activated or deactivated during the analysis history using the *MODEL CHANGE

option.

*MODEL CHANGE, TYPE=CONTACT PAIR, [ADD | REMOVE]

surface_1, surface_2

219

A2.3

Contact pairs: Mesh density considerations of the (default) strict master/slave approach

The slave surface should be meshed more finely than the master surface.

If mesh densities are equal, the slave surface usually should be the surface with the softer underlying

material.

A2.4

Largely based on mesh refinement.

suitability as master

220

Overall general

contact surface

A2.5

Contact requires the imposition of constraints between the points that are in contact.

Different ways of imposing constraints.

For most of the contact algorithms, Abaqus/Standard uses the Lagrange multiplier method by default.

For each potential contact point the contact condition is described by a single, often nonlinear, inequality

constraint:

h(u1 , u 2 , u3 , ...) 0,

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

A2.6

Schematic of (default) behavior within an increment

Begin

increment

Identify initially

active contact

constraints

Form and

solve system

of equations

Newton

iterations

Yes

5

No

(Reduce increment

size and try again)

Identify changes in

3 contact constraint

status

Determine if

tending toward

convergence

Check if solution

4 has converged

End

increment

No

Yes

convergence criterion is

not satisfied)

(Within

convergence

tolerances)

221

A2.7

1

For first increment of a step, based on initial model state; otherwise, based on solution

extrapolation (if any)

Calculate the stiffness, imposing contact constraints accordingly. Form the system of equations and

pass through the equation solver.

Are contact pressures and clearances consistent with the assumed contact state?

Contact status changes (open/closed or stick/slip) often cause significant changes to the system

of equations

Iterations with contact status changes are flagged as severe discontinuity iterations (SDIs)

A2.8

222

By default, Abaqus quantifies the contact incompatibilities associated with SDIs. These

incompatibilities must be sufficiently small to achieve convergence with respect to the contact

state.

Also have to ensure that the force residuals and solution corrections are sufficiently small to

achieve equilibrium.

If the contact state and equilibrium conditions satisfy their respective convergence criteria, the

increment is complete.

If convergence is not achieved, is it likely to be achieved?

Abaqus evaluates trends, such as the number of contact status changes in successive iterations,

to determine whether or not to continue iterating or cut back the increment size.

If convergence is likely, update the contact constraints based on 3 and the stiffness, and resolve the system of equations; otherwise, try again with a smaller increment size.

A2.9

Contact printout example

Reference: Example Problem 1.3.4, Deep drawing of a cylindrical cup

Status (.sta) file:

MONITOR NODE:

200 DOF: 2

STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL

DISCON ITERS ITERS

RIKS

ITERS

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

0

1

1

3

1

1

10

0

10

3

2

1

7

1

8

3

3

1U

10

0

10

3

3

2

5

0

5

3

4

1

3

1

4

3

5

1

2

3

5

3

6

1

4

1

5

3

7

1

4

1

5

3

8

1

6

1

7

3

9

1U

8

0

8

3

9

2

4

3

7

3

10

1

2

3

5

3

11

1

4

2

6

.

.

.

TOTAL

TIME/

FREQ

1.00

2.00

2.01

2.02

2.02

2.02

2.03

2.04

2.05

2.07

2.10

2.10

2.11

2.12

2.15

STEP

TIME/LPF

INC OF

TIME/LPF

DOF

MONITOR

IF

1.00

1.00

0.0100

0.0200

0.0200

0.0238

0.0294

0.0378

0.0505

0.0695

0.0979

0.0979

0.109

0.125

0.149

1.000

1.000

0.01000

0.01000

0.01500

0.003750

0.005625

0.008438

0.01266

0.01898

0.02848

0.04271

0.01068

0.01602

0.02403

0.000

0.000

-0.000600

-0.00120

-0.00120

-0.00142

-0.00176

-0.00227

-0.00303

-0.00417

-0.00588

-0.00588

-0.00652

-0.00748

-0.00892

A2.10

Message file, Step 3, Increment 6:

INCREMENT

1, TIME INCREMENT

1.266E-02

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 171 IS NOW SLIPPING.

:

:

:

messages cause SDIs only if

Lagrange friction is used or if slip

reversal occurs.

:

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 153 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -845822..

Incompatibilities

detected in the

assumed contact state

SDI

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 163 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -108355..

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 165 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -620880..

CONTACT PAIR (CSURF,DSURF) NODE 363 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -3.5893E+006.

CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF) NODE 309 IS NOW SLIPPING.

6 SEVERE DISCONTINUITIES OCCURRED DURING THIS ITERATION.

5 POINTS CHANGED FROM CLOSED TO OPEN

Due to slip

reversal

223

A2.11

Message file, Step 3, Increment 6 (cont'd):

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION

contact state

MAX. CONTACT FORCE ERROR -4369.44 AT NODE 363 OF CONTACT PAIR (CSURF,DSURF)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

THE ESTIMATED CONTACT FORCE ERROR IS LARGER THAN THE TIME-AVERAGED FORCE.

AVERAGE FORCE

5.393E+03

3.147E+03

-1.110E+04

AT NODE

333

DOF

-7.782E-04

AT NODE

329

DOF

-1.737E-05

AT NODE

337

DOF

FORCE

AVERAGE MOMENT

ALL MOMENT

114.

equilibrium

large, but force equilibrium has not been

achieved

either

89.8

1.853E-33

AT NODE

100

DOF

6.489E-34

AT NODE

300

DOF

THE MOMENT

A2.12

Four additional iterations are required; the first three are SDIs (involve contact incompatibilities).

In the final iteration both the contact and equilibrium checks pass and the increment converges.

CONVERGENCE

CONVERGENCE

CONVERGENCE

CONVERGENCE

CHECKS

CHECKS

CHECKS

CHECKS

FOR

FOR

FOR

FOR

SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION

SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION

EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

1

2 ...

3 ...

4 ...

MAX. CONTACT FORCE ERROR -0.00111133 AT NODE 331 OF CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF)

THE CONTACT CONSTRAINTS HAVE CONVERGED.

AVERAGE

LARGEST

LARGEST

LARGEST

FORCE

5.244E+03

TIME AVG. FORCE

RESIDUAL FORCE

-9.24

AT NODE

367

INCREMENT OF DISP.

-7.809E-04

AT NODE

129

CORRECTION TO DISP.

4.229E-08

AT NODE

137

THE FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

3.123E+03

DOF 1

DOF 2

DOF 2

AVERAGE MOMENT

109.

TIME AVG. MOMENT

89.0

ALL MOMENT

RESIDUALS ARE ZERO

LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION

1.925E-33

AT NODE

100

DOF 6

LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION

2.049E-35

AT NODE

100

DOF 6

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM RESPONSE WAS LINEAR IN THIS INCREMENT

224

No SDIs in this

iteration

A2.13

Increment summary:

5 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH

4 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 1 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED

STEP TIME COMPLETED

1.266E-02,

5.047E-02,

200 D.O.F.

2 IS

-3.028E-03

TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

5.047E-02

2.05

A2.14

Contact diagnostics in Abaqus/Viewer

incompatible contact state

the model where the contact state

is changing.

225

226

Notes

227

Notes

228

A3.1

Lesson content:

Enforcing the Contact Constraints

Double-Sided Contact

Initial Kinematic Compliance

30 minutes

A3.2

For Abaqus/Explicit the contact pair definition is part of the history data in the input file.

*HEADING

.

.

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

, 200E-3

Contact pairs are defined, or

*CONTACT PAIR

removed, on a step-by-step basis as

ASURF, BSURF

needed.

.

.

.

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

, 200E-3

*CONTACT PAIR

ASURF, DSURF

229

A3.3

The *CONTACT PAIR option has the OP parameter, which can have the value ADD or DELETE.

Example:

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

.

.

*CONTACT PAIR

ASURF, BSURF

*END STEP

*STEP

.

.

*CONTACT PAIR, OP=DELETE

ASURF, BSURF

*CONTACT PAIR, OP=ADD

BSURF, CSURF

*END STEP

ASURF and BSURF.

Add a contact pair involving surfaces

BSURF and CSURF.

A3.4

Contact constraints can be enforced with one of the following algorithms:

Penalty

230

In most cases the kinematic and penalty algorithms will produce nearly the same results; however, in some

cases one method may be preferable to the other.

A3.5

Kinematic compliance contact

The default kinematic contact formulation achieves precise compliance with the contact conditions.

It works well in most cases, but some problems with chattering contact may work more easily using

penalty contact.

Cannot model rigid-to-rigid contact.

Available only for the contact pair algorithm.

A3.6

Penalty contact

The penalty contact algorithm provides less stringent enforcement of contact constraints than the

kinematic algorithm.

The penalty algorithm allows for treatment of more general types of contact; for example, contact

between two rigid bodies.

Since the penalty algorithm introduces additional stiffness behavior into a model, this stiffness can

influence the stable time increment.

Penalty contact is used with the general contact algorithm.

To invoke penalty contact for the contact pair algorithm:

Set the MECHANICAL CONSTRAINT parameter to PENALTY on the *CONTACT PAIR option.

The spring or penalty stiffness that relates the contact force to the penetration distance is chosen

automatically by Abaqus/Explicit. Conflicting criteria must be considered:

The effect on the maximum stable time increment should be minimal.

The allowed penetration must not be significant in most analyses.

For the general contact algorithm:

The penalty stiffness can be scaled using the *CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT,

TYPE=SCALE PENALTY option.

For the contact pair algorithm:

You can specify a factor by which to scale the default penalty stiffnesses by using the SCALE

PENALTY parameter on the *CONTACT CONTROLS option.

231

A3.7

A single surface defined on shell, membrane, and rigid elements can include both the top (SPOS) and bottom

(SNEG) faces of these elements.

The general contact algorithm automatically uses double-sided surfaces.

For the contact pair algorithm:

Define a double-sided surface by omitting the face identifier from the *SURFACE option.

Consistent element normals are not required.

Contact can occur on either face of the elements forming the double-sided surface.

For example, a slave node can start out on one side of a double-sided surface and then pass around the

perimeter to the other side during the analysis.

Double-sided surfaces are often necessary in such situations.

The additional computational cost when performing an analysis with double-sided contact is minimal.

A3.8

Example: Compression of nested cylindrical shells

deformable cylinders

rigid lid

rigid box

Front view

232

side of box removed)

A3.9

General contact

*HEADING

:

*CONTACT

*CONTACT INCLUSIONS,

ALL EXTERIOR

:

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

:

*END STEP

Contact pairs

*HEADING

:

*SURFACE, NAME=RING1

RING1

*SURFACE, NAME=RING2

RING2

*SURFACE, NAME=RING3

RING3

*SURFACE, NAME=BOX

BOX

*SURFACE, NAME=LID

LID

:

*STEP

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT

:

*CONTACT PAIR

RING1, RING2

RING1, RING3

RING2, RING3

RING1, BOX

RING2, BOX

RING3, BOX

RING1, LID

:

*END STEP

definition of complex contact conditions

when using contact pairs.

Since the shell thickness is not shown in

plots, the displaced shape indicates gaps

between the contacting surfaces (recall shell

thickness is accounted for in contact

calculations).

A3.10

Abaqus/Explicit does not allow an initial overclosure of contact surfaces.

The nodes on the contact surfaces will be adjusted to remove any initial overclosure prior to the

analysis:

Only nodes on the contact surface are moved.

The displacements associated with adjusting the surface do not cause any initial strain or stress

for contact pairs defined in the first step of the analysis.

In subsequent steps :

The initial overclosures are ignored with the general contact algorithm.

The adjustments will cause strains with the contact pair algorithm.

Both surfaces will be adjusted if the contact pair is a balanced master/slave pair.

Detailed information regarding resolution of initial overclosures can be written to the message (.msg) file

using the *DIAGNOSTICS option.

233

234

Notes

235

Notes

236

Workshop 1

Basic Input and Output

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Understand the basic structure of an Abaqus/CAE model, and be able to make

simple modifications to it.

Learn how to perform a datacheck analysis and how to submit an analysis job in

Abaqus/CAE.

Gain familiarity with the Visualization module.

Explore the structure and contents of the printed output (.dat) file.

Abaqus provides various utilities for obtaining information on usage, system

configuration, example problems, and environment settings for the analysis package.

1. At the prompt, enter the command

abaqus information=system

Note that abaqus is a generic command that may have been renamed on your

system. For example, if more than one version is installed on the system, the

command might include the version number, as in abq6121. In the remainder of

this workshop as well as all subsequent workshops, use the appropriate command

for your system.

237

W1.2

Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?

abaqus doc

Open the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual, and search for the string DSLOAD to

find information on the DSLOAD option. You can find information related to

the data line syntax in the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual (use the hyperlink

for the DSLOAD option, or open the Keywords Manual directly). The online

documentation graphical user interface is shown in Figure W11.

3. Open the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual. Search for plate

buckling to find example problems that discuss plate buckling.

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

criteria?

In the left panel of the window, display the subtopics of the problem and click

238

W1.3

Input files. In the right panel of the window, the list of input files associated with

this problem appears. You can select any input filename from the list; a separate

window will open containing that file.

5. All example problem input files are included in the Abaqus release and can be

obtained using the abaqus fetch utility. In your terminal window, enter

abaqus fetch job=damagefailcomplate_cps4

6. Use the online documentation to determine the input syntax for some options.

followed directly by the keyword

option. Parameters and their associated values appear on the keyword line,

separated by commas. Many options require data lines, which follow directly after

their associated keyword line and contain the data specified in the Abaqus

Keywords Reference Manual for each option. Data items are separated by

commas. Refer to the discussions of keyword line and data line syntax in Lecture

1, as necessary.

Question W14:

environment?

Hint: Search for run script in the Abaqus/CAE

Users Manual

Question W15:

would choose to define a displacement/rotation boundary

condition in Abaqus/CAE.

Hint: Search displacement/rotation boundary condition in

239

W1.4

In this workshop you will model the connecting lug shown in Figure W12. The lug is

welded to a massive structure at one end, so we assume that this end is fixed. The other

end contains a hole through which a bolt is placed when the lug is in service. You have to

calculate the deflection of the lug when a load of 30 kN is applied to the bolt along the

negative 2-direction.

To model this problem, you will use three-dimensional continuum elements and perform

a linear analysis with elastic materials. You will model the load transmitted to the lug

through the bolt as a uniform pressure load applied to the bottom half of the hole, as

shown in Figure W12. In this workshop SI units (N, m, and s) will be used.

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/lug

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_lug.py

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Lug.cae in the current

directory. The geometry, mesh, and step definitions for the lug are included in a model

named standard.

240

W1.5

Before completing the model, view the contents of the model using the Model Tree on

the left hand side of the main window.

Question W16: How many steps are there in this analysis?

to query element information of the lug. Switch to the Mesh module and click

. In the

Query dialog box, select Element in the General Queries field. Select one element of

the lug in the viewport. Read the query results reported in the message area at the bottom

of the main window.

Question W17: What element type is used to model the lug?

You will now add the material definition, and create the boundary conditions and the

pressure load to complete the lug model.

1. Note that a dummy material named Steel has already been created and assigned

to the part Lug. Add the steel material properties to this material.

a. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click Steel.

The material editor appears.

b. From the material editors menu bar, select

MechanicalElasticityElastic. Enter the following elastic material

properties: Elastic modulus E = 200.E9 Pa and Poissons ratio = 0.3.

Question W18: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

analyses?

2. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container to create an ENCASTRE

boundary condition on the flat end as highlighted in Figure W13. The

ENCASTRE boundary condition constrains all active structural degrees of

freedom.

a. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box, name the boundary

condition Fix left end, choose the category Mechanical and the type

Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre, and click Continue.

b. Select the flat end of the lug as shown in Figure W13. Use [Shift]+Click

to select both regions. Adjust your view, if necessary, to see the model

geometry more clearly.

c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to

confirm the selections.

The boundary condition editor appears.

241

W1.6

(U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0) and click OK to exit the boundary

condition editor.

The arrow symbols appear on the flat end indicating the constrained

degrees of freedom.

Question W19: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

condition?

3. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container to create a distributed

pressure load with a magnitude of 50 MPa on the highlighted surfaces shown in

Figure W14.

a. In the Create Load dialog box, name the load Pressure Load, select

the step LugLoad, choose the category Mechanical and the type

Pressure, and click Continue.

b. Select the surfaces highlighted in Figure W14.

c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to

confirm the selections.

The load editor appears.

d. In the Edit Load dialog box, accept the Uniform distribution, enter a value

of 50E6 for the Magnitude, and click OK to exit the load editor.

242

W1.7

dividing the total load by the projected horizontal area of the hole, where

30kN

50MPa .

2 0.015m 0.02m

Region for

Pressure Load

You will first perform a datacheck analysis and then a full analysis.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Jobs container. In the Create Job dialog

box, name the job lug and click Continue. In the Edit Job dialog box, accept all

default settings and click OK to exit the job editor.

2. Save your model database.

3. In the Model Tree, expand the Jobs container. Click mouse button 3 on the job

lug and select Data Check from the menu that appears.

4. Click mouse button 3 on the job lug and select Monitor from the menu that

appears to monitor any warnings or errors that may occur during the datacheck

analysis.

5. In the job monitor, open the Data File tabbed page. Search for the string

P R O B L E M to see the summary of the problem size. Include spaces between

the letters of the search string.

Question W110: How many elements are there in the model? How many

243

W1.8

1. In the Model Tree, expand the Jobs container. Click mouse button 3 on the job

lug and select Continue from the menu that appears.

If Abaqus/CAE asks if you want to overwrite old job files, click OK. This means

that output files with the same job name that exist from a previous analysis will be

overwritten.

2. Monitor the jobs progress.

When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to view the analysis results in

the Visualization module:

1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job lug and select Results from

the menu that appears to open the file lug.odb in the Visualization module.

2. When the output database is opened in the Visualization module, the undeformed

model shape is displayed by default. To change the plot mode, you can use either

the Plot menu or the toolbox icons displayed on the left side of the viewport (see

Figure W15). You can identify the function of each tool in the toolbox by

positioning your cursor above the icon for that tool; a label for the icon pop-ups

describing its function.

1. To plot the deformed shape, click the Plot Deformed Shape tool

toolbox or select PlotDeformed Shape from the main menu bar.

in the

in the toolbox.

Turn on the node and element numbers, and make the nodes visible.

4. Use the display option tools (see Figure W15) to switch to hidden line, filled, or

wireframe display.

244

W1.9

Results

Tree

Toolbox

5. Note the displacement magnification factor shown in the bottom of the title. By

default, Abaqus/CAE automatically scales the displacement according to the

maximum model dimensions for a small-displacement analysis. Displacements

are scaled so that the deformed shape will be clear. For a large-displacement

analysis the scale factor is 1.0 by default.

Set the displacement magnification factor to 1.0 so that you can see the actual

displacement, and redraw the displaced shape plot.

Hint: You will have to use the Common Plot Options dialog box.

6. Create a contour plot of the Mises stress by clicking the Plot Contours on

Deformed Shape tool

.

7. Frequently users want to remove all annotations that are written on the plots,

especially when they are creating hard-copy images or animations. From the main

menu bar, select ViewportViewport Annotation Options to suppress the

annotations used in the plots.

245

W1.10

The annotations are divided into three categories: legend, title block, and state

block. Each category can be controlled separately. The title block contains

information about which Abaqus version was used and when the analysis was

performed. The state block contains the step title, the increment and step time of

the data being displayed, and information on the variable and magnification factor

used to calculate the shape of the model.

8. Probe the displacement of the nodes around the hole in the lug.

a. Click the Query information tool

. In the Query dialog box that

appears, select Probe values in the Visualization Module Queries field.

b. In the Probe Values dialog box that appears, click

to change the

default field output variable to the displacement component U2.

c. In the Field Output dialog box that appears, select U as the output

variable and U2 as the component and click OK to save the selection and

exit the Field Output dialog box.

d. In the Probe Values dialog box, select Nodes as the item to probe.

e. Select a node in viewport to obtain its displacement along the 2-direction.

Click on a node to query its displacement value along the 2 direction.

9. Use a similar procedure to probe the Mises stress in the elements around the hole

in the lug.

1. Switch to the Load module.

2. Reduce the amplitude of the distributed pressure load to 25 MPa.

3. Create a new job named lugmod and submit the analysis.

4. View the results in the Visualization module.

Question W111: How have the displacement and stress results changed after

loading?

Note: A script that creates the complete model described in these

instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you

encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your

work. The script is named ws_solver_lug_answer.py and is available using

the Abaqus fetch utility.

246

W1.11

Answers

Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?

Answer:

Answer:

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

Answer:

criteria?

Problem 1.1.14, Damage and failure of a laminated

composite plate

Problem 1.2.2, Laminated composite shells: buckling of a

cylindrical panel with a circular hole

Problem 1.2.5, Unstable static problem: reinforced plate

under compressive loads

Problem 9.1.8, Deformation of a sandwich plate under

CONWEP blast loading

Question W14:

Answer:

environment?

From the main menu bar, select FileRun Script.

Question W15: In the space provided, write which Category option you

Answer:

condition in Abaqus/CAE.

You would choose the Mechanical category option.

Answer:

Abaqus/CAE, there is only one step in this analysis.

Answer:

C3D20R elementsi.e., 20-node brick elements (threedimensional, quadratic, hexahedral continuum elements) with

reduced integrationare used to model the lug.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

247

W1.12

Answer:

analyses?

No. The density is necessary for analysis procedures that

consider inertia effects. In a static analysis inertia effects are

not considered.

Question W19: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

Answer:

condition?

You could have chosen to fix all six degrees of freedom

separately by choosing the Displacement/Rotation type

boundary condition and specifying zero values for all degrees

of freedom from 1 through 6.

Question W110: How many elements are there in the model? How many

Answer:

The model has 288 elements. The total number of variables,

including degrees of freedom plus any Lagrange multiplier

variables, is 5211.

Question W111: How have the displacement and stress results changed after

Answer:

248

loading?

The displacements and stresses have decreased by a factor of

two, since this is a linear analysis and our load was decreased

by a factor of two.

Notes

249

Notes

250

Workshop 2

Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam:

Multiple Load Cases

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Introduction

In this workshop you will become familiar with using load cases in a linear static

analysis. You will model a cantilever beam. The left end of the beam is encastred while a

series of loads are applied to the free end. Six load cases are considered: unit forces in the

global X-, Y-, and Z-directions as well as unit moments about the global X-, Y-, and Zdirections. The model is shown in Figure W21. You will solve the problem using a

single perturbation step with six load cases and (optionally) using six perturbation steps

with a single load case in each step.

251

W2.2

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/load_cases

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_load_cases.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Beam.cae in the current

directory. The geometry, mesh and boundary condition definitions for the beam are

included in the model named LoadCases. You will add the step, load, and load case

definitions to complete the model.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container.

2. In the Create Step dialog box, name the step BeamLoadCases, choose the

Linear perturbation procedure type, and select Static, Linear perturbation from

the list of procedures, and click Continue.

The step editor appears.

3. In the Basic tabbed page of the step editor, type Six load cases applied

to right end of beam in the Description field.

4. Click OK to create the step and to exit the step editor.

As indicated in Figure W21, we wish to apply forces and moments to the right end of

the beam. However, the beam is modeled with solid C3D8I elements which possess only

displacement degrees of freedom. Thus, only forces may be directly applied to the model.

Rather than applying force couples to the model, we will apply concentrated moments to

the end of the beam. To this end, all loads will be transmitted to the beam through a rigid

body constraint. This approach is adopted to take advantage of the fact that the rigid body

reference node possesses six degrees of freedom in three-dimensions: 3 translations and 3

rotations and thus allows direct application of concentrated moments. Rigid bodies and

constraints will be discussed further in Lecture 5.

Note that a rigid body constraint named Constraint-1 has been created to constrain

the free end of the beam with a predefined reference point named RP-1; therefore, the

forces and moments which you will specify on RP-1 will be transmitted to the beam

through this rigid body constraint (see Figure W22).

252

W2.3

moments here.

To define loads:

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container.

2. In the Create Load dialog box, name the load Force-X, select the step

BeamLoadCases, choose the category Mechanical and the type Concentrated

force, and click Continue.

3. Select the reference point RP-1 as the point to which the load will be applied.

4. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to accept

the selection.

5. In the Edit Load dialog box, enter a value of 1.0 for CF1.

6. Click OK to complete the load definition.

7. Using a similar procedure, create two additional Concentrated force loads

named Force-Y and Force-Z and three Moment loads named Moment-X,

Moment-Y, and Moment-Z, with the definitions as listed in Table W21.

Tip: To define the additional forces, simply copy Force-X into a new name and

edit its definition; to define the moments, first create Moment-X and then

Abaqus/CAE displays arrows at the reference point indicating the loads applied to

the model.

253

W2.4

Load name

Definition

Force-X

CF1 = 1.0

Force-Y

CF2 = 1.0

Force-Z

CF3 = 1.0

Moment-X

CM1 = 1.0

Moment-Y

CM2 = 1.0

Moment-Z

CM3 = 1.0

1. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the step BeamLoadCases underneath

the Steps container and double-click Load Cases to create a load case in the

step.

2. In the Create Load Case dialog box, name the load case LC-Force-X, accept

BeamLoadCases as the step, and click Continue.

The load case editor appears.

3. Click

at the bottom of the Edit Load Case dialog box.

4. In the Load Selection dialog box that appears, select Force-X and click OK to

confirm the selection and to return to the load case editor.

5. Click OK to exit the Edit Load Case dialog box.

6. Create five additional load cases: one for each of the remaining loads. Name the

load cases LC-Force-Y, LC-Force-Z, LC-Moment-X, LC-Moment-Y, and

LC-Moment-Z and add the corresponding load to each.

Tip: Copy/edit LC-Force-X to define the additional load cases.

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions were defined in the initial step, and

as such, are active in each load case of the analysis step.

To create and submit the analysis job:

1. Create a job named LoadCases for this linear static perturbation analysis.

Tip: To create a job, double-click Jobs in the Model Tree.

2. Save your model database file and submit the job for analysis. In the Model Tree,

click mouse button 3 on the job name and select Submit from the menu that

appears. From the same menu, you can select Monitor to monitor the jobs

progress.

254

W2.5

When the job is complete, click mouse button 3 on the job LoadCases in the Model Tree

and select Results from the menu that appears.

Abaqus/CAE switches to the Visualization module and opens the output database

LoadCases.odb. Examine the results of the analysis. Note that load case output is

stored in separate frames in the output database. Use the Frame Selector (click

in

the context bar) to choose which load case is displayed (alternatively, open the

Step/Frame dialog box by selecting ResultStep/Frame). Figure W23 shows contour

plots of the Mises stress for each of the load cases.

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

255

W2.6

You will now linearly combine the results of each load case to plot the stress and

deformation in the beam under a given load combination. Recall that each load case is

based on a unit load; the results of each load case will be scaled relative to those obtained

for LC-Force-Y when combining the data.

1. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom Frames.

2. In the dialog box that appears, accept Sum values over all frames as the

operation.

3. In the Frames tabbed page, click

. In the Add Frames dialog box that

appears, choose BeamLoadCases as the step from which to obtain the data.

Click Select All and then click OK to close the dialog box.

4. Remove the initial frame; for the remaining frames, enter the scale factors shown

in Figure W24.

5. Switch to the Fields tabbed page to examine the data that will be combined.

Accept the default selection (all available field data) and click OK to close the

dialog box.

6. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

256

W2.7

7. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for output

and click OK.

8. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W25. Note that this figure has been

customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour plot and a

deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

9. Now create an envelope plot of the maximum stress in the beam:

a. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom

Frames.

b. In the dialog box that appears, select Find the maximum value over all

frames as the operation.

c. In the Frames tabbed page, click

. In the Add Frames dialog box

that appears, choose BeamLoadCases as the step from which to obtain

the data. Select all but the initial frame then click OK to close the dialog

box.

d. Switch to the Fields tabbed page. Unselect all output and then select only

S and U.

e. Click OK to close the dialog box.

f. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

g. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for

output and The maxmum value over all selected frames as the frame,

as shown in Figure W26.

257

W2.8

h. In the Field Output dialog box (ResultField Output), select S_max as

the primary variable and U_max as the deformed variable.

i. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W27. Note that this figure has

been customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour

plot and a deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

258

W2.9

Now perform the same analysis using multiple perturbation steps rather than multiple

load cases.

1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the model LoadCases and select

Copy Model from the menu that appears. Name the new model MultiSteps.

2. For the model MultiSteps, delete the step BeamLoadCases.

Note that all of the loads and load cases will be deleted when you delete the step

BeamLoadCases.

3. Create six new linear perturbation static steps named Step-FX, Step-FY, StepFZ, Step-MX, Step-MY, and Step-MZ.

4. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container for the model MultiSteps

and define a concentrated force load called Force-X in the step Step-FX with

CF1=1.0 at the reference point.

5. Similarly, create loads named Force-Y, Force-Z, Moment-X, Moment-Y, and

Moment-Z in steps Step-FY, Step-FZ, Step-MX, Step-MY, and Step-MZ,

respectively. Here CF2=1.0, CF3=1.0, CM1=1.0, CM2=1.0, and CM3=1.0 at

the reference point in the respective loads.

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions were defined in the initial step, and

therefore, are active in each analysis step.

6. Create a new job named MultiSteps for the model MultiSteps and make sure to

select the new model for the source. Submit the new job for analysis and monitor

the jobs status.

7. When the job is complete, open the output database MultiSteps.odb in the

Visualization module and compare the results obtained using both modeling

approaches. You will find that the results are identical.

Next, open the message (.msg) file for each job in the job monitor. Scroll to the bottom

of the file and compare the solution times. You will notice that the multiple step analysis

required 2.5 times as much CPU time as the multiple load case analysis. For a small

model such as this one, the overall analysis time is small so speeding up the analysis by a

factor of three may not appear significant. However, it is clear that for large jobs, the

speedup offered by multiple load cases will play a significant role in reducing the time

required to obtain a solution for a given problem.

259

W2.10

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:

TOTAL OF

1

0

1

1

:

:

INCREMENTS

CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION

ITERATIONS

PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

JOB TIME SUMMARY

USER TIME (SEC)

SYSTEM TIME (SEC)

TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)

WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=

=

=

=

0.10000

0.10000

0.20000

1

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:

TOTAL OF

6

0

6

6

:

:

INCREMENTS

CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION

ITERATIONS

PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

JOB TIME SUMMARY

USER TIME (SEC)

SYSTEM TIME (SEC)

TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)

WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=

=

=

=

0.4000

0.1000

0.5000

1

instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you

encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your

work. The script is named ws_solver_load_cases_answer.py and is

available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

260

Notes

261

Notes

262

Workshop 3

Nonlinear Statics

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Include nonlinear geometric effects by adding the NLGEOM parameter.

Include nonlinear material effects by defining plastic material behavior.

Become familiar with the output for an incremental analysis.

Introduction

In this workshop you will model the plate shown in Figure W31. It is skewed at 30 to

the global X-axis, built-in at one end, and constrained to move on rails parallel to the

plate axis at the other end. You will determine the midspan deflection when the plate

carries a uniform pressure. You will modify the model to include alternate nodal and

material directions as well as nonlinear effects.

263

W3.2

constrained except along the axis of

the plate.

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/skew

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_skew_plate.py.

current directory. A model named linear includes the geometry, mesh and material

definitions for the plate. You will first add the necessary data to complete the linear

analysis model. You will later perform the simulation considering both geometrically and

material nonlinear effects. In a subsequent workshop a restart analysis will be performed

to study the unloading of the plate.

The orientation of the structure in the global coordinate system is shown in

Figure W31. The global Cartesian coordinate system defines the default material

directions, but the plate is skewed relative to this system. It will not be easy to interpret

the results of the simulation if you use the default material directions because the direct

stress in the material 1-direction (i.e., global X-direction), 11, will contain contributions

from both the axial stress, produced by the bending of the plate, and the stress transverse

264

W3.3

to the axis of the plate. It will be easier to interpret the results if the material directions

are aligned with the axis of the plate and the transverse direction. Therefore, a local

rectangular coordinate system is needed in which the local x-direction lies along the axis

of the plate (i.e., at 30 to the global X-axis) and the local y-direction is also in the plane

of the plate.

You will define the datum coordinate system (CSYS) and then assign the material

orientation.

1. Switch to the Property module and define a rectangular datum coordinate system

as shown in Figure W32 using the Create Datum CSYS: 2 Lines tool

.

a. Note the small black triangles at the base of the toolbox icons. These

triangles indicate the presence of hidden icons that can be revealed. Click

the Create Datum CSYS: 3 Points tool

but do not release the mouse

button. When additional icons appear, release the mouse button.

b. Select the Create Datum CSYS: 2 Lines tool

. It appears in the

toolbox with a white background indicating that you selected it.

c. In the Create Datum CSYS dialog box, name the datum CSYS Skew,

select the Rectangular coordinate system type, and click Continue.

Make the next two selections as indicated in Figure W32.

to be in the

local x-y plane

local x-direction

2. Assign the material orientations to the plate.

a. In the toolbox, click the Assign Material Orientation tool

.

b. Select the entire part as the region to be assigned a local material

orientation.

265

W3.4

c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to

confirm the selection.

d. Click Datum CSYS List in the prompt area.

e. In the Datum CSYS List dialog box, select skew and click OK. In the

material orientation editor, select Axis 3 for the direction of the

approximate shell normal. No additional rotation is needed about this axis.

f. Click OK to confirm the input.

Tip: To verify that the local material directions have been assigned correctly,

select ToolsQuery from the main menu bar and perform a property query

on the material orientations.

Once the part has been meshed and elements have been created in the model, all

element variables will be defined in this local coordinate system.

As shown in Figure W31, the left end of the plate is completely fixed; the right end is

constrained to move on rails that are parallel to the axis of the plate. Since the latter

boundary condition direction does not coincide with the global axes, you must define a

local coordinate system that has an axis aligned with the plate. You can use the datum

coordinate system that you created earlier to define the local directions.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container and define a

Displacement/Rotation mechanical boundary condition named Rail

boundary condition in the Apply Pressure step.

In this example you will assign boundary conditions to sets rather than to regions

selected directly in the viewport. Thus, when prompted for the regions to which

the boundary condition will be applied, click Sets in the prompt area of the

viewport.

2. From the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the set Plate-1.EndB.

Toggle on Highlight selections in viewport to make sure the correct set is

selected. The right edge of the plate should be highlighted. Click Continue.

3. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, click

to specify the local

coordinate system in which the boundary condition will be applied. In the

viewport, select the datum CSYS Plate-1.Skew. The local x-direction is

aligned with the plate axis.

Note that Plate-1.Skew is the assembly-level datum CSYS generated by the

part-level datum CSYS Skew.

4. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, fix all degrees of freedom except for

U1 by toggling them on and entering a value of 0 for each.

The right edge of the plate is now constrained to move only in the direction of the

plate axis. Once the plate has been meshed and nodes have been generated in the

model, all printed nodal output quantities associated with this region

266

W3.5

coordinate system.

5. Create another boundary condition named Fix left end to fix all degrees of

freedom at the left edge of the plate (set Plate-1.EndA). Use the default global

directions for this boundary condition.

6. Define a uniform pressure load named Pressure across the top of the shell in the

Apply Pressure step. Select both regions of the part using [Shift]+Click, and

choose the top side of the shell (Brown) as the surface to which the pressure load

will be applied. You may need to rotate the view to more clearly distinguish the

top side of the plate. Specify a load magnitude of 2.0E4 Pa.

1. Create a job named SkewPlate with the following description: Linear

Elastic Skew Plate, 20 kPa Load.

2. Save your model database file.

3. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.

When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to postprocess the

analysis results.

4. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job SkewPlate and select Results

from the menu that appears to open the file SkewPlate.odb in the Visualization

module.

5. Click the Plot Deformed Shape tool

to probe the value of the midspan

deformation.

a. In the Query dialog box, select Probe values in the Visualization

Module Queries field.

b. Change the displayed field variable to the displacement along the 3direction. In the Probe Values dialog box, click

to change the default

field output variable to U3. In the Field Output dialog box that appears,

select U as the output variable and U3 as the component and click OK.

c. In the Probe Values dialog box, select Nodes as the item to probe.

d. Click on a node (as indicated in Figure W33) along the midespan to

probe its displacement along the 3-direction. Enter this value in the

Linear column of Table W31.

267

W3.6

Now perform the simulation considering geometrically nonlinear effects. Copy the model

named linear to a new model named nonlinear. You will add geometric nonlinearity

into the model nonlinear; the changes required for this model are described next.

1. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and double-click Apply Pressure

to edit the step definition.

a. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Step dialog box, toggle on Nlgeom

to include geometric nonlinearity effects and set the time period for the

step to 1.0.

b. In the Incrementation tabbed page, set the initial increment size to 0.1.

Note that the default maximum number of increments is 100; Abaqus may

use fewer increments than this upper limit, but it will stop the analysis if it

needs more.

You may wish to change the description of the step to reflect that it is now a

nonlinear analysis step.

2. Create a job named NlSkewPlate for the model nonlinear and give it the

description Nonlinear Elastic Skew Plate. Save your model database file.

3. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.

The Job Monitor is particularly useful in nonlinear analyses. It gives a brief

summary of the automatic time incrementation used in the analysis for each

increment. The information is written as soon as the increment is completed, so

you can monitor the analysis as it is running. This facility is useful in large,

complex problems. The information given in the Job Monitor is the same as that

given in the status file (NlSkewPlate.sta).

4. When the job is complete, open the output database NlSkewPlate.odb in the

Visualization module and plot the deformed model shape.

268

W3.7

5.

Query the vetical displacement (U3) of the same midspan node as discribed

earlier and enter the displacement result in the Nlgeom column of Table W31.

Table W31. Midspan displacements

Load (kPa)

Linear (m)

Nlgeom (m)

20

60

6. Triple the pressure in both the linear and nonlinear analysis models. Create new

jobs and run each of these analyses

7. Upon job completion, look at the results and enter the vertical displacement of the

same node in Table W3-1.

Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each

other and to those from the linear analyses?

Adding Plasticity

You will now include another source of nonlinearity: plasticity. The material data are

shown in Figure W34 (in terms of true stress vs. total log strain). Abaqus, however,

requires the plastic material data be defined in terms of true stress and plastic log strain.

Thus, you will need to determine the plastic strains corresponding to each data point (see

the hint below). The changes described below are to be made to the nonlinear model.

1. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click Steel.

2. In the Edit Material dialog box, add plasticity by choosing

MechanicalPlasticity Plastic.

3. Enter the data lines corresponding to points A and B on the stress-strain curve as

shown in Figure W34.

The Youngs modulus for this material is 30E9 Pa.

Hint: The total strain tot at any point on the curve is equal to the sum of the

elastic strain el and plastic strain pl. The elastic strain at any point on the curve

can be evaluated from Youngs modulus and the true stress:el= / E. Use the

following relationship to determine the plastic strains to include on the plastic

option:

pl tot el tot E .

269

W3.8

You can use the command line interface (CLI) of Abaqus/CAE as a simple

calculator. For example, to compute the plastic strain at B, type

0.02-(3e7/3e10) in the command line interface and hit [Enter]. The value

of the plastic strain is printed (in this case the plastic strain at B is 0.019).

Note that the command line interface is hidden by default, but it uses the same

space that is occupied by the message area at the bottom of the main window.

To access the command line interface, click the yellow prompt button

the bottom left corner of the main window.

in

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the plasticity

4. Change the pressure to 10 kPa.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click Pressure underneath the Loads

container.

b. In the Edit Load dialog box that appears, enter a value of 10000 for

Magnitude.

5. Request restart output every increment in the step named Apply Pressure (switch

to the Step module; select OutputRestart Requests).

Note that the step name is important for the restart analysis to be performed later.

6. Create a new job named PlSkewPlate and give it the description Nonlinear

Plastic Skew Plate.

7. Save your model database file.

8. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.

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W3.9

When the job is complete, visualize the output database PlSkewPlate.odb in the

Visualization module.

1. By default, the last increment of the last step is selected. Use the Frame Selector

in the context bar to select other steps or increments; alternatively, use the

Step/Frame dialog box (ResultStep/Frame).

2. Use the view manipulation tools to position the model as you wish. Turn

perspective on or off by clicking the Turn Perspective On tool

Perspective Off tool

or the Turn

in the toolbar.

3. Plot the deformed shape by clicking the Plot Deformed Shape tool

A sample deformed shape plot is shown in Figure W35. Your plot may look

different if you have positioned your model differently

4. Create a contour plot of variable S11 by following this procedure:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

in the toolbox.

Select ResultField Output.

In the Field Output dialog box, select S11 as the stress component.

Click Section Points to select a section point.

In the Section Points dialog box that appears, select Top and bottom as

the active locations and click OK.

Your contour plot should look similar to Figure W36. Abaqus plots the

contours of the Mises stress on both the top and bottom faces of each shell

element. To see this more clearly, rotate the model in the viewport.

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W3.10

Figure W36. Contour plot of S11: SPOS, top image; SNEG, bottom image

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

model?

to animate the results.

You can stop the animation and move between frames and steps by using the

arrow buttons in the context bar.

6. Render the shell thickness (ViewODB Display Options; toggle on Render

shell thickness).

The plot appears as shown in Figure W37. Note that for the purpose of

visualization, a linear interpolation is used between the contours on the top and

bottom surfaces of the shell.

272

W3.11

7. Create a displacement history plot of U3 of the midspan node you tracked in the

previous analyses:

a. In the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the

output database named PlSkewPlate.odb.

b. Click History Output and press F2; filter the container according to *U3*.

c. Double-click the data object for the node tracked in the previous analyses.

Your plot should look similar to Figure W38. Note this figure has been

customized.

273

W3.12

instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you

encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your

work. The script is named

ws_solver_skew_plate_answer.py

274

W3.13

Answers

Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

Answer:

The midspan displacement is tripled in the linear analysis.

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each

Answer:

The midspan displacement is not tripled in the nonlinear

analysis when the load is tripled. At the higher load, the value

of the displacement predicted by the nonlinear analysis is less

than the value predicted by the linear analysis.

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the plastic

Answer:

The first data line of the plastic option defines the initial yield

point. The plastic strain at this point is zero.

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

Answer:

model?

The peak value of vertical displacement occurs at the midspan.

The supports of the plate are likely to be heavily stressed; this

is confirmed by contour plots of S11.

275

276

Notes

277

Notes

278

Workshop 4

Unloading Analysis of a Skew Plate

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Introduction

You will now continue the analysis of the plate shown in Figure W41. Recall our

analysis includes geometric and material nonlinearity. We previously determined the

plate exceeded the material yield strength and therefore has some plastic deformation.

Since we requested restart output, we can resume the analysis to determine the residual

stress state. In this workshop we will remove the load in order to recover the elastic

deformation; the plastic deformation will remain.

constrained except along the axis of

the plate.

Dassault Systmes, 2012

279

W4.2

Open the database ../abaqus_solvers/interactive/skew/SkewPlate.cae

created in the previous workshop and copy the model named nonlinear to a new model

named restart. The changes required for this model are described next.

Model Attributes

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the model restart to edit the attributes for the

restart analysis model. (Alternatively, from the main menu bar, select

ModelEdit Attributesrestart.)

2. On the Restart tab of the Edit Model Attributes dialog box:

a. Click the checkbox to indicate the (previous) job where the restart data

was saved (recall this job was named PlSkewPlate).

b. Indicate the step from which to restart the analysis (recall this step was

named Apply Pressure) and that the restart analysis will commence from

the end of the step.

Step definition

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container to add a new general static

step after the Apply Pressure step.

2. Name the step Unload.

3. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Step dialog box, Nlgeom should already be

on to include geometric nonlinearity effects.

4. Set the time period for the step to 1.0.

5. As before, in the Incrementation tabbed page, set the initial increment size to

0.1.

Loads

1. Use the Load Manager to deactivate the pressure load in the step named Unload.

Alternatively, you could simply edit the load magnitude (for example, to examine

the effect of a load reversal).

Job definition

1. Create a new job named PlSkewPlate-unload using the model restart and

enter the following job description: Unload Plastic Skew Plate.

Note that the job type is set to Restart.

2. Save your model database file.

3. Submit the job for analysis, and monitor the solution progress.

4. Correct any modeling errors, and investigate the source of any warning messages.

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W4.3

Postprocessing

In the Visualization module, contour the U3 displacement component in the plate:

1. Click the Plot Contours tool

in the toolbox.

2. From the list of variable types on the left side of the Field Output toolbar, select

Primary (if it is not already selected).

3. From the list of available output variables in the center of the toolbar, select

output variable U (spatial displacement at nodes).

4. From the list of available components and invariants on the right side of the Field

Output toolbar, select U3.

5. Compare to the results at the end of the Apply Pressure step.

Note that in this output database file, the results for frame 0 correspond to the

results at the end of the Apply Pressure step (use the Frame Selector

to

switch to a different frame).

The difference between the final state of the model and its initial state is due to

the elastic springback that has occurred. The deformation that remains is

permanent and unrecoverable.

Note: A script that creates the complete models described in these

instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you

encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your

work. The script is named ws_solver_skew_plate_answer.py and is

available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

281

282

Notes

283

Notes

284

Workshop 5

CLD Analysis of a Seal using Abaqus/Standard

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Define contact interactions using contact pairs and general contact.

Perform a large displacement analysis with Abaqus/Standard.

Use the Visualization module to create a compression load-deflection curve.

Introduction

In this workshop, a compression analysis of a rubber seal is performed to determine the

seals performance. The goal is to determine the seals compression load-deflection

(CLD) curve, deformation and stresses. The analysis will be performed using

Abaqus/Standard. Two analyses are performed: one using contact pairs and the other

using general contact.

As shown in Figure W51, the top outer surface of the seal is covered with a polymer

layer, and the seal is compressed between two rigid surfaces (the upper one is displaced

along the negative Y-direction; the lower one is fixed). During compression, the cover

contacts the top rigid surface; the outer surface of the seal is in contact with the cover and

the bottom rigid surface; in addition the inner surface of the seal may come into contact

with itself.

285

W5.2

U2

Cover

Rigid

Surfaces

Seal

fixed

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/seal

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_seal.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named seal.cae in the current

directory. The geometry, mesh, and material definitions are included in the model named

Seal. You will first perform a material evaluation to evaluate the stability of the

hyperelastic material model, add the necessary data to complete the model, run the job,

and finally postprocess the results.

Material Evaluation

It is important to determine whether the material model of the seal will be stable during

the analysis. Before completing the model, evaluate the material definition used for the

seal.

1. Review the material definition. In the Model Tree, double-click Santoprene

underneath the Materials container. It is a hyperelastic material with a first-order

polynomial strain energy potential. The coefficients are already chosen for the

analysis.

2. Evaluate the material definition. Abaqus/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate

option that allows you to view the behavior predicted by a hyperelastic material

by performing standard tests to choose a suitable material formulation. You will

use this option to view the behavior predicted by the material Santoprene.

286

W5.3

MaterialEvaluateSantoprene.

b. The Evaluate Material dialog box appears. Notice that you can choose

either the Coefficients or Test data source for evaluating the material.

Typically the test data are used to define a material model; you can use the

Evaluate option to view the predicted behavior and adjust the material

definition as necessary. In this workshop you will only evaluate the

stability of the material model for the given coefficients.

c. In the Evaluate Material dialog box, accept all defaults and click OK.

Abaqus/CAE creates and submits a job to perform the standard tests using

the material Santoprene; at the same time, Abaqus/CAE switches to the

Visualization module and displays the evaluation results when the job is

complete. Figure W52 shows the Material Parameters and Stability

Limit Information dialog box; Figure W53 shows three stress vs. strain

plots from uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests.

Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Based on these results, you can have confidence that your material will remain

stable.

287

W5.4

Figure W53. Material evaluation results for uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests

After evaluating the material, you will now complete the model definition. Close the

viewports and dialog box displaying the material evaluation results, if necessary, to view

the model for the subsequent procedure.

288

W5.5

Defining the step and the contact pairs

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container to create a static, general step

named PushDown.

a. In the Basic tabbed page of the step editor, set the time period to 1 and

turn on Nlgeom.

b. In the Incrementation tabbed page, enter a value of 0.005 for Initial

Increment size and 200 for Maximum number of increments.

c. In the Other tabbed page, select Unsymmetric as the matrix storage

discretization method is used).

2. Define a contact pair between the seal and the bottom rigid surface.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create

Interaction dialog box, name the interaction BotSeal and select the step

PushDown and Surface-to-surface contact (Standard). Click

Continue.

b. You will be prompted to select a master surface. In the prompt area, click

Surfaces. In the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the

predefined surface Bottom and toggle on Highlight selections in

viewport to view this surface. Click Continue.

c. In the prompt area, select Surface as the slave surface type. In the Region

Selection dialog box that appears, select the predefined surface

SealOuter and visualize this surface. Click Continue.

The interaction editor appears.

d. In the Edit Interaction dialog box accept all defaults and click OK.

Note that Abaqus/CAE automatically assigns the predefined (also the only

available) interaction property frictionless to this interaction.

3. Using a similar procedure, define the following contact pairs as listed in Table

W51 with the interaction property frictionless.

Table W51. Contact pairs

Interaction Name

Master Surface

Slave Surface

TopCover

Top

Cover

SealCover

Cover

SealOuter

289

W5.6

a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create

Interaction dialog box, name the interaction SealSelf and select the

step PushDown and Self-contact (Standard). Click Continue.

b. In the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the predefined

surface SealInner and visualize this surface. Click Continue.

c. In the Edit Interaction dialog box accept all defaults and click OK.

Defining boundary conditions and output requests

Asymmetric lateral sliding of the model is prevented by constraining the seal and the

cover along their vertical symmetry axes in the X-direction. The bottom rigid surface is

fixed, and a displacement of 6 units is applied to the top rigid surface along the Ydirection to compress the seal between the two surfaces. To complete these boundary

conditions:

1. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container to create a

Displacement/Rotation type boundary condition named Fix1 in the step

PushDown.

a. When prompted to select the region, click Sets in the prompt area (if

necessary).

b. In the Region Selection dialog box, select the predefined set Fix1, toggle

on Highlight selections in viewport to visualize the selection, and click

Continue.

c. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, toggle on U1, accept the

default value of 0, and click OK.

2. Create a Symmetry/Antisymmetric/Encastre type boundary condition named

FixBot to encastre the predefined set BotRP (the reference node of the bottom

rigid surface).

3. Create a Displacement/Rotation type boundary condition named PushDown in

the step PushDown to define the displacement of the top rigid surface.

a. Select the predefined set TopRP (the reference node of the top rigid

surface).

b. Specify a value of 0 for U1 and UR3, and -6 for U2.

4. Edit the field output request named F-Output-1 to include the nominal strain, NE.

5. Create a new history output request in the step PushDown for the set TopRP to

write the history of the variables Displacements: U and Forces: RF to the output

database file.

290

W5.7

1. Create a job named seal for the model Seal.

2. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.

When the job is complete, open the output database file seal.odb in the

Visualization module and postprocess the results.

3. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. To distinguish between the

different instances, color code the model based on part instances.

Tip: From the toolbar, select Part instances from the color-coding pull down

menu, as shown in Figure W54 (or use the Color Code Dialog tool

customize the color for each part instance).

to

4. Use the Animate: Time History tool

5. Display only the seal. In the Results Tree, expand the Instances container

underneath the output database file named seal.odb. Click mouse button 3 on

the instance SEAL-1 and select Replace from the menu that appears.

Abaqus/CAE now displays only this instance.

6. Contour the Mises stress of the seal on the deformed shape. If necessary, use the

frame selector

in the context bar to select the final increment.

The contour plot is shown in Figure W55.

291

W5.8

7. Contour the minimum and maximum principal nominal strains. Elastic strains can

be very high for hyperelastic materials. Because of this, the linear elastic material

model is not used because it is not appropriate for elastic strains greater than

approximately 5%.

8. Display the reaction force history at the reference node of the top rigid surface: In

the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output

database file named seal.odb and double-click Reaction force: RF2 PI: TOP-1

Node 3 in NSET TOPRP.

9. You will now create the CLD curve.

a. In the History Output container, click mouse button 3 on Reaction force:

RF2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the

menu that appears. Save the data as Force.

b. Click mouse button 3 on Spatial displacement: U2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in

NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the menu that appears. Save the

data as Disp.

c. In the Results Tree, double-click XYData. In the Create XY Data dialog

box that appears, select the Operate on XY data source and click

Continue.

d. From the Operators listed in the Operate on XY Data dialog box, select

combine(X, X) and then abs(A). Note that the abs(A) operator is used to

obtain the absolute values. In the XY Data field, double-click the curve

Disp. The current expression reads combine(abs("Disp")). Move the

cursor before the far-right bracket, enter a comma, and then select the

operator abs(A). In the XY Data field, double-click the curve Force. The

final expression reads combine(abs("Disp"), abs("Force") ).

Click Plot Expression to plot this expression. Save this plot as CLD.

292

W5.9

In the Plot Options dialog box, fill the plot background in white.

b. Double-click anywhere on the chart to open the Chart Options dialog

box.

In the Grid Display tabbed page, toggle on the major X- and Ygrid lines. Set the line color to blue and the line style to dashed.

Change the fill color using the following RGB values: red: 175;

green: 250; blue: 185.

In the Grid Area tabbed page, select Square as the size and drag

the slider to 80. From the list of auto-alignments, choose the one

that places the chart in the center of the viewport

c. Double-click the legend to open the Chart Legend Options dialog box.

font size to 10.

d. Double-click either axis to open the Axis Options dialog box.

axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, place 4 major tick marks on the X-axis at

(use the By count method).

(inch).

In the Y Axis region of the dialog box, select the force axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, specify that the Y-axis should extend

from 0 (the Y-axis minimum) to 250 (the Y-axis maximum).

In the Title tabbed page, change the Y-axis title to Force (lbf).

In the Axes tabbed page, change the font size for both axes to 10.

293

W5.10

f. Examine the remaining options. Add the following plot title: CLD

Diagram. Double-click the plot title to open the Plot Title Options dialog

box.

bold.

g. Click

in the toolbox to open the Curve Options dialog box. Change

the legend text to Top Surface Ref Point and toggle on Show

symbol. Set the color for both the line and symbols to red. Use large filled

squares for the symbols. Reposition the legend as necessary.

The final plot appears as shown in Figure W56.

Question W53:

294

represent?

W5.11

1. Copy the model named Seal to one named Seal_gc.

2. In the Model Tree, expand the Interactions container and select the 4 interactions

defined earlier.

3. Click mouse button 3 and select Delete from the menu that appears, as shown in

Figure W57.

4. In the Model Tree, double-click Interactions (or select InteractionCreate).

5. In the Create Interaction dialog box that appears, set the step to Initial and

choose General contact (Standard) as the type. Click Continue.

6. In the interaction editor, select frictionless from the list of available Global

property assignment options, as shown in Figure W58.

295

W5.12

7. Click OK to complete the operation.

8. Create a job named seal_gc for the model Seal_gc.

9. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.

When the job is complete, open the output database file seal_gc.odb in the

Visualization module and postprocess the results.

10. Compare the results with those obtained using contact pairs. A comparison of the

stress state in the seal is shown in Figure W59 while a comparison of the forcedisplacement curve is shown in Figure W510.

The agreement between the two approaches is excellent. The general contact

approach, however, provides a much simpler user interface since the entire

contact domain is defined automatically and properties are assigned globally.

296

W5.13

(general contact, top; contact pairs, bottom)

297

W5.14

Note: A script that creates the complete seal model is available for your

convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the

instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script is named

ws_solver_seal_answer.py

298

W5.15

Answers

Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Answer:

material is stable throughout the entire strain range.

Answer:

Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection

Answer:

represent?

This peak represents the inward buckling that occurs at the

bottom corners of the seal during compression. If you look at

the deformed shape at the time corresponding to

approximately 3.7 inches of displacement, you will observe

this phenomenon.

299

300

Notes

301

Notes

302

Workshop 6

Dynamics

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Become familiar with the Abaqus/CAE procedures for frequency extraction and

implicit dynamic analyses.

Become more familiar with monitoring job status.

Learn how to plot eigenmodes and create history plots using Abaqus/CAE.

Introduction

In this workshop the dynamic response of the cantilever beam shown in Figure W61 is

investigated. A frequency extraction is performed to determine the 10 lowest vibration

modes of the beam. The effects of mesh refinement, element interpolation order, and

element dimension will be considered.

The problem is also solved by performing a direct integration dynamic analysis to

simulate the vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load. The frequency of the

vibration predicted by the transient analysis will be compared with the natural frequency

results.

Dassault Systmes, 2012

303

W6.2

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/dynamics

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_beam.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Beam.cae in the current

directory. The model named static includes the beam model for a static, general

analysis. Currently 5 B21 elements are used to discretize the beam. You will edit this

model further as described below.

Perform a frequency extraction analysis to determine the 10 lowest eigenmodes of the

structure. In the current model do the following.

1. Add a density of 2.3E6 unit to the beam material definition named MATEA.

In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click the

material MATEA.

Enter the value 2.3E-6 for Mass Density in the Density field.

2. The frequency analysis procedure will be used instead of the general static one.

Thus, suppress the general static step named Displace (do not delete it since it

will be used later).

a. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and click mouse button 3

on the step Displace and select Suppress from the menu that appears.

b. Create a new step named Frequency; select Linear perturbation as the

procedure type and Frequency from the list of available perturbation

steps.

c. Click Continue.

d. In the step editor, accept the default Lanczos eigensolver and enter a

value of 10 for Number of eigenvalues requested.

e. Click OK to save the change and exit the step editor.

3. Create a job named frequency.

4. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.

304

W6.3

Visualizing results

When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to view the eigenmodes and

eigenvalues from the frequency analysis in the Visualization module:

1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job frequency and select Results

from the menu that appears to open the file frequency.odb in the Visualization

module.

2. Plot the first eigenmode (plot the deformed model shape and use the Frame

or the Step/Frame dialog box to choose the frame corresponding to

Mode 1).

3. Using the arrow keys in the context bar, select different mode shapes.

4. The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W62. These correspond to the

first and fourth transverse modes of the structure.

Selector

5.

Figure W62. First and fourth transverse modes

(coarse mesh; 2D linear beam elements)

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the

mesh is somewhat coarse.)

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look non-physical?

305

W6.4

From Figure W62 it is apparent that such a coarse mesh of linear-interpolation elements

is unable to adequately represent the mode shapes associated with the higher modes. In

fact the current mesh is unable to represent anything beyond the fifth mode.

To obtain accurate results for all extracted modes, a sufficiently refined mesh is required.

Thus, increase the mesh refinement. Also, switch to quadratic interpolation elements

since these provide superior accuracy for frequency extraction analysis.

1. Remesh the part using a global seed size of 5.

2. Change the element type to B22.

3. Create a new job, run it, and compare the results with those obtained previously.

The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W63.

(fine mesh; 2D quadratic beam elements)

The results indicate that the refined mesh is able to represent all extracted modes.

The natural frequency of the first mode predicted by the fine-mesh model is

within 2% of that predicted by the coarse mesh model. The difference in results

for the fourth mode is more significant: there is an 8% difference in the predicted

natural frequency for this mode.

Note that all modes with the exception of modes 6 and 10 are transverse modes.

Modes 6 and 10 are longitudinal modes. To see the longitudinal modes more

clearly, superimpose the undeformed model shape on the deformed model shape.

306

W6.5

The current model, given that it uses two-dimensional beam elements, is unable to

capture any torsional or out-of-plane modes. For this a three-dimensional model is

required (using either beam, solid, or shell elements). With three-dimensional beam

elements, however, it is not possible to visualize the modes. Thus, in what follows, shell

elements are used to capture the out-of-plane modes.

A predefined model named shell is available that uses three-dimensional quadratic shell

elements to represent the beam structure. The shell part is 200 units long by 50 units

wide. The part mesh consists of 40 S8R elements along the length of the structure and 10

along its width. Homogeneous shell section properties with the same material properties

used earlier and a thickness of 5 units are assigned to the part.

1. Create a job for the shell model, run it, and compare the results with those

obtained previously.

2. The results for the first and fourth transverse modes are shown in Figure W64.

The agreement in terms of both mode shape and natural frequency between the

(refined) beam and shell models is excellent (compare with Figure W63).

Figure W64. First and fourth transverse modes (3D shell model)

307

W6.6

3. The three-dimensional model captures the torsional and out-of-plane modes that

are suppressed by the two-dimensional model. The first three of these modes are

shown in Figure W65.

308

W6.7

You will now investigate the free vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load,

using an implicit dynamic procedure (Abaqus/Standard).

1. Copy the model named static to a model named dynamic. Make the following

changes to the dynamic model.

2. Delete the frequency extraction step.

3. Resume the static, general step named Displace.

4. Create a dynamic, implicit step after the static, general step.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container.

b. In the Create Step dialog box, name the step Release.

c. Select Dynamic, Implicit from the list of available General procedure

types, and click Continue.

d. In the Edit Step dialog box, accept the default step time 1.

e. In the Incrementation tabbed page, choose Automatic time

incrementation, enter a value of 200 for the maximum number of

increments, and 0.01 for the initial increment size.

f. Click OK to save the data and exit the step editor.

5. Deactivate the load in the step named Release.

a. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the load DisplaceTip underneath

the Loads container, as shown in Figure W66a.

b. Click mouse button 3 on Release (propagated) under the States subcontainer and select Deactivate from the menu that appears.

Note that Release (propagated) is changed into Release (Inactive), as

shown in Figure W66b, to indicate that the load is deactivated in this

step.

(a)

(b)

Figure W66. Loads container in the Model Tree

309

W6.8

A part-level set named TIP has been predefined. This set will be used for writing

the displacement history of the tip node to the output database file and also to

monitor the solution progress. This set is indicated in Figure W63.

TIP

6. Add a history output request to write the displacement history every increment for

the set TIP to the output database file.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click the History Output Requests container.

In the Create History dialog box, select the step Displace and click

Continue.

b. In the Edit History Output Request dialog box, select the domain Set

and the set Beam-1.TIP.

c. Expand the Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration branch in the Output

Variables field and toggle on U, Translations and rotations.

d. Click OK to exit the history output editor.

7. It is useful to be able to monitor the progress of an analysis by tracking the value

of one degree of freedom.

a. From the main menu bar of the Step module, select OutputDOF

Monitor to open the DOF Monitor dialog box.

b. Activate the stippled entries by toggling on Monitor a degree of freedom

throughout the analysis.

c. Click

to select the set Beam-1.TIP as the Region.

Tip: Click Points in the prompt area to select the set Beam-1.TIP from the

Region Selection dialog box.

d. Enter 2 as the Degree of freedom.

e. Click OK to exit the DOF Monitor dialog box.

8. Create a job named dynamic for the model dynamic.

9. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.

310

W6.9

Visualizing results

When the analysis is complete, plot the transverse displacement history (U2) at the tip

node.

1. Open the file dynamic.odb in the Visualization module.

2. Plot the history of the displacement component U2 at the tip node. In the Results

Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output database named

dynamic.odb and double-click Spatial displacement: U2 at Node in NSET

TIP.

The tip response is shown in Figure W67. From this plot, you can estimate the

frequency of the first vibration mode. Note that there are nearly 6 cycles in a 1

second time period. This is in agreement with the results obtained earlier using the

natural frequency extraction procedure (5.95 Hz).

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

eigenvalue analysis?

instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you

encounter difficulties following the instructions outlined here or if you wish

to check your work. The script is named ws_solver_beam_answer.py and is

available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

311

W6.10

Answers

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

Answer:

or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the

mesh is somewhat coarse).

Because the model is two-dimensional, it cannot capture the

modes that occur out of the plane of the model, including

torsional modes.

The mesh is too coarse to capture modes other than the first

five. Use more elements to look at all 10 requested modes.

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?

Answer:

No.

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

Answer:

312

eigenvalue analysis?

The frequency calculated from the history plot of the tip

displacement is approximately 5.9, which agrees very closely

with the frequency calculated in the eigenvalue analysis.

Notes

313

Notes

314

Workshop 7

Contact with Abaqus/Explicit

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Define a general contact interaction.

Apply boundary and initial conditions.

Perform an impact analysis.

Use Abaqus/Viewer to view results.

Introduction

This workshop involves the simulation of a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the

rupture of a high-pressure line in a power plant. It is assumed that a sudden release of

fluid could cause one segment of the pipe to rotate about its support and strike a

neighboring pipe. The goal of the analysis is to determine strain and stress conditions in

both pipes and their deformed shapes. The simulation will be performed using

Abaqus/Explicit.

315

W7.2

fixed end

impacting pipe

axis of rotation

Both pipes have a mean diameter of 6.5 inches with a 0.432 inch wall thickness and a

span of 50 inches between supports. The fixed pipe is assumed to be fully restrained at

both ends, while the impacting pipe is allowed to rotate about a fixed pivot located at one

of its ends, with the other end free. We exploit the symmetry of the structure and the

loading and thus model only the geometry on one side of the central symmetry plane, as

shown in Figure W71.

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/pipe_whip

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_pipe_whip.py

current directory. A model named contact consists of the geometry and mesh

definitions for the pipes. You will add necessary data to complete the model for the

impact analysis.

Both pipes are made of steel. A von Mises elastic, perfectly plastic material model is

used, with a yield stress of 45,000 psi.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Materials to create a material named Steel with

the following properties:

Modulus of elasticity:

30.0E6 psi

Poissons ratio:

0.3

Yield Stress:

45.0E3 psi

Density:

7.324E4 lb-sec2/in4

316

W7.3

Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

2. In the Model Tree, double-click Sections to create a homogeneous shell section

named PipeSection. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Section dialog box,

select During analysis for the section integration, specify a shell thickness of

0.432 in, select the Gauss thickness integration rule, and view and accept all

other default settings. Click OK to exit the section editor.

3. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of each part underneath the Parts container

and double-click Section Assignments to assign this shell section to both parts.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

thickness?

You will define a rigid body constraint between the nodes at the pivot end of the

impacting pipe and the reference point, as shown in Figure W72.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Constraints.

2. In the Create Constraint dialog box, select Rigid body as the constraint type and

click Continue.

3. In the Edit Constraint dialog box, select the region type Tie (nodes) and click

in the right side of the dialog box.

4. Select the edge(s) shown in Figure W72 as the tie region for the rigid body.

5. Similarly, select the reference point RP-1 in the viewport as the rigid body

reference point.

6. In the Edit Constraint dialog box, click OK to apply the constraint.

tie region

317

W7.4

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid

body constraint?

Because of the high-speed nature of the event, the simulation is performed using a single

explicit dynamics step.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Steps to create a Dynamic, Explicit step with a

time period of 0.015 seconds. Accept all defaults for the time incrementation and

other parameters.

2. In the Model Tree, expand the Field Output Requests container and doubleclick F-Output-1. In the Edit Field Output Requests dialog box, review the

preselected field output variables. Change the frequency at which the output is

written to 12 evenly spaced time intervals.

3. In the Model Tree, double-click History Output Requests to create a history

output request for reaction forces at the constrained end of the fixed pipe. In the

Edit History Output Request dialog box:

a. Select Set in the Domain field and select RefPt from the Set drop down

list. Note that the set RefPt contains the reference point.

b. Request history output at 100 evenly spaced time intervals during the

analysis.

c. From the list of available output variables, click the arrow next to

Forces/Reactions and toggle on RF, Reaction forces and moments

from the list that appears.

d. Click OK.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Interaction Properties.

2. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box, accept Contact as the interaction

type and click Continue.

3. In the Edit Contact Property dialog box, select MechanicalTangential

Behavior and choose the Penalty friction formulation. Specify a friction

coefficient of 0.2. Click OK to close the dialog box.

4. In the Model Tree, double-click Interactions.

5. In the Create Interaction dialog box, accept Step-1 as the step in which the

interaction will be created and General contact (Explicit) as the interaction type.

Click Continue.

6. In the Edit Interaction dialog box, accept the All* with self contact domain.

7. Choose the contact property defined earlier and click OK to close the dialog box.

318

W7.5

The impacting pipe is given an initial angular velocity of 75 radians/sec about its

supported (pinned) end.

Question W74: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to

on the axis of rotation at the pivot end of impacting pipe, as shown in

Figure W73.

first point

second point

The coordinates will be printed out to the message area as shown in Figure W74.

2. In the Model Tree, double-click Predefined Fields.

3. In the Create Predefined Field dialog box, select the Initial step, the Mechanical

category, and the Velocity type. Click Continue to proceed.

4. Select the impacting pipe as the region to which the initial velocity will be

assigned, and click Done.

319

W7.6

5. In the Edit Predefined Field dialog box, change the field definition to Rotational

only. Enter a value of 75 for the Angular velocity. Use the coordinates of the

first point indicated in Figure W73 to define Axis point 1 and the coordinates of

the second point indicated in Figure W73 to define Axis point 2.

Tip: Copy and paste the coordinates from the message area into the dialog box.

Question W75: What keyword was added to the input file when you created

Reference Manual and read the documentation on this

keyword.

Hint: You can see how Abaqus/CAE creates the input file for

a given model by selecting ModelEdit Keywords from the

main menu bar and viewing its contents. In order to find what

keyword was added in a given step, check the keyword editor

before and after the step in Abaqus/CAE and note the changes.

The edges located on the symmetry plane must be given appropriate symmetry boundary

conditions. One end of the impacting pipe and both ends of the fixed pipe are fully

restrained.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs.

2. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box, accept Symmetry/

Antisymmetry/Encastre as the boundary condition type and click Continue to

create the boundary conditions shown in Figure W75.

and in the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the ZSYMM

(U3=UR1=UR2=0) boundary condition.

Fully constrained boundary conditions: Select the edge shown in

Figure W75; and in the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose

the ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0) boundary condition.

Pinned Boundary condition: Select RP-1 in the viewport. In the Edit

Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the PINNED (U1=U2=U3=0)

boundary condition.

320

W7.7

fully constrained end:

ENCASTRE BC

symmetry: ZSYMM BC

(all edges on this plane)

PINNED BC

Question W76: Would the results of this analysis differ if both halves of the

conditions?

1. Save your model database file.

2. A job named pipe-whip has been already been created for you. Submit the job

for analysis, and monitor its progress.

3. When the analysis has completed, open the output database file pipe-whip.odb

in the Visualization module.

4. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. Use the Color Code Dialog

tool

321

W7.8

to animate the deformation history.

6. Contour the Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) on the deformed

shape, as shown in Figure W77.

MISES

PEEQ

7. Create XY plots of the models kinetic energy (ALLKE), internal energy

(ALLIE), and plastic dissipated energy (ALLPD). The energy plot is shown in

Figure W78. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.

Tip: Expand the History Output container in the Results Tree and select the three

curves noted above. Click mouse button 3 and select Plot from the menu that

appears.

Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?

322

W7.9

8. Select the pinned node reaction force components RF1, RF2, and RF3. The

reaction force plot is shown in Figure W79. Note this figure has been customized

for clarity.

Note: A script that creates the complete pipe assembly model is available

for your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following

the instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script is named

ws_solver_pipe_whip_answer.py and is available using the Abaqus fetch

utility.

323

W7.10

Answers

Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

Answer:

All Abaqus/Explicit analyses require a density value because

Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium (i.e., inertia

effects are considered). The units for all material parameters

must be consistent; in this problem, the English system is used

with pounds and inches as the units for force and length,

respectively. Thus, the consistent unit for density is lb-sec2/in4.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

Answer:

thickness?

Three section points are used to reduce the run time of the job.

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

Answer:

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid

body constraint?

A tie node set needs to be used.

Question W74: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to

Answer:

The axis passes through the reference point and is parallel to

the 3-direction. Thus, define the axis using two points. Each of

the axis points must have the same 1- and 2-coordinates as

the reference point; the values of the 3-coordinates of the

axis points will dictate the sense of positive rotation.

Question W75: What keyword was added to the input file when you created

Keywords Manual and read the documentation on this

keyword.

Answer:

324

TYPE=ROTATING VELOCITY, which imposes a rigid body

type initial rotation on the chosen geometry about a defined

axis.

W7.11

Question W76: Would the results of this analysis differ if both halves of the

Answer:

conditions?

As long as the model of the pipe whip (including loads,

boundary conditions, and mesh) is symmetric about the

symmetry plane defined, the results from the full model and

the halved model will not differ.

Answer:

beginning to rebound, having dissipated the majority of its

kinetic energy by inelastic deformation in the crushed zone.

325

326

Notes

327

Notes

328

Workshop 8

Quasi-Static Analysis

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Understand the effects of mass scaling.

Introduction

In this workshop you will examine the deep drawing of a can bottom. A one-stage

forming process is simulated in Abaqus/Explicit; the springback analysis is performed in

Abaqus/Standard. The final deformed shape of the can bottom is shown in Figure W81.

In a subsequent workshop the import capability is used to transfer the results between

Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard in order to perform a springback analysis.

One of the advantages of using Abaqus/Explicit for metal forming simulations is that, in

general, Abaqus/Explicit resolves complicated contact conditions more readily than

Abaqus/Standard.

329

W8.2

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/forming

abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_can_bottom.py

current directory. It includes two models. The one named frequency will be used to

determine the first eigenmode of the blank to establish the step time for the subsequent

Abaqus/Explicit analysis. The one named stamp will initially be used to perform the

metal forming analysis and will later be edited for the springback analysis. Figure W82

shows the components of the modelthe punch, the die, and the blankin their initial

positions. The blank is modeled using axisymmetric shell elements (SAX1). The shell

reference surface lies at the shell midsurface.

330

W8.3

(0.032, 0.03025)

(0.0, 0.00025)

Origin

(0.0, 0.0)

In this section you will determine the first eigenmode of the blank and use it to establish

the step time for the subsequent Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

1. Using the Model Tree, review the model definitions of the model frequency.

Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this model?

Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

procedure is the analysis procedure in this model?

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same model,

what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step

have on the base state of the model for the following analysis

step?

2. Create a job named frequency for the model frequency.

3. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its

progress.

4. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file frequency.odb in

the Visualization module.

331

W8.4

5. Plot the deformed model shape. The deformed shape for the first eigenmode will

be displayed in the viewport. The corresponding eigenvalue will be reported in

the state block.

The fundamental frequency, f, of the blank is 304 Hz, corresponding to a time

period of 0.0033 s ( T 1/ f ). This time period provides a lower bound on the

step time for the first forming stage. Choosing the step time to be 10 times the

time period of the fundamental natural frequency, or 0.033 s, should ensure a

quality quasi-static solution. This time period corresponds to a constant punch

velocity of 0.45 m/s, which is typical for metal forming.

You will now complete the model stamp to perform the metal forming analysis using

ABAUS/Explicit. Make the following changes to the model stamp.

Completing the assembly

In this section you will complete the assembly definition of the can bottom forming

model (Figure W82) by instancing the part representing the punch (PUNCH1).

1. Make current the model stamp. If necessary, set this model to be the root of the

tree.

2. In the Model Tree, expand the Assembly container and double-click Instances

to create an instance of the analytical rigid part PUNCH1. In the Create Instance

dialog box, select part PUNCH1, accept all other default settings, and click OK.

Use the Translate Instance tool

in the toolbox to offset the punch from the

blank by the half thickness of the blank (0.00025 m).

The viewport displays the assembly with the geometry as shown in Figure 82.

Defining displacement history output

In this section you will add a history output request to write the displacement history at

the reference point of the punch to the output database file.

1. Create a geometry-based set including the punch reference point.

a. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the part PUNCH1 underneath the

Parts container and double-click Sets.

b. Name the set PunchRP.

c. From the viewport, select the reference point RP of the part PUNCH1.

2. In the Model Tree, double-click History Output Requests to create an additional

history output request to output the displacement (translation and rotation) history

for the set PUNCH1-1.PunchRP. Note that PUNCH1-1.PunchRP is an assemblylevel set generated from the previously-created part-level set PunchRP by

Abaqus/CAE.

332

W8.5

Defining contact

In this section you will define contact of the blank with the die and the punch.

1. Define a contact property.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click Interaction Properties.

b. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box, select the type Contact

and click Continue.

c. From the menu bar of the contact property editor, select

MechanicalTangential Behavior.

d. Select the Penalty friction formulation and enter 0.1 for the friction

coefficient.

e. Click OK to exit the contact property editor.

2. Define a contact pair between the blank and the die.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create

Interaction dialog box, name the interaction blank_die, select Step-1 as

the step and the Surface-to-surface contact (Explicit) type, and click

Continue.

b. You will be prompted to select the first surface. In the viewport, select the

die.

c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to

confirm the selection.

d. You will be prompted to choose a side of the edge. Choose the side facing

the blank by selecting the corresponding color, Magenta or Yellow, in the

prompt area.

e. In the prompt area, select Surface as the second surface type. In the

viewport, select the blank.

f. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to

confirm the selection.

g. Again, you will be prompted to choose a side of the edge. Choose the side

facing the die.

The interaction editor appears.

h. In the Edit Interaction dialog box, view and accept the default setting.

Click OK to create the interaction and exit the interaction editor.

Note that Abaqus/CAE automatically assigns the previously-created

interaction property to this interaction.

3. Using a similar procedure, define an additional surface-to-surface contact

interaction named blank_punch between the blank and punch.

Question W84: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?

333

W8.6

In this section you will add the material definition of the blank. The blank material is

steel with Youngs modulus E =210E9 Pa, Poissons ratio v =0.3, and density =7800

kg/m3. Figure W83 shows the nominal stress-strain curve for the blank as tabulated in

Table W81. The data are provided in a text file named w_solver_can_props.txt.

Question W85: When entering plasticity data into the material model, what

Table W81. Nominal stress vs. nominal strain

Nominal stress (Pa)

90.96 106

130.71 106

169.75 106

207.08 106

240.99 106

268.89 106

287.59 106

290.57 106

334

Nominal strain

4.334 104

2.216 103

7.331 103

1.888 10-2

4.153 102

8.218 102

1.509 101

3.456 101

W8.7

Note that a dummy material named Steel has been created and assigned to the part

BLANK. You will need to add the material properties.

Rather than convert the stress-strain data and define the material properties manually, you

will use the material calibration capability to define the material properties.

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Calibrations.

2. Name the calibration steel and click OK.

3. Expand the Calibrations container and then expand the steel item.

4. Double-click Data Sets.

a. In the Create Data Set dialog box, name the data set nominal and click

Import Data Set.

b. In the Read Data From Text File dialog box, click

named w_solver_can_props.txt.

c. In the Properties region of this dialog box, specify that strain values will

be read from field 2 and stress values from field 1.

d. Select Nominal as the data set form.

e. Click OK to close the Read Data From Text File dialog box.

f. Click OK to close the Create Data Set dialog box.

Since the data is provided in nominal stress-strain format, it must be converted to

true stress-strain format.

5. Click mouse button 3 on nominal and select Process from the menu that

appears.

a. In the Data Set Processing dialog box, select Convert and click

Continue.

b. In the Change Data Set Form dialog box, select True Form and name

the new data set true. Click OK.

6. Double-click Behaviors.

a. Choose Elastic Plastic Isotropic as the type, and click Continue.

b. In the Edit Behavior dialog box, choose true as the data set for ElasticPlastic Data.

c. Click

next to Yield point. In the viewport zoom in to select the yield

point, as indicated in Figure W84.

335

W8.8

Alternative: Enter 0.00043, 91E+06 in the text field to define the yield

point precisely.

d. Drag the Plastic points slider between Min and Max to generate plastic

data points.

The plastic data points appear as shown in Figure W85.

e. Enter a Poisson's ratio of 0.3.

f. In the Edit Behavior dialog box, choose Steel from the Material dropdown list, as shown in Figure W86.

336

W8.9

g. Click OK to add the properties to the material named steel.

7. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and examine the contents of

the material model. You will note that both elastic and plastic properties have

been defined (Youngs modulus should be approximately 2.1E11 Pa). If you wish

to change the number of plastic points or need to modify the yield point, simply

return to the Edit Behavior dialog box, make the necessary changes, select the

name of the material to which the properties will be applied, and click OK. The

contents of the material model are updated automatically.

8. To complete the material properties, define the density. From the menu bar of the

material editor, select GeneralDensity and enter a value of 7800 for Mass

Density.

337

W8.10

oscillations of the blanks free end) add stiffness proportional damping to the

material definition of the blank. It is best to use the smallest amount of damping

possible to obtain the desired solution since increasing the stiffness damping

decreases the stable time increment and, thus, increases the computer time. To

avoid a dramatic drop in the stable time increment, the stiffness proportional

damping factor R should be less than, or of the same order of magnitude as, the

initial stable time increment without damping. We choose a damping factor of

R=1107.

From the material editors menu bar, select Mechanical Damping and enter a

value of 1.e-7 in the Beta field.

10. Click OK to save the data and exit the material editor.

Question W86: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?

338

W8.11

To form the can bottom, we will displace the punch by moving its rigid body reference

point 0.015 m in the negative 2-direction. The punch displacement will be applied in the

form of a displacement boundary condition. Because Abaqus/Explicit does not permit

displacement discontinuities, prescribed displacements must refer to an amplitude

definition. Figure W87 shows the desired displacement behavior for the punch. Note

that this curve is smooth in its first and second derivatives.

Question W87: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

1. In the Model Tree, double-click Amplitudes to define an amplitude curve

corresponding to Figure W87.

a. In the Create Amplitude dialog box, name the amplitude FORM1, choose

the Smooth step type, and click Continue.

b. In the Edit Amplitude dialog box, enter the data pair 0, 0 for the first

row and 0.033, 1 for the second row.

c. Click OK to exit the amplitude editor.

2. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs to create a Displacement/Rotation

boundary condition named PunchMove in Step-1 to move the punch reference

point in the 2-direction by 0.015 m.

a. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, toggle on U1, U2, and UR3.

b. Enter a value of -0.015 for U2 and 0 for U1 and UR3.

c. Choose the amplitude curve FORM1.

The amplitude values will be multiplied by the displacement you define in the

boundary condition.

Question W88: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

339

W8.12

Speeding up the analysis

In general, quasi-static processes cannot be modeled in their natural time scale in

Abaqus/Explicit since a large number of time increments would be required (recall that

time increments in Abaqus/Explicit are generally very small). Thus, it is sometimes

necessary to increase the speed of the simulation artificially to reduce the computational

cost. One method to reduce the cost of the analysis is to use mass scaling.

While various forms of mass scaling are available in Abaqus/Explicit, we will

concentrate on fixed mass scaling in this workshop and will implement it using the fixed

mass scaling option available in the step editor. The reason for choosing fixed mass

scaling is that it provides a simple means to modify the mass properties of a quasi-static

model at the beginning of the analysis. It is also computationally less expensive than

variable mass scaling, because the mass is scaled only once at the beginning of the step.

1. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and double-click Step-1 to edit

this step definition to include mass scaling.

2. In the Edit Step dialog box, click the Mass scaling tab.

3. In the Mass scaling tabbed page, choose Use scaling definitions below and

click Create.

4. In the Edit mass scaling dialog box that appears, accept all defaults and enter 10

in the Scale by factor field.

5. Click OK to save the data and exit the mass scaling editor.

6. Click OK to save the changes and exit the step editor.

340

W8.13

Question W810: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

1. Create a job named draw_bot for the model Stamp.

2. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its

progress.

3. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file draw_bot.odb in

the Visualization module.

4. Display the curves of internal and kinetic energy (i.e., ALLIE and ALLKE) in the

same plot by selecting them from the Results Tree (underneath the History

Output container). Use the XY Curve Options tool

the curve symbols. You should see a plot similar to Figure W88. Note this figure

has been customized for clarity.

Tip: Use [Ctrl]+Click for multiple selections.

5. Certain elements have hourglass modes that affect their behavior. Hourglass

modes are modes of deformation that do not cause any strains at the integration

points. An indication of whether hourglassing has an effect on the solution is the

artificial energy, variable ALLAE. Plot the artificial energy and the internal

energy, variable ALLIE, on the same plot. The artificial energy should always be

much less than the internal energy (say less than 0.5%).

341

W8.14

Question W811: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

6. Display the deformed shape of the blank only. In the Results Tree, expand the

Instances container underneath the output database draw_bot.odb. Click

mouse button 3 on the instance BLANK-1 and select Replace from the menu that

appears.

7. Expand the displayed area to 180o by selecting ViewODB Display Options

from the main menu bar. In the Sweep/Extrude tabbed page in the ODB Display

Options dialog box, toggle on Sweep elements and accept the default settings.

You should see a shape similar to that in Figure W89.

8. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model using the Plot Contours

on Deformed Shape tool

in the toolbox. To select other variables for

contouring, use the Field Output toolbar.

9. Plot the punch displacement history (U2 for the node set PUNCHRP) shown in

Figure W87 by double-clicking Spatial displacement: U2 PI: PUNCH1-1

NODE xyz in NSET PUNCHRP under the History Output container in the

Results Tree.

Note: A scripts that creates the complete stamping model are available for

your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the

instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script named

ws_solver_can_bottom_answer.py is available using the Abaqus fetch

utility.

342

W8.15

Answers

Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this model?

Answer:

Answer:

procedure is the analysis procedure in this model?

Frequency extraction is a linear perturbation procedure.

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same model,

Answer:

have on the base state of the model for the following analysis

step?

None. Only general analysis steps change the base state of the

model.

Question W84: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?

Answer:

stress crit at which sliding of the blank begins. Thus, the

material will be stretched more, causing further thinning of the

material and increasing the stresses.

Question W85: When entering plasticity data into the material model, what

Answer:

Abaqus uses true (Cauchy) stress and log strain.

Answer:

increment. In general, damping should be chosen such that

high frequency oscillations are smoothed or eliminated with

minimal effect on the stable time increment. Figure WA81

shows a plot of the kinetic energy with and without damping.

Note the high frequency oscillations in the analysis without

damping.

343

W8.16

Question W87: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

Answer:

The slope of the amplitude curve at the beginning and end of

the step is zero. This is important because it prevents

discontinuities in the punch displacement, which lead to

oscillations in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

Question W88: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

Answer:

With a linear amplitude definition the displacement of the

punch will be applied suddenly at the beginning of the step

and stopped suddenly at the end of the step, causing

oscillations in the solution.

A linear amplitude definition results in large spikes in the

kinetic energy, especially at the beginning of the step. As a

result, the kinetic energy may be large compared to the

internal energy and the early solution may not be quasi-static.

The preferred approach is to move the punch as smoothly as

possible. Figure WA82 compares the kinetic energy history

when a linear amplitude definition is used and when the

smooth step amplitude definition is used.

344

W8.17

Figure WA82. Kinetic energy plot with and without SMOOTH STEP

Answer:

The kinetic energy should be a small fraction of the internal

energy.

As the kinetic energy increases, inertia effects have to be

considered and the solution is no longer quasi-static.

Figure WA83 shows the internal and kinetic energy for mass

scaling factors of 10 (used in our simulation), 100, and 900,

which correspond to a solution speedup of 10 , 10, and 30,

respectively.

345

W8.18

Question W810: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

Answer:

Le

tstable min

c

d

dilatational wave speed. An increase in density decreases cd,

which in turn increases tstable.

Question W811: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

Answer:

346

The analysis uses SAX1 elements. These elements have no

hourglass modes. Consequently, hourglassing is not of

concern in the analysis.

Notes

347

Notes

348

Workshop 9

Import Analysis

Interactive Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI

interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please

see the Keywords version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Introduction

In this workshop you will use the import capability is used to transfer the results between

Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard to examine the effects of springback in the

analysis of the deep drawing of a can bottom. The deformed shape of the can after the

forming stage is shown in Figure W91.

349

W9.2

Preliminaries

1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:

../abaqus_solvers/interactive/forming

(canBottom.cae):

Springback analysis

In the manufacturing process the part is removed after the forming has been completed

and the material is free to springback into an unconstrained state. To understand the final

shape after this physical effect, we perform a springback analysis in Abaqus/Standard.

1. Copy the model named stamp to a model named springback. Make all

subsequent model changes to the springback model.

2. Since only the blank needs to be imported, delete the following features from the

springback model:

a. Part instances DIE1-1 and PUNCH1-1.

b. All assembly-level sets and surfaces associated with the die and punch.

c. All contact interactions and properties.

d. Boundary conditions FixDie and PunchMove.

e. History output request for PunchRP.

3. Replace the dynamic, explicit step with a general, static step. Set the time period

to 1 and the initial increment to 0.1, and include the effects of geometric

nonlinearity. Rename the step springback.

4. Define an initial state.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click Predefined Fields.

b. In the Create Predefined Field dialog box, select Initial as the step,

Other as the category, and Initial state as the type.

c. Click Continue.

d. Select the blank as the instance to assign the initial state.

e. In the Edit Predefined Field dialog box that appears, enter the job name

draw_bot, accept all other default settings, and click OK.

This definition will allow the state of the modelstresses, strains, etc.to

be imported. By not updating the reference configuration, the springback

displacements will be referred to the original undeformed configuration.

350

W9.3

5. Note that the XSYMM boundary condition BlankSymm specified on the set

BSYM constrains rigid body motions in the U1 and UR3 directions of the blank.

Thus, you need an additional boundary condition to prevent rigid body motion

along U2. In what follows you will fix the node at its final position at the end of

the forming stage.

a. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs to apply a Displacement/Rotation

boundary condition to the set BSYM in Step-1.

b. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the Fixed at Current

Position method and fix U2.

6. Create a job named springback for the model springback.

7. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its

progress.

Question W91: Why is it advantageous to use Abaqus/Standard for the

springback analysis?

Postprocessing

1. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file springback.odb

in the Visualization module.

2. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model.

3. Plot the final deformed shape for the model springback.

4. Plot the springback and formed shapes together. (First toggle off the Sweep

elements option.)

By not updating the reference configuration, the formed shape is stored in frame 0

of the output database. You must use overlay plots to superimpose the images:

a. From the main menu bar, select ViewOverlay Plot.

b. Use the Frame Selector

or the arrows in the context bar to select

frame 0.

c. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer

formed.

d. Use the Frame Selector

to change the fill color of the

elements to blue.

f. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer

springback.

In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Plot Overlay.

Zoom in to examine the shape differences more closely.

351

W9.4

If you had updated the reference configuration, the formed shape is treated as the

undeformed shape of the import analysis model (recall that when the reference

configuration is updated, the end state of the previous analysis becomes the

reference configuration of the import analysis; the reference configuration is

considered the undeformed shape):

a. In the toolbox, click the Allow Multiple Plot States tool

.

b. In the toolbox, click both the Plot Undeformed Shape and Plot

Deformed Shape tools

to increase the deformation

scale factor so that the differences between the formed and springback

shapes are clearly visible.

Note: A scripts that creates the complete stamping model are available for

your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the

instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script named

ws_solver_can_bottom_answer.py is available using the Abaqus fetch

utility.

352

W9.5

Answers

Question W91: Why is it advantageous to choose Abaqus/Standard for the

Answer:

springback analysis?

A true static procedure is the preferred approach for modeling

springback. The imported model will not be in static

equilibrium at the beginning of the step. Thus,

Abaqus/Standard applies a set of artificial internal stresses to

the imported model state and then gradually removes these

stresses. This leads to the springback deformation. In

Abaqus/Explicit the removal of the contact between the blank

and the tools represents a sudden load removal, which leads to

low frequency vibrations of the blank. While these vibrations

will eventually dissipate, this approach leads to lengthy

computation times.

353

354

Notes

355

Notes

356

Workshop 1

Basic Input and Output

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Understand the basic structure of an input file, and be able to make simple

modifications to it.

Learn how to perform a datacheck analysis and how to submit an analysis job

using the Abaqus driver.

Gain familiarity with Abaqus/Viewer.

Explore the structure and contents of the data (.dat) and log (.log) files.

Abaqus provides various utilities for obtaining information on usage, system

configuration, example problems, and environment settings for the analysis package.

1. At the prompt, enter the command

abaqus information=system

Note that abaqus is a generic command that may have been renamed on your

system. For example, if more than one version is installed on the system, the

command might include the version number, as in abq6121. In the remainder of

this workshop as well as all subsequent workshops, use the appropriate command

for your system.

Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?

Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?

357

W1.2

abaqus doc

Open the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual, and search for the string DSLOAD to

find information on the DSLOAD option. You can find information related to

the data line syntax in the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual (use the hyperlink

for the DSLOAD option, or open the Keywords Manual directly). The online

documentation graphical user interface is shown in Figure W11.

3. Open the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual. Search for plate

buckling to find example problems that discuss plate buckling.

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

criteria?

4. Go to Example Problem 1.1.14 in the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

In the left panel of the window, display the subtopics of the problem and click

Input files. In the right panel of the window, the list of input files associated with

this problem appears. You can select any input filename from the list; a separate

window will open containing that file.

358

W1.3

5. All example problem input files are included in the Abaqus release and can be

obtained using the abaqus fetch utility. In your terminal window, enter

abaqus fetch job=damagefailcomplate_cps4

6. Use the online documentation to determine the input syntax for some options.

A keyword line starts with an asterisk ( followed directly by the keyword

option. Parameters and their associated values appear on the keyword line,

separated by commas. Many options require data lines, which follow directly after

their associated keyword line and contain the data specified in the Abaqus

Keywords Reference Manual for each option. Data items are separated by

commas. Refer to the discussions of keyword line and data line syntax in

Lecture 1, as necessary.

Question W14: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define

a node set called TOP_NODES that contains previously defined

nodes 21, 22, 23, and node set TOP_LEFT.

Keywords Reference Manual to determine the necessary

parameter and data line.

*NSET,

359

W1.4

Question W15: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define

a velocity boundary condition on a node set named NALL

2-direction. Will this option appear in the model data or the

history data portion of the input file?

Hint: Use the information on the BOUNDARY option in the

Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual, including the reference

to the Boundary Conditions Section of the Abaqus Analysis

Users Manual, to determine the appropriate syntax.

Question W16: (Optional) In the space provided, write the input you would

in element set ELBEAMS referring to a material named STEEL.

The beam has a rectangular cross-section with a height of 0.5

m and a width of 0.2 m.

Hint: This option requires one data line for the beam section

geometric data. Follow the hyperlink to the beam cross-section

library and the rectangular section to determine the

appropriate data line input.

*BEAM SECTION,

360

W1.5

In this workshop you will model the connecting lug shown in Figure W12. The lug is

welded to a massive structure at one end, so we assume that this end is fixed. The other

end contains a hole through which a bolt is placed when the lug is in service. You have to

calculate the deflection of the lug when a load of 30kN is applied to the bolt in the 2

direction.

To model this problem, you will use three-dimensional continuum elements and perform

a linear analysis with elastic materials. You will model the load transmitted to the lug

through the bolt as a uniform pressure load applied to the bottom half of the hole, as

shown in Figure W12. In this workshop SI units (N, m, and s) will be used.

Creating the input file

1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/lug directory.

2. View the contents of w_lug.inp. The model and history data are incomplete,

and no mesh or loading is defined.

Question W17: What is the first option in the model data? What is the last

Question W18: What is the first option in the history data?

Question W19: How many steps are there in this analysis?

361

W1.6

and loads will be defined using the node and element sets defined in these files.

Question W110: What type of elements are used to model the lug?

4. Edit the input file to set the INPUT parameter on the INCLUDE options to read

the appropriate node and element data files.

5. Complete the MATERIAL option block by defining an elastic material with

elastic modulus E = 200 GPa and Poissons ratio = 0.3. The complete material

block should appear as follows:

*MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL

*ELASTIC

200E9, 0.3

Question W111: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

analyses?

The boundary conditions and the loads cannot be defined without knowledge of the node

and element sets and surfaces. Figure W13 shows the various sets and surfaces.

Element set

BUILTIN

Surface PRESS

Node set

HOLEBOT

362

W1.7

6. Boundary conditions are applied using the BOUNDARY option. Use the online

documentation to obtain a description of the option. The left end of the lug is

fixed. Thus, constrain degrees of freedom 1 through 6 of all nodes in node set

LHEND by entering

*BOUNDARY

LHEND, 1, 6

Question W112: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

condition?

7. Distributed loads are applied to surfaces using the *DSLOAD option. In this

problem, the load should be applied to the surface named PRESS (which covers

the bottom region of the hole). The option to specify the distributed (pressure)

load on this surface is

*DSLOAD

PRESS, P, 50.E6

load magnitude by dividing the total load by the projected horizontal area of the

30kN

hole, where

50MPa .

2 0.015m 0.02m

8. Add printed output requests to the step using the NODE PRINT and EL PRINT

options. Abaqus includes a large amount of printed output by default. Requesting

printed output of specific variables allows you to limit the volume of output to the

data (.dat) file. Request printed data output of nodal displacements for node set

HOLEBOT and reaction forces for node set LHEND (including the total force). In

addition, request output for stresses in element set BUILTIN.

You can do this by entering

*NODE PRINT, NSET=HOLEBOT

U2

*NODE PRINT, NSET=LHEND, TOTAL=YES, SUMMARY=NO

RF

*EL PRINT, ELSET=BUILTIN

S, MISES

Default output requests for the output database are made automatically, and they

will be sufficient for this workshop.

Submitting a datacheck analysis

1. Submit the job for a datacheck analysis by entering the command

abaqus datacheck job=w_lug interactive

363

W1.8

at the prompt. The interactive parameter will cause all log file output to print

to the screen.

2. View the data file (w_lug.dat) in a text editor.

Question W113: What version of Abaqus are you using?

3. Search for the strings WARNING and ERROR to find any warning and error

messages. These messages will indicate whether anything unusual was

encountered during the datacheck analysis (keep in mind that your editor may be

case-sensitive for searching).

Question W114: What warning messages did you get? Do they require changes

4. Search for the string P R O B L E M to see the summary of the problem size.

Include spaces between the letters of the search string.

Question W115: How many elements are there in the model? How many

variables are there?

Running a complete analysis

1. Submit w_lug.inp as an Abaqus job in interactive mode by typing

abaqus job=w_lug interactive

at the prompt.

If the driver asks if you want to overwrite old job files, type y. This means that

output files with the same job name that exist from a previous analysis will be

overwritten.

2. Now resubmit the job in background mode by typing

abaqus job=w_lug

at the prompt.

The log file output will be saved in w_lug.log instead of printing to the screen.

You can open w_lug.log in a text editor and view its contents.

3. You can also let the Abaqus driver prompt you for the necessary job information

by typing

abaqus

at the prompt.

Specify w_lug at the prompt for the job identifier, enter [RETURN] at the prompt

for user subroutines (since there are none for this job), and type y to overwrite

the files from the last run with the same name. Doing so will submit the analysis

job in background mode.

4. List all files with w_lug as the root of the file name (using a long format on

Unix systems):

364

W1.9

dir w_lug.*

(NT)

ls -l w_lug.*

(Unix)

Note the files that were created by Abaqus. We will take a closer look at the

printed output file (w_lug.dat) later in this workshop.

Results visualization in Abaqus/Viewer

1. To run Abaqus/Viewer and load the output database for the lug analysis, type

abaqus viewer odb=w_lug

at the prompt.

Note: The file name extension (.odb) is not needed.

If an output database is not specified on the command line, you can select

FileOpen from the main menu bar in Abaqus/Viewer to access the Open

Database dialog box, as shown in Figure W14. Select the file w_lug.odb

from the output database list.

365

W1.10

2. When Abaqus/Viewer opens the output database, the undeformed model shape

will be displayed. To change the plot mode, you can use either the Plot menu or

the toolbox icons displayed on the left side of the viewport (see Figure W15).

You can identify the function of each tool in the toolbox by positioning your

cursor above the icon for that tool. A label for the icon will pop up describing its

function.

3. To plot the deformed shape, click the Plot Deformed Shape tool

toolbox or select PlotDeformed Shape from the main menu bar.

in the

in the toolbox.

Turn on the node and element numbers, and make the nodes visible.

5. Use the display option tools to switch to hidden line, filled, or wireframe display.

View manipulation tools

Results

Tree

Toolbox

366

W1.11

6. Note the displacement magnification factor shown in the bottom of the title.

By default, Abaqus/Viewer automatically scales the displacement according to the

maximum model dimensions for a small-displacement analysis. Displacements

are scaled so that the deformed shape will be clear. For a large-displacement

analysis the scale factor is 1.0 by default. Set the displacement magnification

factor to 1.0 so that you can see the actual displacement, and redraw the displaced

shape plot.

Hint: You will have to use the Common Plot Options dialog box.

7. Create a contour plot of the Mises stress by clicking the Plot Contours on

Deformed Shape tool

in the toolbox.

8. Frequently users want to remove all annotations that are written on the plots,

especially when they are creating hard-copy images or animations. From the main

menu bar, select ViewportViewport Annotation Options to suppress the

annotations used in the plots.

The annotations are divided into three categories: legend, title block, and state

block. Each category can be controlled separately. The title block contains

information about which Abaqus version was used and when the analysis was

performed. The state block contains the step title (which is the text provided on

the data line of the STEP option), the increment and step time of the data being

displayed, and information on the variable and magnification factor used to

calculate the shape of the model.

9. From the main menu bar, select FileExit to exit from Abaqus/Viewer.

Viewing the printed output file

Open the printed output file w_lug.dat in the text editor of your choice.

1. Look at the input echo near the top of the file. Below this you will find the section

titled OPTIONS BEING PROCESSED. This is the first place any warning or

error messages will appear.

2. A summary of model data follows. Here you can check that Abaqus has correctly

interpreted your model definition.

Question W116: Which elements are in element set HOLEIN?

3. Next you will find the summary of history data for each step. Search for the

strings B O U N D A R Y and D I S T R I B U T E D to verify that the

boundary conditions and distributed loads have been interpreted correctly. Include

spaces between the letters of the search string. To start a search through the entire

file, go to the top of the file (some editors will wrap to the top of the file upon

reaching the end).

367

W1.12

4. The next section in the data file is the results section. The tables are printed

according to the various output requests.

Search for the strings N O D E and E L E M E N T to find the tables that

contain the output requested. The maximum deflection and peak stress are

reported at the ends of the respective tables.

Question W117: What are the maximum direct stresses in the 1- and 2-

BUILTIN.)

Question W118: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT in

the 2-direction?

5. Search for the string TOTAL to find the sum of the reaction forces in the 2direction.

Question W119: What is the net reaction force in the 2-direction at the nodes in

node set LHEND? Is this equal to the applied load?

Question W120: Why is the sum of the reaction forces at the nodes in node set

LHEND in the horizontal direction (1-direction) zero?

1. Open the input file w_lug.inp in the text editor.

2. Reduce the distributed pressure load to 25 MPa.

3. Save the modified file to a new file named w_lugmod.inp.

4. Submit the new input file as an Abaqus job.

5. Look at the output database file in Abaqus/Viewer.

Question W121: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT?

Do the results reflect the reduction in loading?

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may

consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named

w_lug_complete.inp

368

W1.13

Answers

Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?

Answer:

Answer:

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

Answer:

criteria?

Problem 1.1.14, Damage and failure of a laminated

composite plate

Problem 1.2.2, Laminated composite shells: buckling of a

cylindrical panel with a circular hole

Problem 1.2.5, Unstable static problem: reinforced plate

under compressive loads

Problem 9.1.8, Deformation of a sandwich plate under

CONWEP blast loading

Question W14: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define

a node set called TOP_NODES that contains previously defined

nodes 21, 22, 23, and node set TOP_LEFT.

Answer:

*NSET, NSET=TOP_NODES

21, 22, 23, TOP_LEFT

Question W15: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define

a velocity boundary condition on a node set named NALL

Answer:

2-direction. Will this option appear in the model data or the

history data portion of the input file?

This option will appear in the history data section of the input

file because it is a nonzero boundary condition.

*BOUNDARY, TYPE=VELOCITY

NALL, 2, 2, 7.0

369

W1.14

Question W16: (Optional) In the space provided, write the input you would

in element set ELBEAMS referring to a material named STEEL.

The beam has a rectangular cross-section with a height of 0.5

m and a width of 0.2 m.

Answer:

MATERIAL=STEEL

0.2, 0.5

Question W17: What is the first option in the model data? What is the last

Answer:

The last option in the model data is the MATERIAL option

in the material option block that defines the material properties

of the model.

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

C3D20R elementsi.e., 20-node brick elements (threedimensional hexahedral continuum elements) with reduced

integrationare used to model the lug.

Answer:

370

analyses?

No. The density is necessary for analysis procedures that

consider inertia effects. In a static analysis inertia effects are

not considered.

W1.15

Question W112: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

Answer:

condition?

Type boundary condition labels (such as ENCASTRE) can

be also used to define fixed boundary conditions in the model

data:

*BOUNDARY

LHEND, ENCASTRE

Answer:

(.dat) file.

Question W114: What warning messages did you get? Do they require changes

Answer:

If you followed the instructions correctly to this point, there

should be warning messages in the data (.dat) file indicating

that the rotational degrees of freedom4, 5, and 6are not

active in this model and cannot be restrained. Abaqus ignores

boundary conditions on degrees of freedom that cannot be

restrained; therefore, you can safely ignore these warning

messages.

Question W115: How many elements are there in the model? How many

Answer:

The model has 112 elements. The total number of variables,

including degrees of freedom plus any Lagrange multiplier

variables, is 2376.

Answer:

Question W117: What are the maximum direct stresses in the 1- and 2Answer:

The maximum direct stress in the 1-direction (S11) is

3.4766E+08 Pa; the maximum direct stress in the 2-direction

(S22) is 8.7629E+07 Pa.

371

W1.16

Question W118: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT in

the 2-direction?

Answer:

Question W119: What is the net reaction force in the 2-direction at the nodes in

node set LHEND? Is this equal to the applied load?

Answer:

which is equal to the applied load.

Question W120: Why is the sum of the reaction forces at the nodes in node set

LHEND in the horizontal direction (1-direction) zero?

Answer:

forces in the horizontal direction simply couple to resist the

moment induced by the applied vertical load. Since there is no

external load in the horizontal direction, the reaction forces

add up to zero in the horizontal direction.

Question W121: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT?

Answer:

372

The deflection of the nodes in node set HOLEBOT is now

reduced to 1.5671E04 m. The deflections, reaction forces,

and stresses decrease in proportion to the reduction in loading

since this is a linear analysis; in this case by a factor of 2.

Notes

373

Notes

374

Workshop 2

Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam:

Multiple Load Cases

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Introduction

In this workshop you will become familiar with using load cases in a linear static

analysis. You will model a cantilever beam. The left end of the beam is encastred while a

series of loads are applied to the free end. Six load cases are considered: unit forces in the

global X-, Y-, and Z-directions as well as unit moments about the global X-, Y-, and Zdirections. The model is shown in Figure W21. You will solve the problem using a

single perturbation step with six load cases and (optionally) using six perturbation steps

with a single load case in each step.

375

W2.2

As indicated in Figure W21, we wish to apply forces and moments to the right end of

the beam. However, the beam is modeled with solid C3D8I elements, which possess only

displacement degrees of freedom. Thus, only forces may be directly applied to the nodes

of the model. Rather than applying force couples to the model, we will apply

concentrated moments to the end of the beam. To this end, all loads will be transmitted to

the beam through a rigid body constraint. This approach is adopted to take advantage of

the fact that the rigid body reference node possesses six degrees of freedom in threedimensions: 3 translations and 3 rotations and thus allows direct application of

concentrated moments. Rigid bodies and constraints will be discussed further in

Lecture 5.

1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/load_cases directory.

2. Open the file w_beam_loadcase.inp in a text editor. The file includes all the

model data required for this problem: node, element, and set definitions; material

and section properties; and fixed boundary conditions. The history data (i.e., step

definition) is incomplete.

3. Complete the step definition by defining the loads and load cases. The loads will

be applied in the form of concentrated forces and moments via the *CLOAD option

to the rigid body reference node. This node is contained in node set refPt. For

example, for the force acting along the axial direction of the beam (i.e., the Xdirection), the following load case may be defined:

*Load Case, name=Force-X

*Cload

refPt, 1, 1.0

*End Load Case

376

W2.3

*Step, name=BeamLoadCases, perturbation

*Static

**

*Load Case, name=Force-X

*Cload

refPt, 1, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*Load Case, name=Force-Y

*Cload

refPt, 2, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*Load Case, name=Force-Z

*Cload

refPt, 3, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*Load Case, name=Moment-X

*Cload

refPt, 4, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*Load Case, name=Moment-Y

*Cload

refPt, 5, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*Load Case, name=Moment-Z

*Cload

refPt, 6, 1.0

*End Load Case

**

*End Step

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions have been defined as part of the

model data, and as such, are active in each load case.

5. Save the input file.

6. Submit the job for analysis by entering the following command at your system

prompt:

abaqus job=w_beam_loadcase

7. Monitor the status of the job by looking at the log (.log) or status (.sta) files.

377

W2.4

1. When the job has completed successfully, start a session of Abaqus/Viewer by

entering the following command at your system prompt:

abaqus viewer odb=w_beam_loadcase

Abaqus/Viewer opens the output database file w_beam_loadcase.odb created

by the job and displays the undeformed model shape. Examine the results of the

analysis. Note that load case output is stored in separate frames in the output

database file. Use the Frame Selector (click

in the context bar) to choose

which load case is displayed (alternatively, open the Step/Frame dialog box by

selecting ResultStep/Frame). Figure W22, for example, shows contour plots

of the Mises stress for each of the load cases.

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

378

W2.5

You will now linearly combine the results of each load case to plot the stress and

deformation in the beam under a given load combination. Recall that each load case is

based on a unit load; the results of each load case will be scaled relative to those obtained

for LC-Force-Y when combining the data.

1. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom Frames.

2. In the dialog box that appears, accept Sum values over all frames as the

operation.

3. In the Frames tabbed page, click

. In the Add Frames dialog box that

appears, choose Step-1 as the step from which to obtain the data. Click Select All

and then click OK to close the dialog box.

4. Remove the initial frame; for the remaining frames, enter the scale factors shown

in Figure W23.

5. Switch to the Fields tabbed page to examine the data that will be combined.

Accept the default selection (all available field data) and click OK to close the

dialog box.

6. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

379

W2.6

7. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for output

and click OK.

8. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W24. Note that this figure has been

customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour plot and a

deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

9. Now create an envelope plot of the maximum stress in the beam:

a. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom

Frames.

b. In the dialog box that appears, select Find the maximum value over all

frames as the operation.

c. In the Frames tabbed page, click

. In the Add Frames dialog box

that appears, choose Step-1 as the step from which to obtain the data.

Select all but the initial frame then click OK to close the dialog box.

d. Switch to the Fields tabbed page. Unselect all output and then select only

S and U.

e. Click OK to close the dialog box.

f. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

g. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for

output and The maxmum value over all selected frames as the frame,

as shown in Figure W25.

380

W2.7

h. In the Field Output dialog box (ResultField Output), select S_max as

the primary variable and U_max as the deformed variable.

i. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W26. Note that this figure has

been customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour

plot and a deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

Now perform the same analysis using multiple perturbation steps rather than multiple

load cases.

1. Open the file w_beam_multstep.inp in a text editor. As before, the file

includes all the model data required for this problem: node, element, and set

definitions; material and section properties; and fixed boundary conditions. The

history data (i.e., step definition) is incomplete.

2. Complete the history data by defining the steps. As before, the loads will be

applied in the form of concentrated forces and moments via the *CLOAD option to

the rigid body reference node. This node is contained in node set refPt. For

381

W2.8

example, for the force acting along the axial direction of the beam (i.e., the Xdirection), the following step may be defined:

*Step, name=Force-X, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 1, 1.

*End Step

*Step, name=Force-X, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 1, 1.0

*End Step

**

*Step, name=Force-Y, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 2, 1.0

*End Step

**

*Step, name=Force-Z, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 3, 1.0

*End Step

**

*Step, name=Moment-X, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 4, 1.0

*End Step

**

*Step, name=Moment-Y, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 5, 1.0

*End Step

**

*Step, name=Moment-Z, perturbation

*Static

*Cload

refPt, 6, 1.0

*End Step

382

W2.9

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions have been defined as part of the

model data, and as such, are active in each step.

4. Save the input file.

5. Submit the job for analysis by entering the following command at your system

prompt:

abaqus job=w_beam_multstep

6. Monitor the status of the job by looking at the log (.log) or status (.sta) files.

7. When the job has completed successfully, open the output database

w_beam_multstep.odb created by the job in Abaqus/Viewer and compare the

results obtained using both modeling approaches. You will find that the results are

identical.

Next, open the message (.msg) file for each job in the job monitor. Scroll to the bottom

of the file and compare the solution times. You will notice that the multiple step analysis

required 2.5 times as much CPU time as the multiple load case analysis. For a small

model such as this one, the overall analysis time is small so speeding up the analysis by a

factor of three may not appear significant. However, it is clear that for large jobs, the

speedup offered by multiple load cases will play a significant role in reducing the time

required to obtain a solution for a given problem.

383

W2.10

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:

TOTAL OF

1

0

1

1

:

:

INCREMENTS

CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION

ITERATIONS

PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

JOB TIME SUMMARY

USER TIME (SEC)

SYSTEM TIME (SEC)

TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)

WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=

=

=

=

0.10000

0.10000

0.20000

1

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:

TOTAL OF

6

0

6

6

:

:

CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION

ITERATIONS

PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

JOB TIME SUMMARY

USER TIME (SEC)

SYSTEM TIME (SEC)

TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)

WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=

=

=

=

0.4000

0.1000

0.5000

1

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may

consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named

w_beam_loadcase_complete.inp

w_beam_multstep_complete.inp

384

Notes

385

Notes

386

Workshop 3

Nonlinear Statics

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Include nonlinear geometric effects by adding the NLGEOM parameter.

Include nonlinear material effects by defining plastic material behavior.

Become familiar with the output for an incremental analysis.

Introduction

In this workshop you will model the plate shown in Figure W31. It is skewed at 30 to

the global 1-axis, built-in at one end, and constrained to move on rails parallel to the plate

axis at the other end. You will determine the midspan deflection when the plate carries a

uniform pressure.

You will modify the input file that models this problem to include alternate nodal and

material directions as well as nonlinear effects.

You will first add the necessary data to complete the linear analysis model. You will later

perform the simulation considering both geometrically and material nonlinear effects. In

a subsequent workshop a restart analysis will be performed to study the unloading of the

plate.

387

W3.2

1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/skew directory, and open the

file w_skew_plate_linear.inp in an editor. You will need to specify local

nodal and material directions by following the steps given below.

2. The right end of the plate is constrained to move parallel to an axis that is skewed

relative to the global axes. Thus, the nodes at this end of the plate must be

transformed into a local coordinate system that is aligned with the plate. The

following TRANSFORM option block defines a local coordinate system, x ,

y , z , by specifying points a and b, as shown in Figure W32 (see the Abaqus

Analysis Users Manual for a detailed explanation of the data line).

*TRANSFORM, NSET=ENDB, TYPE=R

0.1, 0.0577, 0.0, -0.0577, 0.1, 0.0

x, y, z of point a

x, y, z of point b

constrained except along the axis of

the plate.

388

W3.3

3. The default material directions in this model are aligned with the global axes. In

this default system the direct stress in the material 1-direction, 11 , will contain

contributions from both the axial stress (produced by the bending of the plate) and

the stress transverse to the axis of the plate. The results will be easier to interpret

if the material directions are aligned with the axis of the plate and the transverse

direction.

These local material directions can be defined with the following

ORIENTATION option. The first data line defines a local coordinate system by

specifying points a and b, as shown in Figure W32. The second data line defines

an additional rotation of 0.0 about the 3-axis (see the Abaqus Keywords

Reference Manual for detailed explanations of the data lines).

*ORIENTATION, NAME=SKEW, SYSTEM=RECTANGULAR

0.1, 0.0577, 0.0, -0.0577, 0.1, 0.0

3, 0.0

4. Run the analysis. To submit this job, you must enter

abaqus job=w_skew_plate_linear

at the prompt.

5. When the analysis is complete, open the data (.dat) file and find the value of the

vertical displacement (degree of freedom 3) at the midspan (node 357). Enter this

value in the Linear column of Table W31.

389

W3.4

Geometric Nonlinearity

1. Copy the input file to a new file called w_skew_plate_nonlin.inp, and make

the following changes to account for geometric nonlinearity:

2. Set NLGEOM = YES on the STEP option. This parameter indicates that

geometric nonlinearity will be accounted for during the step.

3. Set the initial time increment to 0.1 and the total time to 1.0 on the data line

following the STATIC option.

Time in a static analysis is just a convenient way to measure the progress of an

incremental solution unless rate-dependent behavior is involved. The beginning of

the step definition should look something like this:

*STEP, NLGEOM=YES

*STATIC

0.1, 1.0

Run the new analysis, and enter the vertical displacement (degree of freedom 3)

of node 357 in the NLGEOM column of Table W31.

Table W31. Midspan displacements

Load (kPa)

Linear (m)

NLGEOM (m)

20

60

4. Triple the load in both the linear and nonlinear analysis input files, rerun each of

these analyses, and enter the vertical displacement of node 357 from each analysis

in Table W31. The pressure loading is applied normal to the shell surface with

the DLOAD option.

Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each

other and to those from the linear analyses?

390

W3.5

Plasticity

You will now include another source of nonlinearity: plasticity. The material data are

shown in Figure W33 (in terms of true stress vs. total log strain). Abaqus, however,

requires the plastic material data be defined in terms of true stress and plastic log

strain. Thus, you will need to determine the plastic strains corresponding to each data

point (see the hint below).

1. In the material block of the input file w_skew_plate_nonlin.inp add the

PLASTIC option and enter the data lines corresponding to points A and B on the

stress-strain curve shown in Figure W33. The Youngs modulus for this material

is 30E9 Pa.

Hint: The total stain tot at any point on the curve is equal to the sum of the elastic

strain el and plastic strain pl. The elastic strain at any point on the curve can be

evaluated from Youngs modulus and the true stress:el= / E. Use the following

relationship to determine the plastic strains:

pl tot el tot E .

Add the PLASTIC option underneath *MATERIAL to complete the material

block. The complete material option block is given below:

*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1

*ELASTIC

3.0E10,0.3

*PLASTIC

2.E7, 0.0

3.E7, 0.019

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the

2. Change the pressure to 10 kPa.

391

W3.6

3. Make the following additional changes:

a. Modify the RESTART option to write restart output every 10th

b. You will use Abaqus/Viewer to postprocess the results. To create a more

readable printed output (.dat) file, set the output frequency to this file to

every 100 increments. Specifying a frequency larger than or equal to the

maximum number of increments ensures that output to the data file is

written only at the end of the last increment of the step.

c. It is useful to be able to check the progress of an analysis by monitoring

the value of one degree of freedom. To do so, add the MONITOR option

to the history section of the input file. Set the value of the NODE

parameter to 357, and set the value of the DOF parameter to 3.

4. Run the analysis. While the job is running, you can check on the progress of the

analysis by looking at the status (.sta) file. The DOF MONITOR column

should show the value of the midspan displacement.

392

W3.7

1. Start Abaqus/Viewer by entering the following command at the prompt:

abaqus viewer

Open the appropriate output database by selecting FileOpen from the main

menu bar. Select the file w_skew_plate_nonlin.odb, and click OK.

2. By default, the last increment of the last step is selected. Use the Frame Selector

in the context bar to select other steps or increments; alternatively, use the

Step/Frame dialog box (ResultStep/Frame).

3. Use the view manipulation tools to position the model as you wish. Turn

perspective on or off by clicking the Turn Perspective On tool

Perspective Off tool

or the Turn

in the toolbar.

4. Plot the deformed shape by clicking the Plot Deformed Shape tool

A sample deformed shape plot is shown in Figure W34. Your plot may look

different if you have positioned your model differently

5. Create a contour plot of variable S11 by following this procedure:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

in the toolbox.

Select ResultField Output.

In the Field Output dialog box, select S11 as the stress component.

Click Section Points to select a section point.

In the Section Points dialog box that appears, select Top and bottom as

the active locations and click OK.

Your contour plot should look similar to Figure W35. Abaqus plots the

contours of the Mises stress on both the top and bottom faces of each shell

element. To see this more clearly, rotate the model in the viewport.

393

W3.8

Figure W35. Contour plot of S11: SPOS, top image; SNEG, bottom image

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

model?

6. Click the Animate: Time History tool

to animate the results.

You can stop the animation and move between frames and steps by using the

arrow buttons in the context bar.

7. Render the shell thickness (ViewODB Display Options; toggle on Render

shell thickness).

The plot appears as shown in Figure W36. Note that for the purpose of

visualization, a linear interpolation is used between the contours on the top and

bottom surfaces of the shell.

394

W3.9

8. Use the following procedure to create a history plot of displacement U3 for node

357:

a. In the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the

output database named w_skew_plate_nonlin.odb.

b. Click History Output and press F2; filter the container according to *U3*.

c. Double-click the data object for node 357. Your plot should look similar

to Figure W37. Note this figure has been customized.

395

W3.10

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may

consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named

w_skew_plate_linear_complete.inp

w_skew_plate_nonlin_complete.inp

396

W3.11

Answers

Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

Answer:

The midspan displacement is tripled in the linear analysis.

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each

Answer:

The midspan displacement is not tripled in the nonlinear

analysis when the load is tripled; at the higher load, the value

of the displacement predicted by the nonlinear analysis is less

than the value predicted by the linear analysis.

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the

Answer:

The first data line of the PLASTIC option defines the initial

yield point. The plastic strain at this point is zero.

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

Answer:

model?

The peak value of U3 occurs at the midspan. The supports of

the plate are likely to be heavily stressed; this is confirmed by

contour plots of S11.

397

398

Notes

399

Notes

400

Workshop 4

Unloading Analysis of a Skew Plate

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Introduction

You will now continue the analysis of the plate shown in Figure W41. Recall our

analysis includes geometric and material nonlinearity. We previously determined the

plate exceeded the material yield strength and therefore has some plastic deformation.

Since we requested restart output, we can resume the analysis to determine the residual

stress state. In this workshop we will remove the load in order to recover the elastic

deformation; the plastic deformation will remain.

constrained except along the axis of

the plate.

401

W4.2

Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/skew directory.

Create a new input file named w_skew_plate_restart.inp. In this new input file, do

the following:

1. Add the HEADING option at the top of the file.

2. Add the RESTART option immediately after the HEADING option:

*RESTART, READ, STEP=1

This option specifies that the analysis will be continued from the end of the first

step of the previous job. The name of the previous job will be specified at the time

of job submission.

3. Define a step named UNLOAD within which to deactivate the applied pressure

load:

*STEP, NAME=UNLOAD, NLGEOM=YES

*STATIC

0.1, 1.

*DLOAD, OP=NEW

*END STEP

The OP=NEW parameter on the *DLOAD option removes the applied load in the

current step. The load will be ramped off according to the automatic time

incrementation in effect.

4. Use the following command to submit this job:

abaqus job=w_skew_plate_restart oldjob=w_skew_plate_nonlin

6. Correct any modeling errors, and investigate the source of any warning messages.

402

W4.3

Postprocessing

In the Visualization module, contour the U3 displacement component in the plate:

1. Click the Plot Contours tool

in the toolbox.

2. From the list of variable types on the left side of the Field Output toolbar, select

Primary (if it is not already selected).

3. From the list of available output variables in the center of the toolbar, select

output variable U (spatial displacement at nodes).

4. From the list of available components and invariants on the right side of the Field

Output toolbar, select U3.

5. Compare to the results at the end of the Apply Pressure step.

Note that in this output database file, the results for frame 0 correspond to the

results at the end of the Apply Pressure step (use the Frame Selector

to

switch to a different frame).

The difference between the final state of the model and its initial state is due to

the elastic springback that has occurred. The deformation that remains is

permanent and unrecoverable.

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may

consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named

w_skew_plate_restart_complete.inp

403

404

Notes

405

Notes

406

Workshop 5

CLD Analysis of a Seal using Abaqus/Standard

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Define contact interactions using contact pairs and general contact.

Perform a large displacement analysis with Abaqus/Standard.

Use Abaqus/Viewer to create a compression load-deflection curve.

Introduction

In this workshop, a compression analysis of a rubber seal is performed to determine the

seals performance. The goal is to determine the seals compression load-deflection

(CLD) curve, deformation and stresses. The analysis will be performed using

Abaqus/Standard. Two analyses are performed: one using contact pairs and the other

using general contact.

As shown in Figure W51, the top outer surface of the seal is covered with a polymer

layer, and the seal is compressed between two rigid surfaces (the upper one is displaced

along the negative 2-direction; the lower one is fixed). During compression, the cover

contacts the top rigid surface; the outer surface of the seal is in contact with the cover and

the bottom rigid surface; in addition the inner surface of the seal may come into contact

with itself.

407

W5.2

U2

Cover

Rigid

Surfaces

Seal

fixed

Seal analysis

1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/seal directory.

2. Open the input file w_seal.inp, which already contains the nodes, elements,

and material model data for the analysis. You will first use Abaqus/CAE

functionality to evaluate the stability of the hyperelastic material model and then

edit the input file to include the contact, step and boundary condition definitions.

Material Evaluation

It is important to determine whether the material model of the seal will be stable during

the analysis. Before completing the input file, evaluate the material definition that is used

for the seal.

1. Use your text editor to review the supplied workshop model contained in the file

w_seal.inp.

2. The material named SANTOPRENE is used for the seal. Locate the *MATERIAL,

NAME=SANTOPRENE option. It is a hyperelastic material with a first order

polynomial strain energy potential. The coefficients are already specified for the

analysis.

3. Evaluate the material definition. Abaqus/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate

option that allows you to view the behavior predicted by a hyperelastic material

by performing standard tests to choose a suitable material formulation. You will

use this option to view the behavior predicted by the material SANTOPRENE.

a. Start a session of AQUS/CAE using the following command at the

command prompt:

abaqus cae

click With Standard/Explicit Model.

408

W5.3

material definition as specified in the input file. In the Edit Material dialog

box, name the material Santoprene; from the menu bar, select

MechanicalElasticityHyperelastic; in the Hyperelastic field, select

the Polynomial strain energy potential and the Coefficients input source,

accept a strain energy potential order of 1, and enter the values of the

coefficients (defined in the input file) as shown in Figure W52. Click OK

to save the material definition and exit the material editor.

c. From the main menu bar in the Property module, select

MaterialEvaluateSantoprene.

d. The Evaluate Material dialog box appears. Notice that you can choose

either the Coefficients or Test data source for evaluating the material.

Typically the test data are used to define a material model; you can use the

Evaluate option to view the predicted behavior and adjust the material

definition as necessary. In this workshop you will only evaluate the

stability of the material model for the given coefficients.

409

W5.4

e. In the Evaluate Material dialog box, accept all defaults and click OK.

Abaqus/CAE creates and submits a job to perform the standard tests using

the material Santoprene; at the same time, Abaqus/CAE switches to the

Visualization module and displays the evaluation results when the job is

complete. Figure W53 shows the Material Parameters and Stability

Limit Information dialog box; Figure W54 shows three stress vs. strain

plots from uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests.

Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Based on these results, you can have confidence that your material will remain

stable.

410

W5.5

Figure W54. Material evaluation results for uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests

After evaluating the material, you can exit Abaqus/CAE and will now complete the

model definition.

411

W5.6

Contact interactions

1. Open the input file w_seal.inp in a text editor.

2. Define contact pairs as listed in Table W51. The surfaces which will be used in

the contact pair definitions are shown in Figure W55. The required option is:

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=frictionless, TYPE=SURFACE TO SURFACE

sealOuter, bottom

sealOuter, cover

cover, top

Note that the interaction property named frictionless has already been

defined in the input file. Locate the *SURFACE INTERACTION,

NAME=frictionless option to review its definition.

Table W51. Contact pairs

Slave Surface

Master Surface

sealOuter

bottom

sealOuter

cover

cover

top

cover

top

sealInner

bottom

sealOuter

3. Define a self-contact definition for the inner surface of the seal:

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=frictionless, TYPE=SURFACE TO SURFACE

sealInner,

Question W52: In the interaction between the seal and the cover, why do we

choose SealOuter as the slave surface?

412

W5.7

Step definition

1. Define a general static step considering geometric nonlinearity. Set the initial time

increment size to 0.5% of the total time period. Invoke the unsymmetric solver

(the unsymmetric solver is generally recommended for the surface-to-surface

contact discretization method). The following option defines the procedure:

*STEP, NLGEOM=YES, UNSYMM=YES

*STATIC

0.005, 1.

2. Use the following solution control parameter to improve the efficiency of the

analysis:

*CONTROLS, ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS

1. Asymmetric lateral sliding of the model is prevented by constraining the seal and

the cover along their vertical symmetry axes in the X-direction. The bottom rigid

surface is fixed, and a displacement of 6 units is applied to the top rigid surface

along the Y-direction to compress the seal between the two surfaces. The node

sets on which the boundary conditions will be defined are shown in Figure W56.

The following option completes these boundary conditions:

*BOUNDARY

fix1, 1, 1

botRP, ENCASTRE

topRP, 1, 1

topRP, 2, 2, -6.

topRP, 6, 6

topRP

fix1

botRP

413

W5.8

2. The preselected default field output does not include the nominal strain NE; to

visualize the nominal strain in Abaqus/Viewer, you will write additional field

output to the output database file. Locate the

*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT option and add

the following sub-option:

*ELEMENT OUTPUT

NE,

3. Add a history output request to write the history of RF2 and U2 for the set topRP

to the output database file. The required option is:

*OUTPUT, HISTORY

*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=topRP

RF2, U2

414

W5.9

Run the analysis using the following command:

abaqus job=w_seal

When the job is complete, use the following procedure to visualize the results using

Abaqus/Viewer:

1. Start Abaqus/Viewer and open the file w_seal.odb:

abaqus viewer odb=w_seal.odb

2. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. To distinguish between the

different parts, color code the model based on section assignments.

Tip: From the toolbar, select Sections from the color-coding pull down menu, as

shown in Figure W57 (or use the Color Code Dialog tool

color for each section).

to customize the

3. Use the Animate: Time History tool

to animate the deformation history.

4. Display only the seal. In the Results Tree, expand the Instances container

underneath the output database file named seal.odb. Click mouse button 3 on

the instance SEAL-1 and select Replace from the menu that appears.

Abaqus/CAE now displays only the elements associated with the seal.

5. Contour the Mises stress of the seal on the deformed shape. If necessary, use the

frame selector

in the context bar to select the last increment.

The contour plot is shown in Figure W58.

415

W5.10

6. Contour the minimum and maximum principal nominal strains. Elastic strains can

be very high for hyperelastic materials. Because of this, the linear elastic material

model is not used because it is not appropriate for elastic strains greater than

approximately 5%.

7. Display the reaction force history at the reference node of the top rigid surface: In

the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output

database file named w_seal.odb and double-click Reaction force: RF2 PI:

TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP to display the reaction force history at the

reference node of the top rigid surface.

8. You will now create the CLD curve.

a. In the History Output container, click mouse button 3 on Reaction force:

RF2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the

menu that appears. Save the data as Force.

b. Click mouse button 3 on Spatial displacement: U2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in

NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the menu that appears. Save the

data as Disp.

c. In the Results Tree, double-click XYData. In the Create XY Data dialog

box, select Operate on XY data as the source and click Continue.

d. From the Operators listed in the Operate on XY Data dialog box, select

combine(X, X) and then abs(A). Note that the abs(A) operator is used to

obtain the absolute values. In the XY Data field, double-click the curve

Disp. The current expression reads combine(abs("Disp")). Move the

cursor before the far-right bracket, enter a comma, and then select the

operator abs(A). In the XY Data field, double-click the curve Force. The

final expression reads combine(abs("Disp"), abs("Force") ).

Click Plot Expression to plot this expression. Save this plot as CLD.

416

W5.11

a. From the main menu bar, select OptionsXY OptionsPlot.

In the Plot Options dialog box, fill the plot background in white.

b. Double-click anywhere on the chart to open the Chart Options dialog

box.

In the Grid Display tabbed page, toggle on the major X- and Ygrid lines. Set the line color to blue and the line style to dashed.

Change the fill color using the following RGB values: red: 175;

green: 250; blue: 185.

In the Grid Area tabbed page, select Square as the size and drag

the slider to 80. From the list of auto-alignments, choose the one

that places the chart in the center of the viewport

c. Double-click the legend to open the Chart Legend Options dialog box.

font size to 10.

d. Double-click either axis to open the Axis Options dialog box.

axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, place 4 major tick marks on the X-axis at

(use the By count method).

(inch).

In the Y Axis region of the dialog box, select the force axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, specify that the Y-axis should extend

from 0 (the Y-axis minimum) to 250 (the Y-axis maximum).

In the Title tabbed page, change the Y-axis title to Force (lbf).

In the Axes tabbed page, change the font size for both axes to 10.

417

W5.12

f. Examine the remaining options. Add the following plot title: CLD

Diagram. Double-click the plot title to open the Plot Title Options dialog

box.

bold.

g. Click

in the toolbox to open the Curve Options dialog box. Change

the legend text to Top Surface Ref Point and toggle on Show

symbol. Set the color for both the line and symbols to red. Use large filled

circles for the symbols. Reposition the legend as necessary.

The final plot appears as shown in Figure W59.

Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection

represent?

418

W5.13

1. Copy the input file named w_seal.inp to one named w_seal_gc.inp.

Edit this input file as described below.

2. Locate the contact pairs defined earlier and delete them.

3. Create a general contact interaction using the default all-inclusive element-based

surface and apply the frictionless contact property globally. The following options

define the interaction:

*CONTACT

*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR

*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT

, , FRICTIONLESS

5. Run the analysis using the following command:

abaqus job=w_seal_gc

6. When the job is complete, use the following procedure to visualize the results

using Abaqus/Viewer.

7. Compare the results with those obtained using contact pairs. A comparison of the

stress state in the seal is shown in Figure W510 while a comparison of the forcedisplacement curve is shown in Figure W511.

The agreement between the two approaches is excellent. The general contact

approach, however, provides a much simpler user interface since the entire

contact domain is defined automatically and properties are assigned globally.

419

W5.14

(general contact, top; contact pairs, bottom)

420

W5.15

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may

consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named

w_seal_cp_complete.inp

w_seal_gc_complete.inp

421

W5.16

Answers

Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Answer:

material is stable throughout the entire strain range.

Question W52: In the interaction between the seal and the cover, why do we

choose SealOuter as the slave surface?

Answer:

Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection

Answer:

422

represent?

This peak represents the inward bucking that occurs at the

bottom corners of the seal during compression. If you look at

the deformed shape at the time corresponding to

approximately 3.7 inches of displacement, you will observe

this phenomenon.

Notes

423

Notes

424

Workshop 6

Dynamics

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Become familiar with the Abaqus/CAE procedures for frequency extraction and

implicit dynamic analyses.

Become more familiar with the status (.sta) and message (.msg) files.

Learn how to plot eigenmodes and create history plots using Abaqus/Viewer.

Introduction

In this workshop the dynamic response of the cantilever beam shown in Figure W61 is

investigated. A frequency extraction is performed to determine the 10 lowest vibration

modes of the beam. The effects of mesh refinement, element interpolation order, and

element dimension will be considered.

The problem is also solved by performing a direct integration dynamic analysis to

simulate the vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load. The frequency of the

vibration predicted by the transient analysis will be compared with the natural frequency

results.

425

W6.2

Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/dynamics directory, and copy

w_beam.inp to a new file named w_beam_freq.inp.

Currently 5 B21 elements are used to discretize the beam. You will edit this model

further as described below.

Input specification

1. Make the following changes to w_beam_freq.inp. Refer to the online

documentation as necessary.

a. Include a density of 2.3E6 in the material definition. Add the following

option block below the MATERIAL option:

*DENSITY

2.3E-6,

b. Comment out the STATIC step currently in the model, including the

loading:

***STEP

**SMALL DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS

***STATIC

***CLOAD

**TIP, 2, -1200.

***END STEP

c. Add a new step using the FREQUENCY procedure, and select the

Lanczos eigensolver. Request 10 modes. The finished option block should

look like the following:

*STEP

FREQUENCY EXTRACTION

*FREQUENCY, EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS

10,

*END STEP

d. Retain the built-in boundary condition at the left end of the beam.

2. Submit the frequency extraction analysis as an Abaqus job.

3. After the analysis has completed, check the printed output file and make any

necessary corrections to the input.

426

W6.3

1. Open the printed output file in the text editor of your choice.

2. Search for the second occurrence of E I G E N to find the beginning of the

analysis results. The first table gives the eigenvalue output. Find the frequency

(cycles/time) for the lowest mode.

3. Visualize results:

a. Start Abaqus/Viewer, and open the output database associated with this

analysis.

b. Plot the first eigenmode (plot the deformed model shape and use the

or the Step/Frame dialog box to choose the frame

corresponding to Mode 1).

c. Using the arrow keys in the context bar, select different mode shapes.

d. The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W62. These

correspond to the first and fourth transverse modes of the structure.

Frame Selector

(coarse mesh; 2D linear beam elements)

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the

mesh is somewhat coarse.)

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?

427

W6.4

From Figure W62 it is apparent that such a coarse mesh of linear-interpolation elements

is unable to adequately represent the mode shapes associated with the higher modes. In

fact the current mesh is unable to represent anything beyond the fifth mode.

To obtain accurate results for all extracted modes, a sufficiently refined mesh is required.

Thus, you will increase the mesh refinement. Also, you will switch to quadratic

interpolation elements since these provide superior accuracy for frequency extraction

analysis.

1. Open the file w_beam_freq.inp.

Note the presence of the *PARAMETER option block near the top of the file. The

parameters defined in this block are used to control the mesh density. In

particular, the parameter nel defines the number of elements along the length of

the beam.

2. In the *PARAMETER option block, set nel to 40. The relevant portion of this

option block is shown below.

*PARAMETER

nel = 40

The model explicitly defines the first beam element and then uses the *ELGEN

option to define the rest.

3. Locate the *ELEMENT option block. Change the element type to B22 and

modify the connectivity list of the first element so that nodes 1, 2, 3 are used to

define the element:

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B22, ELSET=BEAMS

1, 1, 2, 3

4. Run the job, and compare the results with those obtained previously.

The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W63.

428

W6.5

(fine mesh; 2D quadratic beam elements)

The results indicate that the refined mesh is able to represent all extracted modes.

The natural frequency of the first mode predicted by the fine-mesh model is

within 2% of that predicted by the coarse mesh model. The difference in results

for the fourth mode is more significant: there is an 8% difference in the predicted

natural frequency for this mode.

Note that all modes with the exception of modes 6 and 10 are transverse modes.

Modes 6 and 10 are longitudinal modes. To see the longitudinal modes more

clearly, superimpose the undeformed model shape on the deformed model shape.

429

W6.6

The current model, given that it uses two-dimensional beam elements, is unable to

capture any torsional or out-of-plane modes. For this a three-dimensional model is

required (using either beam, solid, or shell elements). With three-dimensional beam

elements, however, it is not possible to visualize the modes. Thus, in what follows, shell

elements are used to capture the out-of-plane modes.

A predefined model is available in w_beam_freq_s8r_complete.inp. This model

uses three-dimensional quadratic shell elements to represent the beam structure. The shell

part is 200 units long by 50 units wide. The part mesh consists of 40 S8R elements along

the length of the structure and 10 along its width. Homogeneous shell section properties

with the same material properties used earlier and a thickness of 5 units are assigned to

the part.

1. Run the job, and compare the results with those obtained previously.

2. The results for the first and fourth transverse modes are shown in Figure W64.

The agreement in terms of both mode shape and natural frequency between the

(refined) beam and shell models is excellent (compare with Figure W63).

Figure W64. First and fourth transverse modes (3D shell model)

430

W6.7

3. The three-dimensional model captures the torsional and out-of-plane modes that

are suppressed by the two-dimensional model. The first three of these modes are

shown in Figure W65.

431

W6.8

We now investigate the free vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load.

Input specification

1. Copy w_beam_freq.inp to a new file named w_beam_dynam.inp.

Use the following steps to modify the file so that the tip of the model is loaded

and then released and allowed to vibrate freely:

a. Uncomment the static step.

b. Delete the frequency extraction step.

c. Add another step to the analysis history using the DYNAMIC procedure.

Set the maximum number of time increments to 200 and specify an initial

time increment of 0.01 and a time period of 1.0.

d. Remove the tip load in the dynamic step by specifying CLOAD,

OP=NEW. This option removes all existing concentrated loads.

e. Request predefined field output and that the tip displacement be written

every increment to the output database (.odb) file as history data. Use the

predefined node set named TIP for this purpose. This set contains the

node at the loaded end of the beam. Add the following output requests to

the input file:

*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT

*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1

*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=TIP

U,

value of one degree of freedom. To do so, add the following option to the

first analysis step:

*MONITOR, NODE=TIP, DOF=2

While the job is running, you can check on the progress of the analysis by looking

at the status file.

432

W6.9

Visualizing results

1. Open the file w_beam_dynam.odb in the Visualization module.

2. Plot the history of the displacement component U2 at the tip node. In the Results

Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output database named

dynamic.odb and double-click Spatial displacement: U2 at Node in NSET

TIP.

The tip response is shown in Figure W67. From this plot, you can estimate the

frequency of the first vibration mode. Note that there are nearly 6 cycles in a 1

second time period. This is in agreement with the results obtained earlier using the

natural frequency extraction procedure (5.95 Hz).

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

eigenvalue analysis?

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may

consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named

w_beam_freq_b21_complete.inp

w_beam_freq_b22_complete.inp

w_beam_dynam_b22_complete.inp

433

W6.10

Answers

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

Answer:

or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the

mesh is somewhat coarse).

Because the model is two-dimensional, it cannot capture the

modes that occur out of the plane of the model, including

torsional modes.

The mesh is too coarse to capture modes other than the first

five. Use more elements to look at all 10 requested modes.

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?

Answer:

No.

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

Answer:

434

eigenvalue analysis?

The frequency calculated from the history plot of the tip

displacement is approximately 5.9, which agrees very closely

with the frequency calculated in the eigenvalue analysis.

Notes

435

Notes

436

Workshop 7

Contact with Abaqus/Explicit

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Define a general contact interaction.

Apply boundary and initial conditions.

Perform an impact analysis.

Use Abaqus/Viewer to view results.

Introduction

This workshop involves the simulation of a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the

rupture of a high-pressure line in a power plant. It is assumed that a sudden release of

fluid could cause one segment of the pipe to rotate about its support and strike a

neighboring pipe. The goal of the analysis is to determine strain and stress conditions in

both pipes and their deformed shapes. The simulation will be performed using

Abaqus/Explicit.

This workshop is based on Pipe whip simulation, Section 1.3.9 of the Abaqus

Benchmarks Manual.

437

W7.2

Impacting pipe

Fixed pipe

Both pipes have a mean diameter of 6.5 inches with a 0.432 inch wall thickness and a

span of 50 inches between supports. The fixed pipe is assumed to be fully restrained at

both ends, while the impacting pipe is allowed to rotate about a fixed pivot located at one

of its ends, with the other end free. We exploit the symmetry of the structure and the

loading and, thus, model only the geometry on one side of the central symmetry plane, as

shown in Figure W71.

Pivot point

edge

refPt

fixed

zsymm

Dassault Systmes, 2012

438

W7.3

Impact analysis

The model geometry, material properties, and loading history for the impact analysis are

already defined and can be found in

../abaqus_solvers/keywords/pipe_whip/w_pipe_whip.inp. You will have to

edit the input file to include the material properties, rigid body constraint, contact

interaction, initial conditions, boundary conditions, step definition, and output requests.

Predefined sets are included to ease your work. These are shown in Figure W72.

Material and section properties

1. Both pipes are made of steel. A von Mises elastic, perfectly plastic material model

is used. Create a material named Steel with the following properties:

Modulus of elasticity:

30E6 psi

Poisson's ratio:

0.3

Yield Stress:

45.0E3 psi

Density:

Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

2. Assign shell section properties to each pipe. Each pipe is 0.432 inches thick. Use

Gauss integration with 3 points through the thickness for each section property.

The elements of the impacting pipe are contained in element set pipeimpacting, while the elements of the fixed pipe are in element set pipefixed.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

thickness?

Rigid body constraint

Define a rigid body constraint between the nodes at the pivot end of the impacting pipe

(node set edge) and the rigid body reference point (node set refPt). Both the

translations and rotations of the pipe nodes are controlled by the rigid body constraint.

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid

body constraint?

Contact interaction

Define general contact between the two pipes. Assume frictional contact with a

coefficient of friction equal to 0.2.

Question W74: Are the contact constraints part of the model or history data?

439

W7.4

Initial conditions

The impacting pipe has an initial angular velocity of 75 radians/sec about its supported

(pinned) end. Assign a rotating velocity initial condition to all the nodes in the impacting

pipe (node set pipe-impacting).

The rotation is about the positive Z-direction passing though the rigid body reference

point. The coordinates of the reference point are 25.0, 6.932, 25.0.

Question W75:

define the axis of rotation?

Boundary conditions

The edges located on the symmetry plane (node set zsymm) must be given appropriate

symmetry boundary conditions. One end of the fixed pipe is fully restrained (node set

fixed). The rigid body reference point (node set refPt) is free to rotate about its

position.

Question W76: Are the boundary conditions part of the model or history data

in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis?

Step definition and output requests

Because of the high-speed nature of the event, the simulation is performed using a single

explicit dynamics step.

1. Create an explicit dynamics step with a time period of 0.015 seconds.

2. Write preselected field output to the output database at 12 equally spaced

intervals.

3. Request reaction force history output at the constrained end of the impacting pipe.

Write the data to the output database at 100 evenly spaced time intervals during

the analysis.

4. Request preselected history output at the default number of intervals.

Save the input file, and run the impact analysis by entering the following command at the

prompt:

abaqus job=w_pipe_whip

Visualization

1. Once the analysis completes successfully, open the output database file in

Abaqus/Viewer.

2. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. From the main menu bar,

select ToolsColor Code (or click

440

W7.5

colors to the two pipes (you can distinguish between them using section

assignments), as shown in Figure W73.

3. Use the Animate: Time History tool

to animate the deformation history.

4. Contour the Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) on the deformed

shape, as shown in Figure W74.

MISES

PEEQ

5. Create XY plots of the models kinetic energy (ALLKE), internal energy

(ALLIE), and dissipated energy (ALLPD). The energy plot is shown in Figure

W75. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.

Tip: Expand the History Output container in the Results Tree and select the three

curves noted above. Click mouse button 3 and select Plot from the menu that

appears.

441

W7.6

Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?

442

W7.7

6. Select and plot the pinned node reaction force components RF1, RF2, and RF3.

The curves appear in Figure W76. Note this figure has been customized for

clarity.

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may

consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named

w_pipe_whip_complete.inp

443

W7.8

Answers

Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

Answer:

All Abaqus/Explicit analyses require a density value because

Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium (i.e., inertia

effects are considered). The units for all material parameters

must be consistent; in this problem the English system is used

with pounds and inches as the units for force and length,

respectively. Thus, the consistent unit for density is lb-sec2/in4.

The options required to complete the material model definition

are:

*material, name=steel

*density

7.324e-4,

*elastic

3e+07, 0.3

*plastic

45000.,0.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

Answer:

thickness?

Three section points are used to reduce the run time of the job.

The options required to complete the section definitions are:

*shell section,

material=steel,

0.432, 3

*shell section,

material=steel,

0.432, 3

elset=pipe-impacting,

section integration=gauss

elset=pipe-fixed,

section integration =gauss

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

Answer:

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid

body constraint?

A tie node set needs to be used.

The option required to define the rigid body constraint is:

*rigid body, ref node=refPt, tie nset=edge

444

W7.9

Question W74: Should you add the contact definition to the model data or the

Answer:

history data?

General contact definitions can be part of either the model

data or the history data. The surface interaction properties are

model data when used with general contact.

The (model data) options required to complete the contact

definition are:

*contact

*contact inclusions, all exterior

*contact property assignment

, , fric

*surface interaction, name=fric

*friction

0.2,

Question W75: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to

Answer:

The axis passes through the reference point and is parallel to

the Z-direction. Thus, define the axis using two points. Each of

the axis points must have the same X- and Y-coordinates as

the reference point; the values of the Z-coordinates of the

axis points will dictate the sense of positive rotation.

For example:

*initial conditions, type=rotating velocity

pipe-impacting, 75., 0., 0., 0.,

25., 6.932, 0., 25., 6.932, 1.,

445

W7.10

Question W76: Are the boundary conditions part of the model data or the

Answer:

As with Abaqus/Standard, fixed boundary conditions can be

defined as either model or history data. Named boundary

conditions improve the readability of your input file and

provide a shortcut to defining commonly encountered support

conditions.

The options required to define the boundary conditions, step,

and output are:

*dynamic, explicit

, 0.015

**

*boundary

zsymm, zsymm

fixed, encastre

refPt, pinned

*output, field, variable=preselect,

number intervals=12

*output, history, time interval=0.00015

*node output, nset=refpt

rf1, rf2, rf3

*output, history, variable=preselect

Answer:

446

beginning to rebound, having dissipated the majority of its

kinetic energy by inelastic deformation in the crushed zone.

Notes

447

Notes

448

Workshop 8

Quasi-Static Analysis

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Understand the effects of mass scaling.

Introduction

In this workshop you will examine the deep drawing of a can bottom. A one-stage

forming process is simulated in Abaqus/Explicit; the springback analysis is performed in

Abaqus/Standard. The final deformed shape of the can bottom is shown in

Figure W81. In a subsequent workshop the import capability is used to transfer the

results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard in order to perform a springback

analysis.

One of the advantages of using Abaqus/Explicit for metal forming simulations is that, in

general, Abaqus/Explicit resolves complicated contact conditions more readily than

Abaqus/Standard.

449

W8.2

Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/forming directory.

In this section you will determine the first eigenmode of the blank and use it to establish

the step time for the subsequent Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

1. Open the file w_draw_freq.inp, and examine its contents to help you answer

the following questions:

Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this input file?

Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

procedure is the analysis procedure in this input file?

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same input file,

what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step

have on the base state of the model for the following analysis

step?

2. Run the job by entering the following command:

abaqus job=w_draw_freq

Plot the first eigenmode in Abaqus/Viewer. The fundamental frequency, f, of the blank is

304 Hz, corresponding to a time period of 0.0033 s ( T 1/ f ). This time period provides

a lower bound on the step time for the first forming stage. Choosing the step time to be

10 times the time period of the fundamental natural frequency, or 0.033 s, should ensure a

quality quasi-static solution. This time period corresponds to a constant punch velocity of

0.45 m/s, which is typical for metal forming.

450

W8.3

Geometry definition

In this section you will complete the geometry definition of the can forming model by

defining the punch as an analytical rigid surface.

Figure W82 shows the components of the modelthe punch, the die, and the blankin

their initial positions. The blank is modeled using axisymmetric shell elements (SAX1).

The shell reference surface lies at the shell midsurface.

(0.032, 0.03025)

(0.0, 0.00025)

Origin

(0.0, 0.0)

1. Open the file w_draw_bot.inp in an editor, and define punch 1 as an analytical

rigid surface (see Figure W82 for the relevant dimensions).

Use the definition of die 1 in the input file as an example of the input for an

analytical rigid surface. The end point for punch 1 lies on the symmetry axis, a

distance of half the blank thickness above the shell midsurface. Give the rigid

surface the name PUNCH1, and use node 1001 as the rigid body reference node.

The RIGID BODY option has been defined already.

Question W84: How does the order of the line segments affect the ability of

451

W8.4

2. Define the surfaces, the contact pairs, and the surface interaction for the complete

model using the SURFACE, CONTACT PAIR, and SURFACE

INTERACTION options. The blank is defined such that the element normal

direction points toward the punch. The friction coefficient between the rigid tools

and the blank is 0.1.

Question W85: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?

Question W86: In Abaqus the input data are classified as either model or

Abaqus/Explicit? What type of data is the contact pair

definition in Abaqus/Standard?

Material definition

In this section you will add the entire material definition to the input file.

The material is steel with Youngs modulus E =210E9 Pa, Poissons ratio v =0.3, and

density =7800 kg/m3. Figure W83 shows the nominal plasticity material data for the

blank as tabulated in Table W81.

Question W87: When entering plasticity data with the PLASTIC option,

what are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?

452

W8.5

Table W81

Nominal stress (Pa)

90.96 106

130.71 106

169.75 106

207.08 106

240.99 106

268.89 106

287.59 106

290.57 106

Nominal strain

4.334 104

2.216 103

7.331 103

1.888 10-2

4.153 102

8.218 102

1.509 101

3.456 101

Table W82

True stress (Pa)

91 106

131 106

171 106

211 106

251 106

291 106

331 106

391 106

0.0

0.159 102

0.649 102

0.177 101

0.395 101

0.776 101

0.139

0.295

Table W82 lists the corresponding true stress and logarithmic strain values. These

values were obtained using the following relationships:

nom (1 nom )

1n(1 nom )

pl tot el tot / E

These equations are valid for isotropic materials and establish the relationships between

the true stress and strain measures (used in Abaqus) and the nominal stress and strain

measures.

1. Complete the material definition, and name the material STEEL. Use the

ELASTIC option to enter Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio and the

PLASTIC option to enter the material data in Table W82.

Tip: Both of these options must be grouped under the *MATERIAL option.

2. To reduce high-frequency noise in the solution (caused primarily by the

oscillations of the blanks free end), add stiffness proportional damping to the

material definition of the blank. It is best to use the smallest amount of damping

possible to obtain the desired solution since increasing the stiffness damping

decreases the stable time increment and, thus, increases the computer time. To

avoid a dramatic drop in the stable time increment, the stiffness proportional

453

W8.6

damping factor R should be less than, or of the same order of magnitude as, the

initial stable time increment without damping. We choose a damping factor of

R = 1107, which is included by using the DAMPING, BETA=1.E7 material

option.

Question W88: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?

Amplitude definition

To form the can bottom, we will displace the punch by moving its rigid body reference

node 0.015 m in the negative 2-direction. The punch displacement will be applied in the

form of a displacement boundary condition. Because Abaqus/Explicit does not permit

displacement discontinuities, prescribed displacements must refer to an amplitude

definition. In this section you will add the amplitude definition to the input file. Figure

W84 shows the desired displacement behavior for the punch.

Question W89: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

1. Define the amplitude curve corresponding to Figure W84. The curve shown in

Figure W84 is smooth in its first and second derivatives and is defined by using

the DEFINITION=SMOOTH STEP parameter with the AMPLITUDE option.

Define the punch displacement amplitude, and name the amplitude FORM1.

Question W810: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

2. Note that in the input file there is a boundary condition that refers to the

amplitude definition (FORM1) just completed.

In general, quasi-static processes cannot be modeled in their natural time scale in

Abaqus/Explicit since a large number of time increments would be required. (Recall that

time increments in Abaqus/Explicit are generally very small). Thus, it is sometimes

necessary to increase the speed of the simulation artificially to reduce the computational

cost. One method to reduce the cost of the analysis is to use mass scaling.

454

W8.7

While various forms of mass scaling are available in Abaqus/Explicit, we will

concentrate on fixed mass scaling in this workshop and will implement it using the

FIXED MASS SCALING option. The reason for choosing fixed mass scaling is that it

provides a simple means to modify the mass properties of a quasi-static model at the

beginning of the analysis. It is also computationally less expensive than variable mass

scaling, because the mass is scaled only once at the beginning of the step.

1. Specify a mass scaling factor of 10 by setting the FACTOR parameter on the

FIXED MASS SCALING option, and complete the mass scaling definition in

the input file.

Question W811: How do you determine if an analysis that includes mass

Question W812: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

1. Run the analysis with the input file w_draw_bot.inp.

2. Monitor the progress of the solution in the status file.

3. Open the output database w_draw_bot.odb in Abaqus/Viewer.

4. Display the curves for internal and kinetic energy (variables ALLIE and ALLKE,

respectively) in the same plot by selecting them from the Results Tree

(underneath the History Output container). To display the curve symbols, use the

455

W8.8

Figure W85. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.

5. Certain elements have hourglass modes that affect their behavior. Hourglass

modes are modes of deformation that do not cause any strains at the integration

points. An indication of whether hourglassing has an effect on the solution is the

artificial energy, variable ALLAE. Plot the artificial energy and the internal

energy, variable ALLIE, on the same plot. The artificial energy should always be

much less than the internal energy (say less than 0.5%).

Question W813: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

6. Display only the deformed shape of the blank:

a. Expand the Materials container in the Results Tree and click mouse

button 3 on STEEL.

b. From the menu that appears, select Replace.

7. Expand the displayed area to 180o:

a. Select ViewODB Display Options from the main menu.

b. In the Sweep/Extrude tabbed page of the ODB Display Options dialog

box, toggle on Sweep elements.

You should see a shape similar to that in Figure W86.

456

W8.9

c. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model using the Plot

Contours tool

in the toolbox; to select other variables for contouring,

use the Field Output toolbar.

U2 curve for node 1001 in the Results Tree (underneath the History

Output container).

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may

consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named

w_draw_bot_complete.inp

457

W8.10

Answers

Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this input file?

Answer:

(FREQUENCY). The procedure option must immediately

follow the STEP option.

procedure is the analysis procedure in this input file?

Answer:

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same input file,

Answer:

have on the base state of the model for the following analysis

step?

None. Only general analysis steps change the base state of the

model.

Question W84: How does the order of the line segments affect the ability of

Answer:

The order of the line segments determines the direction of the

outward normal vector of the rigid surface. If the outward

normal points in the wrong direction, Abaqus cannot establish

the contact between the surfaces and, therefore, cannot find a

solution.

Question W85: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?

Answer:

458

stress crit at which sliding of the blank begins. Thus, the

material will be stretched more, causing further thinning of the

material and increasing the stresses.

W8.11

Question W86: In Abaqus the input data are classified as either model or

Answer:

Abaqus/Explicit? What type of data is the contact pair

definition in Abaqus/Standard?

The contact pair definition is history data in Abaqus/Explicit

and model data in Abaqus/Standard.

Question W87: When entering plasticity data with the PLASTIC option,

Answer:

what are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?

Abaqus uses true (Cauchy) stress and log strain.

Answer:

increment. In general, damping should be chosen such that

high frequency oscillations are smoothed or eliminated with

minimal effect on the stable time increment. Figure WA81

shows a plot of the kinetic energy with and without damping.

Note the high frequency oscillations in the analysis without

damping.

459

W8.12

Question W89: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

Answer:

The slope of the amplitude curve at the beginning and end of

the step is zero. This is important because it prevents

discontinuities in the punch displacement that lead to

oscillations in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

Question W810: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

Answer:

With a linear amplitude definition the displacement of the

punch will be applied suddenly at the beginning of the step

and stopped suddenly at the end of the step, causing

oscillations in the solution.

A linear amplitude definition results in large spikes in the

kinetic energy, especially at the beginning of the step. As a

result, the kinetic energy may be large compared to the

internal energy and the early solution may not be quasi-static.

The preferred approach is to move the punch as smoothly as

possible. Figure WA82 compares the kinetic energy history

when a linear amplitude definition is used and when the

smooth step amplitude definition is used.

Figure WA82. Kinetic energy plot with and without SMOOTH STEP

460

W8.13

Answer:

The kinetic energy should be a small fraction of the internal

energy.

As the kinetic energy increases, inertia effects have to be

considered and the solution is no longer quasi-static.

Figure WA81 shows the internal and kinetic energy for mass

scaling factors of 10 (used in our simulation), 100, and 900,

which correspond to a solution speedup of 10 , 10, and 30,

respectively.

Question W812: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

Answer:

Le

tstable min

c

d

dilatational wave speed. An increase in density decreases cd,

which in turn increases tstable.

461

W8.14

Question W813: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

Answer:

462

The analysis uses SAX1 elements. These elements have no

hourglass modes. Consequently, hourglassing is not of

concern in the analysis.

Notes

463

Notes

464

Workshop 9

Import Analysis

Keywords Version

Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus

Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,

please see the Interactive version of these instructions.

Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this

workshop.

Goals

Introduction

In this workshop you will use the import capability is used to transfer the results between

Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard to examine the effects of springback in the

analysis of the deep drawing of a can bottom. The deformed shape of the can after the

forming stage is shown in Figure W91.

Before proceeding, change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/forming

directory.

465

W9.2

Springback analysis

In the manufacturing process the part is removed after the forming has been completed

and the material is free to springback into an unconstrained state. To understand the final

shape after this physical effect, we perform a springback analysis in Abaqus/Standard.

1. Open the file w_draw_bot_spring.inp in an editor, and import the blank from

the end of the w_draw_bot analysis. Use the STATE=YES parameter on the

IMPORT option to import the material state of the elements.

Question W91: To what value should the UPDATE parameter on the

plotted at the end of the springback analysis?

Question W92: Where do you find the information to define the STEP and

INTERVAL parameters on the IMPORT option?

2. The boundary conditions are not imported and must be respecified. In addition, it

is necessary to fix a single point, such as node set BSYM, in the 2-direction to

prevent rigid body motion. It is important to use the FIXED parameter on the

*BOUNDARY option so that BSYM is fixed at its final position at the end of the

forming stage.

Question W93: Why is it advantageous to choose Abaqus/Standard for the

springback analysis?

1. Run the analysis by entering the following command:

abaqus job=w_draw_bot_spring oldjob=w_draw_bot

3. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model.

4. Plot the final deformed model shape, as shown in Figure W91.

5. Plot the springback and formed shapes together. (First toggle off the Sweep

elements option.)

If you used UPDATE=NO, the formed shape is stored in frame 0 of the output

database. You must use overlay plots to superimpose the images in this case:

a. Select ViewOverlay Plot from the main menu bar.

b. Use the Frame Selector

or the arrows in the context bar to select

frame 0.

c. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer

formed.

466

W9.3

frame 1.

to change the fill color of the

elements to blue.

f. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer

springback.

g. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Plot Overlay.

h. Zoom in to examine the shape differences more closely.

If you used UPDATE=YES, the formed shape is treated as the undeformed shape

of the import analysis model (recall that when UPDATE=YES, the end state of

the previous analysis becomes the reference configuration of the import analysis;

the reference configuration is considered the undeformed shape):

a. In the toolbox, click the Allow Multiple Plot States tool

.

b. In the toolbox, click both the Plot Undeformed Shape and Plot

Deformed Shape tools

to increase the deformation

scale factor so that the differences between the formed and springback

shapes are clearly visible.

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may

consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions

outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named

w_draw_bot_spring_complete.inp

467

W9.4

Answers

Question W91: To what value should the UPDATE parameter on the

Answer:

plotted at the end of the springback analysis?

The UPDATE parameter should be set to NO. When the

UPDATE parameter is set to YES, the deformed configuration

of the previous analysis is used as the reference configuration

for the import analysis. All stresses, strains, displacements,

etc. are reported relative to the updated reference

configuration and not as total values.

Question W92: Where do you find the information to define the STEP and

Answer:

the analysis. Information about the number of steps and the

number of increments completed in each step can be obtained

from this file.

In this analysis we wish to model the springback of the can

after the forming of the can bottom is complete: this is

STEP=1, INTERVAL=1.

Answer:

468

springback analysis?

A true static procedure is the preferred approach for modeling

springback. The imported model will not be in static

equilibrium at the beginning of the step. Thus,

Abaqus/Standard applies a set of artificial internal stresses to

the imported model state and then gradually removes these

stresses. This leads to the springback deformation. In

Abaqus/Explicit the removal of the contact between the blank

and the tools represents a sudden load removal, which leads to

low frequency vibrations of the blank. While these vibrations

will eventually dissipate, this approach leads to lengthy

computation times.

Notes

469

Notes

470

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