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Introduction to Abaqus/Standard
and Abaqus/Explicit

R 6.12

About this Course


Course objectives

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Upon completion of this course you will be able to:


Complete finite element models using Abaqus keywords.
Submit and monitor analysis jobs.
View and evaluate simulation results.
Solve structural analysis problems using Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, including the effects of
material nonlinearity, large deformation and contact.

Targeted audience
Simulation Analysts

Prerequisites
None

3 days

Day 1
Lesson 1

Workshop 1

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Lesson 2

Workshop 2

Lesson 3

Workshop 3

Defining an Abaqus Model

Basic Input and Output

Linear Static Analysis

Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam:


Multiple Load Cases

Nonlinear Analysis in Abaqus/Standard

Nonlinear Statics

Day 2
Lesson 4

Workshop 4

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Lesson 5

Workshop 5

Lesson 6

Workshop 6

Multistep Analysis in Abaqus

Unloading Analysis

Constraints and Contact

Seal Contact

Introduction to Dynamics

Dynamics

Day 3
Lesson 7

Workshop 7

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Lesson 8

Workshop 8

Lesson 9

Workshop 9

Using Abaqus/Explicit

Contact with Abaqus/Explicit

Quasi-Static Analysis in Abaqus/Explicit

Quasi-Static Analysis (Optional)

Combining Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Import Analysis (Optional)

Additional Material
Element Selection Criteria

Appendix 2

Contact Issues Specific to Abaqus/Standard

Appendix 3

Contact Issues Specific to Abaqus/Explicit

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Appendix 1

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Legal Notices
The Abaqus Software described in this documentation is available only under license from Dassault
Systmes and its subsidiary and may be used or reproduced only in accordance with the terms of such
license.
This documentation and the software described in this documentation are subject to change without
prior notice.
Dassault Systmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or
omissions that may appear in this documentation.
No part of this documentation may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior written
permission of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary.
Dassault Systmes, 2012.
Printed in the United States of America
Abaqus, the 3DS logo, SIMULIA and CATIA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault
Systmes or its subsidiaries in the US and/or other countries.
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective
owners. For additional information concerning trademarks, copyrights, and licenses, see the Legal
Notices in the Abaqus 6.12 Release Notes and the notices at:
http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/portfolio/product-os-commercial-programs.

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Revision Status

Lecture 1

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 1

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 2

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 2

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 3

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 3

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 4

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 4

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 5

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 5

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 6

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 6

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 7

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 7

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 8

6/12

Minor edits

Workshop 8

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Lecture 9

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Workshop 9

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Appendix 1

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Appendix 2

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Appendix 3

5/12

Updated for 6.12

Notes

Notes

Lesson 1: Defining an Abaqus Model

L1.1

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Lesson content:

Introduction
Documentation
Components of an Abaqus Model
Details of an Abaqus Input File
Abaqus Input Conventions
Abaqus Output
Example: Cantilever Beam Model
Parts and Assemblies (optional)
Workshop Preliminaries
Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (IA)
Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L1.2

Introduction (1/14)
SIMULIA is the Dassault Systmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions
including
The Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA

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Multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems


Lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property
Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA
R&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, France

L1.3

Introduction (2/14)
Course preliminaries

This course introduces Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit; basic knowledge of finite element
analysis is assumed.

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This course introduces concepts in a manner that gives users a working knowledge of Abaqus as
quickly as possiblethe lecture notes do not attempt to cover all the details of Abaqus completely.

There are several sources for additional information on the topics presented in this course:
SIMULIA Home Page (available via the Internet at
http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview).
Abaqus documentationall usage details are covered in the users manuals.
Extensive library of courses developed by SIMULIA on particular topics (course descriptions
available at http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview).

L1.4

Introduction (3/14)

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Abaqus FEA is a suite of finite element analysis modules

L1.5

Introduction (4/14)
Abaqus/CAE

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Complete Abaqus Environment


for modeling, managing, and monitoring
Abaqus analyses, as well as visualizing
results.
Intuitive and consistent user interface
throughout the system.
Based on the concepts of parts
and assemblies of part instances, which are
common to many CAD systems.
Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE or
imported from other systems as geometry
(to be meshed in Abaqus/CAE) or as
meshes.
Built-in feature-based parametric modeling
system for creating parts.

Abaqus/CAE main user interface

L1.6

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Introduction (5/14)
Analysis modules
Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit provide
the user with two complementary analysis
tools.*
Abaqus/Standards capabilities:
General analyses
Static stress/displacement
analysis:
I. Rate-independent response
II. Rate-dependent
(viscoelastic/creep/viscoplastic)
response
Transient dynamic stress/displacement
analysis
Transient or steady-state heat transfer
analysis
Transient or steady-state mass diffusion
analysis
Steady-state transport analysis

Articulation of an automotive
boot seal

Abaqus/CFD is a computational fluid dynamics


analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.

L1.7

Introduction (6/14)
Multiphysics:
Thermal-mechanical analysis
Structural-acoustic analysis

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Linear piezoelectric analysis


Thermal-electrical (Joule heating)
analysis
Thermal-electrical-structural analysis

Thermal stresses in an exhaust manifold

Fully or partially saturated


pore fluid flow-deformation
Fluid-structure interaction

L1.8

Introduction (7/14)
Linear perturbation analyses

Harmonic excitation
of a tire

Static stress/displacement analysis:

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I. Linear static
stress/displacement analysis
II. Eigenvalue buckling
load prediction
Dynamic stress/displacement analysis:
I. Determination of natural modes and frequencies
II. Transient response via modal superposition
III. Steady-state response resulting from harmonic loading
Includes alternative subspace projection method for efficient analysis of large
models with frequency-dependent properties (like damping)
IV. Response spectrum analysis
V. Dynamic response resulting from random loading

10

L1.9

Introduction (8/14)
Abaqus/Explicits capabilities:

High-speed dynamics
Quasi-static analysis

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Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL)


Adaptive meshing using ALE
Multiphysics
Thermal-mechanical analysis
I. Fully coupled: Explicit algorithms
for both the mechanical and
thermal responses
II. Can include adiabatic heating
effects
Structural-acoustic analysis

Drop test of a cell phone

Fluid-structure interaction

L1.10

Introduction (9/14)
Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

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Abaqus/Standard

Abaqus/Explicit

A general-purpose finite element


program.
I. Nonlinear problems require
iterations.

A general-purpose finite element


program for explicit dynamics.
I. Solution procedure does not
require iteration.

Can solve for true static equilibrium in


structural simulations.

Solves highly discontinuous high-speed


dynamic problems efficiently.

Provides a large number of capabilities


for analyzing many different types of
problems.
I. Nonstructural applications.
II. Coupled or uncoupled response.

Coupled-field analyses include:


I. Thermal-mechanical
II. Structural-acoustic
III. FSI

11

L1.11

Introduction (10/14)
Interactive postprocessing

Abaqus/Viewer is the postprocessing module


of Abaqus/CAE.

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Available with Abaqus/CAE or as a


stand-alone product

Can be used to visualize Abaqus results


whether or not the model was created in
Abaqus/CAE
Provides efficient visualization of large
models

Contour plot of an aluminum


wheel hitting a curb in
Abaqus/Viewer

L1.12

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Introduction (11/14)

12

What is covered in this course


Introduction to the analysis modules and
interactive postprocessing
Details of using Abaqus to solve a variety of
structural analysis problems:
Linear Static Analysis
Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output
analysis of forces on a connecting lug
Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a
Cantilever Beammultiple load cases

L1.13

Introduction (12/14)
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Workshop 3: Nonlinear Staticslarge
deformation analysis of a skew plate
Simulations with Several Analysis Steps
Workshop 4:Unloading analysisunloading
of a skew plate

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Contact among Multiple Bodies


Workshop 5: Seal Contactcompression
analysis of a rubber seal.

L1.14

Introduction (13/14)
Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis
Workshop 6: Dynamicsfrequency analysis
and implicit and explicit free
vibration analysis of a cantilever beam
High-Speed Dynamics in Abaqus/Explicit

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Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit


pipe whip problem

13

L1.15

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Introduction (14/14)
Quasi-Static Combined Analysis in
Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Workshop 8 (Optional): Quasi-Static
Analysisdeep drawing of a can bottom
Workshop 9 (Optional): Import Analysis
springback analysis of formed can bottom
Nonstructural applicationssuch as heat
transfer, soils consolidation, and acoustics
are not discussed.
All Abaqus analysis techniques use the
same framework.
The knowledge gained in this course will
help in learning to use Abaqus for other
applications.

L1.16

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Documentation (1/7)

14

Primary reference materials


Abaqus Analysis Users Manual
Abaqus/CAE Users Manual
Abaqus Example Problems Manual
Abaqus Benchmarks Manual
Abaqus Verification Manual
Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual
Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual
Abaqus Theory Manual
All documentation is available in HTML and PDF format
The documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar of Abaqus/CAE.

L1.17

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Documentation (2/7)
Additional reference materials
Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide (print version available)
Installation instructions
Abaqus Release Notes
Explains changes since previous release
Advanced lecture notes on various topics (print only)
Tutorials
Getting Started with Abaqus: Interactive Edition
Getting Started with Abaqus: Keywords Edition
Programming
Scripting and GUI Toolkit manuals
SIMULIA home page
http://www.3ds.com/products/simulia/overview/

L1.18

Documentation (3/7)

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HTML documentation
The documentation for Abaqus is organized into a collection, with manuals grouped by function.
Viewed through a web browser.
Can search entire collection or individual manuals

15

L1.19

Documentation (4/7)

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Searching the documentation


Enter one or more search terms in the search field

Terms in the search field:


Appear in any order
May or may not be adjacent
Appear within the proximity criterion
(default is a single section)

The table of contents


entry is highlighted
The text frame displays the
corresponding section

L1.20

Documentation (5/7)

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Searching the documentation (contd)


Use quotes to search for exact strings

16

L1.21

Documentation (6/7)

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Advanced search
Advanced search allows you to control the proximity criterion

L1.22

Documentation (7/7)

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Advanced search (contd)

17

L1.23

Components of an Abaqus Model (1/6)


The Abaqus analysis modules run as batch programs.

The primary input to the analysis modules is an input file, which contains options from element,
material, procedure, and loading libraries.

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These options can be combined in any reasonable way, allowing a tremendous variety of problems to be
modeled.

The input file is divided into two parts: model data and history data.
Model data

Geometric optionsnodes, elements


Material options
Other model options

History data

Procedure options
Loading options
Output options

L1.24

Components of an Abaqus Model (2/6)

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Model datadefine the physical model

Discretized model
geometry
nodes,elements

Material properties

18

L1.25

Components of an Abaqus Model (3/6)


Model data
ENCASTRE

pin

dof 2 fixed

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Fixed constraints

v0

Initial conditions

L1.26

Components of an Abaqus Model (4/6)

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History dataspecify what happens to the model


Types of analysis proceduresstatic, dynamic, soil, heat transfer, etc.
Loadings
Prescribed constraints
Output requests stresses, strains, reaction forces, contact pressure, etc.

ENCASTRE

X-symmetry
Y-symmetry

19

L1.27

Components of an Abaqus Model (5/6)


History subdivided into analysis steps

Steps are convenient subdivisions in an analysis history.


Different steps can contain different analysis proceduresfor example, static followed by dynamic.

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Distinction between general and linear perturbation steps:


General steps define a sequence of events that follow one another.
I. The state of the model at the end of the previous general step provides the initial conditions
for the start of the next general step.
II. This is needed for any history-dependent analysis.
Linear perturbation steps provide the linear response about the base state, which is the state at
the end of the most recent general step.

L1.28

Components of an Abaqus Model (6/6)


Example: Bow and arrow simulation

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Step 3 = natural
frequency extraction

Step 1 = pretension

Step 2 = pull back

Step 4 = dynamic release

Step 1: String the bow


Step 2: Pull back on the bow string
Step 3: Linear perturbation step to extract the natural frequencies of the system
has no effect on subsequent steps
Step 4: Release the arrow

20

L1.29

Details of an Abaqus Input File (1/9)


Option blocks

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All data are defined in option blocks that describe specific aspects of the problem definition, such as an
element definition, etc. Together the option blocks build the model.

Property reference
option block

Node option block

Model
data

Material option
block

Element option
block

Contact option
block
History
data

Analysis procedure
option block

Boundary conditions
option block

Initial conditions
option block

Loading option block

Output request
option block

L1.30

Details of an Abaqus Input File (2/9)


Each option block begins with a keyword line (first character is *).

Data lines, if needed, follow the keyword line.


Comment lines, starting with **, can be included anywhere.

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All input lines have a limit of 256 characters (including blanks).


Names can be up to 80 characters long and must begin with a letter. For example, the following would
be a permissible name:
nodes_at_the_top_of_the_block_next_to_the_gasket
Note: Regardless of whether you specify only a file name, a relative path name, or a full path
name, the complete name including the path can have a maximum of 80 characters .

21

L1.31

Details of an Abaqus Input File (3/9)


Keyword lines

Begin with a single * followed directly by the name of the option.


May include a combination of required and optional parameters, along with their values, separated by
commas.
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Example: A material option block defines a set of material properties.


*MATERIAL, NAME=material name

keyword parameter parameter value

The first line in a material option block

L1.32

Details of an Abaqus Input File (4/9)


Data lines

Define the bulk data for a given option; for example, element definitions.

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A keyword line may have many data lines associated with it.
Example: An element option block defines elements by specifying the element type, the element
numbers, and the nodal connectivity.
*ELEMENT,
560, 101,
564, 102,
572, 103,
:
:

TYPE=B21
102
103
104

keyword line
data lines

node numbers (as required


for beam B21 elements)
element numbers

22

L1.33

Details of an Abaqus Input File (5/9)


Example: The elastic material option block defines the type of elasticity model as well as the elastic
material properties.

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*ELASTIC, TYPE=ISOTROPIC
200.0E4, 0.30, 20.0
150.0E3, 0.35, 400.0

keyword line
data lines
temperature
Poissons ratio
modulus of
elasticity

L1.34

Details of an Abaqus Input File (6/9)


Ordering of option blocks

Each option block belongs in either the model data or the history dataone or the otheras specified in
the users manual.

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The ordering within the model data or history data is arbitrary, except for a few cases.
Examples:
*HEADING must be the first option in the input file.
*ELASTIC, *DENSITY, and *PLASTIC are suboptions of *MATERIAL. As such, they must
follow *MATERIAL directly. Suboptions have no name references of their own.
Procedure options (*STATIC, *DYNAMIC, and *FREQUENCY, etc.) must follow *STEP to
specify the analysis procedure for the step.

23

L1.35

Details of an Abaqus Input File (7/9)


Node sets and element sets

Used for efficient cross-referencing.

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Allow you to refer to a set all at once instead of each node or element individually.

Example: Node sets


*NODE, NSET=TOPNODES
101, 0.345, 0.679, 0.223
102, 0.331, 0.699, 0.234
.
.
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=DISPLACEMENT
TOPNODES, YSYMM

Node set
TOPNODES contains
nodes 101,102, ...

Boundary condition
applied to all nodes in
node set TOPNODES

L1.36

Details of an Abaqus Input File (8/9)

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Example: Element sets

24

*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=SEATPOST


560, 101, 102,
Element set SEATPOST
564, 102, 103
contains elements 560,
.
564, ...
.
*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=PIPE, MATERIAL=STEEL,
ELSET=SEATPOST
These beam cross-section
0.12, 0.004
properties apply to all
elements in element set
wall thickness
SEATPOST
pipe radius

L1.37

Details of an Abaqus Input File (9/9)


Including data from other files

Abaqus reads data from an include file as if the data were directly in the Abaqus input file.
An include file can include any portion of an input file and can contain references to other include files.
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Data must be in the same format as required for input file dataall rules that apply to input file syntax
apply to data from included files.
Example: Input file referencing an include file
*HEADING
*INCLUDE, INPUT=node_and_element_numbers.txt
.
.
Contents of include file node_and_element_numbers.txt:
*NODE, NSET=TOPNODES
101, 0.345, 0.679, 0.223
102, 0.331, 0.699, 0.234
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=SEATPOST
560, 101, 102,
564, 102, 103

L1.38

Abaqus Input Conventions (1/8)

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Units
Abaqus uses no inherent set of units.
It is the users responsibility to use consistent units.
Example:
I. N, kg, m, s
or
II. N, 103 kg, mm, s
etc.

Common systems of consistent units

25

L1.39

Abaqus Input Conventions (2/8)

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Example: Properties of mild steel at room temperature

Quantity

U.S. units

SI units

Conductivity

28.9 Btu/ft hr F

50 W/m C

2.4 Btu/in hr F
Density

15.13 slug/ft3 (lbf s2/ft4)

7800 kg/m3

0.730 103 lbf s2/in4

0.282 lbm/in3
Elastic modulus

30 106 psi

207 109 Pa

Specific heat

0.11 Btu/lbm F

460 J/kg C

Yield stress

30

207 106 Pa

103

psi

L1.40

Abaqus Input Conventions (3/8)


Time measures

Abaqus keeps track of both total time in an analysis and step time for each analysis step.

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Time is physically meaningful for some analysis procedures, such as transient dynamics.

26

Time is not physically meaningful for some procedures. In rate-independent, static procedures time is
just a convenient, monotonically increasing measure for incrementing loads.

L1.41

Abaqus Input Conventions (4/8)


Coordinate systems

For input of initial nodal coordinates:

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The default is a rectangular Cartesian system.


Specify an alternative system using *SYSTEM or *NODE, SYSTEM=[RECTANGULAR |
CYLINDRICAL | SPHERICAL].
Do not affect loading or output because automatically converted internally to the global
rectangular Cartesian system.

L1.42

Abaqus Input Conventions (5/8)


For nodal loads, boundary conditions, initial conditions:

The default is a rectangular Cartesian system.


Specify an alternative system using the *TRANSFORM option.

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These directions do not rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses.


Example: Boundary conditions on a skew edge.

Use *TRANSFORM on
these nodes with YSYMM
boundary conditions

27

L1.43

Abaqus Input Conventions (6/8)


For material point directions (directions
associated with each elements material or
integration points):
Affect input: Anisotropic material
directions.

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Default material directions for solid elements

Affect output: Stress/strain output


directions.
The default depends on the element
type.
I. Solid elements use a global
rectangular Cartesian system.
II. Shell and membrane elements
use a projection of the global
Cartesian system onto the
surface.

Default material directions for shell and


membrane elements

L1.44

Abaqus Input Conventions (7/8)


Alternative local material coordinate systems can be specified using the *ORIENTATION option.

These directions rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses.


1

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28

L1.45

Abaqus Input Conventions (8/8)


Degrees of freedom

Primary solution variables at the nodes.

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Available nodal degrees of freedom depend on the element type.


Each degree of freedom is labeled with a number: 1=x-displacement, 2=y-displacement,
11=temperature, etc.

L1.46

Abaqus Output (1/8)


Output

Four types of output are available:

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Neutral binary output can be written to the output database (.odb) file using the *OUTPUT option
and related suboptions.
Printed output can be written to the data (.dat) file.

I. This is available only for Abaqus/Standard.


Restart output can be written to the restart (.res) file using the *RESTART option for the
purpose of conducting restart analyses (discussed in Lecture 4).
Results (.fil) file output can be written for use with third-party postprocessors.

29

L1.47

Abaqus Output (2/8)


Output to the output database file

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The output database file is used by


Abaqus/Viewer.
An interface (API) is available
in Python and C++ to use for external
postprocessing (e.g.,
to add data to display in
Abaqus/Viewer).
Two types of output data: field and history
data.
Field data is used for model (deformed,
contour, etc.) and
XY plots:
*OUTPUT, FIELD
History data is used for XY plots:
*OUTPUT, HISTORY

L1.48

Abaqus Output (3/8)


Frequency of output for either type can be controlled

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Field output can be requested according to

30

Number of increments (Abaqus/Standard only)


*OUTPUT, FIELD, FREQUENCY=n

Every n increments

Number of intervals
*OUTPUT, FIELD, NUMBER INTERVAL=n

At n evenly spaced time intervals

Time intervals
*OUTPUT, FIELD, TIME INTERVAL=x

Every x units of time

Time points
*OUTPUT, FIELD, TIME POINTS=t_out
*TIME POINTS, name = t_out

At user-specified time
points

L1.49

Abaqus Output (4/8)


History output can be requested according to:

Number of increments
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=n

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Number of intervals (Abaqus/Standard only)


*OUTPUT, HISTORY, NUMBER INTERVAL=n
Time intervals
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, TIME INTERVAL=x
Time points (Abaqus/Standard only)
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, TIME POINTS=t_out
*TIME POINTS, name=t_out

L1.50

Abaqus Output (5/8)


Requesting output to the output database file

If you have no output requests in your model, behavior depends on environment file (abaqus_v6.env)
settings:

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odb_output_by_default=ON: pre-selected output is written to the ODB


I. This is the default setting; output depends on the procedure type
odb_output_by_default=OFF: no ODB will be generated for your analysis
Default output can be overridden using any of the following suboptions of *OUTPUT :
*NODE OUTPUT
*ELEMENT OUTPUT
*ENERGY OUTPUT
*CONTACT OUTPUT
*INCREMENTATION OUTPUT (Abaqus/Explicit only)

31

L1.51

Abaqus Output (6/8)


Pre-selected ODB output

Pre-selected output depends on the procedure type.


For example, for a general static procedure:

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The default field output requests are for:


Stresses S
Total Strains E (or logarithmic strain LE if NLGEOM is active)
Plastic Strains PE, PEEQ, and PEMAG
Displacements and Rotations U
Reaction Forces and Moments RF
Concentrated (applied) Forces and Moments CF
Contact Stresses CSTRESS
Contact Displacements CDISP
The default history output request includes all model energies
For other procedures, see the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual

L1.52

Abaqus Output (7/8)


Output to the printed output file

These options allow tabular data to be written to an ASCII file that can be read with a text editor.
These options are available only for Abaqus/Standard.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Syntax:

32

*NODE PRINT
*EL PRINT
*ENERGY PRINT

L1.53

Abaqus Output (8/8)


Output to the restart file

If a simulation stops prematurely, the restart data can be used to start the simulation from some
intermediate point without repeating any calculations.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*RESTART, WRITE
This option is discussed further in Lecture 4.
Output to the results file
The results file can be used by third-party postprocessors.
*FILE OUTPUT
*NODE FILE
*EL FILE
*ENERGY FILE

(This option required for Abaqus/Explicit only)

Select specific output variables

L1.54

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (1/11)

Finite element model using beam elements

boundary conditions

node number

element number

point load

33

L1.55

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (2/11)


Abaqus input file with some annotations
This line will appear on each page of output.
Model data
*HEADING
CANTILEVER BEAM EXAMPLE
UNITS IN MM, N, MPa
*NODE
1, 0.0, 0.0
:
11, 200.0, 0.0
*NSET, NSET=END
11,
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=BEAMS
1, 1, 3
:
5, 9, 11
*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1
50.0, 5.0
** Material from XXX testing lab
*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1
*ELASTIC
elastic option block
2.0E5, 0.3
*BOUNDARY
1, ENCASTRE

heading option block

node option block

node set definition

element option block


property reference
option block
comment line
material option block
fixed boundary condition
option block

L1.56

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (3/11)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

History data

34

*STEP
APPLY POINT LOAD
*STATIC
*CLOAD
11, 2, -1200.0
*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT, FREQUENCY=10
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=END
U,
*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=10
S, E
*NODE FILE, FREQUENCY=5
U,
*END STEP

The history data begin with


the first *STEP option.

The history data end with


the last *END STEP option.

L1.57

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (4/11)


Property references using set names

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*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=BEAMS


1, 1, 3
*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1
50.0, 5.0
*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1
*ELASTIC
2.0E5, 0.3
The property reference *BEAM SECTION associates the element set BEAMS with the material definition
MAT1.
The option can also provide geometric information. In this case the
cross-section type is rectangular (RECT); the width is 50.0, and the height is 5.0.
All elements in a model must have an appropriate property reference. Solid elements reference *SOLID
SECTION, shell elements reference *SHELL SECTION, etc.

L1.58

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (5/11)


Material data
*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1
*ELASTIC
2.0E5, 0.3

material name
Poissons ratio

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elastic modulus

Definition for an isotropic linear elastic material


Abaqus interprets the options following a *MATERIAL option as part of the same material option block
until the next *MATERIAL option or the next nonmaterial property option, such as the *NODE option, is
encountered.
Options such as *ELASTIC are called suboptions and must be used in conjunction with the *MATERIAL
option.

35

L1.59

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (6/11)


Fixed boundary conditions
*BOUNDARY
1, 1, 6
range of degrees of freedom or type of BC (pinned, encastre, symmetry, antisymmetry)
node or node set

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Fixed boundary condition constraints are applied to active DOFs.


Prescribed nonzero boundary conditions can be included only in the history data.
Abaqus activates only the necessary degrees of freedom at a node. Thus, for this two-dimensional
example with only degrees of freedom 1, 2, and 6 active, the following are equivalent input data:
1,
1,
or
1,
or
1,

1, 2
6, 6
1, 6

The input file processor will issue a warning about


inactive degrees of freedom.

ENCASTRE

L1.60

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (7/11)


History definition
*STEP
APPLY POINT LOAD
*STATIC

Begins the history data


This line appears on every page of results
Specifies a static analysis procedure

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The *STEP option block can include a title of any length.

36

The procedure definition must be the first option after *STEP.

L1.61

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (8/11)


Loading
Definition of a concentrated load in the global negative 2-direction:

*CLOAD
11, 2, -1200.0

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magnitude
degree of freedom
node or node set

Many distributed loadings are also available, including surface pressure, body forces, centrifugal and
Coriolis loads, etc.

L1.62

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (9/11)


Output requests

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*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT, FREQUENCY=10


*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=END
U,

output to the output


database file

In this case we have requested field output of a preselected set of the most commonly used output
variables.
We have also requested history output of displacements for the previously defined node set END.
Since history output is usually requested at relatively high frequencies, the sets should be as
small as possible.
Each output request includes a FREQUENCY parameter.
If the analysis requires many increments, the FREQUENCY parameter specifies how often
results will be written.

37

L1.63

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (10/11)


*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=10
S, E
*NODE FILE, FREQUENCY=5
U,

Printed output to the data file


Output to the results file

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Tabular output is printed to the data (.dat) file for visual inspection using the *EL PRINT option.
In this case we have requested output of the stress (S) and strain (E) components.
Binary output is written to the legacy Abaqus results (.fil) file using the *NODE FILE option; output is
used for postprocessing in other postprocessors.
In this case we have requested output of the displacement (U) components.

L1.64

Example: Cantilever Beam Model (11/11)


End of step
*END STEP

ends the
analysis step

Each analysis step ends with the *END STEP option.

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The final option in the input file is the *END STEP option for the final analysis step.

38

L1.65

Parts and Assemblies (1/4)


The input file can be defined in terms of parts, part instances, and an assembly.

The same concept is employed when building a model in Abaqus/CAE.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Provides an inherent means of referring to distinct regions of the model. The user need not define
separate sets for this purpose.
Allows reuse of part definitions, which is valuable for creating large, complex models.
Labelsnode and element numbers, set namesneed be unique only within the level in which they are
defined.

L1.66

Parts and Assemblies (2/4)


Defining parts

A part is defined by using the *PART and *END PART options, which must appear outside of the
assembly definition. Each part must have a unique name.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Defining part instances


A part instance is defined by using the *INSTANCE and *END INSTANCE options within the assembly
definition. Each part instance must have a unique name.
Defining an assembly
The assembly is defined by using the *ASSEMBLY and *END ASSEMBLY options. Only one assembly
can be defined in a model.
Additional sets and surfaces, as well as constraints and rigid body definitions, must appear in the
assembly definition.

39

L1.67

Parts and Assemblies (3/4)


Example assembly input file
*HEADING
...
*PART, NAME=Tire

Node, element, section, set, and surface definitions

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*END PART
*PART, NAME=Rim

Node, element, section, set, and surface definitions


*END PART
...
*ASSEMBLY, NAME=Tire_and_rim
*INSTANCE, NAME=I_Tire, PART=Tire

<positioning data>
set and surface definitions (optional)
*END INSTANCE
*INSTANCE, NAME=I_Rim, PART=Rim

<positioning data>
set and surface definitions (optional)

...
*MATERIAL, NAME=Rubber
*AMPLITUDE
*INITIAL CONDITIONS
*PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
...
*STEP
*STATIC
*BOUNDARY
I_Rim.101, 1, 3, 0.0
*CLOAD
I_Tire.514, 2, 1000.0
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=10
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=Output
RF, CF
*END STEP

*END INSTANCE

Additional set and surface definitions


*NSET, NSET=Output
I_Tire.514, I_Tire.520
I_Rim.101, I_Rim.102
*END ASSEMBLY

L1.68

Parts and Assemblies (4/4)


Node labels for parts and the assembly

node label: I_Rim.101

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node label: 101

Part: Rim

node label:
514

node label: I_Tire.514


Part: Tire

40

Assembly: Tire_and_rim

Workshop Preliminaries (1/2)

L1.69

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1. Objectives
a. When you complete this exercise you will be able to extract all the files necessary to complete the
demonstrations and workshops associated with this course
2. Workshop file setup (option 1: installation via plug-in)
a. From the main menu bar, select
Plug-insTools Install Courses.
b. In the Install Courses dialog box:
i. Specify the directory to which the files will be written.
ii. Chooses the course(s) for which the files will be
extracted.
iii. Click OK.

5 minutes

Workshop Preliminaries (2/2)

L1.70

3. Workshop file setup (option 2: manual installation)


a. Find out where the Abaqus release is installed by typing
abqxxx whereami
where abqxxx is the name of the Abaqus execution procedure on your system. It can be defined to
have a different name. For example, the command for the 6.121 release might be aliased to abq6121.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

This command will give the full path to the directory where Abaqus is installed, referred to here as
abaqus_dir.
b. Extract all the workshop files from the course tar file by typing
UNIX:
Windows NT:

abqxxx perl abaqus_dir/samples/course_setup.pl


abqxxx perl abaqus_dir\samples\course_setup.pl

c. The script will install the files into the current working directory. You will be asked to verify this and to
choose which files you wish to install. Choose y for the appropriate lecture series when prompted. Once
you have selected the lecture series, type q to skip the remaining lectures and to proceed with the
installation of the chosen workshops.

5 minutes

41

Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (IA)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

L1.71

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


Workshop tasks
or keywords version of this workshop.
1. Use some of the Abaqus utility programs.
2. Open the online documentation, and search for useful information.
3. Use the online documentation to determine the syntax for various options.
4. Complete the model of a connecting lug.
5. Submit analyses a few different ways (datacheck only, complete analysis, interactive, and batch
submission).
6. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.
7. Become familiar with the contents of the printed output files.
8. Modify the model, and understand the changes to the results.

1 hour

Workshop 1: Basic Input and Output (KW)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


Workshop tasks
or keywords version of this workshop.
1. Use some of the Abaqus utility programs.
2. Open the online documentation, and search for useful information.
3. Use the online documentation to determine the syntax for various options.
4. Add some details to an existing input file to complete the model of a connecting lug.
5. Submit analyses a few different ways (datacheck only, complete analysis, interactive, and batch
submission).
6. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.
7. Become familiar with the contents of the printed output files.
8. Modify the model, and understand the changes to the results.

1 hour

42

L1.72

Notes

43

Notes

44

Lesson 2: Linear Static Analysis

L2.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures


Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases
Multiple Load Case Usage
Examples
Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (IA)
Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L2.2

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (1/6)


A fundamental concept in Abaqus is the division of the problem history into steps.

A step is any convenient phase of the historya thermal transient, a creep hold, a dynamic
transient, etc.

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In its simplest form a step can be just a static analysis of a load change from one magnitude to
another.

For each step the user chooses an analysis procedure.


This choice defines the type of analysis to be performed during the step: static stress analysis,
dynamic stress analysis, eigenvalue buckling, transient heat transfer analysis, etc.
The rest of the step definition consists of load, boundary, and output request specifications.

45

L2.3

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (2/6)


For example, consider the bow and arrow in the
figure. The analysis consists of four steps:

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Step 1: Pretension the bowstring


(static response).

Step 3 = Natural frequency


extraction

Step 2: Pull back the string


(static response).
Step 3: Investigate the natural
frequencies of the loaded
system.
Step 4: Release the bowstring
(dynamic response).

L2.4

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (3/6)


Abaqus distinguishes between two kinds of analysis procedures:

General analysis procedures*


Response can be linear or nonlinear.

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Steps that use general procedures are known as general steps.


The starting point for each general step is the state of the model at the end of the last general
step.
Linear perturbation procedures
Response can only be linear.
The linear perturbation is about a base state, which can be either the initial or the current
configuration of the model.
I. Response prior to reaching the base state can be nonlinear.
Steps that use linear procedures are known as perturbation steps.

* Abaqus/Explicit offers only general analysis steps.

46

L2.5

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (4/6)

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General procedures

Linear procedures

Static

Static

Direct cyclic

Eigenvalue buckling

Dynamic (transient)

Linear dynamics

Implicit

Natural frequency extraction

Explicit

Transient modal dynamics

Heat transfer

Steady-state dynamics

Mass diffusion

Response spectrum analysis

Coupled-field analysis

Random response analysis

Thermal-mechanical
Thermal-electrical
Thermal-electrical-structural
Pore fluid diffusion/stress

L2.6

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (5/6)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Default amplitude references


Different defaults for different analysis procedures
AMPLITUDE=RAMP for procedures without natural time scales:
*STATIC
*HEAT TRANSFER, STEADY STATE
*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, STEADY STATE
*SOILS, STEADY STATE
*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL, STEADY STATE
*STEADY STATE TRANSPORT

47

L2.7

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Linear and Nonlinear Procedures (6/6)


AMPLITUDE=STEP for procedures with natural time scales:
*DYNAMIC
*VISCO
*HEAT TRANSFER (transient)
*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT (transient)
*DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, EXPLICIT
*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL (transient)
*SOILS, CONSOLIDATION
*STEADY STATE DYNAMICS
Note: Frequency domain proceduresamplitude
*RANDOM RESPONSE
references define load versus frequency.
*MODAL DYNAMIC
A nonzero displacement boundary condition prescribed in an explicit dynamic procedure
(*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT) must refer to an amplitude option.

L2.8

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases (1/5)

48

Static analysis is the only procedure that can be performed as either a general or perturbation step:
General step: response can be linear or nonlinear
*STEP
*STATIC
Perturbation step: linear response
*STEP, PERTURBATION
*STATIC
One advantage of static linear perturbation steps is that they can consider multiple load cases.
A load case defines a set of loads and boundary conditions and may contain the following:
Concentrated and distributed loads
Boundary conditions (may change from load case to load case)
Inertia relief
In addition to the static linear perturbation procedure, multiple load cases can also be used for steadystate dynamic (SSD) analysis (either direct or SIM-based modal analysis).
For SIM-based SSD analysis, base motion may also be defined
as part of a load case.

L2.9

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases (2/5)


Multiple load cases are advantageous when analyzing components that are subjected to many different types
of loads.
Common in many industries.
For example, an aircraft experiences different loads during take-off, climb, cruise, descent, landing, and
taxiing.
Each load case is applied independently.
If the stiffness of the structure is assumed constant over all phases of the loading history (linear
assumption), a multiple load case analysis is an attractive option to determine the loading
envelope.
When investigating the linear static response of a structure subjected to distinct sets of loads and
boundary conditions, it is convenient (and generally more efficient) to use multiple load cases in a single
linear perturbation step rather than using multiple general or linear perturbation steps.

L2.10

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases (3/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multiple *LOAD CASE

Multiple *STEP, PERTURBATION

Element loop
(stiffness/
multiple RHS)

Element loop
(stiffness/
single RHS)

Primary factorization
(w/ possibly multiple
small factorizations)

Factorization
(or read factorized
matrix from .fct file)

Simultaneous
backsubstitution

Backsubstitution

Element loop
(simultaneous
recovery)

Element loop
(recovery)

Next *STEP

49

L2.11

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases (4/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example: An agricultural implement


This is an agricultural implement attached to and towed behind a tractor through a 3-point hitch.
The purpose of the hitch is to transfer towing loads to the implement, but otherwise to allow the
implement to float and move more or less independently of the tractor.

L2.12

Linear Static Analysis and Multiple Load Cases (5/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Three load cases


The connection is very flexible and the loads on the implement are not well defined, but are a
combination of many different types of loads.

Forward Loads

Lateral Loads

Vertical Loads

50

L2.13

Multiple Load Case Usage (1/7)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example: Bending of a plate

*Step, perturbation
*Static
*Load Case, name="Bending A"
*Boundary
right, 1, 6
*Cload
left, 3, 1.
*End Load Case
*Load Case, name="Bending B"
*Boundary
left, 1, 6
*Cload
right, 3, 1.
*End Load Case
*End Step

Node set right

Bending A
Node set left

Bending B

L2.14

Multiple Load Case Usage (2/7)


Basic rules
Load case names (Load Case, name=...) must be unique.

Load options specified outside of load cases apply to all load cases.
Base state boundary conditions propagate to all load cases.
Rules for using OP=NEW:

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If used anywhere in a load case step, must be used everywhere in that step.
If used on any BOUNDARY in a load case step, propagated boundary conditions will be
removed in all load cases.
LOAD CASE options do not propagate.

51

L2.15

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multiple Load Case Usage (3/7)


Changing boundary conditions from load case to load case
No performance penalty when boundary conditions change only in magnitude.
Limit number of boundary conditions that change location from load case to load case.
Depending on number and distribution of boundary conditions that change location, multiple load
case analysis may be significantly slower than equivalent multiple step analysis (very problem
dependent).
If in doubt, run datacheck analyses (multiple step versus multiple load case) and compare solver
information in data (.dat) file (e.g., memory requirements, number of floating point operations,
etc.).

L2.16

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multiple Load Case Usage (4/7)

52

Problem size
Combination of number of degrees of freedom and number of load cases determines problem size.
Multiple load case analyses may require more:
Memory than equivalent multiple step analyses (e.g., all right-hand sides must be kept in core
during backsubstitution).
Disk space (element and nodal databases).
If necessary, spread load cases over several steps to reduce memory/disk usage per step.
Worst case: Resort to multiple perturbation steps (again, compare solver information in data
(.dat) file).

L2.17

Multiple Load Case Usage (5/7)

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Output
Output requested per step (not per load case)
Available for the output database (.odb) and
data (.dat) files
For the output database file:
All output variables for a load case are
mapped to a frame.
I. Similar to the way increments are
mapped to frames.
Frame contains load case name.
Field output only (no history output).

L2.18

Multiple Load Case Usage (6/7)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Postprocessing with Abaqus/Viewer


Operations on entire frames supported
For selected frames, can create:
Linear combinations (e.g., linear
combination of load cases)
Min/Max envelope (e.g., find max
stresses over all load cases)

53

L2.19

Multiple Load Case Usage (7/7)

Mises stress: Bending B

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Mises stress: Bending A

Max value of Mises stress over both


frames

L2.20

Examples (1/5)
Square plate benchmark

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Model

54

# nodes/edge

# variables
(# dof)

101

61206

201

242406

501

1506006

751

3384006
Changing BCs

Number of load cases: 8 and 16


*Static, perturbation
Changing boundary condition locations at corners
Default output

L2.21

Examples (2/5)
Performance results: Total CPU time

4.E+04

CPU time (sec)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

8 Steps
8 Load Cases

3.E+04

16 Steps
16 Load Cases

2.E+04

1.E+04

0.E+00
0.E+00

1.E+06

2.E+06

3.E+06

4.E+06

Number of variables

L2.22

Examples (3/5)
Performance: Details for 751 751 model

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Relative CPU time3.4 M variable case


8 steps/8 load Cases

16 steps/16 load cases

Solver

7.52

14.3

Total

5.04

7.48

55

L2.23

Examples (4/5)
Modify 501 501 model
8 load cases
Boundary conditions on opposite edges
changing per load case

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Relative total CPU time: ~0.153


(multiple load case ~6.6 slower!)
Watch number and location of changing
boundary conditions!

Changing BCs

L2.24

Examples (5/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

A steady-state dynamics example : Chassis-bracket


mobility analysis
Number of variables: 534,000
Number of equations: 483,000
Number of load cases: 60
*Steady-state dynamics, direct
(10 frequency points)
Output: U (output database)

CPU time (sec)

56

60 steps (projected
based on 1 step)

60 load cases

Solver

1290 60 = 77,400

1990 (39 faster)

Total

1965 60 = 117,600

11,600 (10 faster)

Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (IA)


1.

L2.25

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

Objectives

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

a. When you complete this workshop you will be able to


i. Run a linear static analysis using a perturbation procedure with linear load cases
ii. Combine load case results and create envelope plots

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

1 hour

Workshop 2: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam (KW)


1.

L2.26

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

Objectives

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

a. When you complete this workshop you will be able to


i. Run a linear static analysis using a perturbation procedure with linear load cases
ii. Combine load case results and create envelope plots

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

1 hour

57

58

Notes

59

Notes

60

Lesson 3: Nonlinear Analysis in Abaqus

L3.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Nonlinearity in Structural Mechanics


Equations of Motion
Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods
Nonlinear Analysis Using Explicit Methods
Input File for Nonlinear Analysis
Status File
Message File
Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis
Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (IA)
Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L3.2

Nonlinearity in Structural Mechanics (1/4)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Sources of nonlinearity
Material nonlinearities:
Nonlinear elasticity
Plasticity
Material damage
Failure mechanisms
Etc.

Some examples of material nonlinearity


Note: material dependencies on temperature or field variables do not introduce nonlinearity if the
temperature or field variables are predefined.

61

L3.3

Nonlinearity in Structural Mechanics (2/4)

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Boundary nonlinearities:
Contact problems
I. Boundary conditions change
during the analysis.
II. Extremely discontinuous form of
nonlinearity.

An example of self-contact: Example


Problem 1.1.17, Compression of a jounce
bumper

L3.4

Nonlinearity in Structural Mechanics (3/4)

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Geometric nonlinearities:
Large deflections and deformations
Large rotations
Structural instabilities (buckling)
Preloading effects

An example of geometric nonlinearity: elastomeric


keyboard dome

62

L3.5

Nonlinearity in Structural Mechanics (4/4)


Typical nonlinear problems have all three forms of nonlinearity.

Must include the nonlinear terms in the equations.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Generally, the nonlinear equations for each degree of freedom are coupled.

L3.6

Equations of Motion (1/3)


Static equilibrium
The basic statement of static equilibrium is that the internal forces exerted on the nodes I (resulting from
the element stresses) and external forces P acting at every node must balance:

P I 0.

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Dynamic equilibrium
The major difference between a static and a dynamic analysis is the inclusion of the inertial forces Mu :

P I Mu,
where M is the mass and u is the acceleration of the structure.
This equation is simply Newtons second law of motion.

63

L3.7

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Equations of Motion (2/3)

L3.8

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Equations of Motion (3/3)


Incremental solution schemes
Nonlinear problems are generally solved in an incremental fashion.
For a static problem a fraction of the total load is applied to the structure and the equilibrium
solution corresponding to the current load level is obtained.
I. The load level is then increased (i.e., incremented) and the process is repeated until the full
load level is applied.
For a dynamic problem, the equations of motion are numerically integrated in time using discrete
time increments.
There are two techniques available to solve the nonlinear equations:
Implicit method
Can solve for both static and dynamic equilibrium.
Requires direct solution of a set of matrix equations to obtain the state at the end of the
increment.
I. Iteration required.
This method is used by Abaqus/Standard and is the focus of this lecture.
Explicit method
Can only solve the dynamic equilibrium equations.
I. Can perform quasi-static simulations, however.

The state at the end of the increment depends solely on the state at the beginning of the
increment
I. No iteration required.
This method is used by Abaqus/Explicit and will be discussed in a later lecture.

64

L3.9

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Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods (1/4)


Steps, increments, and iterations
Analysis steps
The load history for a simulation consists of one or more steps.
Increments
An increment is part of a step.
I. In static problems the total load applied in a step is broken into smaller increments so that
the nonlinear solution path may be followed.
II. In dynamic problems the total time period is broken into smaller increments to integrate the
equations of motion.
Iterations
An iteration is an attempt at finding the equilibrium solution in an increment.
Newton-Raphson method
Abaqus/Standard uses an incremental-iterative solution technique based on the Newton-Raphson
method.
The method is unconditionally stable (any size increments can be used).
Accuracy in dynamic analysis is affected by the increment size.
Each increment usually requires several iterations to achieve convergence, and each step is usually
made up of several increments.

L3.10

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Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods (2/4)

Additional iterations
not shown

Two convergence criteria:


1 Small residuals

Residual
Internal force

Small corrections

Correction

65

L3.11

Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods (3/4)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Equilibrium in a mesh: summary


1. Apply an increment of load or time.
2. Iterate until the sum of all forces acting on each node is small (statics) or is equal to the inertia force
(dynamics).
3. Update the state once equilibrium has been satisfied.
4. Go back to Step 1, and apply the next increment.

L3.12

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Nonlinear Analysis Using Implicit Methods (4/4)

66

Automatic time incrementation


Abaqus automatically adjusts the size of the increments so that nonlinear problems are solved easily
and efficiently.
Heuristic algorithm (based on many years of experience).
In static problems it is based on number of iterations required to converge.
Convergence is easily achieved:
I. increase increment size
Convergence difficult or divergence occurs:
I. cut back increment size
Otherwise:
I. maintain same increment size
Tip: For highly nonlinear problems, it is recommended that the initial time increment be chosen as a
small fraction (e.g., 10%) of the total step time.
In implicit dynamic problems, automatic time incrementation is based on the convergence behavior of
the Newton iterations and the accuracy of the time integration.
Details of the time increment control algorithm depend on the type of dynamic application.
Discussed further later.
Automatic time incrementation works very well. You should not change it without good reason.

L3.13

Nonlinear Analysis Using Explicit Methods


Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium using an explicit solution scheme:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

(t )

M 1 ( P I )

(t ) .

Velocity and displacements at time t + Dt updated explicitly.


Solution is trivial:
Diagonal mass matrix.
No iteration is required!
Conditionally stable.
The size of the time increment must be controlled.
Explicit methods generally require many, many more time increments than implicit methods for
the same problem.
Discontinuous forms of nonlinearity (e.g., contact) are handled more easily by explicit methods.
Explicit dynamics will be discussed further later.

L3.14

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Input File for Nonlinear Analysis (1/4)


*HEADING
CANTILEVER BEAM EXAMPLE--LARGE DISPLACEMENT
*NODE
1, 0., 0.
11, 200., 0.
*NGEN
1, 11, 1
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21
1, 1, 3
*ELGEN, ELSET=BEAMS
1, 5, 2, 1
*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=BEAMS, MATERIAL=MAT1
50., 5.
*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1
*ELASTIC
2.E5, .3
*BOUNDARY
1, 1, 6
*AMPLITUDE, NAME=RAMP
0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 0.3, 1.0, 1.0
*RESTART, WRITE,FREQ=3

67

L3.15

Input File for Nonlinear Analysis (2/4)

*STEP, NLGEOM=YES, INC=25


time period of
the step

APPLY POINT LOAD


*STATIC

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suggested initial
time increment

0.1, 1.0, 0.001, 1.0

major differences
from linear input
minimum time
increment
maximum time
increment

*CLOAD, AMPLITUDE=RAMP
11, 2, -1200.
*END STEP

major differences
from linear input

previously defined
amplitude function for
load application

L3.16

Input File for Nonlinear Analysis (3/4)


Step and procedure input

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*STEP, NLGEOM=YES, INC=25

68

NLGEOM=YES: include all nonlinear geometric effects due to:


Large deflections, rotations, deformation.
Preloading (initial stresses).
Load stiffness.
If the above effects are not significant, the predicted response of the model will be the same as with
NLGEOM=NO (default), but the analysis will be more expensive.
INC=25: maximum of 25 increments allowed in this example:
Abaqus will stop if the maximum number of increments is reached before the total load is applied.
Keeps the analysis from running too longyou can always restart.
Default value is 100.

L3.17

Input File for Nonlinear Analysis (4/4)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Similar time incrementation data exist for all transient procedures, which include
*STATIC
*DYNAMIC
*HEAT TRANSFER
*VISCO
*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT
*SOILS
*MODAL DYNAMIC (allows only fixed time incrementation)
*COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRIC
Physical or normalized time scale depending on the procedure and the presence of time-dependent or
rate-dependent behavior.

L3.18

Status File
Status (.sta) file

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Summarizes how analysis proceedsshows automatic time incrementation at work.


You can check the status file while the job is running.
One line written after each successful increment.

SUMMARY OF JOB INFORMATION:


STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL
DISCON ITERS ITERS
ITERS
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

3
2
2
2
4
2

3
2
2
2
4
2

TOTAL
TIME/
FREQ
0.100
0.200
0.350
0.575
0.913
1.00

STEP
TIME/LPF

0.100
0.200
0.350
0.575
0.913
1.00

INC OF
TIME/LPF

DOF
IF
MONITOR RIKS

0.1000
0.1000
0.1500
0.2250
0.3375
0.08750

THE ANALYSIS HAS COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY

69

L3.19

Message File

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Message (.msg) file includes:


All convergence controls:
The *CONTROLS option overrides defaultsnot usually needed
Details about certain model features:
Nondefault model features
Use of NLGEOM
Frequency of restart writes
All iteration details
Useful troubleshooting information:
Locations of highest residuals
Locations of excessive deformation
Locations of contact changes
Solver messages
Numerical singularities
These indicate that so many digits are lost during linear
equation solution that the results are not reliable. The most
common cause is an unconstrained rigid body mode in a static
stress analysis.
Zero pivots
These occur during linear equation solution when there is a
force term but no corresponding stiffness. Common causes are
unconstrained rigid body modes and overconstrained degrees
of freedom.
Negative eigenvalues
Negative eigenvalues indicate that the stiffness matrix is not
positive definite. For example, a buckling load may have been
exceeded.

L3.20

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (1/17)

S T E P

S T A T I C

A N A L Y S I S

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

APPLY POINT LOAD

70

AUTOMATIC TIME CONTROL WITH A SUGGESTED INITIAL TIME INCREMENT OF


AND A TOTAL TIME PERIOD OF
THE MINIMUM TIME INCREMENT ALLOWED IS
THE MAXIMUM TIME INCREMENT ALLOWED IS
LINEAR EQUATION SOLVER TYPE

0.100
1.00
1.000E-03
1.00

DIRECT SPARSE

CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE PARAMETERS FOR FORCE


CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE
FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
CRITERION FOR DISP.
CORRECTION IN A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
INITIAL VALUE OF TIME AVERAGE FORCE
AVERAGE FORCE
IS TIME AVERAGE FORCE
ALTERNATE CRIT. FOR RESIDUAL FORCE
FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
CRITERION FOR ZERO FORCE
RELATIVE TO TIME AVRG. FORCE
CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE
WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX
CRITERION FOR DISP.
CORRECTION WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX
CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL FORCE
FOR A LINEAR INCREMENT
FIELD CONVERSION RATIO
CRITERION FOR ZERO FORCE
REL. TO TIME AVRG. MAX. FORCE
CRITERION FOR ZERO DISP.
RELATIVE TO CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH

5.000E-03
1.000E-02
1.000E-02
2.000E-02
1.000E-05
1.000E-05
1.000E-03
1.000E-08
1.00
1.000E-05
1.000E-08

L3.21

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (2/17)

CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE PARAMETERS FOR MOMENT


CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT
FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
CRITERION FOR ROTATION CORRECTION IN A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
INITIAL VALUE OF TIME AVERAGE MOMENT
AVERAGE MOMENT
IS TIME AVERAGE MOMENT
ALTERNATE CRIT. FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT
FOR A NONLINEAR PROBLEM
CRITERION FOR ZERO MOMENT
RELATIVE TO TIME AVRG. MOMENT
CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT
WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX
CRITERION FOR ROTATION CORRECTION WHEN THERE IS ZERO FLUX
CRITERION FOR RESIDUAL MOMENT
FOR A LINEAR INCREMENT
FIELD CONVERSION RATIO
CRITERION FOR ZERO MOMENT
REL. TO TIME AVRG. MAX. MOMENT

VOLUMETRIC STRAIN COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR HYBRID SOLIDS


AXIAL STRAIN COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR HYBRID BEAMS
TRANS. SHEAR STRAIN COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR HYBRID BEAMS
SOFT CONTACT CONSTRAINT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR P>P0
SOFT CONTACT CONSTRAINT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR P=0.0
CONTACT FORCE ERROR TOLERANCE FOR CONVERT SDI=YES
DISPLACEMENT COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR DCOUP ELEMENTS
ROTATION COMPATIBILITY TOLERANCE FOR DCOUP ELEMENTS

5.000E-03
1.000E-02
1.000E-02
2.000E-02
1.000E-05
1.000E-05
1.000E-03
1.000E-08
1.00
1.000E-05

1.000E-05
1.000E-05
1.000E-05
5.000E-03
0.100
1.00
1.000E-05
1.000E-05

EQUILIBRIUM WILL BE CHECKED FOR SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS

L3.22

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (3/17)

TIME INCREMENTATION CONTROL PARAMETERS:


FIRST EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION FOR CONSECUTIVE DIVERGENCE CHECK
EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION AT WHICH LOG. CONVERGENCE RATE CHECK BEGINS
EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION AFTER WHICH ALTERNATE RESIDUAL IS USED
MAXIMUM EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS ALLOWED
EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION COUNT FOR CUT-BACK IN NEXT INCREMENT
MAXIMUM EQUILIB. ITERS IN TWO INCREMENTS FOR TIME INCREMENT INCREASE
MAXIMUM ITERATIONS FOR SEVERE DISCONTINUITIES
MAXIMUM CUT-BACKS ALLOWED IN AN INCREMENT
MAXIMUM DISCON. ITERS IN TWO INCREMENTS FOR TIME INCREMENT INCREASE
CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER DIVERGENCE
0.2500
CUT-BACK FACTOR FOR TOO SLOW CONVERGENCE
0.5000
CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER TOO MANY EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS
0.7500
CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER TOO MANY SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS
0.2500
CUT-BACK FACTOR AFTER PROBLEMS IN ELEMENT ASSEMBLY
0.2500
INCREASE FACTOR AFTER TWO INCREMENTS THAT CONVERGE QUICKLY
1.500
MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED
1.500
MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED (DYNAMICS)
1.250
MAX. TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR ALLOWED (DIFFUSION)
2.000
MINIMUM TIME INCREMENT RATIO FOR EXTRAPOLATION TO OCCUR
0.1000
MAX. RATIO OF TIME INCREMENT TO STABILITY LIMIT
1.000
FRACTION OF STABILITY LIMIT FOR NEW TIME INCREMENT
0.9500
TIME INCREMENT INCREASE FACTOR BEFORE A TIME POINT
1.000
GLOBAL STABILIZATION CONTROL IS NOT USED

4
8
9
16
10
4
50
5
50

71

L3.23

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (4/17)

PRINT OF INCREMENT NUMBER, TIME, ETC., EVERY

RESTART FILE WILL BE WRITTEN EVERY

INCREMENTS

INCREMENTS

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INCREMENTS IN THIS STEP IS

25

LARGE DISPLACEMENT THEORY WILL BE USED


LINEAR EXTRAPOLATION WILL BE USED
CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENT LENGTH

40.0

DETAILED OUTPUT OF DIAGNOSTICS TO DATABASE REQUESTED


PRINT OF INCREMENT NUMBER, TIME, ETC., TO THE MESSAGE FILE EVERY

INCREMENTS

EQUATIONS ARE BEING REORDERED TO MINIMIZE WAVEFRONT


COLLECTING MODEL CONSTRAINT INFORMATION FOR OVERCONSTRAINT CHECKS
COLLECTING STEP CONSTRAINT INFORMATION FOR OVERCONSTRAINT CHECKS

L3.24

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (5/17)

INCREMENT

1 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

72

0.100
1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
1.251E+03
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-4.637E+03
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

1.251E+03
DOF 1
DOF 2
0.005
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
7.200E+03
TIME AVG. MOMENT
7.200E+03
RESIDUAL MOMENT
28.8
AT NODE
9
DOF 6
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
0.005
ROTATION CORRECTION TOO LARGE COMPARED TO ROTATION INCREMENT .
36
CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION
2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
37.8
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
0.215
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-1.007E-02
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

37.8
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
7.200E+03
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-0.346
AT NODE
5
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
5.898E-07
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

7.200E+03
0.005
DOF 6
DOF 6
36
DOF 6

6.25

0.005
0.2

L3.25

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (6/17)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
37.7
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-2.281E-06
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
3.349E-05
AT NODE
11
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

37.7
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
7.200E+03
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
1.523E-05
AT NODE
7
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
3.637E-07
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

7.200E+03
0.005
DOF 6
DOF 6
36
DOF 6

0.005
0.2

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


3 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 3 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.
TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.100
0.100

,
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

4 or fewer
iterations
(do this again
and Dt
can increase)

0.100
0.100

L3.26

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (7/17)

INCREMENT

2 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

0.100

no increase

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
75.6
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
0.861
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-2.013E-02
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

56.7
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
1.440E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-1.38
AT NODE
5
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
3.914E-06
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

1.080E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

73

L3.27

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (8/17)

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
144.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-6.928E-05
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-1.84
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
1.701E-04
AT NODE
11
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

90.9
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
1.600E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
1.160E+04
RESIDUAL MOMENT
1.218E-04
AT NODE
7
DOF 6
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-1.382E-02
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
1.804E-06
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED
2 consecutive increments with
TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO
0.150
4 or fewer iterations: Dt = 1.5Dtold
ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:
2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.
TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.100
0.200

,
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.200
0.200

L3.28

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (9/17)

INCREMENT

3 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

74

0.150

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
133.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
3.02
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-2.75
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-3.764E-02
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

105.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
2.518E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-4.47
AT NODE
5
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-2.071E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
1.722E-05
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

1.613E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

L3.29

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (10/17)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
252.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-7.965E-04
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-2.75
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
5.629E-04
AT NODE
11
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

145.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
2.798E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
7.461E-04
AT NODE
7
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-2.070E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
5.967E-06
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED
TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO
0.225

1.706E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED


STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.150
0.350

,
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

RESTART INFORMATION WRITTEN IN STEP

AFTER INCREMENT

4 or
fewer

0.350
0.350
3

L3.30

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (11/17)

INCREMENT

4 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

0.225

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
1.528E+03
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-4.550E+03
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-5.95
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-1.82
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

490.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
4.853E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-344.
AT NODE
9
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-4.477E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
-1.371E-02
AT NODE
11
MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

2.493E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

75

L3.31

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (12/17)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
281.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
0.349
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-5.94
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-9.348E-03
AT NODE
11
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

179.
DOF 2
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
4.847E+04
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-2.26
AT NODE
5
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-4.471E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
5.353E-05
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED
TIME INCREMENT MAY NOW INCREASE TO
0.338

2.491E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.
TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.225
0.575

,
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.575
0.575

L3.32

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (13/17)

INCREMENT

5 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

76

0.338

Dt = 1.5Dtold

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
1.248E+04
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-3.911E+04
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-14.2
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-5.31
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

2.638E+03
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
1.049E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-4.323E+03
AT NODE
9
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-0.107
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
-4.037E-02
AT NODE
11
MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

4.090E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
556.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
16.6
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-14.2
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-8.119E-02
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

254.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
1.044E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-42.5
AT NODE
5
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-0.107
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
1.095E-04
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

4.080E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

L3.33

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (14/17)

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
INCREMENT OF DISP.
CORRECTION TO DISP.
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT

559.
TIME AVG. FORCE
-28.9
AT NODE
11
-14.1
AT NODE
11
0.130
AT NODE
11
ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

255.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE MOMENT
1.153E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
4.299E+04
LARGEST RESIDUAL MOMENT
3.833E-02
AT NODE
5
DOF 6
LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-0.106
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION
1.112E-03
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
ESTIMATE OF ROTATION CORRECTION
-1.004E-06
MOMENT
EQUILIB. ACCEPTED BASED ON SMALL RESIDUAL AND ESTIMATED CORRECTION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST
AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

The residual is within tolerance, but the rotation


CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION
4
correction is too large. The estimate of the rotation
of the FORCE
next iteration is acceptably
small.
FORCE
1.053E+03 correction
TIME AVG.
354.
RESIDUAL FORCE
1.092E-03
AT NODE
11
DOF 2
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-14.1
AT NODE
11
DOF 2
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-2.092E-04
AT NODE
11
DOF 2
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED
MOMENT
1.153E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
-2.910E-02
AT NODE
7
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-0.106
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
-1.875E-06
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

4.299E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


3 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 3 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.
TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

0.338
0.913

,
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

0.913
0.913

L3.34

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (15/17)

INCREMENT

6 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

8.750E-02

FORCE
641.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
74.0
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-3.55
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
-0.180
AT NODE
11
FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

402.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 1

AVERAGE MOMENT
1.179E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
5.547E+04
LARGEST RESIDUAL MOMENT
-99.4
AT NODE
5
DOF 6
LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-2.702E-02
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION
5.186E-04
AT NODE
11
DOF 6
ESTIMATE OF ROTATION CORRECTION
-1.594E-05
MOMENT
EQUILIB. ACCEPTED BASED ON SMALL RESIDUAL AND ESTIMATED CORRECTION
CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
695.
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-0.505
AT NODE
11
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-3.53
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO DISP.
1.386E-02
AT NODE
11
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

411.
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

MOMENT
1.309E+05
TIME AVG. MOMENT
RESIDUAL MOMENT
8.716E-02
AT NODE
7
INCREMENT OF ROTATION
-2.687E-02
AT NODE
11
CORRECTION TO ROTATION
1.493E-04
AT NODE
11
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

5.764E+04
DOF 6
DOF 6
DOF 6

77

L3.35

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (16/17)

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


2 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
0 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 2 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.
TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

8.750E-02,
1.00
,

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

RESTART INFORMATION WRITTEN IN STEP

AFTER INCREMENT

1.00
1.00
6

THE ANALYSIS HAS BEEN COMPLETED

ANALYSIS SUMMARY:
TOTAL OF
6
0
15
15
15
Look here for warning
0
and error messages.
1
Search the message
0
file and data file to
0
determine the causes
3
of these messages.
0
0
0
0

INCREMENTS
CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION
ITERATIONS INCLUDING CONTACT ITERATIONS IF PRESENT
PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH
INVOLVE MATRIX DECOMPOSITION, INCLUDING
DECOMPOSITION(S) OF THE MASS MATRIX
REORDERING OF EQUATIONS TO MINIMIZE WAVEFRONT
ADDITIONAL RESIDUAL EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES
ADDITIONAL OPERATOR EVALUATIONS FOR LINE SEARCHES
WARNING MESSAGES DURING USER INPUT PROCESSING
WARNING MESSAGES DURING ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NUMERICAL PROBLEM MESSAGES
ANALYSIS WARNINGS ARE NEGATIVE EIGENVALUE MESSAGES
ERROR MESSAGES

L3.36

Output from Nonlinear Cantilever Beam Analysis (17/17)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Visual diagnostics in Abaqus/Viewer

A similar display is given for


rotational degrees of freedom

Toggle on to see the locations in


the model where the largest
residuals and displacement
increments and corrections
occur.

78

L3.37

Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (IA)

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1. Workshop tasks
1. Define alternate material directions
corresponding to the skew angle of the plate.
2. Analyze the deformation of the skew plate with and
without considering nonlinear geometric effects.
3. Include plasticity in the material definition.
4. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

1 hour

Workshop 3: Nonlinear Statics (KW)

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1. Workshop tasks
1. Define alternate material directions
corresponding to the skew angle of the plate.
2. Analyze the deformation of the skew plate with and
without considering nonlinear geometric effects.
3. Include plasticity in the material definition.
4. View the results using Abaqus/Viewer.

L3.38

1 hour

79

80

Notes

81

Notes

82

Lesson 4: Multistep Analysis in Abaqus

L4.1

Lesson content:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multistep Analyses
Restart Analysis in Abaqus
Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (IA)
Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

1 hour

L4.2

Multistep Analyses (1/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

It is often convenient to divide an Abaqus analysis into multiple steps


so that loads or boundary conditions can be applied in steps or output requests can be modified.
Usually there are several general analysis steps.
Response can be linear or nonlinear
General steps can be punctuated by perturbation steps.
Response is linear perturbation about a base state
What is the base state?
The base state is the current state of the model at the end of the last general analysis step (prior to the
linear perturbation step).

83

L4.3

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multistep Analyses (2/9)


Possible step sequences
General step followed by another general step
General step continues from where previous general step ended
Loads are considered total loads
General step followed by perturbation step
Perturbation response about preceding general step
Loads are considered perturbation loads
Perturbation step followed by another perturbation step
These act as a series of independent steps in the analysis
Some ordering rules apply (e.g., frequency extraction before modal dynamics)
Perturbation step followed by a general step
General step continues from end of previous general step (if any)
The perturbation response is ignored in the general step that follows

L4.4

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multistep Analyses (3/9)

84

Some comments on following a general step with a perturbation step


Perturbation step results are perturbations about the base state.
If geometric nonlinearity is included in the general analysis upon which a linear perturbation study
is based, stress stiffening or softening effects and load stiffness effects (from pressure and other
follower forces) are included in the linear perturbation analysis.
Eigenvalue buckling analyses are an exception:
I. The base state in a buckling analysis always includes the effects of stresses from previous
general steps even if geometric nonlinearity was not considered.
The contact state of the most recent general step is enforced in the perturbation step.

L4.5

Multistep Analyses (4/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Vibrating cable simulationApproach 1

Step

Action

Step type

Stretch cable

General analysis step with NLGEOM

Frequency
extraction

Linear perturbation step performed about the ending


condition of Step 1 (base state)

More stretching

General analysis step continuing from the ending


condition of Step 1 (last nonlinear step)

Another frequency
extraction

Linear perturbation step performed about the ending


condition of Step 3 (new base state)

L4.6

Multistep Analyses (5/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Vibrating cable simulationApproach 2


The history could be modified to be a series of separate general analysis steps to obtain the
eigenfrequency of the lowest mode:

Step

Action

Stretch cable

Deflect cable in the transverse direction

Release the applied deflection, and watch the cable vibrate

85

L4.7

Multistep Analyses (6/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

History definition:
*STEP, NLGEOM
STEP 1: STRETCH CABLE
*STATIC
*CLOAD
This load remains throughout
13, 1, 500.
the analysis unless it is
*RESTART, WRITE
explicitly modified or removed.
*NODE FILE
U
*EL PRINT
S, MISES, E
*NODE PRINT
U, RF, CF
*END STEP
**
*STEP, NLGEOM
STEP 2: DEFLECT MIDPOINT
*STATIC
.1, 1.
*BOUNDARY, OP=MOD The midpoint deflection is added to the
other boundary conditions specified in the
7, 2, 2, -1.
model definition.
*END STEP

L4.8

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Multistep Analyses (7/9)

86

**
*STEP, NLGEOM, INC=200
STEP 3:RELEASE & SEE VIBRATE
*DYNAMIC
** use fixed time incs for
** this example
** dtinit, ttot, dtmin, dtmax
.0002, .04
*BOUNDARY, OP=NEW
All previously specified boundary conditions are
1, 1, 2
removed, and the pin and roller conditions are
13, 2
redefined. The midpoint deflection is removed
*PRINT, FREQUENCY=100
since it is not redefined.
*EL PRINT, FREQUENCY=0
*NODE PRINT, FREQUENCY=0
*END STEP

L4.9

Multistep Analyses (8/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The status file (jobid.sta) summarizes the incrementation of the analysis.


SUMMARY OF JOB INFORMATION:
STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL TOTAL
STEP
INC OF
DOF
IF
DISCON ITERS ITERS
TIME/
TIME/LPF
TIME/LPF
MONITOR RIKS
ITERS
FREQ
1
1
1
0
2
2
1.00
1.00
1.000
2
1
1
0
2
2
1.10
0.100
0.1000
2
2
1
0
1
1
1.20
0.200
0.1000
2
3
1
0
1
1
1.35
0.350
0.1500
2
4
1
0
1
1
1.58
0.575
0.2250
2
5
1
0
1
1
1.91
0.913
0.3375
2
6
1
0
1
1
2.00
1.00
8.7500E-02
3
1
1
0
1
1
2.00
2.000E-04 2.0000E-04
3
2
1
0
1
1
2.00
4.000E-04 2.0000E-04
3
3
1
0
1
1
2.00
6.000E-04 2.0000E-04
--------------------------------------------------------------.
.
.
--------------------------------------------------------------3 195
1
0
1
1
2.04
3.900E-02 2.0000E-04
3 196
1
0
1
1
2.04
3.920E-02 2.0000E-04
3 197
1
0
1
1
2.04
3.940E-02 2.0000E-04
3 198
1
0
1
1
2.04
3.960E-02 2.0000E-04
3 199
1
0
1
1
2.04
3.980E-02 2.0000E-04
3 200
1
0
1
1
2.04
4.000E-02 2.0000E-04

L4.10

Multistep Analyses (9/9)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The dynamic response in Step 3 can be examined as an XY plot in Abaqus/Viewer.

87

L4.11

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (1/7)


Restart files are used to:
Continue analyses that stop at intermediate points.
A job may stop because:
I. The maximum number of increments specified for the step was reached.
II. There was not enough disk space, or the machine failed.
III. The job failed to converge.
You may wish to continue the job after:
I. Examining results up to a particular point.
II. Modifying history: procedure, loading, output, or controls.
Import results between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit.

L4.12

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (2/7)


Restart option syntax: Abaqus/Standard

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*RESTART, READ, STEP= , INC= , END STEP, WRITE, FREQUENCY | NUMBER INTERVAL= ,
TIME MARKS=, OVERLAY

88

READ, STEP, and INC

Used to specify that restart data from a previous analysis should be read at
a particular step and increment. (The default is to read from the last
available restart data.)

END STEP

Used when reading restart data; described later.

WRITE, FREQUENCY,
NUMBER INTERVAL,

Control when restart data are written during an analysis. Restart data and
TIME MARKS are always written at the end of a step if WRITE is specified.

OVERLAY

Causes Abaqus to save only the last set of restart data. (There will be only
one set of restart data per step.)

L4.13

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (3/7)


Restart option syntax: Abaqus/Explicit
The Abaqus/Explicit restart files allow an analysis to be completed up to a certain point (an interval of
restart output) in a particular run and restarted and continued in a subsequent run.
The package, state, and initial restart files are needed to restart an Abaqus/Explicit simulation.
The syntax for restarting an Abaqus/Explicit simulation is just slightly different from that used for
Abaqus/Standard:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*RESTART, READ, STEP=P, INTERVAL=Q


In this example the analysis is restarted just after the completion of interval Q of step P.

L4.14

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (4/7)


Submission of a restart job:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

abaqus job=job-name oldjob=oldjob-name


name of the
name of the
restart file
new input file
created by the
previous run
The following model data can be changed in a restart analysis:
Amplitude definitions
Node sets
Element sets

89

L4.15

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (5/7)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Vibrating cable simulationApproach 3: Restart analysis


Another approach to the vibrating cable simulation is to perform a restart analysis.

Analysis Job 1

Step 1

Apply tension
Write restart data

Analysis Job 2

Step 2

Read restart information


Deflect midpoint of cable

Step 3

Release midpoint and study vibration

L4.16

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (6/7)

90

*HEADING
READ SOLUTION AT END OF STEP 1 AND
CONTINUE
THE VIBRATING CABLE SIMULATION
*RESTART, READ, STEP=1, INC=1
**
*STEP, NLGEOM
STEP 2: DEFLECT MIDPOINT
*STATIC
.1, 1.
*BOUNDARY, OP=MOD
7, 2, 2, -1.
*END STEP
**
*STEP, NLGEOM, INC=200
STEP 3: RELEASE & SEE VIBRATE
*DYNAMIC
.0002, .04
*BOUNDARY, OP=NEW
1, 1, 2
13, 2
*END STEP

Model definition and Step 1


data are read from the restart
file that was produced by the
original analysis.

L4.17

Restart Analysis in Abaqus (7/7)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Managing complex analyses


The flexible restart capabilities in Abaqus are very helpful for managing complex analyses. There are
three important rules to remember:
1 It is not possible to append to a restart file.
I. Abaqus always reads from an old restart file and writes to a new one.
II. Analyses consisting of several restarts will also have several restart files.
III. Like the restart file, the output database (.odb) file is not appended to.

2
3

Each restart analysis has its own output database file.


IV. The results (.fil) file for a restarted run contains the previous results plus the results from
the current analysis (by default).
All output requests and loads from the previous run remain in effect upon job restart unless
explicitly modified in a new step.
If Abaqus is restarting from an unfinished run, it will first try to finish the step it was working on
during the original analysis before starting any new steps.
I. Abaqus will finish only the step it was working on during the original analysis.
It will not attempt any additional steps defined in the original analysis.
Those steps must be included in the restart analysis input file if they are to be
performed.
II. Use the END STEP parameter to terminate the step from which the restart is read before
continuing with a newly defined step.
III. Use the END STEP parameter to continue an analysis that stopped because the maximum
number of increments was reached.

Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (IA)


Workshop tasks
a. Perform a restart analysis.
i.
Unload the plate.
b. Postprocess the results.

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

L4.18

30 minutes

91

Workshop 4: Unloading Analysis (KW)


Workshop tasks
a. Perform a restart analysis.
i.
Unload the plate.
b. Postprocess the results.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

30 minutes

92

L4.19

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

Notes

93

Notes

94

Lesson 5: Constraints and Contact

L5.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Constraints
Tie Constraints
Rigid Bodies
Shell-to-solid Coupling
Contact
Defining General Contact
Defining Contact Pairs
Contact Pair Surfaces
Local Surface Behavior
Relative Sliding of Points in Contact
Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact
Contact Output
Workshop 5: Seal Contact (IA)
Workshop 5: Seal Contact (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.
2.5 hours

L5.2

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Constraints (1/4)
What are constraints?
Constraints allow you to model kinematic relationships between points.
These relationships are defined between degrees of freedom in the model.
Examples:
Tie constraints
Rigid body constraints
Shell-to-solid coupling
Multi-point constraints

95

L5.3

Constraints (2/4)

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Tie constraints
Allow you to fuse together two regions even though the meshes created on the surfaces of the
regions may be dissimilar.

Tie constraints used to join a mesh


containing hexahedral and
tetrahedral elements.

L5.4

Constraints (3/4)

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Rigid body constraints


Allow you to constrain the motion of
regions of the assembly to the motion of
a reference point.
Used to model parts which are massive
and stiff compared to other bodies in the
assembly (e.g., tools in a forming
analysis).
Rollers are
modeled as rigid
Rolling of a symmetric I-section

Shell-to-solid coupling
Couples the motion of a shell edge to
the motion of an adjacent solid face

96

L5.5

Constraints (4/4)
Multi-point constraints (MPCs)
Linear or nonlinear constraints between nodes.
Linear equations are a form of MPC

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

i th node

u1i u1bot 0
This linear equation
constraint is applied to all
nodes on the right-hand
edge of the model to
impose generalized plane
strain conditions.

Infinite plate quenching problem

bot

L5.6

Tie Constraints (1/3)

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In Abaqus fully constrained contact behavior is defined using tie constraints.


A tie constraint provides a simple way to bond surfaces together permanently.
Easy mesh transitioning.
Surface-based constraint using a master-slave formulation*.
The constraint prevents slave nodes from separating or sliding relative to the master surface.

Tie constraints

*The concept of master/slave surfaces as well as the


steps to define surfaces will be discussed shortly.

97

L5.7

Tie Constraints (2/3)


Syntax:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*TIE, NAME=name, ADJUST=[YES | NO],


[POSITION TOLERANCE | TIE NSET]
SLAVE, MASTER
The POSITION TOLERANCE parameter defines the distance within which nodes on the slave
surface must lie from the master surface to be tied.
I. Nodes on the slave surface that are farther away from the master surface than this distance
will not be tied.
Alternatively, the TIE NSET parameter can be used to indicate the node set that includes the
nodes on the slave surface that will be tied to the master surface.
I. Nodes included in the slave surface but not included in this node set will not be tied.

L5.8

Tie Constraints (3/3)


The ADJUST parameter is optional.
Setting it to YES moves all slave nodes (within the distance defined by the optional POSITION
TOLERANCE parameter) onto the master surface in the initial configuration, without any strain.
The status of a slave node (open or closed) is given in the data (.dat) file.

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A warning is issued in the printed output file for slave nodes in tie constraints that are not in
contact.
By default, both translational and rotational degrees of freedom are constrained.
Use the NO ROTATION parameter if rotation degrees of freedom should not be constrained.
Do not apply boundary conditions, equations, or MPCs to the slave nodes of a tie constraint; this will
cause the nodes to be overconstrained, resulting in errors in the analysis.
Symptoms:
I. Zero pivot warnings in the message (.msg) file in Abaqus/Standard
II. Deformation wave speed errors in Abaqus/Explicit

98

L5.9

Rigid Bodies (1/13)


Abaqus has a general rigid body capability.
A rigid body is a collection of nodes and elements whose motion is governed by the motion of a
single node called a reference node.

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Any body or part of a body can be defined as a rigid body.


A rigid body can undergo arbitrarily large rigid body motions.
Rigid bodies are computationally efficient.
Their motion is described completely by no more than six degrees of freedom.
There are no element calculations for elements making up a rigid body.
Model a body as rigid if it is much stiffer than other bodies with which it will come in contact; for
example, dies in a metal forming simulation.

L5.10

Rigid Bodies (2/13)

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Three approaches to geometry definition for rigid bodies:


Define a rigid body using a combination of element types (including rigid elements) and declaring
the body to be rigid.
I. Discrete geometry of general shape
Define an analytical rigid surface.
I. Surface geometry of limited shape
Write a user subroutine (RSURFU; Abaqus/Standard only).
The first two approaches are discussed in this lecture.

99

L5.11

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Rigid Bodies (3/13)


A rigid body definition consists of
1 reference node
and at most:
1 element set (discrete rigid body)
1 tie node set
1 pin node set
1 analytical surface
Each rigid body definition must be unique.
Rigid body definitions cannot share nodes, elements, or reference nodes.

L5.12

Rigid Bodies (4/13)

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Discrete rigid bodies


Most element types can be part of a rigid body.
For example, solid elements or rigid elements can be used to model the same effect as long as a
*RIGID BODY option is used to assign the elements to the rigid body.
Example of defining a rigid body containing solid elements:

100

*ELEMENT, TYPE=C3D8R, ELSET=SOLID1


...
*SOLID SECTION, ELSET=SOLID1, MATERIAL=STEEL
*MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL
*ELASTIC
200.0E9, 0.3
*DENSITY
7800.0,
*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=10000, ELSET=SOLID1

L5.13

Rigid Bodies (5/13)


Pin vs. Tie nodes
Each rigid body slave node can be specified to be one of two types: a pin node or a tie node
Even when rigid bodies contain elements, additional node sets can be included in the constraint to
provide more connection points for deformable elements.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=10000, PIN NSET= , TIE NSET=


Pin nodes have only their translational degrees of freedom associated with the rigid body.
Connections from a rigid body to deformable elements through a pin node transmit only
displacement and force.
Tie nodes have both their translational and rotational degrees of freedom associated with the rigid body.
Connections from a rigid body to deformable elements through a tie node transmit rotation and
moment in addition to displacement and force.

L5.14

Rigid Bodies (6/13)

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rigid

tie node

pin node

deformable

Initial configuration

Final configuration after


counterclockwise rotation through
45

101

L5.15

Rigid Bodies (7/13)


The default tie classification takes precedence for nodes attached to more than one element type.

For example, if a node is attached to both CPE3 and B21 elements, the node will be a tie node by
default.

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Default node types can be overridden by including the same node in a pin or tie node set.
*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set, PIN NSET=node set,
TIE NSET=node set

thickness

L5.16

Rigid Bodies (8/13)


Analytical rigid surfaces

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Three types of analytical surfaces are available using the *SURFACE option:
Use TYPE=SEGMENTS to define a two-dimensional rigid surface.
Use TYPE=CYLINDER to define a three-dimensional rigid surface that is extruded infinitely in the
out-of-plane direction.
Use TYPE=REVOLUTION to define a three-dimensional surface of revolution.

102

Analytical rigid surfaces are not smoothed automatically. Contact calculations are easier with smoothed
surfaces, however.
Use the FILLET RADIUS parameter to provide the radius used to smooth segments of the
analytical rigid surface.

Use the *RIGID BODY option to assign the surface to a rigid body and assign the reference node.

L5.17

Rigid Bodies (9/13)

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Example of analytical rigid surface input syntax:

TYPE=SEGMENTS

*SURFACE, TYPE=SEGMENTS, NAME=SRIGID


START, 15.0, 5.0
Order of segments determines normal n by defining s. n = z s, where z
CIRCL, 10.0, 0.0, 10.0, 5.0
is a unit vector parallel to the z-axis and contact is in the direction of n.
LINE, 5.0, 0.0
*RIGID BODY, ANALYTICAL SURFACE=SRIGID, REF NODE=10000

L5.18

Rigid Bodies (10/13)

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Kinematics of rigid bodies


The motion of a rigid body is controlled by the motion of the rigid body reference nodeeither by
boundary conditions or by forces applied to the rigid body.
The other nodes forming the rigid body are called rigid body slave nodes.

Nodes forming a rigid body

103

L5.19

Rigid Bodies (11/13)

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Location of the rigid body reference node


You can place the rigid body reference node anywhere in a model.
The location is important if the rigid body is to move freely under applied loads during the analysis; in
this case the node should be placed at the center of mass of the rigid body.
Abaqus can calculate the center of mass and relocate the reference node to this location automatically.
Abaqus will use the mass distribution from the elements making up the rigid body to determine the center
of mass.

If the reference node is relocated at the center of mass of the rigid body, the new coordinates of the
reference node are also printed out at the end of the printed output file.
Syntax:
*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set,
POSITION=CENTER OF MASS

L5.20

Rigid Bodies (12/13)

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Inertial properties of rigid bodies


The mass and rotary inertia of a meshed rigid body can be calculated based on the contributions from
its elements, or they can be assigned specifically by using MASS and ROTARYI elements defined at the
slave nodes of a rigid body or the rigid body reference node.
The mass, the center of mass, and the moments of inertia about the center of mass of each rigid
body appear in the printed output file.

104

Using rigid bodies for model verification


It may be useful to specify parts of a model as rigid for model verification purposes.
For example, in complex models where all potential contact conditions cannot be anticipated,
elements far away from the region of interest could be included as part of a rigid body, resulting in
faster run times while developing a model.
When you are satisfied with the model and contact pair definitions, rigid body definitions can be
removed and an accurate deformable finite element representation can be incorporated
throughout.

L5.21

Rigid Bodies (13/13)

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Example: Tennis racket frame

Tennis racket striking a tennis ball


The interactions between the ball and the strings are of
primary interest. Since the frame is very stiff, it is initially
modeled as a rigid body for computational efficiency.
Once this analysis has been verified, the rigid body
definition can be removed to consider deformation of
the racket.

L5.22

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Shell-to-solid Coupling (1/2)


Allows for a transition from shell element
modeling to solid element modeling
Useful when local modeling requires 3D solid
elements but other parts of the structure can
be modeled as shells
Couples the motion of a line of nodes along
the edge of a shell model to the motion of a set
of nodes on a solid surface
Uses a set of internally defined
distributing coupling constraints

105

L5.23

Shell-to-solid Coupling (2/2)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Defining shell-to-solid coupling

*SHELL TO SOLID COUPLING, CONSTRAINT NAME=C1


shell_surface, solid_surface

The shell surface must be edge based

solid_surface (face)

*SURFACE, TYPE=ELEMENT, NAME=shell_surface


shell_surface_E1, E1
an edge identifier

shell_surface (edge)

L5.24

Contact (1/12)
What is contact?
When two solid bodies touch, force
is transmitted across their common
surface.

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In some cases only forces normal to the


contact surfaces are transmitted.

106

If friction is present, a limited amount of force tangent to the contact surfaces also can be
transmitted.
I. Frictional forces cause shear stresses along the contact surfaces.
General objective: Determine contacting areas and stress transmitted.
Contact is a severely discontinuous form of nonlinearity.
Either a constraint must be applied (that the surfaces cannot interpenetrate) or the constraint is
ignored.

L5.25

Contact (2/12)

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Contact examples
Gap contact
Point contact is modeled as node-to-node contact.

This example is taken from Detroit Edison pipe whip experiment,


Example Problem 2.1.2 in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.26

Contact (3/12)

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Hertz contact
Small displacements of the contact surfaces relative to each other.
Contact over a distributed surface area.

Typical Examples: bearing design, hard gaskets, and shrink fits. The
example shown here comes from Coolant manifold cover gasketed
joint, Example Problem 5.1.4 in the Abaqus Example Problems
Manual.

107

L5.27

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Contact (4/12)
Large-sliding contact between deformable
bodies
This is the most general category of
contact.
Example: threaded connector.
These problems typically involve an
initial interference fit (because of the
tapered thread), followed by finite
sliding between bodies made of
similar strength materials.

Contact pressure
distribution due to
interference
resolution
This example is loosely based on Axisymmetric analysis
of a threaded connection, Example Problem 1.1.20 in the
Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.28

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Contact (5/12)
Self-contact
Self-contact is contact of a single
surface with itself. It is available in twoand three-dimensional models in
Abaqus.
It is convenient when a surface will
deform severely during the analysis and
it is not possible, or it is very difficult, to
determine individual contacting regions
in advance.
Self-contact is defined by specifying a
single contact surface as a contact pair
instead of two different surfaces.

SURF1
(rigid)

SURF2

Contour of minimum principal stress


Example: Compression of a rubber gasket
(taken from Self-contact in rubber/foam
components: rubber gasket, Example Problem
1.1.18 in the Abaqus Example Problems
Manual).

108

L5.29

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Contact (6/12)
Deformable to rigid
body contact
Finite sliding between
the surfaces (large
displacements).
Finite strain of the
deforming components.
Typical examples:
I. Rubber seals
II. Tire on road
III. Pipeline on seabed
IV. Forming simulations
(rigid die/mold,
deformable component).

Example: metal forming simulation

This example is taken from Superplastic


forming of a rectangular box, Section 1.3.2
in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

L5.30

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Contact (7/12)
Abaqus provides two approaches for modeling
surface-based contact:
General contact allows you to define contact
between many or all regions of a model with a
single interaction.
The surfaces that can interact with one
another comprise the contact domain
and can span many disconnected
regions of a model.
Contact pairs describe contact between two
surfaces.
Requires more careful definition of
contact.
I. Every possible contact pair
interaction must be defined.
Has many restrictions on the types of
surfaces involved.

One contact domain in general contact

Multiple contact pairs required

109

L5.31

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Contact (8/12)
The general contact algorithm
The contact domain spans multiple bodies
(both rigid and deformable)
Default domain is defined automatically
via an
all-inclusive element-based surface
The method is geared toward models with
multiple components and complex topology
Greater ease in defining contact model

L5.32

Contact (9/12)

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The contact pair algorithm


Requires user-specified pairing of individual surfaces
Often results in more efficient analyses since contact surfaces are limited in scope

Slave surfaces for


contact pair analysis

110

L5.33

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Contact (10/12)
The choice between general contact and contact pairs is largely a trade-off between ease of defining contact
and analysis performance
Robustness and accuracy of both methods are similar
In some cases, the contact pair approach is required in order to access specific features not available with
general contact.
These include:
Analytical rigid surfaces (Abaqus/Standard)
Two-dimensional models (Abaqus/Explicit)
Node-based surfaces
Small sliding
Rough or Lagrange friction (Abaqus/Standard)
See the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual for a complete list of general contact limitations

L5.34

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Contact (11/12)
Some additional details
Abaqus/Standard
Contact pairs: "Node-to-surface" contact
discretization is used by default:
I. Nodes on one surface
(the slave surface) contact the discretized
segments on the other surface (the master surface).
II. Also known as a strict master/slave formulation
General contact: Surface-to-surface" contact discretization
I. Contact is enforced in an average sense.
II. This form of contact discretization may also be used with contact pairs
Abaqus/Explicit
A balanced master/slave formulation is used in most cases.
I. The contact constraints are applied twice and averaged, reversing the master and slave
surfaces on the second application.
II. Decreases potential contact penetrations.
Shell thickness in contact
By default, Abaqus considers shell thickness in contact calculations with the exception of finitesliding, node-to-surface contact in Abaqus/Standard.
To ignore thickness effects, use the NO THICKNESS parameter on the *CONTACT PAIR option.

111

L5.35

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Contact (12/12)
Contact pairs in Abaqus/Standard
The default strict master/slave formulation
used in Abaqus/Standard has certain
implications.
Slave nodes cannot penetrate master
surface segments.
Nodes on the master surface can
penetrate slave surface segments.
The contact direction is always normal
to the master surface.
I. The contact condition is checked
along the normal to the master
surface.
II. Normal contact forces are
transmitted along the normal
direction.
III. Frictional forces are transmitted
tangent to the contacting surfaces.

L5.36

Defining General Contact (1/3)


The simplest definition of contact quite common:

*CONTACT
*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR
Automatic contact for entire model

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The contact definition can gradually become more detailed, as called for by the analysis

112

Global/local friction coefficients and other contact properties


User control of contact thickness (especially for shells)
Pair-wise specification of contact domain (instead of ALL EXTERIOR)

L5.37

Defining General Contact (2/3)


Main option

*CONTACT
Suboptions

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Commonly used:
*CONTACT INCLUSIONS
*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT
Less commonly used:
*SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT
*CONTACT EXCLUSIONS

L5.38

Defining General Contact (3/3)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Can assign contact properties independently of specifying the contact domain

*CONTACT
*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR
*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT
, , prop_1
alum_surf, steel_surf, prop_2
alum_surf, alum_surf, prop_3

(reassigns properties globally)


(local modification)
(local modification)

113

L5.39

Defining Contact Pairs (1/5)

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Three steps for defining contact:


1

Define surfaces based on the underlying elements, analytically


defined geometry, or underlying nodes.

Define pairs of surfaces that can interact.

Define surface interaction properties: friction, softened layers, etc.

L5.40

Defining Contact Pairs (2/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example of the complete contact syntax in the


input file:

*SURFACE, NAME=ASURF
SLIDER, S1
*SURFACE, NAME=BSURF
BLOCK, S3
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1
ASURF, BSURF
*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRIC1
1.0,
*FRICTION
0.4,

These options are explained in detail on the following pages.

114

L5.41

Defining Contact Pairs (3/5)

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Defining surfaces
The surfaces are defined using the *SURFACE option.
The faces of each element set are specified using face label identifiers.
Either element set names or element numbers can be used to specify surfaces.

*SURFACE, NAME=ASURF
SLIDER, S1
*SURFACE, NAME=BSURF
BLOCK, S3

Contact occurs on bottom (S1) face of element set SLIDER


Contact occurs on top (S3) face of element set BLOCK

L5.42

Defining Contact Pairs (4/5)

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Defining pairs of surfaces that can interact


Once you have defined surfaces, you can define contact pairs.
Each contact pair specifies two surfaces that can contact each other during the analysis.
In Abaqus/Standard the first surface is the slave surface and the second surface is the master
surface.
In Abaqus/Explicit the order of the surfaces does not usually affect the contact calculations.

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1


ASURF, BSURF

115

L5.43

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Defining Contact Pairs (5/5)


Defining surface interaction properties
The *SURFACE INTERACTION option block defines the surface interaction properties.
Defines surface behavior properties such as friction.
Defines contact interface out-of-plane thickness for two-dimensional cases.
This option is always necessary in Abaqus/Standard, even when additional properties are not
specified.
I. It is optional in Abaqus/Explicit.
The *CONTACT PAIR option refers to a *SURFACE INTERACTION option by name.

*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1


ASURF, BSURF
*SURFACE INTERACTION, NAME=FRIC1
Out-of-plane thickness
1.0,
*FRICTION
List surface constitutive
0.4,

properties as suboptions of
*SURFACE INTERACTION

L5.44

Contact Pair Surfaces (1/8)


Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=ELEMENT option to define surfaces on deformable bodies or meshed rigid
bodies.

Define surfaces by specifying element face identifier labels


or

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Allow Abaqus to automatically determine the free surfaces of a body of continuum elements

116

Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=[SEGMENTS | CYLINDER | REVOLUTION] option with the *RIGID BODY
option to define analytical rigid surfaces.
Discussed earlier in the context of rigid bodies
Use the *SURFACE, TYPE=NODE option to specify individual nodes that may experience contact.

L5.45

Contact Pair Surfaces (2/8)

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Defining surfaces on solid elements


Using face label identifiers
Example: 4-node quad element (CPE4, CAX4,
etc.)
*SURFACE, NAME=EXAMPLE1
1, S4
1, S1
2, S1
2, S2
...

L5.46

Contact Pair Surfaces (3/8)

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Using automatic surface definition


*SURFACE, NAME=EXAMPLE2
ELSET1,
No face identifier

117

L5.47

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Contact Pair Surfaces (4/8)


Defining surfaces on structural elements (shell,
membrane, rigid, beam)
Structural element normals dictate the direction
of expected contact.
Normals are based on element local node
numbering.
Positive normal direction = SPOS
surface.
Negative normal direction = SNEG
surface.

Shells and membranes


(S4R,S8R,M3D4,etc.)

2-D trusses and beams


(B21,T2D2,etc.)

L5.48

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact Pair Surfaces (5/8)

118

Surface normals should be consistent within a


surface definition.
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=BOTTOM
10, 1, 2
11, 2, 3
12, 3, 6
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B21, ELSET=TOP
20, 4, 5
21, 5, 6
*ELSET, ELSET=BEAMS
BOTTOM, TOP

*SURFACE, NAME=SURF1
BEAMS, SPOS

*SURFACE, NAME=SURF1
BOTTOM, SPOS
TOP, SNEG

L5.49

Contact Pair Surfaces (6/8)


Node-based surfaces
Alternative way to define points for contact.
Instead of specifying element faces as a contact surface, a node-based surface contains only
nodes.
Node-based surfaces are always considered slave surfaces.

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Example: tennis racket strings

Ball: elementbased surface


Strings: nodebased surface

*SURFACE, TYPE=NODE, NAME=STRINGS


STRINGS,
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=SMOOTH
STRINGS, BALL

define surface containing


contact nodes

previously defined
surface

L5.50

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Contact Pair Surfaces (7/8)


General rules
All elements underlying a surface must be
compatible. They must be:
Of the same dimension (two- or threedimensional).
I. For two-dimensional surfaces: all
planar or all axisymmetric (but not
both).
Of the same order of interpolation (firstor second-order).
All deformable or all rigid (but not both).
Additional restrictions
Surface normals
Master surface normals must be
consistent
Master surface normals should point
toward the slave surface.
I. Otherwise convergence difficulties
will occur.
Rigid surfaces
All surfaces defined on rigid bodies
must be specified as master surfaces.

119

L5.51

Contact Pair Surfaces (8/8)


Master contact pair surfaces in Abaqus/Standard (when using the default node-to-surface algorithm) and
all contact pair surfaces in Abaqus/Explicit have an additional restriction:
It must be possible to traverse between any two points on the surface without leaving the surface,
passing through it, or passing through a single point.

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Traversal cannot take


place through a point.
Traversal requires
passing through or
leaving the surface.

valid master surfaces

invalid master surfaces

L5.52

Local Surface Behavior (1/7)

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Contact modeling allows for interactions in the


normal and
tangential
contact directions.
Other contact interaction properties include contact damping and geometric properties such as out-ofplane thickness.

120

L5.53

Local Surface Behavior (2/7)

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Behavior in the contact normal direction


Hard contact
Hard contact is the default local
behavior in all contact problems.
Contact constraints enforced via a:
Direct method (contact pairs only)

Pressure-clearance relationship

Lagrange Multipliers for Abaqus/Standard


Precise kinematic compliance for
Abaqus/Explicit
Penalty method (default for general
contact)
*surface interaction, name=...
*surface behavior, penalty

(Abaqus/Standard)

*contact pair, mechanical=penalty

(Abaqus/Explicit)

Augmented Lagrange method


*surface behavior, augmented lagrange

(Abaqus/Standard only)

L5.54

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Local Surface Behavior (3/7)


Alternatives to hard contact
The *SURFACE BEHAVIOR
option is used as a suboption
of the *SURFACE
INTERACTION option to
specify:
Softened contact
(exponential or tabular
pressure-clearance
relationship)
Contact without separation
Other options:
Clearance-dependent viscous damping (*CONTACT DAMPING).
Contact with overclosure or tensile contact forces (*CONTACT CONTROLS; Abaqus/Standard
only).

121

L5.55

Local Surface Behavior (4/7)


Behavior in the contact tangential direction

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Frictional shear stresses, , may develop at the interface between contacting bodies.
If the magnitude reaches a critical value, the bodies will slip; otherwise they will stick.

L5.56

Local Surface Behavior (5/7)


Friction is a highly nonlinear effect.
Solutions are more difficult to obtain.
Do not use unless physically important.
Friction is nonconservative.

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In Abaqus/Standard friction causes the equation system to be unsymmetric. The *STEP,


UNSYMM=YES option is used automatically for high ( >0.2) .

122

Using UNSYMM=NO will give slower convergence, but the solution will be correct (if obtained). It
may also use less disk space.
This behavior is not an issue with Abaqus/Explicit, where there are no systems of equations to
solve.

L5.57

Local Surface Behavior (6/7)


Abaqus uses the Coulomb friction model by default.
The critical frictional stress depends on contact pressure:

cr = p.

Basic syntax:
*FRICTION

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The friction coefficient, , can be a function of the relative slip velocity, pressure, temperature,
and field variables ( eq , p, , f i ).
For computational reasons the default friction model in Abaqus/Standard uses an approximation
to the ideal behavior, allowing a small amount of elastic slip before nonrecoverable slip occurs:

p2
p1

G2
G1

cr

L5.58

Local Surface Behavior (7/7)


A combined static kinetic friction model can be defined.
Exponential decay, as a function of , of from s (static) to k (kinetic).
Other alternatives are available for frictional behavior, including user-defined friction models:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

FRIC in Abaqus/Standard VFRIC in Abaqus/Explicit

123

L5.59

Relative Sliding of Points in Contact (1/3)

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Two slide distance options:


Finite sliding
*CONTACT PAIR

Finite sliding is the most generalused by default. Arbitrarily large sliding


between surfaces and large rotations are allowed. Contact is governed by
evolving contact surfaces in current configuration.

Small-sliding

Small relative sliding between surfaces. Allows large rotations of the


surfaces, as long as the surfaces do not move significantly relative to each
other.
Contact governed by the presence of local contact planes/lines defined in
the initial configuration.
Computationally less expensive than finite sliding since does not require the
generality of the finite-sliding algorithm.
Only available for contact pairs

*CONTACT PAIR,
SMALL SLIDING

L5.60

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Relative Sliding of Points in Contact (2/3)

124

Some of the differences between finite and


small sliding will be illustrated by example.
Consider the model shown at right.
The rigid punch is displaced horizontally while
maintaining the clearance indicated in the
figure. Afterwards, it is pushed downward into
the deformable body.
With finite sliding, no contact occurs while the
clearance is maintained (as expected).

L5.61

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Relative Sliding of Points in Contact (3/3)


Now consider the case of small sliding.
Recall that small sliding contact is governed by
the presence of local contact planes (3D) or
lines (2D/axisymmetric).
In the figure at right the local contact lines are
highlighted.
The slave nodes highlighted in the figure will
establish contact with the local contact lines as
the punch is dragged horizontally even though
a physical clearance is maintained between
the two parts!

Contact
lines

L5.62

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Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (1/6)


The initial positions of the nodes on the contact surfaces can be adjusted without stress or strain prior to
the analysis.
Abaqus/Standard: default treatment of initially overclosed nodes depends on contact modeling
approach
I. General contact: By default, small initial overclosures are adjusted free of strain (i.e., nodes
are adjusted prior to the analysis) such that surfaces are just-touching; alternatively, these
can be treated as interference fits
II. Contact pairs: By default, all initial overclosures are treated as interference fits;
alternatively; may adjust position without strain
III. For either approach may also choose to specify precise clearance or interference (not
discussed here)
Abaqus/Explicit: does not allow an initial overclosure of contact surfaces.
I. The nodes on the contact surfaces will be adjusted automatically to remove any initial
overclosure prior to the analysis. In subsequent steps the adjustments will cause strains.
Gross adjustments can severely distort initial element shapes.
If you see error messages that suggest this is a problem, run a datacheck analysis and look for
the problem in Abaqus/Viewer.

125

L5.63

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (2/6)


Adjusting slave nodes using general contact (Abaqus/Standard)
Large initial overclosures and initial gaps can be adjusted
Specify search distances above and below the surfaces
I. Search above to close gaps
II. Search below to increase default overclosure tolerance
The adjustments are applied to surface pairs
www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

*Contact Initialization Data,


name=adjust-1,
SEARCH ABOVE=1e-05,
SEARCH BELOW=0.02

*Contact Initialization Assignment


allHeads , topFlange_outer , adjust-1

L5.64

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (3/6)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Adjusting slave nodes using contact pairs


(Abaqus/Standard)
Specifying an absolute distance to adjust:
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=FRIC1,
ADJUST=a

126

All initially open slave nodes that fall


within the adjust band (a) are moved
onto the master surface.

The adjustment distance (a) is


measured along the normal direction to
the master surface.
All initially overclosed slave nodes are
relocated to the surface.

L5.65

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (4/6)


Specifying a node set of slave nodes to adjust:

Overclosed slave nodes not in the node set will remain overclosed and will cause strains when
forced back onto the contact surface during the analysis.

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Example of specifying an ADJUST node set:


*NSET, NSET=CONNODE, GENERATE
1, 8, 1
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=RIG, ADJUST=CONNODE

L5.66

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (5/6)


Visualizing strain-free adjustments
In Abaqus/Standard, output variable STRAINFREE is provided to visualize strain-free adjustments
This output variable is written by default if any initial strain-free adjustments are made

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This variable is only available in the initial output frame at t = 0

Symbol plot of
STRAINFREE

Initial configuration
without contact

127

L5.67

Adjusting Initial Nodal Locations for Contact (6/6)


The following inconsistency exists between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit with respect to strain-free
adjustments:

x = xo + u
Abaqus/Explicit adjusts u

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Abaqus/Standard adjusts xo

Desired aspect to visualize

Technique in Abaqus/CAE
Abaqus/Standard model

Abaqus/Explicit model

Nodal adjustment vectors

Symbol plot of STRAINFREE at t=0

Symbol plot of U at t=0

Nodal adjustment magnitudes

Contour plot of STRAINFREE at t=0

Contour plot of U at t=0

Adjusted configuration

Undeformed shape or deformed


shape at t=0

Deformed shape at t=0

Configuration prior to
adjustments

Substitute -STRAINFREE for U in


deformed plot (t=0)

Undeformed shape

L5.68

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Contact Output (1/4)

128

Nodal contact output


For both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit:
Contact stresses: CSTRESS (contact pressure CPRESS and frictional shear stresses CSHEAR1
and CSHEAR2)
Contact forces (CFORCE)
For Abaqus/Standard you can also request:
Contact displacements: CDISP (contact opening COPEN, relative tangential motions CSLIP1 and
CSLIP2)
Nodal contact areas (CNAREA)
Contact status (CSTATUS)
For Abaqus/Explicit you can also request:
Slip velocity: FSLIPR
Accumulated slip displacements: FSLIP

L5.69

Contact Output (2/4)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Whole surface contact output


Output
variable

Description

CAREA

Total area of slave surface in contact

CFN
CFS

Total force vector due to contact pressure and frictional shear stress of slave
surface, respectively

CMN
CMS

Total moment vector about the origin due to contact pressure and frictional
shear stress of slave surface, respectively

CFT

Vector sum of CFN and CFS

CMT

Vector sum of CMN and CMS

XN

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the contact
pressure on a slave surface is equal to zero

XS

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the frictional stress
on a slave surface is equal to zero

XT

Coordinates of a point about which the total moment due to the contact
pressure and frictional stress on a slave surface is equal to zero

L5.70

Contact Output (3/4)

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Example: two surfaces contacting at two locations

129

L5.71

Contact Output (4/4)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Two other options exist for generating printed output relevant to Abaqus/Standard contact analyses:
*PREPRINT, CONTACT=YES:
I. Controls output to the printed output file during preprocessing
II. Gives details of internally generated contact elements
III. Recommended for small-sliding contact problems to verify master-slave node interaction
IV. Use to check that surface definitions and interactions are correct
*PRINT, CONTACT=YES:
I. Controls output to the message file during the analysis phase
II. Gives details of the iteration process
III. Use to understand where difficulties are occurring during contact

Workshop 5: Seal Contact (IA)

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1.

Workshop tasks
1. Evaluate a hyperelastic material model.
2. Define contact
1. Contact pairs
2. General contact
3. Apply boundary conditions
4. Perform large displacement analysis
5. Visualize the results.

1 hour

130

L5.72

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

Workshop 5: Seal Contact (KW)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

Workshop tasks
1. Evaluate a hyperelastic material model.
2. Define contact
1. Contact pairs
2. General contact
3. Apply boundary conditions
4. Perform large displacement analysis
5. Visualize the results.

L5.73

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

1 hour

131

132

Notes

133

Notes

134

Lesson 6: Introduction to Dynamics

L6.1

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Lesson content:

What Makes a Problem Dynamic?


Equations for Dynamic Problems
Linear Dynamics
Nonlinear Dynamics
Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Nonlinear Dynamics Example
Workshop 6: Dynamics (IA)
Workshop 6: Dynamics (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L6.2

What Makes a Problem Dynamic?


A problem is dynamic when the inertial forces (dAlembert forces) are significant and vary rapidly in time.

Inertial forces are proportional to the acceleration of the mass in the structure.
Solving a dynamic problem may require the integration of the equations of motion in time.

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I. Direct Integration (Expensive)


II. Modal Transient (Effective for Linear Problems)
Many dynamic vibration problems can be studied effectively in the frequency domain.
I. Frequency Response or Steady State Dynamics implies Harmonic Excitation and Response
and thus does not require integration
Sometimes we have large inertia loads but can do static analyses because the loads vary slowly
with time (constant acceleration, centrifugal loads)
I. However, centrifugal loads in flexible systems may lead to whirls (Complex Eigenvalues)

135

L6.3

Equations for Dynamic Problems


Dynamic equilibrium
The dynamic equilibrium equations are written for convenience with the inertial forces isolated from the
other forces:

Mu I P 0

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Assumptions:

M (the mass matrix) is constant in time.


I and P may depend on nodal displacements and velocities but not on any higher-order time
derivatives.
I. Thus, the system is second order in time, and damping/dissipation are included in I and P.
If

I Ku Cu where K (stiffness) and C (damping) are constant, the problem is linear.

These equilibrium equations are completely general.


They apply to the behavior of any mechanical system and contain all nonlinearities.
When the first termthe inertial or dynamic forceis small enough, the equations reduce to the
static form of equilibrium.

L6.4

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Linear Dynamics (1/12)


Linear dynamics problems require the use of an implicit solution scheme (i.e., Abaqus/Standard).
Several classes of linear dynamics problems can be solved with Abaqus:
Natural frequency extraction *
Modal superposition
Implicit (direct-integration) dynamics
Harmonic loading *
Response spectrum analysis *
Random loading *
In this section we focus on natural frequency extraction and give a brief overview of modal-superposition
methods.

*No integration required.

136

L6.5

Linear Dynamics (2/12)


Natural frequency analysis

Studies of the vibration characteristics of a structural system often begin with a natural frequency (or
eigenvalue) analysis.
The *FREQUENCY procedure in Abaqus/Standard extracts eigenvalues of an undamped system:
www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Mu Ku 0
Eigenvalues and mode shapes describe the free vibration or the frequency content of the structure.
Any preload applied prior to calculation of the eigenvalues will affect the results if nonlinear geometry is
used.
Setting NLGEOM=YES on the *STEP option causes Abaqus to consider nonlinear geometry
effects, including preloads (preloads contribute to K).

L6.6

Linear Dynamics (3/12)


Three eigensolvers are available for symmetric real eigenvalue extraction problems.

Automatic multi-level substructuring (AMS)


I. Most efficient solver when a large number of eigenvalues are required

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Lanczos (default)
I. For very large models, use SIM architecture*
Subspace iteration
The structure may be unconstrained or constrained.
If constrained, preload effects may be included.

*SIM is a high-performance linear dynamics architecture.

137

L6.7

Linear Dynamics (4/12)


Example: Frequency extraction of an engine block

Modeled with 10-node tetrahedral elements (C3D10)


Linear elastic material model

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Steel
The structure is unrestrained.

L6.8

Linear Dynamics (5/12)


Step definition

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# modes
requested

Natural frequency
extraction procedure

Invokes SIM-based architecture.

*STEP
*FREQUENCY,EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS, SIM
100, 1., ,
Set equal to LANCZOS to invoke the
LANCZOS eigensolver.

Specify minimum frequency to exclude


rigid body modes.
*OUTPUT, FIELD
*NODE OUTPUT
U
*END STEP

Leave maximum frequency blank to be sure


you get all 100 modes
Output is restricted to nodal
displacements for the purpose of
visualizing mode shapes.

Note: It is not necessary to specify the number of modes; simply specify a maximum frequency of
interest

138

L6.9

Linear Dynamics (6/12)

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The first 10 nonrigid body eigenmodes are shown below

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 4

Mode 7

Mode 3

Mode 5

Mode 8

Mode 6

Mode 9

Mode 10

L6.10

Linear Dynamics (7/12)


Modal superposition

The eigenmodes of a structure can be used in several different mode-based procedures to study its
linear dynamic response:
Modal dynamics

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I. Calculates linear dynamic response in time domain


II. Direct integration also available
Steady-state dynamics
I. Calculates dynamic response due to harmonic excitation

II. Direct solution or modal


Response spectrum
I. Estimates peak response to dynamic motion

Random response
I. Predicts response to random continuous excitation

139

L6.11

Linear Dynamics (8/12)


Steady-state dynamics

When a damped structure is excited with a harmonic load, it has a transient response that disappears
rather quickly and is rarely of much interest.

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Eventually the structure reaches a steady state that is characterized by a harmonic response.
The STEADY STATE DYNAMICS procedure provides the solution to the linear dynamic equations of
motion when the loading is harmonic.
Three options are available for steady-state dynamic analysis:
Direct
Mode-based
Subspace projection

L6.12

Linear Dynamics (9/12)


Example: Harmonic excitation of a tire

Investigating the frequency response of a tire


about a static footprint solution.

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The excitation is due to a harmonic vertical


load that is applied to the reference point of the
road.

The rim of the tire is held fixed.


Reference: Subspace-based steady-state
dynamic tire analysis, Section 3.1.3 of the
Abaqus Example Problems Manual.

The road is modeled as a


rigid surface.

140

L6.13

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Linear Dynamics (10/12)


Step definitions
*STEP, NLGEOM=YES
*STATIC
*BOUNDARY
RIM, 1, 3
ROAD, 1, 2
ROAD, 4, 6
*DSLOAD
INSIDE, P, 200.E3
*CLOAD
ROAD, 3, 3300.
*END STEP

Static preload
(footprint step)

L6.14

Linear Dynamics (11/12)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Frequency
extraction

Frequency
range

*STEP
*FREQUENCY,EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS
20
Subspace-based steady-state
*END STEP
dynamics procedure
*STEP,NLGEOM=YES
*STEADY STATE DYNAMICS,
SUBSPACE PROJECTION=ALL FREQUENCIES,
INTERVAL=EIGENFREQUENCY, FREQUENCY SCALE=LINEAR
80, 130, 3
*CLOAD
The load is purely inROAD, 3, 200.
phase:
*END STEP

Fz 200cos t

141

L6.15

Linear Dynamics (12/12)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Results

Contour of displacement magnitude

Vertical displacement of the roads reference point

L6.16

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Nonlinear Dynamics (1/8)

142

Overview
Abaqus/Standard
Uses implicit time integration to calculate the transient dynamic or quasi-static response of a
system.
Three application types:
I. dynamic responses requiring transient fidelity and involving minimal energy dissipation;
II. dynamic responses involving nonlinearity, contact, and moderate energy dissipation; and
III. quasi-static responses in which considerable energy dissipation provides stability and
improved convergence behavior for determining an essentially static solution.
Abaqus/Explicit
Uses explicit time integration scheme to calculate the transient dynamic or quasi-static response
of a system.

L6.17

Nonlinear Dynamics (2/8)


Time integration of the equations of motion

Nonlinear dynamics problems require direct integration of the equations of motion.

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The spatial discretization (finite element approximation) turns the partial differential equations describing
dynamic equilibrium into a set of coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations in time.
Time integration is needed to solve this system of ordinary differential equations.
The methods used to integrate these equations through time distinguish Abaqus/Standard and
Abaqus/Explicit.

L6.18

Nonlinear Dynamics (3/8)


Abaqus/Standard

Uses a second-order accurate, implicit scheme called the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor (HHT) rule unless
the application type is quasi-static.

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I. This is a generalization of the Newmark method.


Second-order accurate means the scheme integrates a constant acceleration exactly.
The method is unconditionally stable: any size time increment can be used and the solution will
remain bounded.
Abaqus/Explicit
Uses a second-order accurate, explicit integration scheme to calculate the transient dynamic or
quasi-static response of a system.
The method is conditionally stableit gives a bounded solution only when the time increment is
less than a critical value.

143

L6.19

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Nonlinear Dynamics (4/8)


Automatic time incrementation in Abaqus/Standard
Incrementation scheme depends on dynamic application type
Transient fidelity applications (default for models without contact)
I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION=TRANSIENT FIDELITY
II. Require minimal energy dissipation
III. Small time increments required to accurately resolve the vibrational response of the
structure, and numerical energy dissipation is kept at a minimum
Moderate dissipation (default for models with contact)
I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION= MODERATE DISSIPATION
II. A moderate amount of energy is dissipated by plasticity, viscous damping, or other effects
III. Accurate resolution of high-frequency vibrations is usually not of interest
IV. Improved convergence for analyses involving contact
Quasi-static
I. *DYNAMIC, APPLICATION=QUASI-STATIC
II. These problems typically show monotonic behavior, and inertia effects are introduced
primarily to regularize unstable static behavior

L6.20

Nonlinear Dynamics (5/8)

Application

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Transient fidelity

Default incrementation
scheme

Default
half-increment residual
tolerance*

Time integration
method
HHT

a 0.05
b 0.275625
g 0.55

Not considered unless


use conservative
incrementation

HHT

a 0.41421
b 0.5
g 0.91421

Not considered

Backward Euler

N/A

Conservative:
a. Same rules as for
static analyses
b. Dtmax0.01*Tstep
c. Limit on half
increment residual

1000*time average force


(no contact)

Moderate
dissipation

a. Same rules as for


static analyses
b. Dtmax0.1*Tstep

Quasi-static

Aggressive:
a. Same rules as for
static analyses

10000*time average
force (with contact)

*The half-increment residual is the out-of-balance force that


exists halfway through a time increment.

144

Integration
parameters

L6.21

Nonlinear Dynamics (6/8)


Automatic time incrementation in Abaqus/Explicit
The time increment size is controlled by the stable time increment.
The explicit dynamics procedure gives a bounded solution only when the time increment is less
than a critical or stable time increment.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The stability limit is given in terms of the highest eigenvalue in the model max and the fraction of critical
damping ( ) in the highest mode:

Dtmin

max

( 1 2 ).

Damping reduces the stable time increment!


Not feasible to compute max, so easy-to-compute conservative estimates are used instead.

L6.22

Nonlinear Dynamics (7/8)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The concept of a stable time increment is explained easily by considering a one-dimensional problem.

One-dimensional problem

The stable time increment is the minimum time that a dilatational wave takes to move across any
element in the model.
A dilatational wave consists of volume expansion and contraction.
The dilatational wave speed, cd , can be expressed for a one-dimensional problem as

cd

where E is the Young's modulus and is the current material density.


Based on the current geometry each element in the model has a characteristic length, Le.

145

L6.23

Nonlinear Dynamics (8/8)


Thus, the stable time increment can be expressed as

Dt

Le
.
cd

Decreasing Le and/or increasing cd will reduce the size of the stable time increment.
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Decreasing element dimensions reduces Le.


Increasing material stiffness increases cd.
Decreasing material compressibility increases cd.
Decreasing material density increases cd.
Abaqus/Explicit monitors the finite element model throughout the analysis to determine a stable time
increment.

L6.24

Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit (1/3)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Abaqus/Standard

146

Abaqus/Explicit

Time increment size is not limited: generally fewer


time increments required to complete a given
simulation.

Time increment size is limited: generally many more


time increments are required to complete a given
simulation.

Each time increment is relatively expensive since


the solution for a set of simultaneous equations is
required for each.

Each time increment is relatively inexpensive


because the solution of a set of simultaneous
equations is not required.
Most of the computational expense is associated with
element calculations (forming and assembling I).

L6.25

Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit (2/3)


Abaqus/Standard

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Ideal for problems where the response period of


interest is long compared to the vibration frequency
of the model.
Difficult to use explicit dynamics effectively
because of the limit on the time increment
size.
Use for problems that are mildly nonlinear and where
the nonlinearities are smooth (e.g., plasticity).
With a smooth nonlinear response
Abaqus/Standard will need very few iterations
to find a converged solution.

Abaqus/Explicit
Ideal for high-speed dynamic simulations
Require very small time increments; implicit dynamics
inefficient.
Usually more reliable for problems involving
discontinuous nonlinearities.
Contact behavior is discontinuous and involves
impacts, both of which cause problems for implicit
time integration.
Other sources of discontinuous behavior include
buckling and material failure.

L6.26

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Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit (3/3)


Example of a problem well suited for Abaqus/Explicit
Pipe whip
This example simulates
a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the
rupture of a high-pressure line in
a power plant.
A sudden release of fluid causes one
segment of the pipe to rotate about
its support and strike a neighboring
pipe.

147

L6.27

Nonlinear Dynamics Example (1/3)

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Reference: Double cantilever elastic beam under point load, Section 1.3.2 in the Abaqus Benchmarks
Manual.

L6.28

Nonlinear Dynamics Example (2/3)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Abaqus/Standard input file

148

*HEADING
NONLINEAR ELASTIC BEAM
*NODE
1, 0.
6, 10.
*NGEN
1, 6
*NSET, NSET=NFIL
6,
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B23
1, 1, 2
*ELGEN, ELSET=BEAM
1, 5
*BEAM SECTION, ELSET=BEAM,
SECTION=RECT, MATERIAL=A1
1., .125
0., 0., -1.
3
*MATERIAL, NAME=A1
*ELASTIC
30.E6,
*DENSITY
2.5362E-4,
*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=10

*STEP, INC=400, NLGEOM=YES


*DYNAMIC
25.E-6, 5.E-3
*BOUNDARY
1, 1, 2
1, 6
6, 1
6, 6
*CLOAD
6, 2, 320.
*END STEP

L6.29

Nonlinear Dynamics Example (3/3)

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Comparing the Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit results


The results obtained with the default incrementation schemes show excellent agreement.
Using a tighter half-increment residual tolerance for the implicit analysis further improves the
agreement.

*DYNAMIC, HALFINC SCALE FACTOR=0.05

In the non-default case shown here, the


half-increment scale factor was set to 0.05
(the default value is 1000)

Workshop 6: Dynamics (IA)

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


Workshop tasks
or keywords version of this workshop.
1. Complete the model and
perform a frequency extraction analysis.
2. Examine the printed output for relevant frequency results.
3. View the eigenmodes in Abaqus/Viewer.
4. Evaluate the effects of mesh density and element dimension and order.
5. Perform a free-vibration analysis using the implicit dynamics method.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

L6.30

1 hour

149

Workshop 6: Dynamics (KW)

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


Workshop tasks
or keywords version of this workshop.
1. Modify an existing input file, and
perform a frequency extraction analysis.
2. Examine the printed output for relevant frequency results.
3. View the eigenmodes in Abaqus/Viewer.
4. Evaluate the effects of mesh density and element dimension and order.
5. Perform a free-vibration analysis using the implicit dynamics method.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

1 hour

150

L6.31

Notes

151

Notes

152

Lesson 7: Using Abaqus/Explicit

L7.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure


Abaqus/Explicit Syntax
Rigid Bodies
Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (IA)
Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L7.2

Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (1/6)


The explicit dynamics procedure is often complimentary to an implicit solver such as Abaqus/Standard.

From a user standpoint the distinguishing characteristics of the explicit and implicit methods are:
Explicit methods require a small time increment size.
Depends solely on the highest natural frequencies of the model.

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Independent of the type and duration of loading.


Simulations generally take on the order of 104 to 106 increments, but the computational cost per
increment is relatively small.
Implicit methods do not place an inherent limitation on the time increment size.
Increment size is generally determined from accuracy and convergence considerations.
Implicit simulations typically take orders of magnitude fewer increments than explicit simulations.
However, since a global set of equations must be solved in each increment, the cost per
increment of an implicit method is far greater than that of an explicit method.
Knowing these characteristics of the two procedures can help you decide which methodology is
appropriate for your problems.

153

L7.3

Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (2/6)

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Stress wave propagation


This stress wave propagation example illustrates how the explicit dynamics solution procedure works
without iterating or solving sets of linear equations.
We consider the propagation of a stress wave along a rod modeled with three elements. We study the
state of the rod as we increment through time.
Mass is lumped at the nodes.

Initial configuration of a rod with a


concentrated load, P, at the free end

L7.4

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (3/6)

u1

u
P
u1 u1dt el1 1 d el1 el1dt
M1
l

el1 0 d el1 el1 E el1


Configuration at the end of Increment 1

154

L7.5

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Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (4/6)

u1

P Fel1
u1 u1old u1dt
M1

u2

Fel1
u 2 u2 dt
M2

el1

u 2 u1
d el1 el1dt
l
el1 1 d el1

el1 E el1

Configuration of the rod at the beginning of Increment 2

Configuration of the rod at the beginning of Increment 3

L7.6

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Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (5/6)


Example of a problem well suited for Abaqus/Explicit
Pipe whip
This example simulates
a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the
rupture of a high-pressure line in
a power plant.
A sudden release of fluid causes one
segment of the pipe to rotate about
its support and strike a neighboring
pipe.

155

L7.7

Overview of the Explicit Dynamics Procedure (6/6)

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Hydroforming
Uses fluid pressure to form a component.
Abaqus/Explicit captures the unstable
wrinkling of excess blank material.

A draw cap is
added to
decrease the
wrinkling effects.

L7.8

Abaqus/Explicit Syntax (1/3)


The basic input structure and options for an Abaqus/Explicit model are the same as those for an
Abaqus/Standard model.
This allows users to leverage their knowledge of Abaqus/Standard toward learning Abaqus/Explicit.

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An Abaqus/Explicit analysis is performed when the input file contains the *DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT procedure
option.

156

In the majority of Abaqus/Explicit analyses you provide just the total step time and the time increment size is
chosen automatically so that it always satisfies the stability limit.
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
, 70.E-3
Options for controlling the time increment size are available for special circumstances.

L7.9

Abaqus/Explicit Syntax (2/3)


Unlike Abaqus/Standard, Abaqus/Explicit uses a finite-strain, large-displacement, large-rotation formulation by
default.
The NLGEOM parameter is not needed on the *STEP option.

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Geometrically linear analysis (small-deformation analysis) can be obtained by setting NLGEOM=NO.


The numerics of the explicit dynamic procedure require that elements with lumped mass matrices be used.
Since solution efficiency is usually an important factor when using Abaqus/Explicit, only first-order reducedintegration elements are generally available.
Exceptions:
Modified triangles and tetrahedrals (CPS6M, CPE6M, C3D10M),
second-order beam elements (B22 and B32),
fully-integrated membrane element (M3D4),
fully-integrated shell elements (S4, S4T), and
fully-integrated first-order hex elements (C3D8, C3D8I, C3D8T).

L7.10

Abaqus/Explicit Syntax (3/4)


Some options unique to Abaqus/Explicit
The following model definition and history options are available only in Abaqus/Explicit (output and
control options are not listed):

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Analysis
procedures

*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT: This procedure specifies an explicit dynamics step


and that Abaqus/Explicit will be the solver program.
*DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT, EXPLICIT: This procedure
specifies a coupled thermal-mechanical step.
*ANNEAL: This procedure sets all nodal velocities to zero and sets all state
variables, such as stress and plastic strain, to zero.

Material

*EOS: The equation of state material model can be used to model a


hydrodynamic (explosive) material or a nearly incompressible fluid.
*EXTREME VALUE: This option specifies critical variables whose extreme
values will be monitored every increment.
*TRACER PARTICLE: This option defines tracer particles that track material
points in an adaptive mesh domain.

157

L7.11

Rigid Bodies
As noted previously, Abaqus has a general rigid body capability.

Two additional points are relevant when using this capability with Abaqus/Explicit.
The elements in a rigid body do not affect the stable time increment.

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It is possible to define the thickness and density of rigid elements on the *RIGID BODY option.
*RIGID BODY, REF NODE=node, ELSET=element set, DENSITY=#

thickness
A constant thickness can be specified as a value on the data line following the *RIGID BODY
option.
A variable thickness can be specified by using the NODAL THICKNESS parameter on the *RIGID
BODY option.

Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (IA)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1. Workshop tasks
a. Define general contact between
the two pipes.
b. Assign boundary conditions and initial velocities.
c. Perform impact analysis.
d. View deformation and energy histories.

1 hour

158

L7.12

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

Workshop 7: Contact with Abaqus/Explicit (KW)

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1. Workshop tasks
a. Define general contact between
the two pipes.
b. Assign boundary conditions and initial velocities.
c. Perform impact analysis.
d. View deformation and energy histories.

L7.13

1 hour

159

160

Notes

161

Notes

162

Lesson 8: Quasi-Static Analysis in Abaqus/Explicit

L8.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Introduction
Solution Strategies
Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics
Energy Balance
Example: Load Rates
Example: Mass Scaling
Adaptive Meshing
Summary
Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (IA)
Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

2 hours

L8.2

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Introduction (1/3)
In the previous lectures we discussed how to solve nonlinear static and dynamic problems using
Abaqus.
We now revisit the subject of nonlinear static problems with a particular focus on problems involving:
Very complex contact conditions
Very large deformations
I. Mesh distortion possible
Typical application: metal forming simulations
Bulk forming (drawing, rolling, extrusion, upsetting, etc.)
Sheet metal forming (stretching, drawing)

163

L8.3

Introduction (2/3)
Upsetting

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Rolling

Rolling of a symmetric I-section

Upsetting of a cylindrical billet

L8.4

Introduction (3/3)

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Hydroforming
Uses fluid pressure to form a component.
Unstable wrinkling of excess blank material.

A draw cap is
added to
decrease the
wrinkling effects.

164

L8.5

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Solution Strategies (1/3)


Two solvers:
Implicit solver (Abaqus/Standard)
Solves for either true static or true dynamic equilibrium.
Explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit)
Solves for true dynamic equilibrium.
At first glance it appears the implicit solver would be the appropriate choice for modeling highly
nonlinear static problems.
However, explicit solvers are more efficient for this class of problems.
This is especially true for three-dimensional problems involving contact and very large
deformations.

L8.6

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Solution Strategies (2/3)


Example: Simulation of a deep drawing process used
to form an oil pan
The pan is formed by displacing the punch
downward while holding the die and blank
holder fixed.
The blank is modeled with shell elements; the
tools are assumed rigid.
Analysis performed with both implicit
(Abaqus/Standard) and explicit
(Abaqus/Explicit) solvers.

blank holder
punch
die
blank

165

L8.7

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Solution Strategies (3/3)


The final deformed configuration is shown at
right.
Near the end of the punch stroke, the
blank pulls through the blank holder and
begins to wrinkle.
The Abaqus/Standard job was about 20 times
more expensive (in terms of CPU cost) than
the Abaqus/Explicit job.
Abaqus/Standard fails to converge at the point
where the blank begins to wrinkle.

L8.8

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (1/10)


Introduction
The explicit dynamics procedure is a true dynamic procedure. It was originally developed to model highspeed impact events.
Explicit dynamics solves for the state of dynamic equilibrium where inertia can play a dominant
role in the solution.
Application of explicit dynamics to model quasi-static events, such as metal forming processes, requires
special consideration:
It is computationally impractical to model the process in its natural time period.
I. Recall that stability considerations limit the size of the allowable increment:

Le
.
cd

II. Literally millions of time increments would be required.


Artificially increasing the speed of the process in the simulation is necessary to obtain an
economical solution.

166

L8.9

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (2/10)


Two approaches to obtaining economical quasi-static solutions with an explicit dynamics solver
Increased load rates
Artificially reduce the time scale of the process by increasing the loading rate.
Material strain rates calculated in the simulation are artificially high by the same factor applied to
increase the loading rate.
I. This is irrelevant if the material is rate insensitive.
Mass scaling
If strain rate sensitivity is being modeled, erroneous solutions can result if the load rates are
increased. Mass scaling allows you to model processes in their natural time scale when
considering rate-sensitive materials.
I. Artificially increasing the material density by a factor of f 2 increases the stable time
increment by a factor of f.

L8.10

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (3/10)


How much can I increase the load rate or scale the mass?
Increased load rates and mass scaling achieve the same effect.
Increased load rates reduce the time scale of the simulation.
Mass scaling increases the size of the stable time increment.
With both approaches, fewer increments are needed to complete the job.
As the speed of the process is increased, a state of static equilibrium evolves into a state of dynamic
equilibrium.
Inertia forces become more dominant.
The goal is to model the process in the shortest time period (or with the most mass scaling) in which
inertia forces are still insignificant.

167

L8.11

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (4/10)


Suggested approach
Run a series of simulations in the order from the fastest load rate to the slowest (or largest mass scaling
to the smallest), since the analysis time is greater for slower load rates (or smaller mass scaling).
Examine the results (deformed shapes, stresses, strains, energies) to get an understanding for the
effects of varying the model.
For example, excessive tool speeds in explicit sheet metal forming simulations tend to suppress
wrinkling and to promote unrealistic localized stretching.
Excessive tool speeds in explicit bulk forming simulations cause jettinghydrodynamic-type
response.

L8.12

Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (5/10)


Jetting
Consider the following bulk forming process (180 section of an axisymmetric model).
When the tool speed is too large, highly localized deformation develops (jetting).

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jetting

tool speed = 10 m/s

tool speed = 500 m/s

Effect of tool speed on deformed shape

168

L8.13

Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (6/10)

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Example: sheet metal


This figure shows a simple model of a standard door beam intrusion test for an automobile door.
The circular beam is fixed at each end, and the beam is deformed by a rigid cylinder.
The actual test is quasi-static.

Rigid cylinder impacting a deformable beam

L8.14

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (7/10)


At an extremely high impact velocity,
400 m/sec, there is highly localized
deformation and no structural response
by the beam.
The dominant response in a static test
will be in the first structural mode of the
beam. The frequency of this mode is
used to estimate the impact velocity.
The frequency of the first mode is
approximately 250 Hz.
This rate corresponds to a period
of 4 milliseconds.
Using a velocity of 25 m/sec, the
cylinder will be pushed into the
beam 0.1 m in 4 milliseconds.

Velocity 400 m/s:

Localized effect

0.1 m

Velocity 25 m/s:

Good global result

169

L8.15

Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (8/10)


Why is the velocity 25 m/sec appropriate?
The frequency ( f ) of the first mode is approximately 250 Hz.

This corresponds to a period t = 0.004 seconds.

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During this period, the rigid cylinder is pushed into the beam d = 0.1 m.
Thus, the velocity v is estimated to be v = d / t = 0.1/0.004 = 25 m/sec.
Recall, the wave speed of metals is about 5000 m/sec, so the impact velocity 25 m/sec is about 0.5% of
the wave speed.
The impact velocity should be limited to less than 1% of the wave speed of the material.
A more accurate solution could be obtained by ramping up the velocity smoothly from zero over the
analysis step.

L8.16

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (9/10)

170

Use the SMOOTH STEP amplitude curve


A quasi-static solution is also promoted by applying loads gradually:
A constant velocity condition applied to a tool results in a sudden impact load onto the metal
blank.
This may induce propagation of a stress wave through the blank, producing undesired results.
Ramping up the tool velocity gradually from zero minimizes these adverse effects.
Ramping down the tool velocity to zero as the tool is moved to its final position is also
recommended for the same reasons.

L8.17

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Quasi-Static Simulations Using Explicit Dynamics (10/10)


The SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition
creates a fifth-order polynomial transition
between two amplitude values such that the
first and second time derivatives are zero at
the beginning and the end of the transition.
When the displacement time history is defined
using the SMOOTH STEP definition, the
velocity and the acceleration will be zero at
every amplitude value specified.

*AMPLITUDE, NAME=SSTEP, DEFINITION=SMOOTH STEP


0.0, 0.0, 1.0E-5, 1.0
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=DISPLACEMENT, AMP=SSTEP
12, 2, 2, 2.5

L8.18

Energy Balance (1/4)


An energy balance equation can be used to help evaluate whether a simulation is yielding an appropriate quasistatic response.
In Abaqus/Explicit this equation is written as

EKE EI EV EFD EW EPW ECW EMW ETOT constant,

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where

Work done by contact and constraint penalties, and


by propelling added mass due to mass scaling

EKE

is the kinetic energy,

EI

is the internal energy (both elastic and plastic strain energy and the artificial energy associated
with hourglass control),

EV

is the energy dissipated by viscous mechanisms,

EFD

is the frictional dissipation energy,

EW

is the work due to loads and boundary conditions, and

ETOT

is the total energy in the system.

171

L8.19

Energy Balance (2/4)

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Consider a pull test applied to a uniaxial tensile


specimen.
If the physical test is quasi-static, the work
applied by the external forces in stretching the
specimen equals the internal energy in the
specimen.

Uniaxial pull test

L8.20

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Energy Balance (3/4)

172

The energy history for the quasi-static test would


appear as shown in the figure at right:
Inertia forces are negligible.
The velocity of material in the test specimen is
very small.
Kinetic energy is negligible.
As the speed of the test increases:
The response of the specimen becomes less
static, more dynamic.
Material velocities and, therefore, kinetic
energy become more significant.
Energy history for quasi-static pull test

L8.21

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Energy Balance (4/4)


Hence, examination of the energy content provides another measure to evaluate whether the results from an
Abaqus/Explicit metal forming simulation reflect a quasi-static solution.
The kinetic energy of the deforming material should not exceed a small fraction of its internal energy
throughout the majority of the forming process.
A small fraction typically means 15%.
I. It is generally not possible to achieve this in early stages of the process since the blank will
be moving before it develops any significant deformation.
II. Use smooth step amplitude curves to improve early response.
Not interested in kinetic energy of the tools.
I. Subtract their contribution from global model kinetic energy or restrict energy output to
deforming components.

L8.22

Example: Load Rates (1/4)


Cylindrical cup deep drawing
The quarter-symmetric finite element model is
shown in the figure.
Friction is modeled along all contact interfaces:
Punch and blank: m = 0.25.

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Die and blank: m = 0.125.


Blank holder and blank: m = 0.
The deep drawing simulation is conducted by
applying a downward force of 22.87 kN to the
blank holder, then displacing the punch
downward 36 mm.

Initial configuration for cylindrical cup


deep drawing

173

L8.23

Example: Load Rates (2/4)

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We examine three different punch speeds:


3 m/s
30 m/s
150 m/s
The computation cost of each cylindrical cup deep drawing simulation is summarized in the following
table:

Punch speed
(m/s)

Time increments

Normalized CPU time

3 (1X)

27929

1.0

30 (10X)

2704

0.097

150 (50X)

529

0.019

L8.24

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Example: Load Rates (3/4)


Contours of blank thickness in final
formed configuration
Excessive punch speeds lead
to results that do not
correspond to the physics. At
150 m/s unrealistic thinning
of the blank is predicted.
Results obtained at 30 m/s and
3 m/s are very similar, even
though the difference in
computation cost is a factor of
10.

Vpunch = 30 m/s

Vpunch = 3 m/s

Vpunch = 150 m/s

174

L8.25

Example: Load Rates (4/4)


Comparison of internal and kinetic energies
At a punch speed of 150 m/s the kinetic energy of the blank is a significant fraction of its internal energy.

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At punch speeds of 3 m/s and 30 m/s the kinetic energy is only a small fraction of the internal energy
over the majority of the forming process history.

L8.26

Example: Mass Scaling (1/2)


Uniaxial tension test

The figure shows the problem definition for a


tension test on a plane strain bar with the
material properties of a mild steel.

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It is modeled with quarter symmetry.

Mass scaling is available through the *FIXED


MASS SCALING option.
Mass scaling applied at the beginning of
a step.
Syntax:
*FIXED MASS SCALING,
ELSET=name, FACTOR= f 2
The density of every element in the
specified element set is increased by f 2,
thus increasing each elements stable
time increment by f .

Uniaxial tension test

175

L8.27

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Example: Mass Scaling (2/2)


This figure shows the results of three different
analyses.
The results on the left and in the center
are almost identical.
The solution for the results in the
center requires one-fifth the
computer time of the first solution.
The solution on the right gives an
essentially meaningless result compared
to the original static solution.

Mass
scaling
factor

25

10000

Contours of PEEQ

L8.28

Adaptive Meshing (1/8)

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Motivation
In many nonlinear simulations the material in the structure or process undergoes very large
deformations.
These deformations distort the finite element mesh, often to the point where the mesh is unable
to provide accurate results or the analysis terminates prematurely for numerical reasons.
In such simulations it is necessary to use adaptive meshing tools to minimize the distortion in the
mesh periodically.

176

Note: In this course we restrict our attention to the ALE adaptive meshing capability available in
Abaqus/Explicit.
The adaptive remeshing capability available in Abaqus/Standard and the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian
capability available in Abaqus/Explicit are not discussed here.

L8.29

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Adaptive Meshing (2/8)


Adaptive meshing is useful in a broad range of applications:
Can be used as a continuous adaptive meshing tool for transient analysis problems undergoing
large deformations, such as:
I. Dynamic impact
II. Penetration
III. Sloshing
IV. Forging
Can be used as a solution technique to model steady-state processes, such as:
I. Extrusion
II. Rolling
Can be used as a tool to analyze the transient phase in a steady-state process.

L8.30

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Adaptive Meshing (3/8)


Adaptive meshing basics
Adaptive meshing is performed in Abaqus/Explicit using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)
method. The primary characteristics of the adaptive meshing capability are:
The mesh is smoothed at regular intervals to reduce element distortion and to maintain good
element aspect ratios.
The same mesh topology is maintainedthe number of elements and nodes and their
connectivity do not change.
It can be used to analyze Lagrangian (transient) problems and Eulerian (steady-state) problems.

177

L8.31

Adaptive Meshing (4/8)

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Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method


Lagrangian
Nodes move exactly with material points.
description
It is easy to track free surfaces and apply boundary conditions.
The mesh will become distorted with high strain gradients; default description in Abaqus.
Eulerian
description

Nodes stay fixed while material flows through the mesh


It is more difficult to track free surfaces.
No mesh distortion because mesh is fixed.
Available using the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) capability.

ALE

Mesh motion is constrained to the material motion only where necessary (at free
boundaries), but otherwise material motion and mesh motion are independent.

L8.32

Adaptive Meshing (5/8)

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Motion of mesh and material with various methods

178

L8.33

Adaptive Meshing (6/8)


ALE simulation of an axisymmetric forging problem

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Undeformed model

Deformed meshes at 70% of die travel

L8.34

Adaptive Meshing (7/8)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

By using the adaptive meshing capability, a high-quality mesh can be maintained throughout the entire
forging process.

Nodes along the free boundary move


with the material in the direction normal
to the materials surface. They are
allowed to adapt (adjust their position)
tangent to the free surface.

Interior nodes adaptively adjust in all directions


ALE simulation: deformed mesh at 100% of die travel

179

L8.35

Adaptive Meshing (8/8)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

In a transient (Lagrangian-type) problem, such as this forging simulation, minimal additional input is
required to invoke the adaptive meshing capability.

*HEADING
....
*ELSET, ELSET=BLANK
....
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
....
*ADAPTIVE MESH, ELSET=BLANK [, FREQUENCY=..., MESH SWEEPS=...]
....
*END STEP
Adaptive meshing is available for all first-order, reduced-integration continuum elements.
Other element types may exist in the model.

L8.36

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Summary

180

Excessive loading rates can produce solutions with significant inertia effects.
A general guideline is to restrict loading rates so that, for example, tool speeds are less than 1% of the
material wave speed.
Ramping loads up from zero also promotes a quasi-static response.
Use the SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition.
Mass scaling can be used for problems with rate-dependent material behavior, allowing the process to
be modeled in its natural time period.
The energy balance can be used to assist in evaluating whether a given solution represents a quasistatic response to applied loads.
Since results can depend strongly on the process speed (real or artificially adjusted by mass scaling), it
is vital to ensure that unrealistic results are not being generated by excessive artificial process speed
scaling.
To confirm that the Abaqus/Explicit results are realistic, it may be useful to study a simplified
version of the problem as a static analysis in Abaqus/Standard for comparison.
The easiest way to create a suitable simplified test case for this purpose is often to define a twodimensional version of part of the problem.
Adaptive meshing is used to maintain a high-quality mesh in the presence of very large deformations.

Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (IA)


1.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

2.

L8.37

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


Exercise simulates the deep drawing of a
or keywords version of this workshop.
can bottom
Workshop tasks include:
This workshop is optional.
1. Perform a frequency extraction analysis to
determine an appropriate analysis time for this quasi-static process.
2. Complete the geometry definition of the rigid tools, and include contact and material definitions.
3. Include a SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition to improve quasi-static behavior.
4. Include mass scaling to reduce the analysis time without degrading the results.
5. Perform the analysis, and determine whether or not the results are acceptable.

1 hour

Workshop 8: Quasi-Static Analysis (KW)


1.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

2.

L8.38

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


Exercise simulates the deep drawing of a
or keywords version of this workshop.
can bottom
Workshop tasks include:
This workshop is optional.
1. Perform a frequency extraction analysis to
determine an appropriate analysis time for this quasi-static process.
2. Complete the geometry definition of the rigid tools, and include contact and material definitions.
3. Include a SMOOTH STEP amplitude definition to improve quasi-static behavior.
4. Include mass scaling to reduce the analysis time without degrading the results.
5. Perform the analysis, and determine whether or not the results are acceptable.

1 hour

181

182

Notes

183

Notes

184

Lesson 9: Combining Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

L9.1

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Lesson content:

Introduction
Abaqus Usage
Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard
Workshop 9: Import Analysis (IA)
Workshop 9: Import Analysis (KW)

Both interactive (IA) and keywords (KW) versions


of the workshop are provided. Complete only one.

1 hour

L9.2

Introduction (1/3)
Abaqus provides a capability to transfer a deformed mesh and an associated state between an
Abaqus/Explicit analysis and an Abaqus/Standard analysis.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

This capability provides great flexibility, for example, in modeling springback in metal forming processes.
The deformed model can be transferred from Abaqus/Explicit to Abaqus/Standard to, for example:
Obtain the final static configuration after a dynamic event.
Simulate springback after a metal forming operation.
Perform eigenvalue or buckling simulations on a formed part.
Simulate the movement of rigid tools more efficiently.
The deformed model can be transferred from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit to, for example:
Simulate additional forming steps after an intermediary springback phase.
Simulate forming processes that occur after a part cools down from a heat treatment phase (thermal
stresses are calculated in Abaqus/Standard).
Continue a simulation following a phase of the analysis that was done more efficiently in
Abaqus/Standard.
Follow the steady-state rolling of a tire in Abaqus/Standard with a transient rolling along a bumpy road in
Abaqus/Explicit.

185

L9.3

Introduction (2/3)

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Import summary
The ability to import the material state and the nodal positions is the main requirement of importing
results between the analysis modules.
The following table summarizes the import capabilities:

Can be imported

Need to be respecified

Cannot be imported

Material state *

Boundary conditions

Some materials *

Nodal positions

Loads

Elements, element sets

Contact definitions

Nodes, node sets

Output requests

Temperatures

Multi-point constraints
Nodal transformations
Amplitude definitions

L9.4

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Introduction (3/3)

186

Comments regarding material states


Only the material states for the some materials are imported correctly for further analysis. These
include:
Linear elastic
Hyperelastic
Mullins effect
Hyperfoam
Mises plasticity (including the kinematic hardening models)
Viscoelastic
User-defined materials (UMAT and VUMAT)
See Section 9.2.1 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual for a complete list of supported materials

L9.5

Abaqus Usage (1/4)


Performing an import analysis requires the following:

A restart (.res) file containing the current state of the model.

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If transferring from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit, also require the


I. analysis database (.mdl and .stt),
II. part (.prt), and
III. output database (.odb) files.
If transferring from Abaqus/Explicit to Abaqus/Standard, also require the
I. state (.abq),
II. analysis database (.stt),
III. package (.pac),
IV. part (.prt), and
V. output database (.odb) files.
The additional files noted above are written by default; do not delete them if planning on
performing a restart analysis.
A new input (.inp) file for the next analysis stage that contains:
The *IMPORT option directly after the *HEADING option
Any additional model data
History data for the next stage of the simulation

L9.6

Abaqus Usage (2/4)


Executing an import analysis

During an Abaqus/Explicit or Abaqus/Standard simulation, a restart file must be written at the time when
transfer of the models state is desired.

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Using the Abaqus driver, set the job parameter to the new job name and set the oldjob parameter to the
job name associated with the restart file from the previous analysis stage.
abaqus job=new_jobname oldjob=previous_jobname

Specifying the analysis increment for import


Importing from Abaqus/Explicit into an Abaqus/Standard model:
The *IMPORT option specifies the STEP and INTERVAL of the restart file from which the model
state is to be imported:
*IMPORT, STEP=step number, INTERVAL=interval number
Importing from Abaqus/Standard into an Abaqus/Explicit model:
The *IMPORT option specifies the STEP and INCREMENT of the restart file from which the
model state is to be imported:
*IMPORT, STEP=step number, INC=increment number

187

L9.7

Abaqus Usage (3/4)


Elements and nodes

Specify the element sets that are to be imported on the data line of the *IMPORT option.
*IMPORT, STEP=step

number, INTERVAL=interval number

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elset_1, elset_2, elset_3


Each element set name specified on the data line of the *IMPORT option must have been used in
a section definition option (e.g., *SOLID SECTION) in the original analysis.
The current thickness of shell and membrane elements is imported automatically and becomes the initial
thickness for the element if UPDATE=YES.
All nodes attached to imported elements are imported.
Additional nodes and elements can be defined in the new analysis.

L9.8

Abaqus Usage (4/4)


Material state and reference configuration

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By default, the material state (for supported materials) is imported in an import analysis (STATE=YES on
the *IMPORT option).
For the analysis to continue without resetting the reference configuration, set UPDATE=NO on the
*IMPORT option:
*IMPORT, UPDATE=NO
In some cases it may be desirable to obtain springback displacements and strains relative to the
geometry at the start of the springback analysis (reset to zero at the start of the springback step). Set
UPDATE=YES on the *IMPORT option:
*IMPORT, UPDATE=YES

UPDATE=YES should not be used if additional forming stages will follow because the reference
configuration will not be consistent.
Other combinations of the STATE and UPDATE parameters are available but are not discussed here.
The setting of NLGEOM is imported and becomes the setting for the new analysis.

188

L9.9

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (1/7)


The blank shown in the figure at right undergoes
large deformations during the sheet metal forming
process.

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Once the forming process is complete and the


confining tools are removed, the blank will
attempt to recover its elastic deformation.
This springback phenomenon may lead to
unacceptable warping of the formed product.
Forming tools must be designed to
compensate for springback effects.

L9.10

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (2/7)


For the calculation of springback associated with sheet metal forming processes:

Generally, the forming process is simulated using Abaqus/Explicit because it is more efficient for such
analyses.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The deformed mesh of the blank and its associated material state at the end of the forming process are
imported into an Abaqus/Standard model to analyze springback.

The springback calculation is performed more efficiently in Abaqus/Standard than in Abaqus/Explicit.


The displacements that Abaqus/Standard calculates are the totals from the forming and springback
stages if UPDATE=NO is used on the *IMPORT option.

189

L9.11

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (3/7)


Equilibrium

Upon importing the deformed blank and its current state into Abaqus/Standard, the model is not in static
equilibrium. Dynamic forces, contact forces, and boundary conditions that exist in Abaqus/Explicit but
not in Abaqus/Standard contribute to this condition:

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Dynamic forces:

The forming process is simulated using a dynamic procedure, so the deformed blank is in a state
of dynamic equilibrium. Inertia and damping forces are present.
In a quasi-static forming simulation the state of dynamic equilibrium is relatively close to a state of
static equilibrium.

Boundary and contact conditions:


Contact forces are not imported.
Boundary conditions can be modified in the import analysis.

L9.12

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (4/7)


Achieving static equilibrium during springback analysis

When the deformed blank is imported with the material state into Abaqus/Standard, a set of artificial
internal stresses are automatically applied that equilibrate the imported stresses so that static
equilibrium is obtained at the start of the analysis.

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These artificial stresses are ramped off during the springback calculation step.

190

As these stresses are removed, the blank deforms further (referred to as springback) as a result of
redistribution of internal forces.
The final configuration following springback is achieved after complete removal of the artificial stresses
or initial out-of-balance forces.

L9.13

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (5/7)


Example: Springback calculation for cylindrical cup

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The following input in Abaqus/Standard is used to define the springback analysis:

*HEADING
Springback Calculation
*IMPORT, STEP=1, INTERVAL=10, UPDATE=YES, STATE=YES
BLANK,
*STEP, NLGEOM
*STATIC
0.1, 1.
*BOUNDARY
NodeX, XSYMM
Must have sufficient boundary conditions to
NodeY, YSYMM
1, 3, 3, 0.0 prevent rigid body motion
*RESTART, WRITE, FREQUENCY=5
*EL PRINT, ELSET=BLANK, FREQUENCY=99
S,
*END STEP

L9.14

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (6/7)


Element set BLANK is the only element set whose state is imported into Abaqus/Standard.

Node set definitions NodeX and NodeY are imported and subsequently used to define symmetry
boundary conditions.

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The z-translation of node 1 is restrained to preclude rigid body motion of the deformed blank.
The NLGEOM parameter must be used with the *STEP option, since Abaqus/Explicit includes nonlinear
geometry by default.
The *STATIC procedure is carried out incrementally.
The initial out-of-balance forces are ramped down in accordance with the time incrementation.

191

L9.15

Springback Calculation Using Abaqus/Standard (7/7)

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The configuration after springback is shown in the figure. A magnification factor of 10 is applied to the
displacements for visualization purposes.

Deformed configuration after springback

L9.16

Workshop 9: Import Analysis (IA)


1.

This exercise simulates the springback of a


formed can bottom

2.

Workshop tasks include:

Interactive version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.
This workshop is optional.

Import the results into an Abaqus/Standard analysis to examine springback.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

30 minutes

192

L9.17

Workshop 9: Import Analysis (KW)


1.

This exercise simulates the springback of a


formed can bottom

2.

Workshop tasks include:

Keywords version. Choose either the interactive


or keywords version of this workshop.
This workshop is optional.

Import the results into an Abaqus/Standard analysis to examine springback.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

1.

30 minutes

193

194

Notes

195

Notes

196

Appendix 1: Element Selection Criteria

A1.1

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Lesson content:

Elements in Abaqus
Structural (Shells and Beams) vs. Continuum Elements
Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements
Stress Concentrations
Contact
Incompressible Materials
Mesh Generation
Solid Element Selection Summary

1.5 hours

A1.2

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Elements in Abaqus (1/8)


The wide range of elements in the Abaqus element library provides flexibility in modeling different geometries
and structures.
Each element can be characterized by considering the following:
Family
Number of nodes
Degrees of freedom
Formulation
Integration

197

A1.3

Elements in Abaqus (2/8)

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Family
A family of finite elements is the broadest category used to classify elements.
Elements in the same family share many basic features.
There are many variations within a family.

shell elements

continuum (solid elements)

membrane elements

rigid elements

beam elements

truss elements

special-purpose
elements like springs,
dashpots, and masses

infinite elements

A1.4

Elements in Abaqus (3/8)

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Number of nodes (interpolation)


An elements number of nodes determines how the nodal degrees of freedom will be interpolated over
the domain of the element.
Abaqus includes elements with both first- and second-order interpolation.

First-order
interpolation

198

Second-order
interpolation

A1.5

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Elements in Abaqus (4/8)


Degrees of freedom
The primary variables that exist at the nodes of an element are the degrees of freedom in the finite
element analysis.
Examples of degrees of freedom are:
Displacements
Rotations
Temperature
Electrical potential
Some elements have internal degrees of freedom that are not associated with the user-defined nodes.

A1.6

Elements in Abaqus (5/8)

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Formulation
The mathematical formulation used to describe the behavior of an element is another broad category
that is used to classify elements.
Examples of different element formulations:
Plane strain

Small-strain shells

Plane stress

Finite-strain shells

Hybrid elements

Thick-only shells

Incompatible-mode elements

Thin-only shells

Integration
The stiffness and mass of an element are calculated numerically at sampling points called integration
points within the element.
The numerical algorithm used to integrate these variables influences how an element behaves.

199

A1.7

Elements in Abaqus (6/8)

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Abaqus includes elements with both full and reduced integration.


Full integration:
I. The minimum integration order required for exact integration of the strain energy for an
undistorted element with linear material properties.
Reduced integration:
I. The integration rule that is one order less than the full integration rule.

Full
integration

Reduced
integration

Firstorder
interpolation
2x2

1x1

3x3

2x2

Secondorder
interpolation

A1.8

Elements in Abaqus (7/8)


Element naming conventions: examples

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B21: Beam, 2-D,


1st-order interpolation

CAX8R: Continuum,
AXisymmetric, 8-node,
Reduced integration

DC3D4: Diffusion (heat transfer),


Continuum, 3-D, 4-node

200

S8RT: Shell, 8-node, Reduced


integration, Temperature

CPE8PH: Continuum, Plane strain,


8-node, Pore pressure, Hybrid

DC1D2E: Diffusion (heat transfer),


Continuum, 1-D, 2-node, Electrical

A1.9

Elements in Abaqus (8/8)


Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit element libraries

Both programs have essentially the same element families: continuum, shell, beam, etc.

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Abaqus/Standard includes elements for many analysis types besides stress analysis: heat transfer, soils
consolidation, acoustics, etc.
Acoustic elements are also available in Abaqus/Explicit.
Abaqus/Standard includes many more variations within each element family.
Abaqus/Explicit includes mostly first-order reduced-integration elements.
Exceptions: second-order triangular and tetrahedral elements; second-order beam elements;
first-order fully-integrated brick (including incompatible mode version), shell, and membrane
elements.
Many of the same general element selection guidelines apply to both programs.

A1.10

Structural (Shells and Beams) vs. Continuum Elements (1/3)


Continuum (solid) element models can be large and expensive, particularly in three-dimensional problems.

If appropriate, structural elements (shells and beams) should be used for a more economical solution.

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A structural element model typically requires far fewer elements than a comparable continuum element
model.
For structural elements to produce acceptable results, the shell thickness or the beam cross-section
dimensions should be less than 1/10 of a typical global structural dimension, such as:
The distance between supports or point loads
The distance between gross changes in cross section
The wavelength of the highest vibration mode

201

A1.11

Structural (Shells and Beams) vs. Continuum Elements (2/3)


Shell elements

Shell elements approximate a threedimensional continuum with a surface model.

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Model bending and in-plane


deformations efficiently.
If a detailed analysis of a region is needed, a
local three-dimensional continuum model can
be included using multi-point constraints or
submodeling.

3-D continuum

surface model

shell model of a hemispherical dome subjected


to a projectile impact

A1.12

Structural (Shells and Beams) vs. Continuum Elements (3/3)


Beam elements

Beam elements approximate a threedimensional continuum with a line model.

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Model bending, torsion, and axial forces


efficiently.

Many different cross-section shapes are


available.

3-D continuum

line model

Cross-section properties can also be


specified by providing engineering
constants.

framed structure modeled using


beam elements

202

A1.13

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (1/10)

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Physical characteristics of pure bending

xx

Plane cross-sections remain plane throughout the deformation.


The axial strain xx varies linearly through the thickness.
The strain in the thickness direction yy is zero if = 0.
No membrane shear strain.
Implies that lines parallel to the beam axis lie on a circular arc.

A1.14

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (2/10)

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Modeling bending using second-order solid elements (CPE8, C3D20R, )


Second-order full- and reduced-integration solid elements model bending accurately:
The axial strain equals the change in length of the initially horizontal lines.
The thickness strain is zero.
The shear strain is zero.
lines that are initially vertical do not
change length (implies yy= 0).

Because the element edges can assume a curved


shape, the angle between the deformed isoparametric
lines remains equal to 90o (implies xy= 0).

203

A1.15

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (3/10)


Modeling bending using first-order fully-integrated solid elements (CPS4, CPE4, C3D8)
These elements detect shear strains at the integration points.
Nonphysical; present solely because of the element formulation used.
Overly stiff behavior results from energy going into shearing the element rather than bending it
(called shear locking).

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integration point

Because the element edges must


remain straight, the angle between the
deformed isoparametric lines is not
equal to 90 (implies xy 0 ).

Do not use these elements in regions dominated by bending!

A1.16

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (4/10)

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Modeling bending using first-order reduced-integration elements (CPE4R, )


These elements eliminate shear locking.
However, hourglassing is a concern when using these elements.
Only one integration point at the centroid.
A single element through the thickness does not detect strain in bending.
Deformation is a zero-energy mode (deformation but no strain; called hourglassing).

Change in length is zero (implies no strain


is detected at the integration point).

Bending behavior for a single first-order


reduced-integration element

204

A1.17

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (5/10)

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Hourglassing can propagate easily through a mesh of first-order reduced-integration elements, causing
unreliable results.
Hourglassing is not a problem if you use multiple elementsat least four through the thickness.
Each element captures either compressive or tensile axial strains but not both.
The axial strains are measured correctly.
The thickness and shear strains are zero.
Cheap and effective elements.

A1.18

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (6/10)

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Detecting and controlling hourglassing


Hourglassing can usually be seen in deformed shape plots.
Example: Coarse and medium meshes of a simply supported beam with a center point load.
Abaqus has built-in hourglass controls that limit the problems caused by hourglassing.
Verify that the artificial energy used to control hourglassing is small (<1%) relative to the internal
energy.

Same load and displacement magnification


(1000)

205

A1.19

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (7/10)

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Use the XY plotting capability in Abaqus/CAE to compare the energies graphically.

internal energy

internal energy

artificial energy

Two elements through the thickness:


Ratio of artificial to internal energy is 2%

artificial energy

Four elements through the thickness: Ratio


of artificial to internal energy is 0.1%

A1.20

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (8/10)

206

Modeling bending using incompatible mode elements


(CPS4I, )
Perhaps the most cost-effective solid continuum elements for bending-dominated problems.
Compromise in cost between the first- and second-order reduced-integration elements, with many of the
advantages of both.
Model shear behavior correctlyno shear strains in pure bending.
Model bending with only one element through the thickness.
No hourglass modes, and work well in plasticity and contact problems.
The advantages over reduced-integration first-order elements are reduced if the elements are severely
distorted; however, all elements perform less accurately if severely distorted.

A1.21

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (9/10)

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Example: Cantilever beam with distorted elements

Parallel distortion

Trapezoidal distortion

A1.22

Modeling Bending Using Continuum Elements (10/10)


Summary

xx

yy

xy

Physical behavior

Second-order

First-order, full integration

Hourglassing if too few elements


through thickness

OK if enough elements through the


thickness

OK if not overly distorted

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Element type

First-order, reduced
integration

Incompatible mode

Notes

OK

Shear locking

207

A1.23

Stress Concentrations (1/6)

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Second-order elements clearly outperform first-order elements in problems with stress concentrations and are
ideally suited for the analysis of (stationary) cracks.
Both fully-integrated and reduced-integration elements work well.
Reduced-integration elements tend to be somewhat more efficientresults are often as good or better
than full integration at lower computational cost.

A1.24

Stress Concentrations (2/6)

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Second-order elements capture geometric features, such as curved edges, with fewer elements than
first-order elements.

Physical model

Model with first-order


elementselement faces
are straight line segments.

208

Model with second-order


elements
element faces are
quadratic curves.

A1.25

Stress Concentrations (3/6)

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Both first- and second-order quads and bricks become less accurate when their initial shape is distorted.
First-order elements are known to be less sensitive to distortion than second-order elements and,
thus, are a better choice in problems where significant mesh distortion is expected.
Second-order triangles and tetrahedra are less sensitive to initial element shape than most other
elements; however, well-shaped elements provide better results.

ideal

undistorted

okay

bad

distorted

A1.26

Stress Concentrations (4/6)


A typical stress concentration problem, a NAFEMS benchmark problem, is shown at right. The analysis
results obtained with different element types follow.

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elliptical shape

209

A1.27

Stress Concentrations (5/6)

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First-order elements (including incompatible mode elements) are relatively poor in the study of stress
concentration problems.

Element
s yy at D (Target=100.0)
type
Coarse mesh Fine mesh
CPS3
55.06
76.87
CPS4
71.98
91.2
CPS4I
63.45
84.37
CPS4R
43.67
60.6
CPS6
96.12
101.4
CPS8
91.2
100.12
CPS8R
92.56
97.16

A1.28

Stress Concentrations (6/6)

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Second-order elements such as CPS6, CPS8, and CPS8R give much better results.
Well-shaped, second-order, reduced-integration quadrilaterals and hexahedra can provide high
accuracy in stress concentration regions.
Distorted elements reduce the accuracy in these regions.

210

A1.29

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact
If the surface-to-surface contact discretization is used:
No fundamental issues or element type restrictions
Abaqus/Standard always uses this formulation for general contact
If the node-to-surface contact discretization is used:
Best to avoid having second-order tetrahedral elements (C3D10, C3D10I) underlying the slave surface
with this contact discretization
Susceptible to poor convergence and extreme contact pressure noise
Use modified versions of these elements (C3D10M) instead
Sometimes C3D10 or C3D10I elements work fine if penalty enforcement of contact is specified
Abaqus automatically activates supplementary constraints for this combination of features
But the extra (supplementary) constraints can be another source of convergence problems

A1.30

Incompressible Materials (1/3)

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Many nonlinear problems involve incompressible materials ( = 0.5) and nearly incompressible materials
( > 0.475).
Rubber
Metals at large plastic strains
Conventional finite element meshes often exhibit overly stiff behavior due to volumetric locking, which is
most severe when these materials are highly confined.

overly stiff behavior of an elasticplastic material with volumetric


locking

correct behavior of an
elastic-plastic material

Example of the effect of volumetric locking

211

A1.31

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Incompressible Materials (2/3)


For an incompressible material each integration points volume must remain almost constant. This
overconstrains the kinematically admissible displacement field and causes volumetric locking
For example, in a refined three-dimensional mesh of 8-node hexahedra, there ison average1
node with 3 degrees of freedom per element.
The volume at each integration point must remain fixed.
Fully integrated hexahedra use 8 integration points per element; thus, in this example, we have
as many as 8 constraints per element, but only 3 degrees of freedom are available to satisfy
these constraints.
The mesh is overconstrainedit locks.
Volumetric locking is most pronounced in fully integrated elements.
Reduced-integration elements have fewer volumetric constraints.
Reduced integration effectively eliminates volumetric locking in many problems with nearly
incompressible material.

A1.32

Incompressible Materials (3/3)

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Fully incompressible materials modeled with solid elements must use the hybrid formulation (elements
whose names end with the letter H).
In this formulation the pressure stress is treated as an independently interpolated basic solution
variable, coupled to the displacement solution through the constitutive theory.
Hybrid elements introduce more variables into the problem to alleviate the volumetric locking
problem. The extra variables also make them more expensive.
The Abaqus element library includes hybrid versions of all continuum elements (except plane
stress elements, where this is not needed).

212

Hybrid elements are only necessary for:


All meshes with strictly incompressible materials, such as rubber.
Refined meshes of reduced-integration elements that still show volumetric locking problems.
Such problems are possible with elastic-plastic materials strained far into the plastic range.
Even with hybrid elements a mesh of first-order triangles and tetrahedra is overconstrained when
modeling fully incompressible materials.
Hence, these elements are recommended only for use as fillers in quadrilateral or brick-type
meshes with such material.

A1.33

Mesh Generation (1/5)

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Meshes
Typical element shapes are shown at right.
Most elements in Abaqus are topologically
equivalent to these shapes.
For example, CPE4 (stress), DC2D4
(heat transfer), and AC2D4 (acoustics)
are topologically equivalent to a linear
quadrilateral.

A1.34

Mesh Generation (2/5)

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Quad/hex vs. tri/tet elements


Of particular importance when generating a mesh is the decision regarding whether to use quad/hex or
tri/tet elements.
Quad/hex elements should be used wherever possible.
They give the best results for the minimum cost.
When modeling complex geometries, however, the analyst often has little choice but to mesh with
triangular and tetrahedral elements.

Turbine blade with platform modeled with


tetrahedral elements

213

A1.35

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Mesh Generation (3/5)


First-order tri/tet elements (CPE3, CPS3, CAX3, C3D4, C3D6) are poor elements; they have the
following problems:
Poor convergence rate.
I. They typically require very fine meshes to produce good results.
Volumetric locking with incompressible or nearly incompressible materials, even using the
hybrid formulation.
These elements should be used only as fillers in regions far from any areas where accurate results are
needed.
Second-order tri/tet elements (C3D10, C3D10I, etc.)
Suitable for general usage
Less sensitive to initial element shape that quads/hex but convergence rate is slower
Guidelines for contact analysis
I. Surface-to-surface contact discretization
No restriction on element type (use C3D10, C3D10I, C3D10M, etc.)
II. Node-to-surface contact discretization
Restrict usage to modified second-order elements (e.g., C3D10M)

A1.36

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Mesh Generation (4/5)

214

Mesh refinement and convergence


Use a sufficiently refined mesh to ensure that the results from your Abaqus simulation are adequate.
Coarse meshes tend to yield inaccurate results.
The computer resources required to run your job increase with the level of mesh refinement.
It is rarely necessary to use a uniformly refined mesh throughout the structure being analyzed.
Use a fine mesh only in areas of high gradients and a coarser mesh in areas of low gradients.
Can often predict regions of high gradients before generating the mesh.
Use hand calculations, experience, etc.
Alternatively, you can use coarse mesh results to identify high gradient regions.
Some recommendations:
Minimize mesh distortion as much as possible.
A minimum of four quadratic elements per 90o should be used around a circular hole.
A minimum of four elements should be used through the thickness of a structure if first-order,
reduced integration solid elements are used to model bending.
Other guidelines can be developed based on experience with a given class of problem.

A1.37

Mesh Generation (5/5)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

It is good practice to perform a mesh convergence study.


Simulate the problem using progressively finer meshes, and compare the results.
I. The mesh density can be changed very easily using Abaqus/CAE since the definition of the
analysis model is based on the geometry of the structure.
When two meshes yield nearly identical results, the results are said to have converged.
I. This provides increased confidence in your results.

A1.38

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Solid Element Selection Summary (1/2)

Class of problem

Best element choice

Avoid using

General contact between


deformable bodies

First-order quad/hex

Second-order elements with the node-tosurface contact discretization

Contact with bending

Incompatible mode

First-order fully integrated quad/hex or


second-order elements with the node-tosurface contact discretization

Bending (no contact)

Second-order quad/hex

First-order fully integrated quad/hex

Stress concentration

Second-order

First-order

Nearly incompressible
( >0.475 or large strain
plasticity pl >10%)

First-order elements or secondorder reduced integration


elements

Second-order fully integrated

215

A1.39

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Solid Element Selection Summary (2/2)

216

Class of problem

Best element choice

Completely incompressible
(rubber = 0.5)

Hybrid quad/hex, first-order if large deformations


are anticipated

Bulk metal forming


(high mesh distortion)

First-order reduced integration quad/hex

Complicated model geometry


(linear material, no contact)

Second-order quad/hex if possible (if not overly


distorted) or second-order tet/tri (because of
meshing difficulties)

Complicated model geometry


(nonlinear problem or contact)

First-order quad/hex if possible (if not overly


distorted). If meshing requirements dictate,
use second-order tet/tri (modified form; use
regular form only with surface-to-surface
contact discretization)

Natural frequency
(linear dynamics)

Second-order

Nonlinear dynamic (impact)

First-order

Avoid using

Second-order
quad/hex

Second-order

Notes

217

Notes

218

A2.1

Appendix 2: Contact Issues Specific to Abaqus/Standard


Lesson content:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact as Part of the Model Definition


Mesh Density Considerations
Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard

30 minutes

A2.2

Contact as Part of the Model Definition


For Abaqus/Standard the entire contact definition is model data (it must appear before the first *STEP
option).
Contact pairs can be activated or deactivated during the analysis history using the *MODEL CHANGE
option.
*MODEL CHANGE, TYPE=CONTACT PAIR, [ADD | REMOVE]

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

surface_1, surface_2

219

A2.3

Mesh Density Considerations (1/2)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact pairs: Mesh density considerations of the (default) strict master/slave approach
The slave surface should be meshed more finely than the master surface.
If mesh densities are equal, the slave surface usually should be the surface with the softer underlying
material.

A2.4

Mesh Density Considerations (2/2)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

General contact: Master-slave roles are assigned automatically


Largely based on mesh refinement.

Internal, component surfaces ranked by


suitability as master

220

Overall general
contact surface

A2.5

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (1/10)


Contact requires the imposition of constraints between the points that are in contact.
Different ways of imposing constraints.
For most of the contact algorithms, Abaqus/Standard uses the Lagrange multiplier method by default.
For each potential contact point the contact condition is described by a single, often nonlinear, inequality
constraint:
h(u1 , u 2 , u3 , ...) 0,
www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

where h is the penetration and uN are degrees of freedom.

A2.6

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (2/10)


Schematic of (default) behavior within an increment

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Begin
increment

Identify initially
active contact
constraints

Form and
solve system
of equations

Newton
iterations

Yes

5
No
(Reduce increment
size and try again)

Identify changes in
3 contact constraint
status

Determine if
tending toward
convergence

Check if solution
4 has converged

End
increment

No

Yes

(At least one


convergence criterion is
not satisfied)

(Within
convergence
tolerances)

221

A2.7

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (3/10)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Default contact algorithm (refer to flowchart on previous page):


1

Determine the initial contact state at each point (closed or open).


For first increment of a step, based on initial model state; otherwise, based on solution
extrapolation (if any)

Calculate the stiffness, imposing contact constraints accordingly. Form the system of equations and
pass through the equation solver.

Are contact pressures and clearances consistent with the assumed contact state?
Contact status changes (open/closed or stick/slip) often cause significant changes to the system
of equations
Iterations with contact status changes are flagged as severe discontinuity iterations (SDIs)

A2.8

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (4/10)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

222

Has convergence been achieved?


By default, Abaqus quantifies the contact incompatibilities associated with SDIs. These
incompatibilities must be sufficiently small to achieve convergence with respect to the contact
state.
Also have to ensure that the force residuals and solution corrections are sufficiently small to
achieve equilibrium.
If the contact state and equilibrium conditions satisfy their respective convergence criteria, the
increment is complete.
If convergence is not achieved, is it likely to be achieved?
Abaqus evaluates trends, such as the number of contact status changes in successive iterations,
to determine whether or not to continue iterating or cut back the increment size.
If convergence is likely, update the contact constraints based on 3 and the stiffness, and resolve the system of equations; otherwise, try again with a smaller increment size.

A2.9

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (5/10)


Contact printout example
Reference: Example Problem 1.3.4, Deep drawing of a cylindrical cup
Status (.sta) file:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

SUMMARY OF JOB INFORMATION:


MONITOR NODE:
200 DOF: 2
STEP INC ATT SEVERE EQUIL TOTAL
DISCON ITERS ITERS
RIKS
ITERS
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
1
10
0
10
3
2
1
7
1
8
3
3
1U
10
0
10
3
3
2
5
0
5
3
4
1
3
1
4
3
5
1
2
3
5
3
6
1
4
1
5
3
7
1
4
1
5
3
8
1
6
1
7
3
9
1U
8
0
8
3
9
2
4
3
7
3
10
1
2
3
5
3
11
1
4
2
6
.
.
.

TOTAL
TIME/
FREQ
1.00
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.07
2.10
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.15

STEP
TIME/LPF

INC OF
TIME/LPF

DOF
MONITOR

IF

1.00
1.00
0.0100
0.0200
0.0200
0.0238
0.0294
0.0378
0.0505
0.0695
0.0979
0.0979
0.109
0.125
0.149

1.000
1.000
0.01000
0.01000
0.01500
0.003750
0.005625
0.008438
0.01266
0.01898
0.02848
0.04271
0.01068
0.01602
0.02403

0.000
0.000
-0.000600
-0.00120
-0.00120
-0.00142
-0.00176
-0.00227
-0.00303
-0.00417
-0.00588
-0.00588
-0.00652
-0.00748
-0.00892

A2.10

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (6/10)


Message file, Step 3, Increment 6:
INCREMENT

6 STARTS. ATTEMPT NUMBER

1, TIME INCREMENT

1.266E-02

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 167 IS NOW SLIPPING.


CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 171 IS NOW SLIPPING.
:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

:
:

*PRINT, CONTACT=YES causes this detailed printout.

Slave nodes that slip; stick/slip


messages cause SDIs only if
Lagrange friction is used or if slip
reversal occurs.

(Useful for troubleshooting)

:
CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 153 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -845822..

Incompatibilities
detected in the
assumed contact state
SDI

CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 161 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -1.50656E+006.


CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 163 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -108355..
CONTACT PAIR (ASURF,BSURF) NODE 165 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -620880..
CONTACT PAIR (CSURF,DSURF) NODE 363 OPENS. CONTACT PRESSURE/FORCE IS -3.5893E+006.
CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF) NODE 309 IS NOW SLIPPING.
6 SEVERE DISCONTINUITIES OCCURRED DURING THIS ITERATION.
5 POINTS CHANGED FROM CLOSED TO OPEN

Due to slip
reversal

1 POINTS CHANGED FROM STICKING TO SLIPPING

223

A2.11

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (7/10)


Message file, Step 3, Increment 6 (cont'd):
CONVERGENCE CHECKS FOR SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION

MAX. PENETRATION ERROR -8.16193E-009 AT NODE 331 OF CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF)

Convergence checks for


contact state

MAX. CONTACT FORCE ERROR -4369.44 AT NODE 363 OF CONTACT PAIR (CSURF,DSURF)
www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

THE ESTIMATED CONTACT FORCE ERROR IS LARGER THAN THE TIME-AVERAGED FORCE.

AVERAGE FORCE

5.393E+03

TIME AVG. FORCE

3.147E+03

LARGEST RESIDUAL FORCE

-1.110E+04

AT NODE

333

DOF

LARGEST INCREMENT OF DISP.

-7.782E-04

AT NODE

329

DOF

LARGEST CORRECTION TO DISP.

-1.737E-05

AT NODE

337

DOF

FORCE

EQUILIBRIUM NOT ACHIEVED WITHIN TOLERANCE.

AVERAGE MOMENT
ALL MOMENT

114.

TIME AVG. MOMENT

Convergence checks for


equilibrium

Not only is the contact incompatibility too


large, but force equilibrium has not been
achieved
either
89.8

RESIDUALS ARE ZERO

LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION

1.853E-33

AT NODE

100

DOF

LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION

6.489E-34

AT NODE

300

DOF

THE MOMENT

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

A2.12

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (8/10)


Four additional iterations are required; the first three are SDIs (involve contact incompatibilities).
In the final iteration both the contact and equilibrium checks pass and the increment converges.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CONVERGENCE
CONVERGENCE
CONVERGENCE
CONVERGENCE

CHECKS
CHECKS
CHECKS
CHECKS

FOR
FOR
FOR
FOR

SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION


SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION
SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATION
EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION
1

2 ...
3 ...
4 ...

MAX. PENETRATION ERROR -1.38869E-014 AT NODE 331 OF CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF)


MAX. CONTACT FORCE ERROR -0.00111133 AT NODE 331 OF CONTACT PAIR (ESURF,FSURF)
THE CONTACT CONSTRAINTS HAVE CONVERGED.
AVERAGE
LARGEST
LARGEST
LARGEST

FORCE
5.244E+03
TIME AVG. FORCE
RESIDUAL FORCE
-9.24
AT NODE
367
INCREMENT OF DISP.
-7.809E-04
AT NODE
129
CORRECTION TO DISP.
4.229E-08
AT NODE
137
THE FORCE
EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS HAVE CONVERGED

3.123E+03
DOF 1
DOF 2
DOF 2

AVERAGE MOMENT
109.
TIME AVG. MOMENT
89.0
ALL MOMENT
RESIDUALS ARE ZERO
LARGEST INCREMENT OF ROTATION
1.925E-33
AT NODE
100
DOF 6
LARGEST CORRECTION TO ROTATION
2.049E-35
AT NODE
100
DOF 6
THE MOMENT
EQUILIBRIUM RESPONSE WAS LINEAR IN THIS INCREMENT

224

No SDIs in this
iteration

A2.13

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (9/10)


Increment summary:

ITERATION SUMMARY FOR THE INCREMENT:


5 TOTAL ITERATIONS, OF WHICH
4 ARE SEVERE DISCONTINUITY ITERATIONS AND 1 ARE EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

CURRENT VALUE OF MONITOR NODE


TIME INCREMENT COMPLETED
STEP TIME COMPLETED

1.266E-02,
5.047E-02,

200 D.O.F.

2 IS

-3.028E-03

FRACTION OF STEP COMPLETED


TOTAL TIME COMPLETED

5.047E-02
2.05

A2.14

Contact Logic in Abaqus/Standard (10/10)


Contact diagnostics in Abaqus/Viewer

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Constrained nodes want to open:


incompatible contact state

Toggle on to see the locations in


the model where the contact state
is changing.

225

226

Notes

227

Notes

228

Appendix 3: Contact Issues Specific to Abaqus/Explicit

A3.1

Lesson content:

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact Pairs as Part of the History Data


Enforcing the Contact Constraints
Double-Sided Contact
Initial Kinematic Compliance

30 minutes

A3.2

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Contact Pairs as Part of the History Data (1/2)


For Abaqus/Explicit the contact pair definition is part of the history data in the input file.
*HEADING
.
.
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
, 200E-3
Contact pairs are defined, or
*CONTACT PAIR
removed, on a step-by-step basis as
ASURF, BSURF
needed.
.
.
.
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
, 200E-3
*CONTACT PAIR
ASURF, DSURF

229

A3.3

Contact Pairs as Part of the History Data (2/2)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The *CONTACT PAIR option has the OP parameter, which can have the value ADD or DELETE.
Example:

*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
.
.
*CONTACT PAIR
ASURF, BSURF
*END STEP
*STEP
.
.
*CONTACT PAIR, OP=DELETE
ASURF, BSURF
*CONTACT PAIR, OP=ADD
BSURF, CSURF
*END STEP

Delete the contact pair involving surfaces


ASURF and BSURF.
Add a contact pair involving surfaces
BSURF and CSURF.

A3.4

Enforcing the Contact Constraints (1/3)


Contact constraints can be enforced with one of the following algorithms:

Kinematic compliance (only available for contact pair algorithm)

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Penalty

230

In most cases the kinematic and penalty algorithms will produce nearly the same results; however, in some
cases one method may be preferable to the other.

A3.5

Enforcing the Contact Constraints (2/3)


Kinematic compliance contact

The default kinematic contact formulation achieves precise compliance with the contact conditions.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

It works well in most cases, but some problems with chattering contact may work more easily using
penalty contact.
Cannot model rigid-to-rigid contact.
Available only for the contact pair algorithm.

A3.6

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

Enforcing the Contact Constraints (3/3)


Penalty contact
The penalty contact algorithm provides less stringent enforcement of contact constraints than the
kinematic algorithm.
The penalty algorithm allows for treatment of more general types of contact; for example, contact
between two rigid bodies.
Since the penalty algorithm introduces additional stiffness behavior into a model, this stiffness can
influence the stable time increment.
Penalty contact is used with the general contact algorithm.
To invoke penalty contact for the contact pair algorithm:
Set the MECHANICAL CONSTRAINT parameter to PENALTY on the *CONTACT PAIR option.
The spring or penalty stiffness that relates the contact force to the penetration distance is chosen
automatically by Abaqus/Explicit. Conflicting criteria must be considered:
The effect on the maximum stable time increment should be minimal.
The allowed penetration must not be significant in most analyses.
For the general contact algorithm:
The penalty stiffness can be scaled using the *CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT,
TYPE=SCALE PENALTY option.
For the contact pair algorithm:
You can specify a factor by which to scale the default penalty stiffnesses by using the SCALE
PENALTY parameter on the *CONTACT CONTROLS option.

231

A3.7

Double-Sided Contact (1/3)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

A single surface defined on shell, membrane, and rigid elements can include both the top (SPOS) and bottom
(SNEG) faces of these elements.
The general contact algorithm automatically uses double-sided surfaces.
For the contact pair algorithm:
Define a double-sided surface by omitting the face identifier from the *SURFACE option.
Consistent element normals are not required.
Contact can occur on either face of the elements forming the double-sided surface.
For example, a slave node can start out on one side of a double-sided surface and then pass around the
perimeter to the other side during the analysis.
Double-sided surfaces are often necessary in such situations.
The additional computational cost when performing an analysis with double-sided contact is minimal.

A3.8

Double-Sided Contact (2/3)


Example: Compression of nested cylindrical shells

deformable cylinders

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

rigid lid

rigid box
Front view

232

Oblique view (front and


side of box removed)

A3.9

Double-Sided Contact (3/3)

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

General contact
*HEADING
:
*CONTACT
*CONTACT INCLUSIONS,
ALL EXTERIOR
:
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
:
*END STEP

Contact pairs
*HEADING
:
*SURFACE, NAME=RING1
RING1
*SURFACE, NAME=RING2
RING2
*SURFACE, NAME=RING3
RING3
*SURFACE, NAME=BOX
BOX
*SURFACE, NAME=LID
LID
:
*STEP
*DYNAMIC, EXPLICIT
:
*CONTACT PAIR
RING1, RING2
RING1, RING3
RING2, RING3
RING1, BOX
RING2, BOX
RING3, BOX
RING1, LID
:
*END STEP

Double-sided contact allows simple


definition of complex contact conditions
when using contact pairs.
Since the shell thickness is not shown in
plots, the displaced shape indicates gaps
between the contacting surfaces (recall shell
thickness is accounted for in contact
calculations).

A3.10

Initial Kinematic Compliance


Abaqus/Explicit does not allow an initial overclosure of contact surfaces.

www.3ds.com | Dassault Systmes

The nodes on the contact surfaces will be adjusted to remove any initial overclosure prior to the
analysis:
Only nodes on the contact surface are moved.
The displacements associated with adjusting the surface do not cause any initial strain or stress
for contact pairs defined in the first step of the analysis.
In subsequent steps :
The initial overclosures are ignored with the general contact algorithm.
The adjustments will cause strains with the contact pair algorithm.
Both surfaces will be adjusted if the contact pair is a balanced master/slave pair.
Detailed information regarding resolution of initial overclosures can be written to the message (.msg) file
using the *DIAGNOSTICS option.

233

234

Notes

235

Notes

236

Workshop 1
Basic Input and Output
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Learn to use Abaqus utilities and documentation.


Understand the basic structure of an Abaqus/CAE model, and be able to make
simple modifications to it.
Learn how to perform a datacheck analysis and how to submit an analysis job in
Abaqus/CAE.
Gain familiarity with the Visualization module.
Explore the structure and contents of the printed output (.dat) file.

Abaqus utilities and documentation


Abaqus provides various utilities for obtaining information on usage, system
configuration, example problems, and environment settings for the analysis package.
1. At the prompt, enter the command
abaqus information=system

to obtain information on the system.


Note that abaqus is a generic command that may have been renamed on your
system. For example, if more than one version is installed on the system, the
command might include the version number, as in abq6121. In the remainder of
this workshop as well as all subsequent workshops, use the appropriate command
for your system.

Dassault Systmes, 2012

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

237

W1.2

Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?


Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?

2. Open the online documentation with the command


abaqus doc

Open the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual, and search for the string DSLOAD to
find information on the DSLOAD option. You can find information related to
the data line syntax in the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual (use the hyperlink
for the DSLOAD option, or open the Keywords Manual directly). The online
documentation graphical user interface is shown in Figure W11.

Figure W11. Online documentation


3. Open the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual. Search for plate
buckling to find example problems that discuss plate buckling.

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

criteria?

4. Go to Example Problem 1.1.14 in the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual.


In the left panel of the window, display the subtopics of the problem and click

Dassault Systmes, 2012

238

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

W1.3

Input files. In the right panel of the window, the list of input files associated with

this problem appears. You can select any input filename from the list; a separate
window will open containing that file.
5. All example problem input files are included in the Abaqus release and can be
obtained using the abaqus fetch utility. In your terminal window, enter
abaqus fetch job=damagefailcomplate_cps4

at the command line prompt.


6. Use the online documentation to determine the input syntax for some options.
followed directly by the keyword
option. Parameters and their associated values appear on the keyword line,
separated by commas. Many options require data lines, which follow directly after
their associated keyword line and contain the data specified in the Abaqus
Keywords Reference Manual for each option. Data items are separated by
commas. Refer to the discussions of keyword line and data line syntax in Lecture
1, as necessary.
Question W14:

How would you run a script from within the Abaqus/CAE


environment?
Hint: Search for run script in the Abaqus/CAE

Users Manual
Question W15:

In the space provided, write which Category option you


would choose to define a displacement/rotation boundary
condition in Abaqus/CAE.
Hint: Search displacement/rotation boundary condition in

the Abaqus/CAE Users Manual.

Dassault Systmes, 2012

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

239

W1.4

Analyzing a connecting lug

Figure W12. Sketch of the connecting lug


In this workshop you will model the connecting lug shown in Figure W12. The lug is
welded to a massive structure at one end, so we assume that this end is fixed. The other
end contains a hole through which a bolt is placed when the lug is in service. You have to
calculate the deflection of the lug when a load of 30 kN is applied to the bolt along the
negative 2-direction.
To model this problem, you will use three-dimensional continuum elements and perform
a linear analysis with elastic materials. You will model the load transmitted to the lug
through the bolt as a uniform pressure load applied to the bottom half of the hole, as
shown in Figure W12. In this workshop SI units (N, m, and s) will be used.

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/lug

2. Run the script ws_solver_lug.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_lug.py

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Lug.cae in the current
directory. The geometry, mesh, and step definitions for the lug are included in a model
named standard.

Dassault Systmes, 2012

240

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

W1.5

Before completing the model, view the contents of the model using the Model Tree on
the left hand side of the main window.
Question W16: How many steps are there in this analysis?

Use the Query information tool

(or select ToolsQuery from the main menu bar)

to query element information of the lug. Switch to the Mesh module and click
. In the
Query dialog box, select Element in the General Queries field. Select one element of
the lug in the viewport. Read the query results reported in the message area at the bottom
of the main window.
Question W17: What element type is used to model the lug?

Completing the model


You will now add the material definition, and create the boundary conditions and the
pressure load to complete the lug model.
1. Note that a dummy material named Steel has already been created and assigned
to the part Lug. Add the steel material properties to this material.
a. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click Steel.
The material editor appears.
b. From the material editors menu bar, select
MechanicalElasticityElastic. Enter the following elastic material
properties: Elastic modulus E = 200.E9 Pa and Poissons ratio = 0.3.
Question W18: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

definition? Material density is necessary for what types of


analyses?
2. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container to create an ENCASTRE
boundary condition on the flat end as highlighted in Figure W13. The
ENCASTRE boundary condition constrains all active structural degrees of
freedom.
a. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box, name the boundary
condition Fix left end, choose the category Mechanical and the type
Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre, and click Continue.
b. Select the flat end of the lug as shown in Figure W13. Use [Shift]+Click
to select both regions. Adjust your view, if necessary, to see the model
geometry more clearly.
c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to
confirm the selections.
The boundary condition editor appears.

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d. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose ENCASTRE


(U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0) and click OK to exit the boundary
condition editor.
The arrow symbols appear on the flat end indicating the constrained
degrees of freedom.
Question W19: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

condition?

Fully constrain this end

Figure W13. Region for fully constrained boundary condition


3. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container to create a distributed
pressure load with a magnitude of 50 MPa on the highlighted surfaces shown in
Figure W14.
a. In the Create Load dialog box, name the load Pressure Load, select
the step LugLoad, choose the category Mechanical and the type
Pressure, and click Continue.
b. Select the surfaces highlighted in Figure W14.
c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to
confirm the selections.
The load editor appears.
d. In the Edit Load dialog box, accept the Uniform distribution, enter a value
of 50E6 for the Magnitude, and click OK to exit the load editor.

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Note that the magnitude of the applied uniform pressure is determined by


dividing the total load by the projected horizontal area of the hole, where
30kN
50MPa .
2 0.015m 0.02m

Region for
Pressure Load

Figure W14. Region for distributed pressure load

Submitting a datacheck analysis


You will first perform a datacheck analysis and then a full analysis.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Jobs container. In the Create Job dialog
box, name the job lug and click Continue. In the Edit Job dialog box, accept all
default settings and click OK to exit the job editor.
2. Save your model database.
3. In the Model Tree, expand the Jobs container. Click mouse button 3 on the job
lug and select Data Check from the menu that appears.
4. Click mouse button 3 on the job lug and select Monitor from the menu that
appears to monitor any warnings or errors that may occur during the datacheck
analysis.
5. In the job monitor, open the Data File tabbed page. Search for the string
P R O B L E M to see the summary of the problem size. Include spaces between
the letters of the search string.
Question W110: How many elements are there in the model? How many

variables are there?

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Running a full analysis


1. In the Model Tree, expand the Jobs container. Click mouse button 3 on the job
lug and select Continue from the menu that appears.
If Abaqus/CAE asks if you want to overwrite old job files, click OK. This means
that output files with the same job name that exist from a previous analysis will be
overwritten.
2. Monitor the jobs progress.

Postprocessing the results


When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to view the analysis results in
the Visualization module:
1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job lug and select Results from
the menu that appears to open the file lug.odb in the Visualization module.
2. When the output database is opened in the Visualization module, the undeformed
model shape is displayed by default. To change the plot mode, you can use either
the Plot menu or the toolbox icons displayed on the left side of the viewport (see
Figure W15). You can identify the function of each tool in the toolbox by
positioning your cursor above the icon for that tool; a label for the icon pop-ups
describing its function.
1. To plot the deformed shape, click the Plot Deformed Shape tool
toolbox or select PlotDeformed Shape from the main menu bar.

in the

3. Open the Common Plot Options dialog box by clicking


in the toolbox.
Turn on the node and element numbers, and make the nodes visible.
4. Use the display option tools (see Figure W15) to switch to hidden line, filled, or
wireframe display.

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View manipulation tools

Display option tools

Results
Tree

Toolbox

Figure W15. Abaqus/Viewer main window


5. Note the displacement magnification factor shown in the bottom of the title. By
default, Abaqus/CAE automatically scales the displacement according to the
maximum model dimensions for a small-displacement analysis. Displacements
are scaled so that the deformed shape will be clear. For a large-displacement
analysis the scale factor is 1.0 by default.
Set the displacement magnification factor to 1.0 so that you can see the actual
displacement, and redraw the displaced shape plot.
Hint: You will have to use the Common Plot Options dialog box.

6. Create a contour plot of the Mises stress by clicking the Plot Contours on
Deformed Shape tool

.
7. Frequently users want to remove all annotations that are written on the plots,
especially when they are creating hard-copy images or animations. From the main
menu bar, select ViewportViewport Annotation Options to suppress the
annotations used in the plots.

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The annotations are divided into three categories: legend, title block, and state
block. Each category can be controlled separately. The title block contains
information about which Abaqus version was used and when the analysis was
performed. The state block contains the step title, the increment and step time of
the data being displayed, and information on the variable and magnification factor
used to calculate the shape of the model.
8. Probe the displacement of the nodes around the hole in the lug.
a. Click the Query information tool
. In the Query dialog box that
appears, select Probe values in the Visualization Module Queries field.
b. In the Probe Values dialog box that appears, click
to change the
default field output variable to the displacement component U2.
c. In the Field Output dialog box that appears, select U as the output
variable and U2 as the component and click OK to save the selection and
exit the Field Output dialog box.
d. In the Probe Values dialog box, select Nodes as the item to probe.
e. Select a node in viewport to obtain its displacement along the 2-direction.
Click on a node to query its displacement value along the 2 direction.
9. Use a similar procedure to probe the Mises stress in the elements around the hole
in the lug.

Modifying the model and understanding changes in the results


1. Switch to the Load module.
2. Reduce the amplitude of the distributed pressure load to 25 MPa.
3. Create a new job named lugmod and submit the analysis.
4. View the results in the Visualization module.
Question W111: How have the displacement and stress results changed after

the load reduction? Do the results reflect the reduction in


loading?
Note: A script that creates the complete model described in these
instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you
encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your
work. The script is named ws_solver_lug_answer.py and is available using
the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers
Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?
Answer:

It depends on the system you are using.

Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?


Answer:

It depends on the system you are using.

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search
Answer:

criteria?
Problem 1.1.14, Damage and failure of a laminated
composite plate
Problem 1.2.2, Laminated composite shells: buckling of a
cylindrical panel with a circular hole
Problem 1.2.5, Unstable static problem: reinforced plate
under compressive loads
Problem 9.1.8, Deformation of a sandwich plate under
CONWEP blast loading

Question W14:
Answer:

How would you run a script from within the Abaqus/CAE


environment?
From the main menu bar, select FileRun Script.

Question W15: In the space provided, write which Category option you

Answer:

would choose to define a displacement/rotation boundary


condition in Abaqus/CAE.
You would choose the Mechanical category option.

Question W16: How many steps are there in this analysis?


Answer:

Not including the initial step which is automatically created by


Abaqus/CAE, there is only one step in this analysis.

Question W17: What element type is used to model the lug?


Answer:

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C3D20R elementsi.e., 20-node brick elements (threedimensional, quadratic, hexahedral continuum elements) with
reduced integrationare used to model the lug.
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Question W18: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

Answer:

definition? Material density is necessary for what types of


analyses?
No. The density is necessary for analysis procedures that
consider inertia effects. In a static analysis inertia effects are
not considered.

Question W19: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary
Answer:

condition?
You could have chosen to fix all six degrees of freedom
separately by choosing the Displacement/Rotation type
boundary condition and specifying zero values for all degrees
of freedom from 1 through 6.

Question W110: How many elements are there in the model? How many
Answer:

variables are there?


The model has 288 elements. The total number of variables,
including degrees of freedom plus any Lagrange multiplier
variables, is 5211.

Question W111: How have the displacement and stress results changed after

Answer:

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the load reduction? Do the results reflect the reduction in


loading?
The displacements and stresses have decreased by a factor of
two, since this is a linear analysis and our load was decreased
by a factor of two.

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Notes

250

Workshop 2
Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam:
Multiple Load Cases
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Introduction
In this workshop you will become familiar with using load cases in a linear static
analysis. You will model a cantilever beam. The left end of the beam is encastred while a
series of loads are applied to the free end. Six load cases are considered: unit forces in the
global X-, Y-, and Z-directions as well as unit moments about the global X-, Y-, and Zdirections. The model is shown in Figure W21. You will solve the problem using a
single perturbation step with six load cases and (optionally) using six perturbation steps
with a single load case in each step.

Figure W21. Cantilever beam model

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Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/load_cases

2. Run the script ws_solver_load_cases.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_load_cases.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Beam.cae in the current
directory. The geometry, mesh and boundary condition definitions for the beam are
included in the model named LoadCases. You will add the step, load, and load case
definitions to complete the model.

Defining a linear perturbation static step


1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container.
2. In the Create Step dialog box, name the step BeamLoadCases, choose the
Linear perturbation procedure type, and select Static, Linear perturbation from
the list of procedures, and click Continue.
The step editor appears.
3. In the Basic tabbed page of the step editor, type Six load cases applied
to right end of beam in the Description field.
4. Click OK to create the step and to exit the step editor.

Defining loads and load cases


As indicated in Figure W21, we wish to apply forces and moments to the right end of
the beam. However, the beam is modeled with solid C3D8I elements which possess only
displacement degrees of freedom. Thus, only forces may be directly applied to the model.
Rather than applying force couples to the model, we will apply concentrated moments to
the end of the beam. To this end, all loads will be transmitted to the beam through a rigid
body constraint. This approach is adopted to take advantage of the fact that the rigid body
reference node possesses six degrees of freedom in three-dimensions: 3 translations and 3
rotations and thus allows direct application of concentrated moments. Rigid bodies and
constraints will be discussed further in Lecture 5.
Note that a rigid body constraint named Constraint-1 has been created to constrain
the free end of the beam with a predefined reference point named RP-1; therefore, the
forces and moments which you will specify on RP-1 will be transmitted to the beam
through this rigid body constraint (see Figure W22).

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Apply all forces and


moments here.

Figure W22. Rigid body reference point


To define loads:
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container.
2. In the Create Load dialog box, name the load Force-X, select the step
BeamLoadCases, choose the category Mechanical and the type Concentrated
force, and click Continue.
3. Select the reference point RP-1 as the point to which the load will be applied.
4. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to accept
the selection.
5. In the Edit Load dialog box, enter a value of 1.0 for CF1.
6. Click OK to complete the load definition.
7. Using a similar procedure, create two additional Concentrated force loads
named Force-Y and Force-Z and three Moment loads named Moment-X,
Moment-Y, and Moment-Z, with the definitions as listed in Table W21.
Tip: To define the additional forces, simply copy Force-X into a new name and
edit its definition; to define the moments, first create Moment-X and then

copy/edit it to define the additional loads.


Abaqus/CAE displays arrows at the reference point indicating the loads applied to
the model.

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Table W21. Load definitions


Load name
Definition
Force-X

CF1 = 1.0

Force-Y

CF2 = 1.0

Force-Z

CF3 = 1.0

Moment-X

CM1 = 1.0

Moment-Y

CM2 = 1.0

Moment-Z

CM3 = 1.0

To define load cases:


1. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the step BeamLoadCases underneath
the Steps container and double-click Load Cases to create a load case in the
step.
2. In the Create Load Case dialog box, name the load case LC-Force-X, accept
BeamLoadCases as the step, and click Continue.
The load case editor appears.
3. Click
at the bottom of the Edit Load Case dialog box.
4. In the Load Selection dialog box that appears, select Force-X and click OK to
confirm the selection and to return to the load case editor.
5. Click OK to exit the Edit Load Case dialog box.
6. Create five additional load cases: one for each of the remaining loads. Name the
load cases LC-Force-Y, LC-Force-Z, LC-Moment-X, LC-Moment-Y, and
LC-Moment-Z and add the corresponding load to each.
Tip: Copy/edit LC-Force-X to define the additional load cases.

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions were defined in the initial step, and
as such, are active in each load case of the analysis step.

Creating and submitting the analysis job


To create and submit the analysis job:
1. Create a job named LoadCases for this linear static perturbation analysis.
Tip: To create a job, double-click Jobs in the Model Tree.

2. Save your model database file and submit the job for analysis. In the Model Tree,
click mouse button 3 on the job name and select Submit from the menu that
appears. From the same menu, you can select Monitor to monitor the jobs
progress.

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Viewing the analysis results


When the job is complete, click mouse button 3 on the job LoadCases in the Model Tree
and select Results from the menu that appears.
Abaqus/CAE switches to the Visualization module and opens the output database
LoadCases.odb. Examine the results of the analysis. Note that load case output is
stored in separate frames in the output database. Use the Frame Selector (click
in
the context bar) to choose which load case is displayed (alternatively, open the
Step/Frame dialog box by selecting ResultStep/Frame). Figure W23 shows contour
plots of the Mises stress for each of the load cases.

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

Figure W23. Mises stress contours

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Combining results from the load cases and envelope plots


You will now linearly combine the results of each load case to plot the stress and
deformation in the beam under a given load combination. Recall that each load case is
based on a unit load; the results of each load case will be scaled relative to those obtained
for LC-Force-Y when combining the data.
1. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom Frames.
2. In the dialog box that appears, accept Sum values over all frames as the
operation.
3. In the Frames tabbed page, click
. In the Add Frames dialog box that
appears, choose BeamLoadCases as the step from which to obtain the data.
Click Select All and then click OK to close the dialog box.
4. Remove the initial frame; for the remaining frames, enter the scale factors shown
in Figure W24.

Figure W24 Scale factors for linear combination of load cases.


5. Switch to the Fields tabbed page to examine the data that will be combined.
Accept the default selection (all available field data) and click OK to close the
dialog box.
6. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

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7. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for output
and click OK.
8. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W25. Note that this figure has been
customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour plot and a
deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

Figure W25 Mises stress due to combined loading.


9. Now create an envelope plot of the maximum stress in the beam:
a. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom
Frames.
b. In the dialog box that appears, select Find the maximum value over all
frames as the operation.
c. In the Frames tabbed page, click
. In the Add Frames dialog box
that appears, choose BeamLoadCases as the step from which to obtain
the data. Select all but the initial frame then click OK to close the dialog
box.
d. Switch to the Fields tabbed page. Unselect all output and then select only
S and U.
e. Click OK to close the dialog box.
f. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.
g. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for
output and The maxmum value over all selected frames as the frame,
as shown in Figure W26.

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Figure W26 Frame selection for envelope plot.


h. In the Field Output dialog box (ResultField Output), select S_max as
the primary variable and U_max as the deformed variable.
i. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W27. Note that this figure has
been customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour
plot and a deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

Figure W27 Envelope plot of maximum Mises stress.

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Using Multiple Perturbation Steps (Optional)


Now perform the same analysis using multiple perturbation steps rather than multiple
load cases.
1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the model LoadCases and select
Copy Model from the menu that appears. Name the new model MultiSteps.
2. For the model MultiSteps, delete the step BeamLoadCases.
Note that all of the loads and load cases will be deleted when you delete the step
BeamLoadCases.
3. Create six new linear perturbation static steps named Step-FX, Step-FY, StepFZ, Step-MX, Step-MY, and Step-MZ.
4. In the Model Tree, double-click the Loads container for the model MultiSteps
and define a concentrated force load called Force-X in the step Step-FX with
CF1=1.0 at the reference point.
5. Similarly, create loads named Force-Y, Force-Z, Moment-X, Moment-Y, and
Moment-Z in steps Step-FY, Step-FZ, Step-MX, Step-MY, and Step-MZ,
respectively. Here CF2=1.0, CF3=1.0, CM1=1.0, CM2=1.0, and CM3=1.0 at
the reference point in the respective loads.
Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions were defined in the initial step, and
therefore, are active in each analysis step.
6. Create a new job named MultiSteps for the model MultiSteps and make sure to
select the new model for the source. Submit the new job for analysis and monitor
the jobs status.
7. When the job is complete, open the output database MultiSteps.odb in the
Visualization module and compare the results obtained using both modeling
approaches. You will find that the results are identical.

Comparing solution times


Next, open the message (.msg) file for each job in the job monitor. Scroll to the bottom
of the file and compare the solution times. You will notice that the multiple step analysis
required 2.5 times as much CPU time as the multiple load case analysis. For a small
model such as this one, the overall analysis time is small so speeding up the analysis by a
factor of three may not appear significant. However, it is clear that for large jobs, the
speedup offered by multiple load cases will play a significant role in reducing the time
required to obtain a solution for a given problem.

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Multiple load case analysis:


ANALYSIS SUMMARY:
TOTAL OF
1
0
1
1
:
:

INCREMENTS
CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION
ITERATIONS
PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

THE SPARSE SOLVER HAS BEEN USED FOR THIS ANALYSIS.


JOB TIME SUMMARY
USER TIME (SEC)
SYSTEM TIME (SEC)
TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)
WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=
=
=
=

0.10000
0.10000
0.20000
1

Multiple perturbation step analysis:


ANALYSIS SUMMARY:
TOTAL OF
6
0
6
6
:
:

INCREMENTS
CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION
ITERATIONS
PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

THE SPARSE SOLVER HAS BEEN USED FOR THIS ANALYSIS.


JOB TIME SUMMARY
USER TIME (SEC)
SYSTEM TIME (SEC)
TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)
WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=
=
=
=

0.4000
0.1000
0.5000
1

Note: A script that creates the complete models described in these


instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you
encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your
work. The script is named ws_solver_load_cases_answer.py and is
available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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261

Notes

262

Workshop 3
Nonlinear Statics
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Define alternate nodal and material directions.


Include nonlinear geometric effects by adding the NLGEOM parameter.
Include nonlinear material effects by defining plastic material behavior.
Become familiar with the output for an incremental analysis.

Introduction
In this workshop you will model the plate shown in Figure W31. It is skewed at 30 to
the global X-axis, built-in at one end, and constrained to move on rails parallel to the
plate axis at the other end. You will determine the midspan deflection when the plate
carries a uniform pressure. You will modify the model to include alternate nodal and
material directions as well as nonlinear effects.

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W3.2

All degrees of freedom at this end are


constrained except along the axis of
the plate.

Figure W31. Sketch of skewed plate

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/skew

2. Run the script ws_solver_skew_plate.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_skew_plate.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named SkewPlate.cae in the


current directory. A model named linear includes the geometry, mesh and material
definitions for the plate. You will first add the necessary data to complete the linear
analysis model. You will later perform the simulation considering both geometrically and
material nonlinear effects. In a subsequent workshop a restart analysis will be performed
to study the unloading of the plate.

Defining the local material directions


The orientation of the structure in the global coordinate system is shown in
Figure W31. The global Cartesian coordinate system defines the default material
directions, but the plate is skewed relative to this system. It will not be easy to interpret
the results of the simulation if you use the default material directions because the direct
stress in the material 1-direction (i.e., global X-direction), 11, will contain contributions
from both the axial stress, produced by the bending of the plate, and the stress transverse

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to the axis of the plate. It will be easier to interpret the results if the material directions
are aligned with the axis of the plate and the transverse direction. Therefore, a local
rectangular coordinate system is needed in which the local x-direction lies along the axis
of the plate (i.e., at 30 to the global X-axis) and the local y-direction is also in the plane
of the plate.
You will define the datum coordinate system (CSYS) and then assign the material
orientation.
1. Switch to the Property module and define a rectangular datum coordinate system
as shown in Figure W32 using the Create Datum CSYS: 2 Lines tool
.
a. Note the small black triangles at the base of the toolbox icons. These
triangles indicate the presence of hidden icons that can be revealed. Click
the Create Datum CSYS: 3 Points tool
but do not release the mouse
button. When additional icons appear, release the mouse button.
b. Select the Create Datum CSYS: 2 Lines tool
. It appears in the
toolbox with a white background indicating that you selected it.
c. In the Create Datum CSYS dialog box, name the datum CSYS Skew,
select the Rectangular coordinate system type, and click Continue.
Make the next two selections as indicated in Figure W32.

Select this edge


to be in the
local x-y plane

Select this edge to be along the


local x-direction

Figure W32. Datum coordinate system used to define local directions


2. Assign the material orientations to the plate.
a. In the toolbox, click the Assign Material Orientation tool
.
b. Select the entire part as the region to be assigned a local material
orientation.

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c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to
confirm the selection.
d. Click Datum CSYS List in the prompt area.
e. In the Datum CSYS List dialog box, select skew and click OK. In the
material orientation editor, select Axis 3 for the direction of the
approximate shell normal. No additional rotation is needed about this axis.
f. Click OK to confirm the input.
Tip: To verify that the local material directions have been assigned correctly,
select ToolsQuery from the main menu bar and perform a property query
on the material orientations.
Once the part has been meshed and elements have been created in the model, all
element variables will be defined in this local coordinate system.

Prescribing boundary conditions and applied loads


As shown in Figure W31, the left end of the plate is completely fixed; the right end is
constrained to move on rails that are parallel to the axis of the plate. Since the latter
boundary condition direction does not coincide with the global axes, you must define a
local coordinate system that has an axis aligned with the plate. You can use the datum
coordinate system that you created earlier to define the local directions.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container and define a
Displacement/Rotation mechanical boundary condition named Rail
boundary condition in the Apply Pressure step.
In this example you will assign boundary conditions to sets rather than to regions
selected directly in the viewport. Thus, when prompted for the regions to which
the boundary condition will be applied, click Sets in the prompt area of the
viewport.
2. From the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the set Plate-1.EndB.
Toggle on Highlight selections in viewport to make sure the correct set is
selected. The right edge of the plate should be highlighted. Click Continue.
3. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, click
to specify the local
coordinate system in which the boundary condition will be applied. In the
viewport, select the datum CSYS Plate-1.Skew. The local x-direction is
aligned with the plate axis.
Note that Plate-1.Skew is the assembly-level datum CSYS generated by the
part-level datum CSYS Skew.
4. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, fix all degrees of freedom except for
U1 by toggling them on and entering a value of 0 for each.
The right edge of the plate is now constrained to move only in the direction of the
plate axis. Once the plate has been meshed and nodes have been generated in the
model, all printed nodal output quantities associated with this region

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(displacements, velocities, reaction forces, etc.) will be written in this local


coordinate system.
5. Create another boundary condition named Fix left end to fix all degrees of
freedom at the left edge of the plate (set Plate-1.EndA). Use the default global
directions for this boundary condition.
6. Define a uniform pressure load named Pressure across the top of the shell in the
Apply Pressure step. Select both regions of the part using [Shift]+Click, and
choose the top side of the shell (Brown) as the surface to which the pressure load
will be applied. You may need to rotate the view to more clearly distinguish the
top side of the plate. Specify a load magnitude of 2.0E4 Pa.

Running the job and postprocessing the results


1. Create a job named SkewPlate with the following description: Linear
Elastic Skew Plate, 20 kPa Load.
2. Save your model database file.
3. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.
When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to postprocess the
analysis results.
4. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job SkewPlate and select Results
from the menu that appears to open the file SkewPlate.odb in the Visualization
module.
5. Click the Plot Deformed Shape tool

to plot the deformed shape.

6. Use the the Query information tool


to probe the value of the midspan
deformation.
a. In the Query dialog box, select Probe values in the Visualization
Module Queries field.
b. Change the displayed field variable to the displacement along the 3direction. In the Probe Values dialog box, click
to change the default
field output variable to U3. In the Field Output dialog box that appears,
select U as the output variable and U3 as the component and click OK.
c. In the Probe Values dialog box, select Nodes as the item to probe.
d. Click on a node (as indicated in Figure W33) along the midespan to
probe its displacement along the 3-direction. Enter this value in the
Linear column of Table W31.

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Figure W33. Midspan node

Adding geometric nonlinearity


Now perform the simulation considering geometrically nonlinear effects. Copy the model
named linear to a new model named nonlinear. You will add geometric nonlinearity
into the model nonlinear; the changes required for this model are described next.
1. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and double-click Apply Pressure
to edit the step definition.
a. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Step dialog box, toggle on Nlgeom
to include geometric nonlinearity effects and set the time period for the
step to 1.0.
b. In the Incrementation tabbed page, set the initial increment size to 0.1.
Note that the default maximum number of increments is 100; Abaqus may
use fewer increments than this upper limit, but it will stop the analysis if it
needs more.
You may wish to change the description of the step to reflect that it is now a
nonlinear analysis step.
2. Create a job named NlSkewPlate for the model nonlinear and give it the
description Nonlinear Elastic Skew Plate. Save your model database file.
3. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.
The Job Monitor is particularly useful in nonlinear analyses. It gives a brief
summary of the automatic time incrementation used in the analysis for each
increment. The information is written as soon as the increment is completed, so
you can monitor the analysis as it is running. This facility is useful in large,
complex problems. The information given in the Job Monitor is the same as that
given in the status file (NlSkewPlate.sta).
4. When the job is complete, open the output database NlSkewPlate.odb in the
Visualization module and plot the deformed model shape.

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5.

Query the vetical displacement (U3) of the same midspan node as discribed
earlier and enter the displacement result in the Nlgeom column of Table W31.
Table W31. Midspan displacements
Load (kPa)

Linear (m)

Nlgeom (m)

20
60

6. Triple the pressure in both the linear and nonlinear analysis models. Create new
jobs and run each of these analyses
7. Upon job completion, look at the results and enter the vertical displacement of the
same node in Table W3-1.
Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

the linear analyses?


Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each
other and to those from the linear analyses?

Adding Plasticity
You will now include another source of nonlinearity: plasticity. The material data are
shown in Figure W34 (in terms of true stress vs. total log strain). Abaqus, however,
requires the plastic material data be defined in terms of true stress and plastic log strain.
Thus, you will need to determine the plastic strains corresponding to each data point (see
the hint below). The changes described below are to be made to the nonlinear model.
1. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click Steel.
2. In the Edit Material dialog box, add plasticity by choosing
MechanicalPlasticity Plastic.
3. Enter the data lines corresponding to points A and B on the stress-strain curve as
shown in Figure W34.
The Youngs modulus for this material is 30E9 Pa.
Hint: The total strain tot at any point on the curve is equal to the sum of the

elastic strain el and plastic strain pl. The elastic strain at any point on the curve
can be evaluated from Youngs modulus and the true stress:el= / E. Use the
following relationship to determine the plastic strains to include on the plastic
option:

pl tot el tot E .

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You can use the command line interface (CLI) of Abaqus/CAE as a simple
calculator. For example, to compute the plastic strain at B, type
0.02-(3e7/3e10) in the command line interface and hit [Enter]. The value
of the plastic strain is printed (in this case the plastic strain at B is 0.019).
Note that the command line interface is hidden by default, but it uses the same
space that is occupied by the message area at the bottom of the main window.
To access the command line interface, click the yellow prompt button
the bottom left corner of the main window.

in

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the plasticity

option equal to 0.0?


4. Change the pressure to 10 kPa.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click Pressure underneath the Loads
container.
b. In the Edit Load dialog box that appears, enter a value of 10000 for
Magnitude.
5. Request restart output every increment in the step named Apply Pressure (switch
to the Step module; select OutputRestart Requests).
Note that the step name is important for the restart analysis to be performed later.
6. Create a new job named PlSkewPlate and give it the description Nonlinear
Plastic Skew Plate.
7. Save your model database file.
8. Submit the job for analysis and monitor the solution progress.

Figure W34. Stress versus strain curve

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Postprocessing an incremental analysis


When the job is complete, visualize the output database PlSkewPlate.odb in the
Visualization module.
1. By default, the last increment of the last step is selected. Use the Frame Selector
in the context bar to select other steps or increments; alternatively, use the
Step/Frame dialog box (ResultStep/Frame).
2. Use the view manipulation tools to position the model as you wish. Turn
perspective on or off by clicking the Turn Perspective On tool
Perspective Off tool

or the Turn

in the toolbar.

3. Plot the deformed shape by clicking the Plot Deformed Shape tool

A sample deformed shape plot is shown in Figure W35. Your plot may look
different if you have positioned your model differently

Figure W35. Final deformed shape


4. Create a contour plot of variable S11 by following this procedure:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Click the Plot Contours tool


in the toolbox.
Select ResultField Output.
In the Field Output dialog box, select S11 as the stress component.
Click Section Points to select a section point.
In the Section Points dialog box that appears, select Top and bottom as
the active locations and click OK.
Your contour plot should look similar to Figure W36. Abaqus plots the
contours of the Mises stress on both the top and bottom faces of each shell
element. To see this more clearly, rotate the model in the viewport.

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Figure W36. Contour plot of S11: SPOS, top image; SNEG, bottom image
Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

model?

5. Click the Animate: Time History tool


to animate the results.
You can stop the animation and move between frames and steps by using the
arrow buttons in the context bar.
6. Render the shell thickness (ViewODB Display Options; toggle on Render
shell thickness).
The plot appears as shown in Figure W37. Note that for the purpose of
visualization, a linear interpolation is used between the contours on the top and
bottom surfaces of the shell.

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Figure W37 Contour plot with shell thickness visible.


7. Create a displacement history plot of U3 of the midspan node you tracked in the
previous analyses:
a. In the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the
output database named PlSkewPlate.odb.
b. Click History Output and press F2; filter the container according to *U3*.
c. Double-click the data object for the node tracked in the previous analyses.
Your plot should look similar to Figure W38. Note this figure has been
customized.

Figure W38. History of displacement at the midspan

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Note: A script that creates the complete models described in these


instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you
encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your
work. The script is named
ws_solver_skew_plate_answer.py

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers
Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in
Answer:

the linear analyses?


The midspan displacement is tripled in the linear analysis.

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each
Answer:

other and to those from the linear analyses?


The midspan displacement is not tripled in the nonlinear
analysis when the load is tripled. At the higher load, the value
of the displacement predicted by the nonlinear analysis is less
than the value predicted by the linear analysis.

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the plastic
Answer:

option equal to 0.0?


The first data line of the plastic option defines the initial yield
point. The plastic strain at this point is zero.

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the
Answer:

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model?
The peak value of vertical displacement occurs at the midspan.
The supports of the plate are likely to be heavily stressed; this
is confirmed by contour plots of S11.

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Notes

278

Workshop 4
Unloading Analysis of a Skew Plate
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Introduction
You will now continue the analysis of the plate shown in Figure W41. Recall our
analysis includes geometric and material nonlinearity. We previously determined the
plate exceeded the material yield strength and therefore has some plastic deformation.
Since we requested restart output, we can resume the analysis to determine the residual
stress state. In this workshop we will remove the load in order to recover the elastic
deformation; the plastic deformation will remain.

All degrees of freedom at this end are


constrained except along the axis of
the plate.

Figure W41 Sketch of the skew plate.


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Adding a restart model


Open the database ../abaqus_solvers/interactive/skew/SkewPlate.cae
created in the previous workshop and copy the model named nonlinear to a new model
named restart. The changes required for this model are described next.
Model Attributes
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the model restart to edit the attributes for the
restart analysis model. (Alternatively, from the main menu bar, select
ModelEdit Attributesrestart.)
2. On the Restart tab of the Edit Model Attributes dialog box:
a. Click the checkbox to indicate the (previous) job where the restart data
was saved (recall this job was named PlSkewPlate).
b. Indicate the step from which to restart the analysis (recall this step was
named Apply Pressure) and that the restart analysis will commence from
the end of the step.
Step definition
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container to add a new general static
step after the Apply Pressure step.
2. Name the step Unload.
3. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Step dialog box, Nlgeom should already be
on to include geometric nonlinearity effects.
4. Set the time period for the step to 1.0.
5. As before, in the Incrementation tabbed page, set the initial increment size to
0.1.
Loads
1. Use the Load Manager to deactivate the pressure load in the step named Unload.
Alternatively, you could simply edit the load magnitude (for example, to examine
the effect of a load reversal).
Job definition
1. Create a new job named PlSkewPlate-unload using the model restart and
enter the following job description: Unload Plastic Skew Plate.
Note that the job type is set to Restart.
2. Save your model database file.
3. Submit the job for analysis, and monitor the solution progress.
4. Correct any modeling errors, and investigate the source of any warning messages.

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Postprocessing
In the Visualization module, contour the U3 displacement component in the plate:
1. Click the Plot Contours tool
in the toolbox.
2. From the list of variable types on the left side of the Field Output toolbar, select
Primary (if it is not already selected).
3. From the list of available output variables in the center of the toolbar, select
output variable U (spatial displacement at nodes).
4. From the list of available components and invariants on the right side of the Field
Output toolbar, select U3.
5. Compare to the results at the end of the Apply Pressure step.
Note that in this output database file, the results for frame 0 correspond to the
results at the end of the Apply Pressure step (use the Frame Selector
to
switch to a different frame).
The difference between the final state of the model and its initial state is due to
the elastic springback that has occurred. The deformation that remains is
permanent and unrecoverable.
Note: A script that creates the complete models described in these
instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you
encounter difficulties following the instructions or if you wish to check your
work. The script is named ws_solver_skew_plate_answer.py and is
available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Notes

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Workshop 5
CLD Analysis of a Seal using Abaqus/Standard
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Evaluate a hyperelastic material.


Define contact interactions using contact pairs and general contact.
Perform a large displacement analysis with Abaqus/Standard.
Use the Visualization module to create a compression load-deflection curve.

Introduction
In this workshop, a compression analysis of a rubber seal is performed to determine the
seals performance. The goal is to determine the seals compression load-deflection
(CLD) curve, deformation and stresses. The analysis will be performed using
Abaqus/Standard. Two analyses are performed: one using contact pairs and the other
using general contact.
As shown in Figure W51, the top outer surface of the seal is covered with a polymer
layer, and the seal is compressed between two rigid surfaces (the upper one is displaced
along the negative Y-direction; the lower one is fixed). During compression, the cover
contacts the top rigid surface; the outer surface of the seal is in contact with the cover and
the bottom rigid surface; in addition the inner surface of the seal may come into contact
with itself.

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U2

Cover

Rigid
Surfaces
Seal
fixed

Figure W51. Seal model: meshed assembly

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/seal

2. Run the script ws_solver_seal.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_seal.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named seal.cae in the current
directory. The geometry, mesh, and material definitions are included in the model named
Seal. You will first perform a material evaluation to evaluate the stability of the
hyperelastic material model, add the necessary data to complete the model, run the job,
and finally postprocess the results.

Material Evaluation
It is important to determine whether the material model of the seal will be stable during
the analysis. Before completing the model, evaluate the material definition used for the
seal.
1. Review the material definition. In the Model Tree, double-click Santoprene
underneath the Materials container. It is a hyperelastic material with a first-order
polynomial strain energy potential. The coefficients are already chosen for the
analysis.
2. Evaluate the material definition. Abaqus/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate
option that allows you to view the behavior predicted by a hyperelastic material
by performing standard tests to choose a suitable material formulation. You will
use this option to view the behavior predicted by the material Santoprene.

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a. From the main menu bar in the Property module, choose


MaterialEvaluateSantoprene.
b. The Evaluate Material dialog box appears. Notice that you can choose
either the Coefficients or Test data source for evaluating the material.

Typically the test data are used to define a material model; you can use the
Evaluate option to view the predicted behavior and adjust the material
definition as necessary. In this workshop you will only evaluate the
stability of the material model for the given coefficients.
c. In the Evaluate Material dialog box, accept all defaults and click OK.
Abaqus/CAE creates and submits a job to perform the standard tests using
the material Santoprene; at the same time, Abaqus/CAE switches to the
Visualization module and displays the evaluation results when the job is
complete. Figure W52 shows the Material Parameters and Stability
Limit Information dialog box; Figure W53 shows three stress vs. strain
plots from uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests.
Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Based on these results, you can have confidence that your material will remain
stable.

Figure W52. Material parameters and stability limit information

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Figure W53. Material evaluation results for uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests
After evaluating the material, you will now complete the model definition. Close the
viewports and dialog box displaying the material evaluation results, if necessary, to view
the model for the subsequent procedure.

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Part 1: Analysis using contact pairs


Defining the step and the contact pairs
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container to create a static, general step
named PushDown.
a. In the Basic tabbed page of the step editor, set the time period to 1 and
turn on Nlgeom.
b. In the Incrementation tabbed page, enter a value of 0.005 for Initial
Increment size and 200 for Maximum number of increments.
c. In the Other tabbed page, select Unsymmetric as the matrix storage

scheme (it is recommended when the surface-to-surface contact


discretization method is used).
2. Define a contact pair between the seal and the bottom rigid surface.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create
Interaction dialog box, name the interaction BotSeal and select the step
PushDown and Surface-to-surface contact (Standard). Click
Continue.
b. You will be prompted to select a master surface. In the prompt area, click
Surfaces. In the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the
predefined surface Bottom and toggle on Highlight selections in
viewport to view this surface. Click Continue.
c. In the prompt area, select Surface as the slave surface type. In the Region
Selection dialog box that appears, select the predefined surface
SealOuter and visualize this surface. Click Continue.
The interaction editor appears.
d. In the Edit Interaction dialog box accept all defaults and click OK.
Note that Abaqus/CAE automatically assigns the predefined (also the only
available) interaction property frictionless to this interaction.
3. Using a similar procedure, define the following contact pairs as listed in Table
W51 with the interaction property frictionless.
Table W51. Contact pairs
Interaction Name

Master Surface

Slave Surface

TopCover

Top

Cover

SealCover

Cover

SealOuter

Question W52: In the interaction SealCover, why do we choose SealOuter

as the slave surface?

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4. Create a self-contact interaction for the inner surface of the seal.


a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create
Interaction dialog box, name the interaction SealSelf and select the
step PushDown and Self-contact (Standard). Click Continue.
b. In the Region Selection dialog box that appears, select the predefined
surface SealInner and visualize this surface. Click Continue.

The interaction editor appears.


c. In the Edit Interaction dialog box accept all defaults and click OK.
Defining boundary conditions and output requests
Asymmetric lateral sliding of the model is prevented by constraining the seal and the
cover along their vertical symmetry axes in the X-direction. The bottom rigid surface is
fixed, and a displacement of 6 units is applied to the top rigid surface along the Ydirection to compress the seal between the two surfaces. To complete these boundary
conditions:
1. In the Model Tree, double-click the BCs container to create a
Displacement/Rotation type boundary condition named Fix1 in the step
PushDown.
a. When prompted to select the region, click Sets in the prompt area (if

necessary).
b. In the Region Selection dialog box, select the predefined set Fix1, toggle
on Highlight selections in viewport to visualize the selection, and click
Continue.
c. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, toggle on U1, accept the
default value of 0, and click OK.
2. Create a Symmetry/Antisymmetric/Encastre type boundary condition named
FixBot to encastre the predefined set BotRP (the reference node of the bottom

rigid surface).
3. Create a Displacement/Rotation type boundary condition named PushDown in
the step PushDown to define the displacement of the top rigid surface.
a. Select the predefined set TopRP (the reference node of the top rigid

surface).
b. Specify a value of 0 for U1 and UR3, and -6 for U2.
4. Edit the field output request named F-Output-1 to include the nominal strain, NE.
5. Create a new history output request in the step PushDown for the set TopRP to
write the history of the variables Displacements: U and Forces: RF to the output

database file.

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Running the job and postprocessing the results


1. Create a job named seal for the model Seal.
2. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.
When the job is complete, open the output database file seal.odb in the
Visualization module and postprocess the results.
3. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. To distinguish between the
different instances, color code the model based on part instances.
Tip: From the toolbar, select Part instances from the color-coding pull down
menu, as shown in Figure W54 (or use the Color Code Dialog tool
customize the color for each part instance).

to

Figure W54. Color-coding pull down menu


4. Use the Animate: Time History tool

to animate the deformation history.


5. Display only the seal. In the Results Tree, expand the Instances container
underneath the output database file named seal.odb. Click mouse button 3 on
the instance SEAL-1 and select Replace from the menu that appears.
Abaqus/CAE now displays only this instance.
6. Contour the Mises stress of the seal on the deformed shape. If necessary, use the
frame selector
in the context bar to select the final increment.
The contour plot is shown in Figure W55.

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Figure W55. Mises contour plot


7. Contour the minimum and maximum principal nominal strains. Elastic strains can

be very high for hyperelastic materials. Because of this, the linear elastic material
model is not used because it is not appropriate for elastic strains greater than
approximately 5%.
8. Display the reaction force history at the reference node of the top rigid surface: In
the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output
database file named seal.odb and double-click Reaction force: RF2 PI: TOP-1
Node 3 in NSET TOPRP.
9. You will now create the CLD curve.
a. In the History Output container, click mouse button 3 on Reaction force:
RF2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the
menu that appears. Save the data as Force.
b. Click mouse button 3 on Spatial displacement: U2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in
NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the menu that appears. Save the
data as Disp.
c. In the Results Tree, double-click XYData. In the Create XY Data dialog
box that appears, select the Operate on XY data source and click
Continue.

The Operate on XY Data dialog box appears.


d. From the Operators listed in the Operate on XY Data dialog box, select
combine(X, X) and then abs(A). Note that the abs(A) operator is used to
obtain the absolute values. In the XY Data field, double-click the curve
Disp. The current expression reads combine(abs("Disp")). Move the
cursor before the far-right bracket, enter a comma, and then select the
operator abs(A). In the XY Data field, double-click the curve Force. The
final expression reads combine(abs("Disp"), abs("Force") ).
Click Plot Expression to plot this expression. Save this plot as CLD.

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10. Customize the plot as follows:

a. From the main menu bar, select OptionsXY OptionsPlot.


In the Plot Options dialog box, fill the plot background in white.
b. Double-click anywhere on the chart to open the Chart Options dialog
box.

In the Grid Display tabbed page, toggle on the major X- and Ygrid lines. Set the line color to blue and the line style to dashed.

Change the fill color using the following RGB values: red: 175;
green: 250; blue: 185.

In the Grid Area tabbed page, select Square as the size and drag
the slider to 80. From the list of auto-alignments, choose the one
that places the chart in the center of the viewport
c. Double-click the legend to open the Chart Legend Options dialog box.

In the Contents tabbed page, click


font size to 10.

In the Area tabbed page, toggle on Inset.

Toggle on Fill to flood the legend with a white background.

to increase the legend text

In the viewport, drag the legend over the chart.


d. Double-click either axis to open the Axis Options dialog box.

In the X Axis region of the dialog box, select the displacement


axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, place 4 major tick marks on the X-axis at
(use the By count method).

In the Title tabbed page, change the X-axis title to Displacement


(inch).

In the Y Axis region of the dialog box, select the force axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, specify that the Y-axis should extend
from 0 (the Y-axis minimum) to 250 (the Y-axis maximum).

Increase the number of Y-axis minor tick marks per increment to 4.

In the Title tabbed page, change the Y-axis title to Force (lbf).

In the Axes tabbed page, change the font size for both axes to 10.

e. Expand the list of plot option icons in the toolbox:

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f. Examine the remaining options. Add the following plot title: CLD
Diagram. Double-click the plot title to open the Plot Title Options dialog
box.

In the Title tabbed page, click


bold.

In the Area tabbed page, toggle on Inset.

In the viewport, drag the plot title above the chart.

to change the legend text style to

g. Click
in the toolbox to open the Curve Options dialog box. Change
the legend text to Top Surface Ref Point and toggle on Show
symbol. Set the color for both the line and symbols to red. Use large filled
squares for the symbols. Reposition the legend as necessary.
The final plot appears as shown in Figure W56.

Figure W56. Compression load deflection diagram


Question W53:

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What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection


represent?

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W5.11

Part 2: Analysis using general contact


1. Copy the model named Seal to one named Seal_gc.

Make all subsequent modifications to the new model.


2. In the Model Tree, expand the Interactions container and select the 4 interactions
defined earlier.
3. Click mouse button 3 and select Delete from the menu that appears, as shown in
Figure W57.

Figure W57. Contact pairs to be deleted


4. In the Model Tree, double-click Interactions (or select InteractionCreate).
5. In the Create Interaction dialog box that appears, set the step to Initial and
choose General contact (Standard) as the type. Click Continue.
6. In the interaction editor, select frictionless from the list of available Global
property assignment options, as shown in Figure W58.

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Figure W58. General contact interaction


7. Click OK to complete the operation.
8. Create a job named seal_gc for the model Seal_gc.
9. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs

process.
When the job is complete, open the output database file seal_gc.odb in the
Visualization module and postprocess the results.
10. Compare the results with those obtained using contact pairs. A comparison of the
stress state in the seal is shown in Figure W59 while a comparison of the forcedisplacement curve is shown in Figure W510.
The agreement between the two approaches is excellent. The general contact
approach, however, provides a much simpler user interface since the entire
contact domain is defined automatically and properties are assigned globally.

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Figure W59. Comparison of the stress state in the seal


(general contact, top; contact pairs, bottom)

Figure W510. Comparison of force-displacement curves

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W5.14

Note: A script that creates the complete seal model is available for your
convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the
instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script is named
ws_solver_seal_answer.py

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers
Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?
Answer:

The plots never have a negative slope, indicating that the


material is stable throughout the entire strain range.

Question W52: In the interaction SealCover, why do we choose SealOuter

as the slave surface?


Answer:

SealOuter has a more refined mesh and should therefore be

specified as the slave surface.

Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection
Answer:

Dassault Systmes, 2012

represent?
This peak represents the inward buckling that occurs at the
bottom corners of the seal during compression. If you look at
the deformed shape at the time corresponding to
approximately 3.7 inches of displacement, you will observe
this phenomenon.

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300

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Notes

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Workshop 6
Dynamics
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Become familiar with the Abaqus/CAE procedures for frequency extraction and
implicit dynamic analyses.
Become more familiar with monitoring job status.
Learn how to plot eigenmodes and create history plots using Abaqus/CAE.

Introduction
In this workshop the dynamic response of the cantilever beam shown in Figure W61 is
investigated. A frequency extraction is performed to determine the 10 lowest vibration
modes of the beam. The effects of mesh refinement, element interpolation order, and
element dimension will be considered.
The problem is also solved by performing a direct integration dynamic analysis to
simulate the vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load. The frequency of the
vibration predicted by the transient analysis will be compared with the natural frequency
results.

Figure W61. Problem description


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W6.2

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/dynamics

2. Run the script ws_solver_beam.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_beam.py.

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named Beam.cae in the current
directory. The model named static includes the beam model for a static, general
analysis. Currently 5 B21 elements are used to discretize the beam. You will edit this
model further as described below.

Part 1: Frequency extraction analysis


Perform a frequency extraction analysis to determine the 10 lowest eigenmodes of the
structure. In the current model do the following.
1. Add a density of 2.3E6 unit to the beam material definition named MATEA.

In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and double-click the
material MATEA.

In the material editor, select GeneralDensity from the menu bar.

Enter the value 2.3E-6 for Mass Density in the Density field.

2. The frequency analysis procedure will be used instead of the general static one.
Thus, suppress the general static step named Displace (do not delete it since it
will be used later).
a. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and click mouse button 3
on the step Displace and select Suppress from the menu that appears.
b. Create a new step named Frequency; select Linear perturbation as the
procedure type and Frequency from the list of available perturbation
steps.
c. Click Continue.
d. In the step editor, accept the default Lanczos eigensolver and enter a
value of 10 for Number of eigenvalues requested.
e. Click OK to save the change and exit the step editor.
3. Create a job named frequency.
4. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs
process.

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Visualizing results
When the analysis is complete, use the following procedure to view the eigenmodes and
eigenvalues from the frequency analysis in the Visualization module:
1. In the Model Tree, click mouse button 3 on the job frequency and select Results
from the menu that appears to open the file frequency.odb in the Visualization
module.
2. Plot the first eigenmode (plot the deformed model shape and use the Frame
or the Step/Frame dialog box to choose the frame corresponding to
Mode 1).
3. Using the arrow keys in the context bar, select different mode shapes.
4. The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W62. These correspond to the
first and fourth transverse modes of the structure.
Selector

5.
Figure W62. First and fourth transverse modes
(coarse mesh; 2D linear beam elements)

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

captured by your model because of limitations in element type


or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the
mesh is somewhat coarse.)
Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look non-physical?

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Effect of mesh on extracted modes


From Figure W62 it is apparent that such a coarse mesh of linear-interpolation elements
is unable to adequately represent the mode shapes associated with the higher modes. In
fact the current mesh is unable to represent anything beyond the fifth mode.
To obtain accurate results for all extracted modes, a sufficiently refined mesh is required.
Thus, increase the mesh refinement. Also, switch to quadratic interpolation elements
since these provide superior accuracy for frequency extraction analysis.
1. Remesh the part using a global seed size of 5.
2. Change the element type to B22.
3. Create a new job, run it, and compare the results with those obtained previously.
The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W63.

Figure W63. First and fourth transverse modes


(fine mesh; 2D quadratic beam elements)

The results indicate that the refined mesh is able to represent all extracted modes.
The natural frequency of the first mode predicted by the fine-mesh model is
within 2% of that predicted by the coarse mesh model. The difference in results
for the fourth mode is more significant: there is an 8% difference in the predicted
natural frequency for this mode.
Note that all modes with the exception of modes 6 and 10 are transverse modes.
Modes 6 and 10 are longitudinal modes. To see the longitudinal modes more
clearly, superimpose the undeformed model shape on the deformed model shape.

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W6.5

Torsional and out-of-plane modes


The current model, given that it uses two-dimensional beam elements, is unable to
capture any torsional or out-of-plane modes. For this a three-dimensional model is
required (using either beam, solid, or shell elements). With three-dimensional beam
elements, however, it is not possible to visualize the modes. Thus, in what follows, shell
elements are used to capture the out-of-plane modes.
A predefined model named shell is available that uses three-dimensional quadratic shell
elements to represent the beam structure. The shell part is 200 units long by 50 units
wide. The part mesh consists of 40 S8R elements along the length of the structure and 10
along its width. Homogeneous shell section properties with the same material properties
used earlier and a thickness of 5 units are assigned to the part.
1. Create a job for the shell model, run it, and compare the results with those
obtained previously.
2. The results for the first and fourth transverse modes are shown in Figure W64.
The agreement in terms of both mode shape and natural frequency between the
(refined) beam and shell models is excellent (compare with Figure W63).

Figure W64. First and fourth transverse modes (3D shell model)

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3. The three-dimensional model captures the torsional and out-of-plane modes that
are suppressed by the two-dimensional model. The first three of these modes are
shown in Figure W65.

Figure W65. Torsional and out-of-plane modes (3D shell model)

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Part 2: Transient dynamic analysis


You will now investigate the free vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load,
using an implicit dynamic procedure (Abaqus/Standard).
1. Copy the model named static to a model named dynamic. Make the following
changes to the dynamic model.
2. Delete the frequency extraction step.
3. Resume the static, general step named Displace.
4. Create a dynamic, implicit step after the static, general step.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Steps container.
b. In the Create Step dialog box, name the step Release.
c. Select Dynamic, Implicit from the list of available General procedure
types, and click Continue.
d. In the Edit Step dialog box, accept the default step time 1.
e. In the Incrementation tabbed page, choose Automatic time
incrementation, enter a value of 200 for the maximum number of
increments, and 0.01 for the initial increment size.
f. Click OK to save the data and exit the step editor.
5. Deactivate the load in the step named Release.
a. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the load DisplaceTip underneath
the Loads container, as shown in Figure W66a.
b. Click mouse button 3 on Release (propagated) under the States subcontainer and select Deactivate from the menu that appears.
Note that Release (propagated) is changed into Release (Inactive), as
shown in Figure W66b, to indicate that the load is deactivated in this
step.

(a)

(b)
Figure W66. Loads container in the Model Tree

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W6.8

A part-level set named TIP has been predefined. This set will be used for writing
the displacement history of the tip node to the output database file and also to
monitor the solution progress. This set is indicated in Figure W63.
TIP

Figure W63. Part-level node set


6. Add a history output request to write the displacement history every increment for
the set TIP to the output database file.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click the History Output Requests container.
In the Create History dialog box, select the step Displace and click
Continue.
b. In the Edit History Output Request dialog box, select the domain Set
and the set Beam-1.TIP.
c. Expand the Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration branch in the Output
Variables field and toggle on U, Translations and rotations.
d. Click OK to exit the history output editor.
7. It is useful to be able to monitor the progress of an analysis by tracking the value
of one degree of freedom.
a. From the main menu bar of the Step module, select OutputDOF
Monitor to open the DOF Monitor dialog box.
b. Activate the stippled entries by toggling on Monitor a degree of freedom
throughout the analysis.
c. Click
to select the set Beam-1.TIP as the Region.
Tip: Click Points in the prompt area to select the set Beam-1.TIP from the
Region Selection dialog box.
d. Enter 2 as the Degree of freedom.
e. Click OK to exit the DOF Monitor dialog box.
8. Create a job named dynamic for the model dynamic.
9. Save your model database, submit the job for analysis, and monitor the jobs
process.

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Visualizing results
When the analysis is complete, plot the transverse displacement history (U2) at the tip
node.
1. Open the file dynamic.odb in the Visualization module.
2. Plot the history of the displacement component U2 at the tip node. In the Results
Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output database named
dynamic.odb and double-click Spatial displacement: U2 at Node in NSET
TIP.
The tip response is shown in Figure W67. From this plot, you can estimate the
frequency of the first vibration mode. Note that there are nearly 6 cycles in a 1
second time period. This is in agreement with the results obtained earlier using the
natural frequency extraction procedure (5.95 Hz).

Figure W67. Tip node displacement history


Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

eigenvalue analysis?

Note: A script that creates the complete model described in these


instructions is available for your convenience. Run this script if you
encounter difficulties following the instructions outlined here or if you wish
to check your work. The script is named ws_solver_beam_answer.py and is
available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

Answer:

captured by your model because of limitations in element type


or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the
mesh is somewhat coarse).
Because the model is two-dimensional, it cannot capture the
modes that occur out of the plane of the model, including
torsional modes.
The mesh is too coarse to capture modes other than the first
five. Use more elements to look at all 10 requested modes.

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?
Answer:

No.

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the
Answer:

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eigenvalue analysis?
The frequency calculated from the history plot of the tip
displacement is approximately 5.9, which agrees very closely
with the frequency calculated in the eigenvalue analysis.

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Notes

313

Notes

314

Workshop 7
Contact with Abaqus/Explicit
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Define a rigid body constraint.


Define a general contact interaction.
Apply boundary and initial conditions.
Perform an impact analysis.
Use Abaqus/Viewer to view results.

Introduction
This workshop involves the simulation of a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the
rupture of a high-pressure line in a power plant. It is assumed that a sudden release of
fluid could cause one segment of the pipe to rotate about its support and strike a
neighboring pipe. The goal of the analysis is to determine strain and stress conditions in
both pipes and their deformed shapes. The simulation will be performed using
Abaqus/Explicit.

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W7.2

fixed end

impacting pipe
axis of rotation

Figure W71. Pipe whip model assembly


Both pipes have a mean diameter of 6.5 inches with a 0.432 inch wall thickness and a
span of 50 inches between supports. The fixed pipe is assumed to be fully restrained at
both ends, while the impacting pipe is allowed to rotate about a fixed pivot located at one
of its ends, with the other end free. We exploit the symmetry of the structure and the
loading and thus model only the geometry on one side of the central symmetry plane, as
shown in Figure W71.

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/pipe_whip

2. Run the script ws_solver_pipe_whip.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_pipe_whip.py

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named pipeWhip.cae in the


current directory. A model named contact consists of the geometry and mesh
definitions for the pipes. You will add necessary data to complete the model for the
impact analysis.

Defining material and section properties


Both pipes are made of steel. A von Mises elastic, perfectly plastic material model is
used, with a yield stress of 45,000 psi.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click Materials to create a material named Steel with
the following properties:
Modulus of elasticity:
30.0E6 psi
Poissons ratio:
0.3
Yield Stress:
45.0E3 psi
Density:
7.324E4 lb-sec2/in4

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Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

you comment on the units of density used in this problem?


2. In the Model Tree, double-click Sections to create a homogeneous shell section
named PipeSection. In the Basic tabbed page of the Edit Section dialog box,
select During analysis for the section integration, specify a shell thickness of
0.432 in, select the Gauss thickness integration rule, and view and accept all
other default settings. Click OK to exit the section editor.
3. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of each part underneath the Parts container
and double-click Section Assignments to assign this shell section to both parts.
Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

thickness?

Defining rigid body constraint


You will define a rigid body constraint between the nodes at the pivot end of the
impacting pipe and the reference point, as shown in Figure W72.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click Constraints.
2. In the Create Constraint dialog box, select Rigid body as the constraint type and
click Continue.
3. In the Edit Constraint dialog box, select the region type Tie (nodes) and click
in the right side of the dialog box.
4. Select the edge(s) shown in Figure W72 as the tie region for the rigid body.
5. Similarly, select the reference point RP-1 in the viewport as the rigid body
reference point.
6. In the Edit Constraint dialog box, click OK to apply the constraint.

tie region

Figure W72. Rigid body constraint

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Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid
body constraint?

Defining step and output requests


Because of the high-speed nature of the event, the simulation is performed using a single
explicit dynamics step.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click Steps to create a Dynamic, Explicit step with a
time period of 0.015 seconds. Accept all defaults for the time incrementation and
other parameters.
2. In the Model Tree, expand the Field Output Requests container and doubleclick F-Output-1. In the Edit Field Output Requests dialog box, review the
preselected field output variables. Change the frequency at which the output is
written to 12 evenly spaced time intervals.
3. In the Model Tree, double-click History Output Requests to create a history
output request for reaction forces at the constrained end of the fixed pipe. In the
Edit History Output Request dialog box:
a. Select Set in the Domain field and select RefPt from the Set drop down
list. Note that the set RefPt contains the reference point.
b. Request history output at 100 evenly spaced time intervals during the
analysis.
c. From the list of available output variables, click the arrow next to
Forces/Reactions and toggle on RF, Reaction forces and moments
from the list that appears.
d. Click OK.

Defining contact interaction


1. In the Model Tree, double-click Interaction Properties.
2. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box, accept Contact as the interaction
type and click Continue.
3. In the Edit Contact Property dialog box, select MechanicalTangential
Behavior and choose the Penalty friction formulation. Specify a friction
coefficient of 0.2. Click OK to close the dialog box.
4. In the Model Tree, double-click Interactions.
5. In the Create Interaction dialog box, accept Step-1 as the step in which the
interaction will be created and General contact (Explicit) as the interaction type.
Click Continue.
6. In the Edit Interaction dialog box, accept the All* with self contact domain.
7. Choose the contact property defined earlier and click OK to close the dialog box.

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W7.5

Defining Initial conditions


The impacting pipe is given an initial angular velocity of 75 radians/sec about its
supported (pinned) end.
Question W74: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to

define the axis of rotation?

1. Perform a Point/Node query ( ) to determine the coordinates of two end points


on the axis of rotation at the pivot end of impacting pipe, as shown in
Figure W73.

first point

second point

Figure W73. Points on axis of rotation


The coordinates will be printed out to the message area as shown in Figure W74.

Figure W74. Point coordinates


2. In the Model Tree, double-click Predefined Fields.
3. In the Create Predefined Field dialog box, select the Initial step, the Mechanical
category, and the Velocity type. Click Continue to proceed.
4. Select the impacting pipe as the region to which the initial velocity will be
assigned, and click Done.

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W7.6

5. In the Edit Predefined Field dialog box, change the field definition to Rotational
only. Enter a value of 75 for the Angular velocity. Use the coordinates of the
first point indicated in Figure W73 to define Axis point 1 and the coordinates of
the second point indicated in Figure W73 to define Axis point 2.
Tip: Copy and paste the coordinates from the message area into the dialog box.
Question W75: What keyword was added to the input file when you created

the angular velocity field? Search the Abaqus Keywords


Reference Manual and read the documentation on this
keyword.
Hint: You can see how Abaqus/CAE creates the input file for
a given model by selecting ModelEdit Keywords from the
main menu bar and viewing its contents. In order to find what
keyword was added in a given step, check the keyword editor
before and after the step in Abaqus/CAE and note the changes.

Defining boundary conditions


The edges located on the symmetry plane must be given appropriate symmetry boundary
conditions. One end of the impacting pipe and both ends of the fixed pipe are fully
restrained.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs.
2. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box, accept Symmetry/
Antisymmetry/Encastre as the boundary condition type and click Continue to
create the boundary conditions shown in Figure W75.

Symmetry boundary conditions: Select the edges shown in Figure W75;


and in the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the ZSYMM
(U3=UR1=UR2=0) boundary condition.
Fully constrained boundary conditions: Select the edge shown in
Figure W75; and in the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose
the ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0) boundary condition.
Pinned Boundary condition: Select RP-1 in the viewport. In the Edit
Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the PINNED (U1=U2=U3=0)
boundary condition.

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W7.7
fully constrained end:
ENCASTRE BC

symmetry: ZSYMM BC
(all edges on this plane)

PINNED BC

Figure W75. Boundary conditions


Question W76: Would the results of this analysis differ if both halves of the

pipe were modeled instead of using symmetry boundary


conditions?

Running the job and postprocessing the results


1. Save your model database file.
2. A job named pipe-whip has been already been created for you. Submit the job
for analysis, and monitor its progress.
3. When the analysis has completed, open the output database file pipe-whip.odb
in the Visualization module.
4. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. Use the Color Code Dialog
tool

to customize the color for each instance, as shown in Figure W76.

Figure W76. Deformed model shape

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5. Use the Animate: Time History tool


to animate the deformation history.
6. Contour the Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) on the deformed
shape, as shown in Figure W77.
MISES

PEEQ

Figure W77. Contour plots


7. Create XY plots of the models kinetic energy (ALLKE), internal energy
(ALLIE), and plastic dissipated energy (ALLPD). The energy plot is shown in
Figure W78. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.
Tip: Expand the History Output container in the Results Tree and select the three
curves noted above. Click mouse button 3 and select Plot from the menu that
appears.

Figure W78. Energy histories


Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?

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W7.9

8. Select the pinned node reaction force components RF1, RF2, and RF3. The
reaction force plot is shown in Figure W79. Note this figure has been customized
for clarity.

Figure W79. Reaction force histories

Note: A script that creates the complete pipe assembly model is available
for your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following
the instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script is named
ws_solver_pipe_whip_answer.py and is available using the Abaqus fetch
utility.

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W7.10

Answers
Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can
Answer:

you comment on the units of density used in this problem?


All Abaqus/Explicit analyses require a density value because
Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium (i.e., inertia
effects are considered). The units for all material parameters
must be consistent; in this problem, the English system is used
with pounds and inches as the units for force and length,
respectively. Thus, the consistent unit for density is lb-sec2/in4.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the
Answer:

thickness?
Three section points are used to reduce the run time of the job.

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

Answer:

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid
body constraint?
A tie node set needs to be used.

Question W74: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to
Answer:

define the axis of rotation?


The axis passes through the reference point and is parallel to
the 3-direction. Thus, define the axis using two points. Each of
the axis points must have the same 1- and 2-coordinates as
the reference point; the values of the 3-coordinates of the
axis points will dictate the sense of positive rotation.

Question W75: What keyword was added to the input file when you created

the angular velocity predefined field? Search the Abaqus


Keywords Manual and read the documentation on this
keyword.
Answer:

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Abaqus/CAE adds the keyword *INITIAL CONDITIONS,


TYPE=ROTATING VELOCITY, which imposes a rigid body
type initial rotation on the chosen geometry about a defined
axis.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

W7.11

Question W76: Would the results of this analysis differ if both halves of the

Answer:

pipe were modeled instead of using symmetry boundary


conditions?
As long as the model of the pipe whip (including loads,
boundary conditions, and mesh) is symmetric about the
symmetry plane defined, the results from the full model and
the halved model will not differ.

Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?


Answer:

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Near the end of the simulation, the impacting pipe is


beginning to rebound, having dissipated the majority of its
kinetic energy by inelastic deformation in the crushed zone.

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326

Notes

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Notes

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Workshop 8
Quasi-Static Analysis
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Approximate a quasi-static solution using Abaqus/Explicit.


Understand the effects of mass scaling.

Introduction
In this workshop you will examine the deep drawing of a can bottom. A one-stage
forming process is simulated in Abaqus/Explicit; the springback analysis is performed in
Abaqus/Standard. The final deformed shape of the can bottom is shown in Figure W81.
In a subsequent workshop the import capability is used to transfer the results between
Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard in order to perform a springback analysis.
One of the advantages of using Abaqus/Explicit for metal forming simulations is that, in
general, Abaqus/Explicit resolves complicated contact conditions more readily than
Abaqus/Standard.

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Figure W81. Final deformed shape

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/forming

2. Run the script ws_solver_can_bottom.py using the following command:


abaqus cae startup=ws_solver_can_bottom.py

The above command creates an Abaqus/CAE database named canBottom.cae in the


current directory. It includes two models. The one named frequency will be used to
determine the first eigenmode of the blank to establish the step time for the subsequent
Abaqus/Explicit analysis. The one named stamp will initially be used to perform the
metal forming analysis and will later be edited for the springback analysis. Figure W82
shows the components of the modelthe punch, the die, and the blankin their initial
positions. The blank is modeled using axisymmetric shell elements (SAX1). The shell
reference surface lies at the shell midsurface.

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(0.032, 0.03025)

(0.0, 0.00025)

Origin
(0.0, 0.0)

Figure W82. Model geometry

Part 1: Establishing the Abaqus/Explicit analysis time


In this section you will determine the first eigenmode of the blank and use it to establish
the step time for the subsequent Abaqus/Explicit analysis.
1. Using the Model Tree, review the model definitions of the model frequency.
Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this model?
Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

analysis steps and general analysis steps. What type of


procedure is the analysis procedure in this model?
Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same model,
what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step
have on the base state of the model for the following analysis
step?
2. Create a job named frequency for the model frequency.
3. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its
progress.
4. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file frequency.odb in
the Visualization module.

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5. Plot the deformed model shape. The deformed shape for the first eigenmode will
be displayed in the viewport. The corresponding eigenvalue will be reported in
the state block.
The fundamental frequency, f, of the blank is 304 Hz, corresponding to a time
period of 0.0033 s ( T 1/ f ). This time period provides a lower bound on the
step time for the first forming stage. Choosing the step time to be 10 times the
time period of the fundamental natural frequency, or 0.033 s, should ensure a
quality quasi-static solution. This time period corresponds to a constant punch
velocity of 0.45 m/s, which is typical for metal forming.

Part 2: Metal Forming Analysis


You will now complete the model stamp to perform the metal forming analysis using
ABAUS/Explicit. Make the following changes to the model stamp.
Completing the assembly
In this section you will complete the assembly definition of the can bottom forming
model (Figure W82) by instancing the part representing the punch (PUNCH1).
1. Make current the model stamp. If necessary, set this model to be the root of the
tree.
2. In the Model Tree, expand the Assembly container and double-click Instances
to create an instance of the analytical rigid part PUNCH1. In the Create Instance
dialog box, select part PUNCH1, accept all other default settings, and click OK.
Use the Translate Instance tool
in the toolbox to offset the punch from the
blank by the half thickness of the blank (0.00025 m).
The viewport displays the assembly with the geometry as shown in Figure 82.
Defining displacement history output
In this section you will add a history output request to write the displacement history at
the reference point of the punch to the output database file.
1. Create a geometry-based set including the punch reference point.
a. In the Model Tree, expand the branch of the part PUNCH1 underneath the
Parts container and double-click Sets.
b. Name the set PunchRP.
c. From the viewport, select the reference point RP of the part PUNCH1.
2. In the Model Tree, double-click History Output Requests to create an additional
history output request to output the displacement (translation and rotation) history
for the set PUNCH1-1.PunchRP. Note that PUNCH1-1.PunchRP is an assemblylevel set generated from the previously-created part-level set PunchRP by
Abaqus/CAE.

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Defining contact
In this section you will define contact of the blank with the die and the punch.
1. Define a contact property.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click Interaction Properties.
b. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box, select the type Contact
and click Continue.
c. From the menu bar of the contact property editor, select
MechanicalTangential Behavior.
d. Select the Penalty friction formulation and enter 0.1 for the friction
coefficient.
e. Click OK to exit the contact property editor.
2. Define a contact pair between the blank and the die.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click the Interactions container. In the Create
Interaction dialog box, name the interaction blank_die, select Step-1 as
the step and the Surface-to-surface contact (Explicit) type, and click
Continue.
b. You will be prompted to select the first surface. In the viewport, select the
die.
c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to
confirm the selection.
d. You will be prompted to choose a side of the edge. Choose the side facing
the blank by selecting the corresponding color, Magenta or Yellow, in the
prompt area.
e. In the prompt area, select Surface as the second surface type. In the
viewport, select the blank.
f. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to
confirm the selection.
g. Again, you will be prompted to choose a side of the edge. Choose the side
facing the die.
The interaction editor appears.
h. In the Edit Interaction dialog box, view and accept the default setting.
Click OK to create the interaction and exit the interaction editor.
Note that Abaqus/CAE automatically assigns the previously-created
interaction property to this interaction.
3. Using a similar procedure, define an additional surface-to-surface contact
interaction named blank_punch between the blank and punch.
Question W84: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?

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Defining material properties


In this section you will add the material definition of the blank. The blank material is
steel with Youngs modulus E =210E9 Pa, Poissons ratio v =0.3, and density =7800
kg/m3. Figure W83 shows the nominal stress-strain curve for the blank as tabulated in
Table W81. The data are provided in a text file named w_solver_can_props.txt.

Figure W83. Nominal stress vs. nominal strain


Question W85: When entering plasticity data into the material model, what

are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?


Table W81. Nominal stress vs. nominal strain
Nominal stress (Pa)
90.96 106
130.71 106
169.75 106
207.08 106
240.99 106
268.89 106
287.59 106
290.57 106

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Nominal strain
4.334 104
2.216 103
7.331 103
1.888 10-2
4.153 102
8.218 102
1.509 101
3.456 101

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W8.7

Note that a dummy material named Steel has been created and assigned to the part
BLANK. You will need to add the material properties.
Rather than convert the stress-strain data and define the material properties manually, you
will use the material calibration capability to define the material properties.
1. In the Model Tree, double-click Calibrations.
2. Name the calibration steel and click OK.
3. Expand the Calibrations container and then expand the steel item.
4. Double-click Data Sets.
a. In the Create Data Set dialog box, name the data set nominal and click
Import Data Set.
b. In the Read Data From Text File dialog box, click
named w_solver_can_props.txt.

and choose the file

c. In the Properties region of this dialog box, specify that strain values will
be read from field 2 and stress values from field 1.
d. Select Nominal as the data set form.
e. Click OK to close the Read Data From Text File dialog box.
f. Click OK to close the Create Data Set dialog box.
Since the data is provided in nominal stress-strain format, it must be converted to
true stress-strain format.
5. Click mouse button 3 on nominal and select Process from the menu that
appears.
a. In the Data Set Processing dialog box, select Convert and click
Continue.
b. In the Change Data Set Form dialog box, select True Form and name
the new data set true. Click OK.
6. Double-click Behaviors.
a. Choose Elastic Plastic Isotropic as the type, and click Continue.
b. In the Edit Behavior dialog box, choose true as the data set for ElasticPlastic Data.
c. Click
next to Yield point. In the viewport zoom in to select the yield
point, as indicated in Figure W84.

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W8.8

Alternative: Enter 0.00043, 91E+06 in the text field to define the yield

point precisely.

Figure W84 Yield point.


d. Drag the Plastic points slider between Min and Max to generate plastic
data points.
The plastic data points appear as shown in Figure W85.

Figure W85 Plastic data points.


e. Enter a Poisson's ratio of 0.3.
f. In the Edit Behavior dialog box, choose Steel from the Material dropdown list, as shown in Figure W86.

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Figure W86 Material behavior editor.


g. Click OK to add the properties to the material named steel.
7. In the Model Tree, expand the Materials container and examine the contents of
the material model. You will note that both elastic and plastic properties have
been defined (Youngs modulus should be approximately 2.1E11 Pa). If you wish
to change the number of plastic points or need to modify the yield point, simply
return to the Edit Behavior dialog box, make the necessary changes, select the
name of the material to which the properties will be applied, and click OK. The
contents of the material model are updated automatically.
8. To complete the material properties, define the density. From the menu bar of the
material editor, select GeneralDensity and enter a value of 7800 for Mass
Density.

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9. To reduce high-frequency noise in the solution (caused primarily by the


oscillations of the blanks free end) add stiffness proportional damping to the
material definition of the blank. It is best to use the smallest amount of damping
possible to obtain the desired solution since increasing the stiffness damping
decreases the stable time increment and, thus, increases the computer time. To
avoid a dramatic drop in the stable time increment, the stiffness proportional
damping factor R should be less than, or of the same order of magnitude as, the
initial stable time increment without damping. We choose a damping factor of
R=1107.
From the material editors menu bar, select Mechanical Damping and enter a
value of 1.e-7 in the Beta field.
10. Click OK to save the data and exit the material editor.
Question W86: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?

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W8.11

Defining displacement boundary conditions


To form the can bottom, we will displace the punch by moving its rigid body reference
point 0.015 m in the negative 2-direction. The punch displacement will be applied in the
form of a displacement boundary condition. Because Abaqus/Explicit does not permit
displacement discontinuities, prescribed displacements must refer to an amplitude
definition. Figure W87 shows the desired displacement behavior for the punch. Note
that this curve is smooth in its first and second derivatives.
Question W87: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

why is this important?


1. In the Model Tree, double-click Amplitudes to define an amplitude curve
corresponding to Figure W87.
a. In the Create Amplitude dialog box, name the amplitude FORM1, choose
the Smooth step type, and click Continue.
b. In the Edit Amplitude dialog box, enter the data pair 0, 0 for the first
row and 0.033, 1 for the second row.
c. Click OK to exit the amplitude editor.
2. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs to create a Displacement/Rotation
boundary condition named PunchMove in Step-1 to move the punch reference
point in the 2-direction by 0.015 m.
a. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, toggle on U1, U2, and UR3.
b. Enter a value of -0.015 for U2 and 0 for U1 and UR3.
c. Choose the amplitude curve FORM1.
The amplitude values will be multiplied by the displacement you define in the
boundary condition.
Question W88: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

was used instead?

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W8.12

Figure W87. Displacement curve of punch


Speeding up the analysis
In general, quasi-static processes cannot be modeled in their natural time scale in
Abaqus/Explicit since a large number of time increments would be required (recall that
time increments in Abaqus/Explicit are generally very small). Thus, it is sometimes
necessary to increase the speed of the simulation artificially to reduce the computational
cost. One method to reduce the cost of the analysis is to use mass scaling.
While various forms of mass scaling are available in Abaqus/Explicit, we will
concentrate on fixed mass scaling in this workshop and will implement it using the fixed
mass scaling option available in the step editor. The reason for choosing fixed mass
scaling is that it provides a simple means to modify the mass properties of a quasi-static
model at the beginning of the analysis. It is also computationally less expensive than
variable mass scaling, because the mass is scaled only once at the beginning of the step.
1. In the Model Tree, expand the Steps container and double-click Step-1 to edit
this step definition to include mass scaling.
2. In the Edit Step dialog box, click the Mass scaling tab.
3. In the Mass scaling tabbed page, choose Use scaling definitions below and
click Create.
4. In the Edit mass scaling dialog box that appears, accept all defaults and enter 10
in the Scale by factor field.
5. Click OK to save the data and exit the mass scaling editor.
6. Click OK to save the changes and exit the step editor.

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Question W89: How do you determine if an analysis that includes mass

scaling produces acceptable results?


Question W810: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

Running job and postprocessing results


1. Create a job named draw_bot for the model Stamp.
2. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its
progress.
3. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file draw_bot.odb in
the Visualization module.
4. Display the curves of internal and kinetic energy (i.e., ALLIE and ALLKE) in the
same plot by selecting them from the Results Tree (underneath the History
Output container). Use the XY Curve Options tool

in the toolbox to display


the curve symbols. You should see a plot similar to Figure W88. Note this figure
has been customized for clarity.
Tip: Use [Ctrl]+Click for multiple selections.

Figure W88. Internal and kinetic energy


5. Certain elements have hourglass modes that affect their behavior. Hourglass
modes are modes of deformation that do not cause any strains at the integration
points. An indication of whether hourglassing has an effect on the solution is the
artificial energy, variable ALLAE. Plot the artificial energy and the internal
energy, variable ALLIE, on the same plot. The artificial energy should always be
much less than the internal energy (say less than 0.5%).

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Question W811: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

element type have an hourglass deformation mode?


6. Display the deformed shape of the blank only. In the Results Tree, expand the
Instances container underneath the output database draw_bot.odb. Click
mouse button 3 on the instance BLANK-1 and select Replace from the menu that
appears.
7. Expand the displayed area to 180o by selecting ViewODB Display Options
from the main menu bar. In the Sweep/Extrude tabbed page in the ODB Display
Options dialog box, toggle on Sweep elements and accept the default settings.
You should see a shape similar to that in Figure W89.

Figure W89. 180 expanded deformed shape


8. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model using the Plot Contours
on Deformed Shape tool
in the toolbox. To select other variables for
contouring, use the Field Output toolbar.

9. Plot the punch displacement history (U2 for the node set PUNCHRP) shown in
Figure W87 by double-clicking Spatial displacement: U2 PI: PUNCH1-1
NODE xyz in NSET PUNCHRP under the History Output container in the
Results Tree.

Note: A scripts that creates the complete stamping model are available for
your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the
instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script named
ws_solver_can_bottom_answer.py is available using the Abaqus fetch
utility.

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Answers
Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this model?
Answer:

The analysis procedure is a natural frequency extraction.

Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

Answer:

analysis steps and general analysis steps. What type of


procedure is the analysis procedure in this model?
Frequency extraction is a linear perturbation procedure.

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same model,

Answer:

what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step


have on the base state of the model for the following analysis
step?
None. Only general analysis steps change the base state of the
model.

Question W84: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?
Answer:

An increased friction coefficient will increase the critical shear


stress crit at which sliding of the blank begins. Thus, the
material will be stretched more, causing further thinning of the
material and increasing the stresses.

Question W85: When entering plasticity data into the material model, what
Answer:

are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?


Abaqus uses true (Cauchy) stress and log strain.

Question W86: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?


Answer:

Dassault Systmes, 2012

A higher damping coefficient would reduce the stable time


increment. In general, damping should be chosen such that
high frequency oscillations are smoothed or eliminated with
minimal effect on the stable time increment. Figure WA81
shows a plot of the kinetic energy with and without damping.
Note the high frequency oscillations in the analysis without
damping.

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W8.16

Figure WA81. Kinetic energy with and without damping

Question W87: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and
Answer:

why is this important?


The slope of the amplitude curve at the beginning and end of
the step is zero. This is important because it prevents
discontinuities in the punch displacement, which lead to
oscillations in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

Question W88: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition
Answer:

were used instead?


With a linear amplitude definition the displacement of the
punch will be applied suddenly at the beginning of the step
and stopped suddenly at the end of the step, causing
oscillations in the solution.
A linear amplitude definition results in large spikes in the
kinetic energy, especially at the beginning of the step. As a
result, the kinetic energy may be large compared to the
internal energy and the early solution may not be quasi-static.
The preferred approach is to move the punch as smoothly as
possible. Figure WA82 compares the kinetic energy history
when a linear amplitude definition is used and when the
smooth step amplitude definition is used.

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Figure WA82. Kinetic energy plot with and without SMOOTH STEP

Question W89: How do you determine if an analysis that includes mass


Answer:

scaling produces acceptable results?


The kinetic energy should be a small fraction of the internal
energy.
As the kinetic energy increases, inertia effects have to be
considered and the solution is no longer quasi-static.
Figure WA83 shows the internal and kinetic energy for mass
scaling factors of 10 (used in our simulation), 100, and 900,
which correspond to a solution speedup of 10 , 10, and 30,
respectively.

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W8.18

Figure WA83. Energies with different mass scaling

Question W810: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?
Answer:

The stable time increment is calculated according to


Le
tstable min
c
d

where Le is a characteristic element length and cd is the


dilatational wave speed. An increase in density decreases cd,
which in turn increases tstable.

Question W811: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this
Answer:

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element type have an hourglass deformation mode?


The analysis uses SAX1 elements. These elements have no
hourglass modes. Consequently, hourglassing is not of
concern in the analysis.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Notes

347

Notes

348

Workshop 9
Import Analysis
Interactive Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus GUI
interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus Keywords interface instead, please
see the Keywords version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Transfer results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard.

Introduction
In this workshop you will use the import capability is used to transfer the results between
Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard to examine the effects of springback in the
analysis of the deep drawing of a can bottom. The deformed shape of the can after the
forming stage is shown in Figure W91.

Figure W91. Final deformed shape

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W9.2

Preliminaries
1. Enter the working directory for this workshop:
../abaqus_solvers/interactive/forming

2. Open the model database file created in the previous workshop


(canBottom.cae):

Springback analysis
In the manufacturing process the part is removed after the forming has been completed
and the material is free to springback into an unconstrained state. To understand the final
shape after this physical effect, we perform a springback analysis in Abaqus/Standard.
1. Copy the model named stamp to a model named springback. Make all
subsequent model changes to the springback model.
2. Since only the blank needs to be imported, delete the following features from the
springback model:
a. Part instances DIE1-1 and PUNCH1-1.
b. All assembly-level sets and surfaces associated with the die and punch.
c. All contact interactions and properties.
d. Boundary conditions FixDie and PunchMove.
e. History output request for PunchRP.
3. Replace the dynamic, explicit step with a general, static step. Set the time period
to 1 and the initial increment to 0.1, and include the effects of geometric
nonlinearity. Rename the step springback.
4. Define an initial state.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click Predefined Fields.
b. In the Create Predefined Field dialog box, select Initial as the step,
Other as the category, and Initial state as the type.
c. Click Continue.
d. Select the blank as the instance to assign the initial state.
e. In the Edit Predefined Field dialog box that appears, enter the job name
draw_bot, accept all other default settings, and click OK.
This definition will allow the state of the modelstresses, strains, etc.to
be imported. By not updating the reference configuration, the springback
displacements will be referred to the original undeformed configuration.

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5. Note that the XSYMM boundary condition BlankSymm specified on the set
BSYM constrains rigid body motions in the U1 and UR3 directions of the blank.
Thus, you need an additional boundary condition to prevent rigid body motion
along U2. In what follows you will fix the node at its final position at the end of
the forming stage.
a. In the Model Tree, double-click BCs to apply a Displacement/Rotation
boundary condition to the set BSYM in Step-1.
b. In the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box, choose the Fixed at Current
Position method and fix U2.
6. Create a job named springback for the model springback.
7. Save your model database file, submit the job for analysis, and monitor its
progress.
Question W91: Why is it advantageous to use Abaqus/Standard for the

springback analysis?

Postprocessing
1. When the analysis is complete, open the output database file springback.odb
in the Visualization module.
2. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model.
3. Plot the final deformed shape for the model springback.
4. Plot the springback and formed shapes together. (First toggle off the Sweep
elements option.)
By not updating the reference configuration, the formed shape is stored in frame 0
of the output database. You must use overlay plots to superimpose the images:
a. From the main menu bar, select ViewOverlay Plot.
b. Use the Frame Selector
or the arrows in the context bar to select
frame 0.
c. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer
formed.
d. Use the Frame Selector

to select the last frame.

e. Use the Common Plot Options tool


to change the fill color of the
elements to blue.
f. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer
springback.
In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Plot Overlay.
Zoom in to examine the shape differences more closely.

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W9.4

If you had updated the reference configuration, the formed shape is treated as the
undeformed shape of the import analysis model (recall that when the reference
configuration is updated, the end state of the previous analysis becomes the
reference configuration of the import analysis; the reference configuration is
considered the undeformed shape):
a. In the toolbox, click the Allow Multiple Plot States tool
.
b. In the toolbox, click both the Plot Undeformed Shape and Plot
Deformed Shape tools

c. Use the Common Plot Options tool


to increase the deformation
scale factor so that the differences between the formed and springback
shapes are clearly visible.

Note: A scripts that creates the complete stamping model are available for
your convenience. Run this script if you encounter difficulties following the
instructions or if you wish to check your work. The script named
ws_solver_can_bottom_answer.py is available using the Abaqus fetch
utility.

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W9.5

Answers
Question W91: Why is it advantageous to choose Abaqus/Standard for the
Answer:

Dassault Systmes, 2012

springback analysis?
A true static procedure is the preferred approach for modeling
springback. The imported model will not be in static
equilibrium at the beginning of the step. Thus,
Abaqus/Standard applies a set of artificial internal stresses to
the imported model state and then gradually removes these
stresses. This leads to the springback deformation. In
Abaqus/Explicit the removal of the contact between the blank
and the tools represents a sudden load removal, which leads to
low frequency vibrations of the blank. While these vibrations
will eventually dissipate, this approach leads to lengthy
computation times.

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354

Notes

355

Notes

356

Workshop 1
Basic Input and Output
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Learn to use Abaqus utilities and documentation.


Understand the basic structure of an input file, and be able to make simple
modifications to it.
Learn how to perform a datacheck analysis and how to submit an analysis job
using the Abaqus driver.
Gain familiarity with Abaqus/Viewer.
Explore the structure and contents of the data (.dat) and log (.log) files.

Abaqus utilities and documentation


Abaqus provides various utilities for obtaining information on usage, system
configuration, example problems, and environment settings for the analysis package.
1. At the prompt, enter the command
abaqus information=system

to obtain information on the system.


Note that abaqus is a generic command that may have been renamed on your
system. For example, if more than one version is installed on the system, the
command might include the version number, as in abq6121. In the remainder of
this workshop as well as all subsequent workshops, use the appropriate command
for your system.
Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?
Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?

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2. Open the online documentation with the command


abaqus doc

Open the Abaqus Analysis Users Manual, and search for the string DSLOAD to
find information on the DSLOAD option. You can find information related to
the data line syntax in the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual (use the hyperlink
for the DSLOAD option, or open the Keywords Manual directly). The online
documentation graphical user interface is shown in Figure W11.

Figure W11. Online documentation


3. Open the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual. Search for plate
buckling to find example problems that discuss plate buckling.
Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search

criteria?
4. Go to Example Problem 1.1.14 in the online Abaqus Example Problems Manual.
In the left panel of the window, display the subtopics of the problem and click
Input files. In the right panel of the window, the list of input files associated with
this problem appears. You can select any input filename from the list; a separate
window will open containing that file.

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5. All example problem input files are included in the Abaqus release and can be
obtained using the abaqus fetch utility. In your terminal window, enter
abaqus fetch job=damagefailcomplate_cps4

at the command line prompt.


6. Use the online documentation to determine the input syntax for some options.
A keyword line starts with an asterisk ( followed directly by the keyword
option. Parameters and their associated values appear on the keyword line,
separated by commas. Many options require data lines, which follow directly after
their associated keyword line and contain the data specified in the Abaqus
Keywords Reference Manual for each option. Data items are separated by
commas. Refer to the discussions of keyword line and data line syntax in
Lecture 1, as necessary.
Question W14: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define
a node set called TOP_NODES that contains previously defined
nodes 21, 22, 23, and node set TOP_LEFT.

Hint: Use the information on the NSET option in the Abaqus


Keywords Reference Manual to determine the necessary
parameter and data line.
*NSET,

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Question W15: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define
a velocity boundary condition on a node set named NALL

using the direct format. The velocity is 7.0 m/s in the


2-direction. Will this option appear in the model data or the
history data portion of the input file?
Hint: Use the information on the BOUNDARY option in the
Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual, including the reference
to the Boundary Conditions Section of the Abaqus Analysis
Users Manual, to determine the appropriate syntax.

Question W16: (Optional) In the space provided, write the input you would

use to define the BEAM SECTION option for beam elements


in element set ELBEAMS referring to a material named STEEL.
The beam has a rectangular cross-section with a height of 0.5
m and a width of 0.2 m.
Hint: This option requires one data line for the beam section
geometric data. Follow the hyperlink to the beam cross-section
library and the rectangular section to determine the
appropriate data line input.
*BEAM SECTION,

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Analyzing a connecting lug

Figure W12. Sketch of the connecting lug


In this workshop you will model the connecting lug shown in Figure W12. The lug is
welded to a massive structure at one end, so we assume that this end is fixed. The other
end contains a hole through which a bolt is placed when the lug is in service. You have to
calculate the deflection of the lug when a load of 30kN is applied to the bolt in the 2
direction.
To model this problem, you will use three-dimensional continuum elements and perform
a linear analysis with elastic materials. You will model the load transmitted to the lug
through the bolt as a uniform pressure load applied to the bottom half of the hole, as
shown in Figure W12. In this workshop SI units (N, m, and s) will be used.
Creating the input file
1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/lug directory.
2. View the contents of w_lug.inp. The model and history data are incomplete,
and no mesh or loading is defined.
Question W17: What is the first option in the model data? What is the last

option in the model data?


Question W18: What is the first option in the history data?
Question W19: How many steps are there in this analysis?

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3. View the files w_lug_nodes.inp and w_lug_elem.inp. Boundary conditions


and loads will be defined using the node and element sets defined in these files.
Question W110: What type of elements are used to model the lug?

4. Edit the input file to set the INPUT parameter on the INCLUDE options to read
the appropriate node and element data files.
5. Complete the MATERIAL option block by defining an elastic material with
elastic modulus E = 200 GPa and Poissons ratio = 0.3. The complete material
block should appear as follows:
*MATERIAL, NAME=STEEL
*ELASTIC
200E9, 0.3
Question W111: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

definition? Material density is necessary for what types of


analyses?
The boundary conditions and the loads cannot be defined without knowledge of the node
and element sets and surfaces. Figure W13 shows the various sets and surfaces.

Node set LHEND

Element set
BUILTIN

Surface PRESS
Node set
HOLEBOT

Figure W13. Useful sets and surfaces

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6. Boundary conditions are applied using the BOUNDARY option. Use the online
documentation to obtain a description of the option. The left end of the lug is
fixed. Thus, constrain degrees of freedom 1 through 6 of all nodes in node set
LHEND by entering
*BOUNDARY
LHEND, 1, 6
Question W112: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary

condition?
7. Distributed loads are applied to surfaces using the *DSLOAD option. In this
problem, the load should be applied to the surface named PRESS (which covers
the bottom region of the hole). The option to specify the distributed (pressure)
load on this surface is
*DSLOAD
PRESS, P, 50.E6

The magnitude of the applied uniform pressure is 50 MPa. We determined the


load magnitude by dividing the total load by the projected horizontal area of the
30kN
hole, where
50MPa .
2 0.015m 0.02m
8. Add printed output requests to the step using the NODE PRINT and EL PRINT
options. Abaqus includes a large amount of printed output by default. Requesting
printed output of specific variables allows you to limit the volume of output to the
data (.dat) file. Request printed data output of nodal displacements for node set
HOLEBOT and reaction forces for node set LHEND (including the total force). In
addition, request output for stresses in element set BUILTIN.
You can do this by entering
*NODE PRINT, NSET=HOLEBOT
U2
*NODE PRINT, NSET=LHEND, TOTAL=YES, SUMMARY=NO
RF
*EL PRINT, ELSET=BUILTIN
S, MISES

Default output requests for the output database are made automatically, and they
will be sufficient for this workshop.
Submitting a datacheck analysis
1. Submit the job for a datacheck analysis by entering the command
abaqus datacheck job=w_lug interactive

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at the prompt. The interactive parameter will cause all log file output to print
to the screen.
2. View the data file (w_lug.dat) in a text editor.
Question W113: What version of Abaqus are you using?

3. Search for the strings WARNING and ERROR to find any warning and error
messages. These messages will indicate whether anything unusual was
encountered during the datacheck analysis (keep in mind that your editor may be
case-sensitive for searching).
Question W114: What warning messages did you get? Do they require changes

to the input file, or can you ignore them?


4. Search for the string P R O B L E M to see the summary of the problem size.
Include spaces between the letters of the search string.
Question W115: How many elements are there in the model? How many
variables are there?
Running a complete analysis
1. Submit w_lug.inp as an Abaqus job in interactive mode by typing
abaqus job=w_lug interactive

at the prompt.
If the driver asks if you want to overwrite old job files, type y. This means that
output files with the same job name that exist from a previous analysis will be
overwritten.
2. Now resubmit the job in background mode by typing
abaqus job=w_lug

at the prompt.
The log file output will be saved in w_lug.log instead of printing to the screen.
You can open w_lug.log in a text editor and view its contents.
3. You can also let the Abaqus driver prompt you for the necessary job information
by typing
abaqus

at the prompt.
Specify w_lug at the prompt for the job identifier, enter [RETURN] at the prompt
for user subroutines (since there are none for this job), and type y to overwrite
the files from the last run with the same name. Doing so will submit the analysis
job in background mode.
4. List all files with w_lug as the root of the file name (using a long format on
Unix systems):

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dir w_lug.*

(NT)

ls -l w_lug.*

(Unix)

Note the files that were created by Abaqus. We will take a closer look at the
printed output file (w_lug.dat) later in this workshop.
Results visualization in Abaqus/Viewer
1. To run Abaqus/Viewer and load the output database for the lug analysis, type
abaqus viewer odb=w_lug

at the prompt.
Note: The file name extension (.odb) is not needed.
If an output database is not specified on the command line, you can select
FileOpen from the main menu bar in Abaqus/Viewer to access the Open
Database dialog box, as shown in Figure W14. Select the file w_lug.odb
from the output database list.

Figure W14. Open Database dialog box

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2. When Abaqus/Viewer opens the output database, the undeformed model shape
will be displayed. To change the plot mode, you can use either the Plot menu or
the toolbox icons displayed on the left side of the viewport (see Figure W15).
You can identify the function of each tool in the toolbox by positioning your
cursor above the icon for that tool. A label for the icon will pop up describing its
function.
3. To plot the deformed shape, click the Plot Deformed Shape tool
toolbox or select PlotDeformed Shape from the main menu bar.

in the

4. Open the Common Plot Options dialog box by clicking


in the toolbox.
Turn on the node and element numbers, and make the nodes visible.
5. Use the display option tools to switch to hidden line, filled, or wireframe display.
View manipulation tools

Display option tools

Results
Tree

Toolbox

Figure W15. Abaqus/Viewer main window

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6. Note the displacement magnification factor shown in the bottom of the title.
By default, Abaqus/Viewer automatically scales the displacement according to the
maximum model dimensions for a small-displacement analysis. Displacements
are scaled so that the deformed shape will be clear. For a large-displacement
analysis the scale factor is 1.0 by default. Set the displacement magnification
factor to 1.0 so that you can see the actual displacement, and redraw the displaced
shape plot.
Hint: You will have to use the Common Plot Options dialog box.

7. Create a contour plot of the Mises stress by clicking the Plot Contours on
Deformed Shape tool

in the toolbox.
8. Frequently users want to remove all annotations that are written on the plots,
especially when they are creating hard-copy images or animations. From the main
menu bar, select ViewportViewport Annotation Options to suppress the
annotations used in the plots.
The annotations are divided into three categories: legend, title block, and state
block. Each category can be controlled separately. The title block contains
information about which Abaqus version was used and when the analysis was
performed. The state block contains the step title (which is the text provided on
the data line of the STEP option), the increment and step time of the data being
displayed, and information on the variable and magnification factor used to
calculate the shape of the model.
9. From the main menu bar, select FileExit to exit from Abaqus/Viewer.
Viewing the printed output file
Open the printed output file w_lug.dat in the text editor of your choice.
1. Look at the input echo near the top of the file. Below this you will find the section
titled OPTIONS BEING PROCESSED. This is the first place any warning or
error messages will appear.
2. A summary of model data follows. Here you can check that Abaqus has correctly
interpreted your model definition.
Question W116: Which elements are in element set HOLEIN?

3. Next you will find the summary of history data for each step. Search for the
strings B O U N D A R Y and D I S T R I B U T E D to verify that the
boundary conditions and distributed loads have been interpreted correctly. Include
spaces between the letters of the search string. To start a search through the entire
file, go to the top of the file (some editors will wrap to the top of the file upon
reaching the end).

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4. The next section in the data file is the results section. The tables are printed
according to the various output requests.
Search for the strings N O D E and E L E M E N T to find the tables that
contain the output requested. The maximum deflection and peak stress are
reported at the ends of the respective tables.
Question W117: What are the maximum direct stresses in the 1- and 2-

directions (i.e., 11 and 22 )?

(Hint: The maximum direct stresses will occur in element set


BUILTIN.)
Question W118: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT in

the 2-direction?
5. Search for the string TOTAL to find the sum of the reaction forces in the 2direction.
Question W119: What is the net reaction force in the 2-direction at the nodes in
node set LHEND? Is this equal to the applied load?
Question W120: Why is the sum of the reaction forces at the nodes in node set
LHEND in the horizontal direction (1-direction) zero?

Modifying the model and understanding changes in the results


1. Open the input file w_lug.inp in the text editor.
2. Reduce the distributed pressure load to 25 MPa.
3. Save the modified file to a new file named w_lugmod.inp.
4. Submit the new input file as an Abaqus job.
5. Look at the output database file in Abaqus/Viewer.
Question W121: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT?
Do the results reflect the reduction in loading?

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may
consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named
w_lug_complete.inp

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers
Question W11: What is the processor on your machine?
Answer:

It depends on the system you are using.

Question W12: What is the operating system (OS) level?


Answer:

It depends on the system you are using.

Question W13: What are the four example problems that fit the search
Answer:

criteria?
Problem 1.1.14, Damage and failure of a laminated
composite plate
Problem 1.2.2, Laminated composite shells: buckling of a
cylindrical panel with a circular hole
Problem 1.2.5, Unstable static problem: reinforced plate
under compressive loads
Problem 9.1.8, Deformation of a sandwich plate under
CONWEP blast loading

Question W14: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define
a node set called TOP_NODES that contains previously defined
nodes 21, 22, 23, and node set TOP_LEFT.
Answer:
*NSET, NSET=TOP_NODES
21, 22, 23, TOP_LEFT
Question W15: In the space provided, write the input you would use to define
a velocity boundary condition on a node set named NALL

Answer:

using the direct format. The velocity is 7.0 m/s in the


2-direction. Will this option appear in the model data or the
history data portion of the input file?
This option will appear in the history data section of the input
file because it is a nonzero boundary condition.
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=VELOCITY
NALL, 2, 2, 7.0

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Question W16: (Optional) In the space provided, write the input you would

use to define the BEAM SECTION option for beam elements


in element set ELBEAMS referring to a material named STEEL.
The beam has a rectangular cross-section with a height of 0.5
m and a width of 0.2 m.
Answer:

*BEAM SECTION, SECTION=RECT, ELSET=ELBEAMS,


MATERIAL=STEEL
0.2, 0.5

Question W17: What is the first option in the model data? What is the last

option in the model data?


Answer:

The beginning of the model data is the HEADING option.


The last option in the model data is the MATERIAL option
in the material option block that defines the material properties
of the model.

Question W18: What is the first option in the history data?


Answer:

The history data begin with the STEP option.

Question W19: How many steps are there in this analysis?


Answer:

There is only one step in this analysis.

Question W110: What type of elements is used to model the lug?


Answer:

C3D20R elementsi.e., 20-node brick elements (threedimensional hexahedral continuum elements) with reduced
integrationare used to model the lug.

Question W111: Do you need to define a density to complete the material

Answer:

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definition? Material density is necessary for what types of


analyses?
No. The density is necessary for analysis procedures that
consider inertia effects. In a static analysis inertia effects are
not considered.

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Question W112: How else could you define a completely constrained boundary
Answer:

condition?
Type boundary condition labels (such as ENCASTRE) can
be also used to define fixed boundary conditions in the model
data:
*BOUNDARY
LHEND, ENCASTRE

Question W113: What version of Abaqus are you using?


Answer:

The version number appears at the top of the printed output


(.dat) file.

Question W114: What warning messages did you get? Do they require changes
Answer:

to the input file, or can you ignore them?


If you followed the instructions correctly to this point, there
should be warning messages in the data (.dat) file indicating
that the rotational degrees of freedom4, 5, and 6are not
active in this model and cannot be restrained. Abaqus ignores
boundary conditions on degrees of freedom that cannot be
restrained; therefore, you can safely ignore these warning
messages.

Question W115: How many elements are there in the model? How many
Answer:

variables are there?


The model has 112 elements. The total number of variables,
including degrees of freedom plus any Lagrange multiplier
variables, is 2376.

Question W116: Which elements are in element set HOLEIN?


Answer:

Elements 1 and 16.

Question W117: What are the maximum direct stresses in the 1- and 2Answer:

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directions (i.e., 11 and 22)?


The maximum direct stress in the 1-direction (S11) is
3.4766E+08 Pa; the maximum direct stress in the 2-direction
(S22) is 8.7629E+07 Pa.

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Question W118: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT in

the 2-direction?
Answer:

The deflection is 3.1342 E04 m.

Question W119: What is the net reaction force in the 2-direction at the nodes in
node set LHEND? Is this equal to the applied load?
Answer:

The reaction forces in the node set LHEND sum to 30 kN,


which is equal to the applied load.

Question W120: Why is the sum of the reaction forces at the nodes in node set
LHEND in the horizontal direction (1-direction) zero?
Answer:

At the section represented by node set LHEND, the reaction


forces in the horizontal direction simply couple to resist the
moment induced by the applied vertical load. Since there is no
external load in the horizontal direction, the reaction forces
add up to zero in the horizontal direction.

Question W121: What is the deflection of node 20001 in node set HOLEBOT?
Answer:

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Do the results reflect the reduction in loading?


The deflection of the nodes in node set HOLEBOT is now
reduced to 1.5671E04 m. The deflections, reaction forces,
and stresses decrease in proportion to the reduction in loading
since this is a linear analysis; in this case by a factor of 2.

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374

Workshop 2
Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam:
Multiple Load Cases
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Introduction
In this workshop you will become familiar with using load cases in a linear static
analysis. You will model a cantilever beam. The left end of the beam is encastred while a
series of loads are applied to the free end. Six load cases are considered: unit forces in the
global X-, Y-, and Z-directions as well as unit moments about the global X-, Y-, and Zdirections. The model is shown in Figure W21. You will solve the problem using a
single perturbation step with six load cases and (optionally) using six perturbation steps
with a single load case in each step.

Figure W21. Cantilever beam model

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As indicated in Figure W21, we wish to apply forces and moments to the right end of
the beam. However, the beam is modeled with solid C3D8I elements, which possess only
displacement degrees of freedom. Thus, only forces may be directly applied to the nodes
of the model. Rather than applying force couples to the model, we will apply
concentrated moments to the end of the beam. To this end, all loads will be transmitted to
the beam through a rigid body constraint. This approach is adopted to take advantage of
the fact that the rigid body reference node possesses six degrees of freedom in threedimensions: 3 translations and 3 rotations and thus allows direct application of
concentrated moments. Rigid bodies and constraints will be discussed further in
Lecture 5.

Defining loads and load cases in the input file


1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/load_cases directory.
2. Open the file w_beam_loadcase.inp in a text editor. The file includes all the
model data required for this problem: node, element, and set definitions; material
and section properties; and fixed boundary conditions. The history data (i.e., step
definition) is incomplete.
3. Complete the step definition by defining the loads and load cases. The loads will
be applied in the form of concentrated forces and moments via the *CLOAD option
to the rigid body reference node. This node is contained in node set refPt. For
example, for the force acting along the axial direction of the beam (i.e., the Xdirection), the following load case may be defined:
*Load Case, name=Force-X
*Cload
refPt, 1, 1.0
*End Load Case

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4. The complete step definition should resemble the following:


*Step, name=BeamLoadCases, perturbation
*Static
**
*Load Case, name=Force-X
*Cload
refPt, 1, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*Load Case, name=Force-Y
*Cload
refPt, 2, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*Load Case, name=Force-Z
*Cload
refPt, 3, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*Load Case, name=Moment-X
*Cload
refPt, 4, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*Load Case, name=Moment-Y
*Cload
refPt, 5, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*Load Case, name=Moment-Z
*Cload
refPt, 6, 1.0
*End Load Case
**
*End Step

Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions have been defined as part of the
model data, and as such, are active in each load case.
5. Save the input file.
6. Submit the job for analysis by entering the following command at your system
prompt:
abaqus job=w_beam_loadcase

7. Monitor the status of the job by looking at the log (.log) or status (.sta) files.

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Viewing the analysis results


1. When the job has completed successfully, start a session of Abaqus/Viewer by
entering the following command at your system prompt:
abaqus viewer odb=w_beam_loadcase
Abaqus/Viewer opens the output database file w_beam_loadcase.odb created

by the job and displays the undeformed model shape. Examine the results of the
analysis. Note that load case output is stored in separate frames in the output
database file. Use the Frame Selector (click
in the context bar) to choose
which load case is displayed (alternatively, open the Step/Frame dialog box by
selecting ResultStep/Frame). Figure W22, for example, shows contour plots
of the Mises stress for each of the load cases.

Force-X

Force-Y

Force-Z

Moment-X

Moment-Y

Moment-Z

Figure W22. Mises stress contours

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Combining results from the load cases and envelope plots


You will now linearly combine the results of each load case to plot the stress and
deformation in the beam under a given load combination. Recall that each load case is
based on a unit load; the results of each load case will be scaled relative to those obtained
for LC-Force-Y when combining the data.
1. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom Frames.
2. In the dialog box that appears, accept Sum values over all frames as the
operation.
3. In the Frames tabbed page, click
. In the Add Frames dialog box that
appears, choose Step-1 as the step from which to obtain the data. Click Select All
and then click OK to close the dialog box.
4. Remove the initial frame; for the remaining frames, enter the scale factors shown
in Figure W23.

Figure W23 Scale factors for linear combination of load cases.


5. Switch to the Fields tabbed page to examine the data that will be combined.
Accept the default selection (all available field data) and click OK to close the
dialog box.
6. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.

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7. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for output
and click OK.
8. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W24. Note that this figure has been
customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour plot and a
deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

Figure W24 Mises stress due to combined loading.


9. Now create an envelope plot of the maximum stress in the beam:
a. From the main menu bar, select ToolsCreate Field OutputFrom
Frames.
b. In the dialog box that appears, select Find the maximum value over all
frames as the operation.
c. In the Frames tabbed page, click
. In the Add Frames dialog box
that appears, choose Step-1 as the step from which to obtain the data.
Select all but the initial frame then click OK to close the dialog box.
d. Switch to the Fields tabbed page. Unselect all output and then select only
S and U.
e. Click OK to close the dialog box.
f. From the main menu bar, select ResultStep/Frame.
g. In the Step/Frame dialog box, select Session Step as the active step for
output and The maxmum value over all selected frames as the frame,
as shown in Figure W25.

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Figure W25 Frame selection for envelope plot.


h. In the Field Output dialog box (ResultField Output), select S_max as
the primary variable and U_max as the deformed variable.
i. Plot the Mises stress as shown in Figure W26. Note that this figure has
been customized to overlay the undeformed model shape on the contour
plot and a deformation scale factor of 5e4 has been used.

Figure W26 Envelope plot of maximum Mises stress.

Using Multiple Perturbation Steps (Optional)


Now perform the same analysis using multiple perturbation steps rather than multiple
load cases.
1. Open the file w_beam_multstep.inp in a text editor. As before, the file
includes all the model data required for this problem: node, element, and set
definitions; material and section properties; and fixed boundary conditions. The
history data (i.e., step definition) is incomplete.
2. Complete the history data by defining the steps. As before, the loads will be
applied in the form of concentrated forces and moments via the *CLOAD option to
the rigid body reference node. This node is contained in node set refPt. For

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example, for the force acting along the axial direction of the beam (i.e., the Xdirection), the following step may be defined:
*Step, name=Force-X, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 1, 1.
*End Step

3. The complete set of step definitions should resemble the following:


*Step, name=Force-X, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 1, 1.0
*End Step
**
*Step, name=Force-Y, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 2, 1.0
*End Step
**
*Step, name=Force-Z, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 3, 1.0
*End Step
**
*Step, name=Moment-X, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 4, 1.0
*End Step
**
*Step, name=Moment-Y, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 5, 1.0
*End Step
**
*Step, name=Moment-Z, perturbation
*Static
*Cload
refPt, 6, 1.0
*End Step

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Note that the fixed-end boundary conditions have been defined as part of the
model data, and as such, are active in each step.
4. Save the input file.
5. Submit the job for analysis by entering the following command at your system
prompt:
abaqus job=w_beam_multstep

6. Monitor the status of the job by looking at the log (.log) or status (.sta) files.
7. When the job has completed successfully, open the output database
w_beam_multstep.odb created by the job in Abaqus/Viewer and compare the
results obtained using both modeling approaches. You will find that the results are
identical.

Comparing solution times


Next, open the message (.msg) file for each job in the job monitor. Scroll to the bottom
of the file and compare the solution times. You will notice that the multiple step analysis
required 2.5 times as much CPU time as the multiple load case analysis. For a small
model such as this one, the overall analysis time is small so speeding up the analysis by a
factor of three may not appear significant. However, it is clear that for large jobs, the
speedup offered by multiple load cases will play a significant role in reducing the time
required to obtain a solution for a given problem.

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Multiple load case analysis:


ANALYSIS SUMMARY:
TOTAL OF
1
0
1
1
:
:

INCREMENTS
CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION
ITERATIONS
PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

THE SPARSE SOLVER HAS BEEN USED FOR THIS ANALYSIS.


JOB TIME SUMMARY
USER TIME (SEC)
SYSTEM TIME (SEC)
TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)
WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=
=
=
=

0.10000
0.10000
0.20000
1

Multiple perturbation step analysis:


ANALYSIS SUMMARY:
TOTAL OF
6
0
6
6
:
:

INCREMENTS
CUTBACKS IN AUTOMATIC INCREMENTATION
ITERATIONS
PASSES THROUGH THE EQUATION SOLVER OF WHICH

THE SPARSE SOLVER HAS BEEN USED FOR THIS ANALYSIS.


JOB TIME SUMMARY
USER TIME (SEC)
SYSTEM TIME (SEC)
TOTAL CPU TIME (SEC)
WALLCLOCK TIME (SEC)

=
=
=
=

0.4000
0.1000
0.5000
1

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may
consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named
w_beam_loadcase_complete.inp
w_beam_multstep_complete.inp

and are available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Notes

386

Workshop 3
Nonlinear Statics
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Define alternate nodal and material directions.


Include nonlinear geometric effects by adding the NLGEOM parameter.
Include nonlinear material effects by defining plastic material behavior.
Become familiar with the output for an incremental analysis.

Introduction
In this workshop you will model the plate shown in Figure W31. It is skewed at 30 to
the global 1-axis, built-in at one end, and constrained to move on rails parallel to the plate
axis at the other end. You will determine the midspan deflection when the plate carries a
uniform pressure.
You will modify the input file that models this problem to include alternate nodal and
material directions as well as nonlinear effects.
You will first add the necessary data to complete the linear analysis model. You will later
perform the simulation considering both geometrically and material nonlinear effects. In
a subsequent workshop a restart analysis will be performed to study the unloading of the
plate.

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W3.2

Alternate nodal and material directions


1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/skew directory, and open the
file w_skew_plate_linear.inp in an editor. You will need to specify local
nodal and material directions by following the steps given below.
2. The right end of the plate is constrained to move parallel to an axis that is skewed
relative to the global axes. Thus, the nodes at this end of the plate must be
transformed into a local coordinate system that is aligned with the plate. The
following TRANSFORM option block defines a local coordinate system, x ,
y , z , by specifying points a and b, as shown in Figure W32 (see the Abaqus
Analysis Users Manual for a detailed explanation of the data line).
*TRANSFORM, NSET=ENDB, TYPE=R
0.1, 0.0577, 0.0, -0.0577, 0.1, 0.0

x, y, z of point a

x, y, z of point b

All degrees of freedom at this end are


constrained except along the axis of
the plate.

Figure W31. Sketch of the skewed plate

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Figure W32. Rectangular Cartesian transformation


3. The default material directions in this model are aligned with the global axes. In
this default system the direct stress in the material 1-direction, 11 , will contain
contributions from both the axial stress (produced by the bending of the plate) and
the stress transverse to the axis of the plate. The results will be easier to interpret
if the material directions are aligned with the axis of the plate and the transverse
direction.
These local material directions can be defined with the following
ORIENTATION option. The first data line defines a local coordinate system by
specifying points a and b, as shown in Figure W32. The second data line defines
an additional rotation of 0.0 about the 3-axis (see the Abaqus Keywords
Reference Manual for detailed explanations of the data lines).
*ORIENTATION, NAME=SKEW, SYSTEM=RECTANGULAR
0.1, 0.0577, 0.0, -0.0577, 0.1, 0.0
3, 0.0

This option acts independently of the TRANSFORM option.


4. Run the analysis. To submit this job, you must enter
abaqus job=w_skew_plate_linear

at the prompt.
5. When the analysis is complete, open the data (.dat) file and find the value of the
vertical displacement (degree of freedom 3) at the midspan (node 357). Enter this
value in the Linear column of Table W31.

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Geometric Nonlinearity
1. Copy the input file to a new file called w_skew_plate_nonlin.inp, and make
the following changes to account for geometric nonlinearity:
2. Set NLGEOM = YES on the STEP option. This parameter indicates that
geometric nonlinearity will be accounted for during the step.
3. Set the initial time increment to 0.1 and the total time to 1.0 on the data line
following the STATIC option.
Time in a static analysis is just a convenient way to measure the progress of an
incremental solution unless rate-dependent behavior is involved. The beginning of
the step definition should look something like this:
*STEP, NLGEOM=YES
*STATIC
0.1, 1.0

Run the new analysis, and enter the vertical displacement (degree of freedom 3)
of node 357 in the NLGEOM column of Table W31.
Table W31. Midspan displacements
Load (kPa)

Linear (m)

NLGEOM (m)

20
60

4. Triple the load in both the linear and nonlinear analysis input files, rerun each of
these analyses, and enter the vertical displacement of node 357 from each analysis
in Table W31. The pressure loading is applied normal to the shell surface with
the DLOAD option.
Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in

the linear analyses?


Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each
other and to those from the linear analyses?

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Plasticity
You will now include another source of nonlinearity: plasticity. The material data are
shown in Figure W33 (in terms of true stress vs. total log strain). Abaqus, however,
requires the plastic material data be defined in terms of true stress and plastic log
strain. Thus, you will need to determine the plastic strains corresponding to each data
point (see the hint below).
1. In the material block of the input file w_skew_plate_nonlin.inp add the
PLASTIC option and enter the data lines corresponding to points A and B on the
stress-strain curve shown in Figure W33. The Youngs modulus for this material
is 30E9 Pa.
Hint: The total stain tot at any point on the curve is equal to the sum of the elastic

strain el and plastic strain pl. The elastic strain at any point on the curve can be
evaluated from Youngs modulus and the true stress:el= / E. Use the following
relationship to determine the plastic strains:

pl tot el tot E .
Add the PLASTIC option underneath *MATERIAL to complete the material
block. The complete material option block is given below:
*MATERIAL, NAME=MAT1
*ELASTIC
3.0E10,0.3
*PLASTIC
2.E7, 0.0
3.E7, 0.019
Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the

PLASTIC option equal to 0.0?


2. Change the pressure to 10 kPa.

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Figure W33. Stress versus strain curve


3. Make the following additional changes:
a. Modify the RESTART option to write restart output every 10th

increment. Set the FREQUENCY parameter equal to 10.


b. You will use Abaqus/Viewer to postprocess the results. To create a more
readable printed output (.dat) file, set the output frequency to this file to
every 100 increments. Specifying a frequency larger than or equal to the
maximum number of increments ensures that output to the data file is
written only at the end of the last increment of the step.
c. It is useful to be able to check the progress of an analysis by monitoring
the value of one degree of freedom. To do so, add the MONITOR option
to the history section of the input file. Set the value of the NODE
parameter to 357, and set the value of the DOF parameter to 3.
4. Run the analysis. While the job is running, you can check on the progress of the
analysis by looking at the status (.sta) file. The DOF MONITOR column
should show the value of the midspan displacement.

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Postprocessing an Incremental Analysis in Abaqus/Viewer


1. Start Abaqus/Viewer by entering the following command at the prompt:
abaqus viewer

Open the appropriate output database by selecting FileOpen from the main
menu bar. Select the file w_skew_plate_nonlin.odb, and click OK.
2. By default, the last increment of the last step is selected. Use the Frame Selector
in the context bar to select other steps or increments; alternatively, use the
Step/Frame dialog box (ResultStep/Frame).

3. Use the view manipulation tools to position the model as you wish. Turn
perspective on or off by clicking the Turn Perspective On tool
Perspective Off tool

or the Turn

in the toolbar.

4. Plot the deformed shape by clicking the Plot Deformed Shape tool

A sample deformed shape plot is shown in Figure W34. Your plot may look
different if you have positioned your model differently

Figure W34. Final deformed shape


5. Create a contour plot of variable S11 by following this procedure:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Click the Plot Contours tool


in the toolbox.
Select ResultField Output.
In the Field Output dialog box, select S11 as the stress component.
Click Section Points to select a section point.
In the Section Points dialog box that appears, select Top and bottom as
the active locations and click OK.
Your contour plot should look similar to Figure W35. Abaqus plots the
contours of the Mises stress on both the top and bottom faces of each shell
element. To see this more clearly, rotate the model in the viewport.

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Figure W35. Contour plot of S11: SPOS, top image; SNEG, bottom image
Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the

model?
6. Click the Animate: Time History tool
to animate the results.
You can stop the animation and move between frames and steps by using the
arrow buttons in the context bar.
7. Render the shell thickness (ViewODB Display Options; toggle on Render
shell thickness).
The plot appears as shown in Figure W36. Note that for the purpose of
visualization, a linear interpolation is used between the contours on the top and
bottom surfaces of the shell.

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W3.9

Figure W36 Contour plot with shell thickness visible.


8. Use the following procedure to create a history plot of displacement U3 for node
357:
a. In the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the
output database named w_skew_plate_nonlin.odb.
b. Click History Output and press F2; filter the container according to *U3*.
c. Double-click the data object for node 357. Your plot should look similar
to Figure W37. Note this figure has been customized.

Figure W37. History of displacement at the midspan

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Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may
consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named
w_skew_plate_linear_complete.inp
w_skew_plate_nonlin_complete.inp

and are available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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W3.11

Answers

Question W31: How does tripling the load affect the midspan displacement in
Answer:

the linear analyses?


The midspan displacement is tripled in the linear analysis.

Question W32: How do the results of the nonlinear analyses compare to each
Answer:

other and to those from the linear analyses?


The midspan displacement is not tripled in the nonlinear
analysis when the load is tripled; at the higher load, the value
of the displacement predicted by the nonlinear analysis is less
than the value predicted by the linear analysis.

Question W33: Why is the second entry on the first data line of the

PLASTIC option equal to 0.0?


Answer:

The first data line of the PLASTIC option defines the initial
yield point. The plastic strain at this point is zero.

Question W34: Where do the peak displacements and stresses occur in the
Answer:

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model?
The peak value of U3 occurs at the midspan. The supports of
the plate are likely to be heavily stressed; this is confirmed by
contour plots of S11.

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Notes

400

Workshop 4
Unloading Analysis of a Skew Plate
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Introduction
You will now continue the analysis of the plate shown in Figure W41. Recall our
analysis includes geometric and material nonlinearity. We previously determined the
plate exceeded the material yield strength and therefore has some plastic deformation.
Since we requested restart output, we can resume the analysis to determine the residual
stress state. In this workshop we will remove the load in order to recover the elastic
deformation; the plastic deformation will remain.

All degrees of freedom at this end are


constrained except along the axis of
the plate.

Figure W41 Sketch of the skew plate.

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W4.2

Creating a restart analysis model


Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/skew directory.
Create a new input file named w_skew_plate_restart.inp. In this new input file, do
the following:
1. Add the HEADING option at the top of the file.
2. Add the RESTART option immediately after the HEADING option:
*RESTART, READ, STEP=1

This option specifies that the analysis will be continued from the end of the first
step of the previous job. The name of the previous job will be specified at the time
of job submission.
3. Define a step named UNLOAD within which to deactivate the applied pressure
load:
*STEP, NAME=UNLOAD, NLGEOM=YES
*STATIC
0.1, 1.
*DLOAD, OP=NEW
*END STEP

The OP=NEW parameter on the *DLOAD option removes the applied load in the
current step. The load will be ramped off according to the automatic time
incrementation in effect.
4. Use the following command to submit this job:
abaqus job=w_skew_plate_restart oldjob=w_skew_plate_nonlin

5. Monitor the solution progress.


6. Correct any modeling errors, and investigate the source of any warning messages.

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W4.3

Postprocessing
In the Visualization module, contour the U3 displacement component in the plate:
1. Click the Plot Contours tool
in the toolbox.
2. From the list of variable types on the left side of the Field Output toolbar, select
Primary (if it is not already selected).
3. From the list of available output variables in the center of the toolbar, select
output variable U (spatial displacement at nodes).
4. From the list of available components and invariants on the right side of the Field
Output toolbar, select U3.
5. Compare to the results at the end of the Apply Pressure step.
Note that in this output database file, the results for frame 0 correspond to the
results at the end of the Apply Pressure step (use the Frame Selector
to
switch to a different frame).
The difference between the final state of the model and its initial state is due to
the elastic springback that has occurred. The deformation that remains is
permanent and unrecoverable.

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may
consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named
w_skew_plate_restart_complete.inp

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Notes

405

Notes

406

Workshop 5
CLD Analysis of a Seal using Abaqus/Standard
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Evaluate a hyperelastic material.


Define contact interactions using contact pairs and general contact.
Perform a large displacement analysis with Abaqus/Standard.
Use Abaqus/Viewer to create a compression load-deflection curve.

Introduction
In this workshop, a compression analysis of a rubber seal is performed to determine the
seals performance. The goal is to determine the seals compression load-deflection
(CLD) curve, deformation and stresses. The analysis will be performed using
Abaqus/Standard. Two analyses are performed: one using contact pairs and the other
using general contact.
As shown in Figure W51, the top outer surface of the seal is covered with a polymer
layer, and the seal is compressed between two rigid surfaces (the upper one is displaced
along the negative 2-direction; the lower one is fixed). During compression, the cover
contacts the top rigid surface; the outer surface of the seal is in contact with the cover and
the bottom rigid surface; in addition the inner surface of the seal may come into contact
with itself.

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W5.2

U2

Cover

Rigid
Surfaces
Seal
fixed

Figure W51. Seal model

Seal analysis
1. Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/seal directory.
2. Open the input file w_seal.inp, which already contains the nodes, elements,
and material model data for the analysis. You will first use Abaqus/CAE
functionality to evaluate the stability of the hyperelastic material model and then
edit the input file to include the contact, step and boundary condition definitions.

Material Evaluation
It is important to determine whether the material model of the seal will be stable during
the analysis. Before completing the input file, evaluate the material definition that is used
for the seal.
1. Use your text editor to review the supplied workshop model contained in the file
w_seal.inp.
2. The material named SANTOPRENE is used for the seal. Locate the *MATERIAL,
NAME=SANTOPRENE option. It is a hyperelastic material with a first order
polynomial strain energy potential. The coefficients are already specified for the
analysis.
3. Evaluate the material definition. Abaqus/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate
option that allows you to view the behavior predicted by a hyperelastic material
by performing standard tests to choose a suitable material formulation. You will
use this option to view the behavior predicted by the material SANTOPRENE.
a. Start a session of AQUS/CAE using the following command at the

command prompt:
abaqus cae

In the Start Session dialog box, underneath Create Model Database,


click With Standard/Explicit Model.

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b. In the Model Tree, double-click the Materials container to create a


material definition as specified in the input file. In the Edit Material dialog
box, name the material Santoprene; from the menu bar, select
MechanicalElasticityHyperelastic; in the Hyperelastic field, select
the Polynomial strain energy potential and the Coefficients input source,

accept a strain energy potential order of 1, and enter the values of the
coefficients (defined in the input file) as shown in Figure W52. Click OK
to save the material definition and exit the material editor.

Figure W52. Material editor


c. From the main menu bar in the Property module, select
MaterialEvaluateSantoprene.
d. The Evaluate Material dialog box appears. Notice that you can choose
either the Coefficients or Test data source for evaluating the material.

Typically the test data are used to define a material model; you can use the
Evaluate option to view the predicted behavior and adjust the material
definition as necessary. In this workshop you will only evaluate the
stability of the material model for the given coefficients.

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e. In the Evaluate Material dialog box, accept all defaults and click OK.

Abaqus/CAE creates and submits a job to perform the standard tests using
the material Santoprene; at the same time, Abaqus/CAE switches to the
Visualization module and displays the evaluation results when the job is
complete. Figure W53 shows the Material Parameters and Stability
Limit Information dialog box; Figure W54 shows three stress vs. strain
plots from uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests.
Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?

Based on these results, you can have confidence that your material will remain
stable.

Figure W53. Material parameters and stability limit information

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Figure W54. Material evaluation results for uniaxial, biaxial, and planar tests
After evaluating the material, you can exit Abaqus/CAE and will now complete the
model definition.

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Part 1: Analysis using contact pairs


Contact interactions
1. Open the input file w_seal.inp in a text editor.
2. Define contact pairs as listed in Table W51. The surfaces which will be used in
the contact pair definitions are shown in Figure W55. The required option is:
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=frictionless, TYPE=SURFACE TO SURFACE

sealOuter, bottom
sealOuter, cover
cover, top

Note that the interaction property named frictionless has already been
defined in the input file. Locate the *SURFACE INTERACTION,
NAME=frictionless option to review its definition.
Table W51. Contact pairs
Slave Surface

Master Surface

sealOuter

bottom

sealOuter

cover

cover

top

cover
top
sealInner

bottom
sealOuter

Figure W55. Contact surfaces


3. Define a self-contact definition for the inner surface of the seal:
*CONTACT PAIR, INTERACTION=frictionless, TYPE=SURFACE TO SURFACE

sealInner,
Question W52: In the interaction between the seal and the cover, why do we
choose SealOuter as the slave surface?

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W5.7

Step definition
1. Define a general static step considering geometric nonlinearity. Set the initial time
increment size to 0.5% of the total time period. Invoke the unsymmetric solver
(the unsymmetric solver is generally recommended for the surface-to-surface
contact discretization method). The following option defines the procedure:
*STEP, NLGEOM=YES, UNSYMM=YES
*STATIC
0.005, 1.

2. Use the following solution control parameter to improve the efficiency of the
analysis:
*CONTROLS, ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS

Boundary conditions and history output requests


1. Asymmetric lateral sliding of the model is prevented by constraining the seal and
the cover along their vertical symmetry axes in the X-direction. The bottom rigid
surface is fixed, and a displacement of 6 units is applied to the top rigid surface
along the Y-direction to compress the seal between the two surfaces. The node
sets on which the boundary conditions will be defined are shown in Figure W56.
The following option completes these boundary conditions:
*BOUNDARY
fix1, 1, 1
botRP, ENCASTRE
topRP, 1, 1
topRP, 2, 2, -6.
topRP, 6, 6

topRP

fix1

botRP

Figure W56. Node sets

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2. The preselected default field output does not include the nominal strain NE; to
visualize the nominal strain in Abaqus/Viewer, you will write additional field
output to the output database file. Locate the
*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT option and add
the following sub-option:
*ELEMENT OUTPUT
NE,

3. Add a history output request to write the history of RF2 and U2 for the set topRP
to the output database file. The required option is:
*OUTPUT, HISTORY
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=topRP
RF2, U2

4. Save all the changes and close the input file.

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W5.9

Running the job and visualizing the results:


Run the analysis using the following command:
abaqus job=w_seal

When the job is complete, use the following procedure to visualize the results using
Abaqus/Viewer:
1. Start Abaqus/Viewer and open the file w_seal.odb:
abaqus viewer odb=w_seal.odb

2. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. To distinguish between the
different parts, color code the model based on section assignments.
Tip: From the toolbar, select Sections from the color-coding pull down menu, as
shown in Figure W57 (or use the Color Code Dialog tool
color for each section).

to customize the

Figure W57. Color-coding pull down menu


3. Use the Animate: Time History tool
to animate the deformation history.
4. Display only the seal. In the Results Tree, expand the Instances container
underneath the output database file named seal.odb. Click mouse button 3 on
the instance SEAL-1 and select Replace from the menu that appears.
Abaqus/CAE now displays only the elements associated with the seal.
5. Contour the Mises stress of the seal on the deformed shape. If necessary, use the
frame selector
in the context bar to select the last increment.
The contour plot is shown in Figure W58.

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Figure W58. Mises contour plot


6. Contour the minimum and maximum principal nominal strains. Elastic strains can
be very high for hyperelastic materials. Because of this, the linear elastic material
model is not used because it is not appropriate for elastic strains greater than
approximately 5%.
7. Display the reaction force history at the reference node of the top rigid surface: In
the Results Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output
database file named w_seal.odb and double-click Reaction force: RF2 PI:
TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP to display the reaction force history at the
reference node of the top rigid surface.
8. You will now create the CLD curve.
a. In the History Output container, click mouse button 3 on Reaction force:
RF2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the
menu that appears. Save the data as Force.
b. Click mouse button 3 on Spatial displacement: U2 PI: TOP-1 Node 3 in
NSET TOPRP and select Save As from the menu that appears. Save the
data as Disp.
c. In the Results Tree, double-click XYData. In the Create XY Data dialog
box, select Operate on XY data as the source and click Continue.

The Operate on XY Data dialog box appears.


d. From the Operators listed in the Operate on XY Data dialog box, select
combine(X, X) and then abs(A). Note that the abs(A) operator is used to
obtain the absolute values. In the XY Data field, double-click the curve
Disp. The current expression reads combine(abs("Disp")). Move the
cursor before the far-right bracket, enter a comma, and then select the
operator abs(A). In the XY Data field, double-click the curve Force. The
final expression reads combine(abs("Disp"), abs("Force") ).
Click Plot Expression to plot this expression. Save this plot as CLD.

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9. Customize the plot as follows:


a. From the main menu bar, select OptionsXY OptionsPlot.
In the Plot Options dialog box, fill the plot background in white.
b. Double-click anywhere on the chart to open the Chart Options dialog
box.

In the Grid Display tabbed page, toggle on the major X- and Ygrid lines. Set the line color to blue and the line style to dashed.

Change the fill color using the following RGB values: red: 175;
green: 250; blue: 185.

In the Grid Area tabbed page, select Square as the size and drag
the slider to 80. From the list of auto-alignments, choose the one
that places the chart in the center of the viewport
c. Double-click the legend to open the Chart Legend Options dialog box.

In the Contents tabbed page, click


font size to 10.

In the Area tabbed page, toggle on Inset.

Toggle on Fill to flood the legend with a white background.

to increase the legend text

In the viewport, drag the legend over the chart.


d. Double-click either axis to open the Axis Options dialog box.

In the X Axis region of the dialog box, select the displacement


axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, place 4 major tick marks on the X-axis at
(use the By count method).

In the Title tabbed page, change the X-axis title to Displacement


(inch).

In the Y Axis region of the dialog box, select the force axis.

In the Scale tabbed page, specify that the Y-axis should extend
from 0 (the Y-axis minimum) to 250 (the Y-axis maximum).

Increase the number of Y-axis minor tick marks per increment to 4.

In the Title tabbed page, change the Y-axis title to Force (lbf).

In the Axes tabbed page, change the font size for both axes to 10.

e. Expand the list of plot option icons in the toolbox:

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f. Examine the remaining options. Add the following plot title: CLD
Diagram. Double-click the plot title to open the Plot Title Options dialog
box.

In the Title tabbed page, click


bold.

In the Area tabbed page, toggle on Inset.

In the viewport, drag the plot title above the chart.

to change the legend text style to

g. Click
in the toolbox to open the Curve Options dialog box. Change
the legend text to Top Surface Ref Point and toggle on Show
symbol. Set the color for both the line and symbols to red. Use large filled
circles for the symbols. Reposition the legend as necessary.
The final plot appears as shown in Figure W59.

Figure W59. Compression load deflection diagram


Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection

represent?

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W5.13

Part 2: Analysis using general contact


1. Copy the input file named w_seal.inp to one named w_seal_gc.inp.
Edit this input file as described below.
2. Locate the contact pairs defined earlier and delete them.
3. Create a general contact interaction using the default all-inclusive element-based
surface and apply the frictionless contact property globally. The following options
define the interaction:
*CONTACT
*CONTACT INCLUSIONS, ALL EXTERIOR
*CONTACT PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT
, , FRICTIONLESS

4. Save all the changes and close the input file.


5. Run the analysis using the following command:
abaqus job=w_seal_gc

6. When the job is complete, use the following procedure to visualize the results
using Abaqus/Viewer.
7. Compare the results with those obtained using contact pairs. A comparison of the
stress state in the seal is shown in Figure W510 while a comparison of the forcedisplacement curve is shown in Figure W511.
The agreement between the two approaches is excellent. The general contact
approach, however, provides a much simpler user interface since the entire
contact domain is defined automatically and properties are assigned globally.

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Figure W510. Comparison of the stress state in the seal


(general contact, top; contact pairs, bottom)

Figure W511. Comparison of force-displacement curves

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Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may
consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named
w_seal_cp_complete.inp
w_seal_gc_complete.inp

and are available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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Answers
Question W51: What do the plots indicate about the stability of the material?
Answer:

The plots never have a negative slope, indicating that the


material is stable throughout the entire strain range.

Question W52: In the interaction between the seal and the cover, why do we
choose SealOuter as the slave surface?
Answer:

SealOuter has a more refined mesh and should therefore be

specified as the slave surface.

Question W53: What does the inverted peak near 4 inches of deflection
Answer:

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represent?
This peak represents the inward bucking that occurs at the
bottom corners of the seal during compression. If you look at
the deformed shape at the time corresponding to
approximately 3.7 inches of displacement, you will observe
this phenomenon.

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Notes

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Workshop 6
Dynamics
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Become familiar with the Abaqus/CAE procedures for frequency extraction and
implicit dynamic analyses.
Become more familiar with the status (.sta) and message (.msg) files.
Learn how to plot eigenmodes and create history plots using Abaqus/Viewer.

Introduction
In this workshop the dynamic response of the cantilever beam shown in Figure W61 is
investigated. A frequency extraction is performed to determine the 10 lowest vibration
modes of the beam. The effects of mesh refinement, element interpolation order, and
element dimension will be considered.
The problem is also solved by performing a direct integration dynamic analysis to
simulate the vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load. The frequency of the
vibration predicted by the transient analysis will be compared with the natural frequency
results.

Figure W61. Problem description

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W6.2

Part 1: Frequency extraction analysis


Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/dynamics directory, and copy
w_beam.inp to a new file named w_beam_freq.inp.
Currently 5 B21 elements are used to discretize the beam. You will edit this model
further as described below.
Input specification
1. Make the following changes to w_beam_freq.inp. Refer to the online
documentation as necessary.
a. Include a density of 2.3E6 in the material definition. Add the following
option block below the MATERIAL option:
*DENSITY
2.3E-6,

b. Comment out the STATIC step currently in the model, including the
loading:
***STEP
**SMALL DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS
***STATIC
***CLOAD
**TIP, 2, -1200.
***END STEP

c. Add a new step using the FREQUENCY procedure, and select the
Lanczos eigensolver. Request 10 modes. The finished option block should
look like the following:
*STEP
FREQUENCY EXTRACTION
*FREQUENCY, EIGENSOLVER=LANCZOS
10,
*END STEP

d. Retain the built-in boundary condition at the left end of the beam.
2. Submit the frequency extraction analysis as an Abaqus job.
3. After the analysis has completed, check the printed output file and make any
necessary corrections to the input.

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Examining the eigenmodes and eigenvalues


1. Open the printed output file in the text editor of your choice.
2. Search for the second occurrence of E I G E N to find the beginning of the
analysis results. The first table gives the eigenvalue output. Find the frequency
(cycles/time) for the lowest mode.
3. Visualize results:
a. Start Abaqus/Viewer, and open the output database associated with this
analysis.
b. Plot the first eigenmode (plot the deformed model shape and use the
or the Step/Frame dialog box to choose the frame
corresponding to Mode 1).
c. Using the arrow keys in the context bar, select different mode shapes.
d. The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W62. These
correspond to the first and fourth transverse modes of the structure.
Frame Selector

Figure W62. First and fourth transverse modes


(coarse mesh; 2D linear beam elements)
Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

captured by your model because of limitations in element type


or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the
mesh is somewhat coarse.)
Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?

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W6.4

Effect of mesh on extracted modes


From Figure W62 it is apparent that such a coarse mesh of linear-interpolation elements
is unable to adequately represent the mode shapes associated with the higher modes. In
fact the current mesh is unable to represent anything beyond the fifth mode.
To obtain accurate results for all extracted modes, a sufficiently refined mesh is required.
Thus, you will increase the mesh refinement. Also, you will switch to quadratic
interpolation elements since these provide superior accuracy for frequency extraction
analysis.
1. Open the file w_beam_freq.inp.
Note the presence of the *PARAMETER option block near the top of the file. The
parameters defined in this block are used to control the mesh density. In
particular, the parameter nel defines the number of elements along the length of
the beam.
2. In the *PARAMETER option block, set nel to 40. The relevant portion of this
option block is shown below.
*PARAMETER
nel = 40

The model explicitly defines the first beam element and then uses the *ELGEN
option to define the rest.
3. Locate the *ELEMENT option block. Change the element type to B22 and
modify the connectivity list of the first element so that nodes 1, 2, 3 are used to
define the element:
*ELEMENT, TYPE=B22, ELSET=BEAMS
1, 1, 2, 3

4. Run the job, and compare the results with those obtained previously.
The results for modes 1 and 4 are shown in Figure W63.

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Figure W63. First and fourth transverse modes


(fine mesh; 2D quadratic beam elements)

The results indicate that the refined mesh is able to represent all extracted modes.
The natural frequency of the first mode predicted by the fine-mesh model is
within 2% of that predicted by the coarse mesh model. The difference in results
for the fourth mode is more significant: there is an 8% difference in the predicted
natural frequency for this mode.
Note that all modes with the exception of modes 6 and 10 are transverse modes.
Modes 6 and 10 are longitudinal modes. To see the longitudinal modes more
clearly, superimpose the undeformed model shape on the deformed model shape.

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W6.6

Torsional and out-of-plane modes


The current model, given that it uses two-dimensional beam elements, is unable to
capture any torsional or out-of-plane modes. For this a three-dimensional model is
required (using either beam, solid, or shell elements). With three-dimensional beam
elements, however, it is not possible to visualize the modes. Thus, in what follows, shell
elements are used to capture the out-of-plane modes.
A predefined model is available in w_beam_freq_s8r_complete.inp. This model
uses three-dimensional quadratic shell elements to represent the beam structure. The shell
part is 200 units long by 50 units wide. The part mesh consists of 40 S8R elements along
the length of the structure and 10 along its width. Homogeneous shell section properties
with the same material properties used earlier and a thickness of 5 units are assigned to
the part.
1. Run the job, and compare the results with those obtained previously.
2. The results for the first and fourth transverse modes are shown in Figure W64.
The agreement in terms of both mode shape and natural frequency between the
(refined) beam and shell models is excellent (compare with Figure W63).

Figure W64. First and fourth transverse modes (3D shell model)

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3. The three-dimensional model captures the torsional and out-of-plane modes that
are suppressed by the two-dimensional model. The first three of these modes are
shown in Figure W65.

Figure W65. Torsional and out-of-plane modes (3D shell model)

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W6.8

Part 2: Transient dynamic analysis


We now investigate the free vibration of the beam upon removal of the tip load.
Input specification
1. Copy w_beam_freq.inp to a new file named w_beam_dynam.inp.
Use the following steps to modify the file so that the tip of the model is loaded
and then released and allowed to vibrate freely:
a. Uncomment the static step.
b. Delete the frequency extraction step.
c. Add another step to the analysis history using the DYNAMIC procedure.
Set the maximum number of time increments to 200 and specify an initial
time increment of 0.01 and a time period of 1.0.
d. Remove the tip load in the dynamic step by specifying CLOAD,
OP=NEW. This option removes all existing concentrated loads.
e. Request predefined field output and that the tip displacement be written
every increment to the output database (.odb) file as history data. Use the
predefined node set named TIP for this purpose. This set contains the
node at the loaded end of the beam. Add the following output requests to
the input file:
*OUTPUT, FIELD, VARIABLE=PRESELECT
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1
*NODE OUTPUT, NSET=TIP
U,

f. It is useful to be able to monitor the progress of an analysis by noting the


value of one degree of freedom. To do so, add the following option to the
first analysis step:
*MONITOR, NODE=TIP, DOF=2

2. Save the input file and run the Abaqus job.


While the job is running, you can check on the progress of the analysis by looking
at the status file.

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Visualizing results
1. Open the file w_beam_dynam.odb in the Visualization module.
2. Plot the history of the displacement component U2 at the tip node. In the Results
Tree, expand the History Output container underneath the output database named
dynamic.odb and double-click Spatial displacement: U2 at Node in NSET
TIP.
The tip response is shown in Figure W67. From this plot, you can estimate the
frequency of the first vibration mode. Note that there are nearly 6 cycles in a 1
second time period. This is in agreement with the results obtained earlier using the
natural frequency extraction procedure (5.95 Hz).

Figure W67. Tip node displacement history


Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the

eigenvalue analysis?

Note: Complete input files are available for your convenience. You may
consult these files if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input files are named
w_beam_freq_b21_complete.inp
w_beam_freq_b22_complete.inp
w_beam_dynam_b22_complete.inp

and are available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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W6.10

Answers

Question W61: Are there modes of the physical system that cannot be

Answer:

captured by your model because of limitations in element type


or mesh? (Remember that the elements are planar and the
mesh is somewhat coarse).
Because the model is two-dimensional, it cannot capture the
modes that occur out of the plane of the model, including
torsional modes.
The mesh is too coarse to capture modes other than the first
five. Use more elements to look at all 10 requested modes.

Question W62: Do any of the mode shapes for your model look nonphysical?
Answer:

No.

Question W63: How does this compare with the frequency calculated in the
Answer:

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eigenvalue analysis?
The frequency calculated from the history plot of the tip
displacement is approximately 5.9, which agrees very closely
with the frequency calculated in the eigenvalue analysis.

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Notes

436

Workshop 7
Contact with Abaqus/Explicit
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Define a rigid body constraint.


Define a general contact interaction.
Apply boundary and initial conditions.
Perform an impact analysis.
Use Abaqus/Viewer to view results.

Introduction
This workshop involves the simulation of a pipe-on-pipe impact resulting from the
rupture of a high-pressure line in a power plant. It is assumed that a sudden release of
fluid could cause one segment of the pipe to rotate about its support and strike a
neighboring pipe. The goal of the analysis is to determine strain and stress conditions in
both pipes and their deformed shapes. The simulation will be performed using
Abaqus/Explicit.
This workshop is based on Pipe whip simulation, Section 1.3.9 of the Abaqus
Benchmarks Manual.

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W7.2

Impacting pipe
Fixed pipe

Figure W71. Pipe whip model: finite element mesh


Both pipes have a mean diameter of 6.5 inches with a 0.432 inch wall thickness and a
span of 50 inches between supports. The fixed pipe is assumed to be fully restrained at
both ends, while the impacting pipe is allowed to rotate about a fixed pivot located at one
of its ends, with the other end free. We exploit the symmetry of the structure and the
loading and, thus, model only the geometry on one side of the central symmetry plane, as
shown in Figure W71.
Pivot point

edge

refPt

fixed

zsymm

Figure W72. Node sets


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W7.3

Impact analysis
The model geometry, material properties, and loading history for the impact analysis are
already defined and can be found in
../abaqus_solvers/keywords/pipe_whip/w_pipe_whip.inp. You will have to
edit the input file to include the material properties, rigid body constraint, contact
interaction, initial conditions, boundary conditions, step definition, and output requests.
Predefined sets are included to ease your work. These are shown in Figure W72.
Material and section properties
1. Both pipes are made of steel. A von Mises elastic, perfectly plastic material model
is used. Create a material named Steel with the following properties:
Modulus of elasticity:

30E6 psi

Poisson's ratio:

0.3

Yield Stress:

45.0E3 psi

Density:

7.324E-4 lb-sec /in

Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can

you comment on the units of density used in this problem?


2. Assign shell section properties to each pipe. Each pipe is 0.432 inches thick. Use
Gauss integration with 3 points through the thickness for each section property.
The elements of the impacting pipe are contained in element set pipeimpacting, while the elements of the fixed pipe are in element set pipefixed.
Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the

thickness?
Rigid body constraint
Define a rigid body constraint between the nodes at the pivot end of the impacting pipe
(node set edge) and the rigid body reference point (node set refPt). Both the
translations and rotations of the pipe nodes are controlled by the rigid body constraint.
Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe
edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid
body constraint?
Contact interaction
Define general contact between the two pipes. Assume frictional contact with a
coefficient of friction equal to 0.2.
Question W74: Are the contact constraints part of the model or history data?

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W7.4

Initial conditions
The impacting pipe has an initial angular velocity of 75 radians/sec about its supported
(pinned) end. Assign a rotating velocity initial condition to all the nodes in the impacting
pipe (node set pipe-impacting).
The rotation is about the positive Z-direction passing though the rigid body reference
point. The coordinates of the reference point are 25.0, 6.932, 25.0.
Question W75:

How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to


define the axis of rotation?

Boundary conditions
The edges located on the symmetry plane (node set zsymm) must be given appropriate
symmetry boundary conditions. One end of the fixed pipe is fully restrained (node set
fixed). The rigid body reference point (node set refPt) is free to rotate about its
position.
Question W76: Are the boundary conditions part of the model or history data

in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis?
Step definition and output requests
Because of the high-speed nature of the event, the simulation is performed using a single
explicit dynamics step.
1. Create an explicit dynamics step with a time period of 0.015 seconds.
2. Write preselected field output to the output database at 12 equally spaced
intervals.
3. Request reaction force history output at the constrained end of the impacting pipe.
Write the data to the output database at 100 evenly spaced time intervals during
the analysis.
4. Request preselected history output at the default number of intervals.
Save the input file, and run the impact analysis by entering the following command at the
prompt:
abaqus job=w_pipe_whip

Visualization
1. Once the analysis completes successfully, open the output database file in
Abaqus/Viewer.
2. Plot the undeformed and the deformed model shapes. From the main menu bar,
select ToolsColor Code (or click

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in the toolbar) and assign different

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W7.5

colors to the two pipes (you can distinguish between them using section
assignments), as shown in Figure W73.

Figure W73. Deformed model shape


3. Use the Animate: Time History tool
to animate the deformation history.
4. Contour the Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) on the deformed
shape, as shown in Figure W74.
MISES

PEEQ

Figure W74. Contour plots


5. Create XY plots of the models kinetic energy (ALLKE), internal energy
(ALLIE), and dissipated energy (ALLPD). The energy plot is shown in Figure
W75. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.
Tip: Expand the History Output container in the Results Tree and select the three
curves noted above. Click mouse button 3 and select Plot from the menu that
appears.

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W7.6

Figure W75. Energy histories


Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?

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6. Select and plot the pinned node reaction force components RF1, RF2, and RF3.
The curves appear in Figure W76. Note this figure has been customized for
clarity.

Figure W76. Reaction force histories

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may
consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named
w_pipe_whip_complete.inp

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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W7.8

Answers
Question W71: Why is density required in the material model definition? Can
Answer:

you comment on the units of density used in this problem?


All Abaqus/Explicit analyses require a density value because
Abaqus/Explicit solves for dynamic equilibrium (i.e., inertia
effects are considered). The units for all material parameters
must be consistent; in this problem the English system is used
with pounds and inches as the units for force and length,
respectively. Thus, the consistent unit for density is lb-sec2/in4.
The options required to complete the material model definition
are:
*material, name=steel
*density
7.324e-4,
*elastic
3e+07, 0.3
*plastic
45000.,0.

Question W72: Why are only three integration points used through the
Answer:

thickness?
Three section points are used to reduce the run time of the job.
The options required to complete the section definitions are:
*shell section,
material=steel,
0.432, 3
*shell section,
material=steel,
0.432, 3

elset=pipe-impacting,
section integration=gauss
elset=pipe-fixed,
section integration =gauss

Question W73: In order to drive both the translations and rotations of the pipe

Answer:

edge nodes, what type of node set needs to be used in the rigid
body constraint?
A tie node set needs to be used.
The option required to define the rigid body constraint is:
*rigid body, ref node=refPt, tie nset=edge

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W7.9

Question W74: Should you add the contact definition to the model data or the
Answer:

history data?
General contact definitions can be part of either the model
data or the history data. The surface interaction properties are
model data when used with general contact.
The (model data) options required to complete the contact
definition are:
*contact
*contact inclusions, all exterior
*contact property assignment
, , fric
*surface interaction, name=fric
*friction
0.2,

Question W75: How can you use the coordinates of the reference point to
Answer:

define the axis of rotation?


The axis passes through the reference point and is parallel to
the Z-direction. Thus, define the axis using two points. Each of
the axis points must have the same X- and Y-coordinates as
the reference point; the values of the Z-coordinates of the
axis points will dictate the sense of positive rotation.
For example:
*initial conditions, type=rotating velocity
pipe-impacting, 75., 0., 0., 0.,
25., 6.932, 0., 25., 6.932, 1.,

The second data line defines the axis of rotation.

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W7.10

Question W76: Are the boundary conditions part of the model data or the
Answer:

history data in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis?


As with Abaqus/Standard, fixed boundary conditions can be
defined as either model or history data. Named boundary
conditions improve the readability of your input file and
provide a shortcut to defining commonly encountered support
conditions.
The options required to define the boundary conditions, step,
and output are:
*dynamic, explicit
, 0.015
**
*boundary
zsymm, zsymm
fixed, encastre
refPt, pinned
*output, field, variable=preselect,
number intervals=12
*output, history, time interval=0.00015
*node output, nset=refpt
rf1, rf2, rf3
*output, history, variable=preselect

Question W77: What do the energy history plots indicate?


Answer:

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Near the end of the simulation, the impacting pipe is


beginning to rebound, having dissipated the majority of its
kinetic energy by inelastic deformation in the crushed zone.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

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Notes

448

Workshop 8
Quasi-Static Analysis
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Approximate a quasi-static solution using Abaqus/Explicit.


Understand the effects of mass scaling.

Introduction
In this workshop you will examine the deep drawing of a can bottom. A one-stage
forming process is simulated in Abaqus/Explicit; the springback analysis is performed in
Abaqus/Standard. The final deformed shape of the can bottom is shown in
Figure W81. In a subsequent workshop the import capability is used to transfer the
results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard in order to perform a springback
analysis.
One of the advantages of using Abaqus/Explicit for metal forming simulations is that, in
general, Abaqus/Explicit resolves complicated contact conditions more readily than
Abaqus/Standard.

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W8.2

Figure W81. Final deformed shape


Change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/forming directory.

Establishing the Abaqus/Explicit analysis time


In this section you will determine the first eigenmode of the blank and use it to establish
the step time for the subsequent Abaqus/Explicit analysis.
1. Open the file w_draw_freq.inp, and examine its contents to help you answer
the following questions:
Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this input file?
Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

analysis steps and general analysis steps. What type of


procedure is the analysis procedure in this input file?
Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same input file,
what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step
have on the base state of the model for the following analysis
step?
2. Run the job by entering the following command:
abaqus job=w_draw_freq

Plot the first eigenmode in Abaqus/Viewer. The fundamental frequency, f, of the blank is
304 Hz, corresponding to a time period of 0.0033 s ( T 1/ f ). This time period provides
a lower bound on the step time for the first forming stage. Choosing the step time to be
10 times the time period of the fundamental natural frequency, or 0.033 s, should ensure a
quality quasi-static solution. This time period corresponds to a constant punch velocity of
0.45 m/s, which is typical for metal forming.

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W8.3

Geometry definition
In this section you will complete the geometry definition of the can forming model by
defining the punch as an analytical rigid surface.
Figure W82 shows the components of the modelthe punch, the die, and the blankin
their initial positions. The blank is modeled using axisymmetric shell elements (SAX1).
The shell reference surface lies at the shell midsurface.

(0.032, 0.03025)

(0.0, 0.00025)

Origin
(0.0, 0.0)

Figure W82. Model geometry


1. Open the file w_draw_bot.inp in an editor, and define punch 1 as an analytical
rigid surface (see Figure W82 for the relevant dimensions).
Use the definition of die 1 in the input file as an example of the input for an
analytical rigid surface. The end point for punch 1 lies on the symmetry axis, a
distance of half the blank thickness above the shell midsurface. Give the rigid
surface the name PUNCH1, and use node 1001 as the rigid body reference node.
The RIGID BODY option has been defined already.

Question W84: How does the order of the line segments affect the ability of

Abaqus to resolve the contact condition?

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W8.4

2. Define the surfaces, the contact pairs, and the surface interaction for the complete
model using the SURFACE, CONTACT PAIR, and SURFACE
INTERACTION options. The blank is defined such that the element normal
direction points toward the punch. The friction coefficient between the rigid tools
and the blank is 0.1.
Question W85: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?
Question W86: In Abaqus the input data are classified as either model or

history data. What type of data is the contact pair definition in


Abaqus/Explicit? What type of data is the contact pair
definition in Abaqus/Standard?

Material definition
In this section you will add the entire material definition to the input file.
The material is steel with Youngs modulus E =210E9 Pa, Poissons ratio v =0.3, and
density =7800 kg/m3. Figure W83 shows the nominal plasticity material data for the
blank as tabulated in Table W81.

Figure W83. Nominal stress vs. nominal strain

Question W87: When entering plasticity data with the PLASTIC option,

what are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?

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Table W81
Nominal stress (Pa)
90.96 106
130.71 106
169.75 106
207.08 106
240.99 106
268.89 106
287.59 106
290.57 106

Nominal strain
4.334 104
2.216 103
7.331 103
1.888 10-2
4.153 102
8.218 102
1.509 101
3.456 101

Table W82
True stress (Pa)
91 106
131 106
171 106
211 106
251 106
291 106
331 106
391 106

Log plastic strain


0.0
0.159 102
0.649 102
0.177 101
0.395 101
0.776 101
0.139
0.295

Table W82 lists the corresponding true stress and logarithmic strain values. These
values were obtained using the following relationships:

nom (1 nom )

1n(1 nom )

pl tot el tot / E
These equations are valid for isotropic materials and establish the relationships between
the true stress and strain measures (used in Abaqus) and the nominal stress and strain
measures.
1. Complete the material definition, and name the material STEEL. Use the
ELASTIC option to enter Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio and the
PLASTIC option to enter the material data in Table W82.
Tip: Both of these options must be grouped under the *MATERIAL option.
2. To reduce high-frequency noise in the solution (caused primarily by the
oscillations of the blanks free end), add stiffness proportional damping to the
material definition of the blank. It is best to use the smallest amount of damping
possible to obtain the desired solution since increasing the stiffness damping
decreases the stable time increment and, thus, increases the computer time. To
avoid a dramatic drop in the stable time increment, the stiffness proportional

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W8.6

damping factor R should be less than, or of the same order of magnitude as, the
initial stable time increment without damping. We choose a damping factor of
R = 1107, which is included by using the DAMPING, BETA=1.E7 material
option.
Question W88: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?

Amplitude definition
To form the can bottom, we will displace the punch by moving its rigid body reference
node 0.015 m in the negative 2-direction. The punch displacement will be applied in the
form of a displacement boundary condition. Because Abaqus/Explicit does not permit
displacement discontinuities, prescribed displacements must refer to an amplitude
definition. In this section you will add the amplitude definition to the input file. Figure
W84 shows the desired displacement behavior for the punch.
Question W89: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and

why is this important?


1. Define the amplitude curve corresponding to Figure W84. The curve shown in
Figure W84 is smooth in its first and second derivatives and is defined by using
the DEFINITION=SMOOTH STEP parameter with the AMPLITUDE option.
Define the punch displacement amplitude, and name the amplitude FORM1.
Question W810: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition

was used instead?


2. Note that in the input file there is a boundary condition that refers to the
amplitude definition (FORM1) just completed.

Speeding up the analysis


In general, quasi-static processes cannot be modeled in their natural time scale in
Abaqus/Explicit since a large number of time increments would be required. (Recall that
time increments in Abaqus/Explicit are generally very small). Thus, it is sometimes
necessary to increase the speed of the simulation artificially to reduce the computational
cost. One method to reduce the cost of the analysis is to use mass scaling.

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W8.7

Figure W84. Displacement curve of punch


While various forms of mass scaling are available in Abaqus/Explicit, we will
concentrate on fixed mass scaling in this workshop and will implement it using the
FIXED MASS SCALING option. The reason for choosing fixed mass scaling is that it
provides a simple means to modify the mass properties of a quasi-static model at the
beginning of the analysis. It is also computationally less expensive than variable mass
scaling, because the mass is scaled only once at the beginning of the step.
1. Specify a mass scaling factor of 10 by setting the FACTOR parameter on the
FIXED MASS SCALING option, and complete the mass scaling definition in
the input file.
Question W811: How do you determine if an analysis that includes mass

scaling produces acceptable results?


Question W812: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?

Analysis and results evaluation


1. Run the analysis with the input file w_draw_bot.inp.
2. Monitor the progress of the solution in the status file.
3. Open the output database w_draw_bot.odb in Abaqus/Viewer.
4. Display the curves for internal and kinetic energy (variables ALLIE and ALLKE,
respectively) in the same plot by selecting them from the Results Tree
(underneath the History Output container). To display the curve symbols, use the

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W8.8

XY Curve Options tool

in the toolbox. You should see a plot similar to


Figure W85. Note this figure has been customized for clarity.

Figure W85. Internal and kinetic energy


5. Certain elements have hourglass modes that affect their behavior. Hourglass
modes are modes of deformation that do not cause any strains at the integration
points. An indication of whether hourglassing has an effect on the solution is the
artificial energy, variable ALLAE. Plot the artificial energy and the internal
energy, variable ALLIE, on the same plot. The artificial energy should always be
much less than the internal energy (say less than 0.5%).
Question W813: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this

element type have an hourglass deformation mode?


6. Display only the deformed shape of the blank:
a. Expand the Materials container in the Results Tree and click mouse
button 3 on STEEL.
b. From the menu that appears, select Replace.
7. Expand the displayed area to 180o:
a. Select ViewODB Display Options from the main menu.
b. In the Sweep/Extrude tabbed page of the ODB Display Options dialog
box, toggle on Sweep elements.
You should see a shape similar to that in Figure W86.

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W8.9

Figure W86. 180 expanded deformed shape


c. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model using the Plot
Contours tool
in the toolbox; to select other variables for contouring,
use the Field Output toolbar.

d. Plot the punch displacement shown in Figure W84 by double-clicking the


U2 curve for node 1001 in the Results Tree (underneath the History
Output container).

Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may
consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named
w_draw_bot_complete.inp

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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W8.10

Answers
Question W81: What analysis procedure is used in this input file?
Answer:

The analysis procedure is a natural frequency extraction


(FREQUENCY). The procedure option must immediately
follow the STEP option.

Question W82: In Abaqus a distinction is made between linear perturbation

analysis steps and general analysis steps. What type of


procedure is the analysis procedure in this input file?
Answer:

The FREQUENCY option is a linear perturbation procedure.

Question W83: In an analysis with more than one step in the same input file,

Answer:

what influence does the result of a linear perturbation step


have on the base state of the model for the following analysis
step?
None. Only general analysis steps change the base state of the
model.

Question W84: How does the order of the line segments affect the ability of
Answer:

Abaqus to resolve the contact condition?


The order of the line segments determines the direction of the
outward normal vector of the rigid surface. If the outward
normal points in the wrong direction, Abaqus cannot establish
the contact between the surfaces and, therefore, cannot find a
solution.

Question W85: What effect will an increase in friction have on the solution?
Answer:

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An increased friction coefficient will increase the critical shear


stress crit at which sliding of the blank begins. Thus, the
material will be stretched more, causing further thinning of the
material and increasing the stresses.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

W8.11

Question W86: In Abaqus the input data are classified as either model or

Answer:

history data. What type of data is the contact pair definition in


Abaqus/Explicit? What type of data is the contact pair
definition in Abaqus/Standard?
The contact pair definition is history data in Abaqus/Explicit
and model data in Abaqus/Standard.

Question W87: When entering plasticity data with the PLASTIC option,
Answer:

what are the stress and strain measures that Abaqus uses?
Abaqus uses true (Cauchy) stress and log strain.

Question W88: What effects would a higher damping coefficient have?


Answer:

A higher damping coefficient would reduce the stable time


increment. In general, damping should be chosen such that
high frequency oscillations are smoothed or eliminated with
minimal effect on the stable time increment. Figure WA81
shows a plot of the kinetic energy with and without damping.
Note the high frequency oscillations in the analysis without
damping.

Figure WA81. Kinetic energy with and without damping

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W8.12

Question W89: What is the slope of the curve at the beginning and end, and
Answer:

why is this important?


The slope of the amplitude curve at the beginning and end of
the step is zero. This is important because it prevents
discontinuities in the punch displacement that lead to
oscillations in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis.

Question W810: How would the results change if a linear amplitude definition
Answer:

were used instead?


With a linear amplitude definition the displacement of the
punch will be applied suddenly at the beginning of the step
and stopped suddenly at the end of the step, causing
oscillations in the solution.
A linear amplitude definition results in large spikes in the
kinetic energy, especially at the beginning of the step. As a
result, the kinetic energy may be large compared to the
internal energy and the early solution may not be quasi-static.
The preferred approach is to move the punch as smoothly as
possible. Figure WA82 compares the kinetic energy history
when a linear amplitude definition is used and when the
smooth step amplitude definition is used.

Figure WA82. Kinetic energy plot with and without SMOOTH STEP

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W8.13

Question W811: How do you determine if an analysis that includes mass


Answer:

scaling produces acceptable results?


The kinetic energy should be a small fraction of the internal
energy.
As the kinetic energy increases, inertia effects have to be
considered and the solution is no longer quasi-static.
Figure WA81 shows the internal and kinetic energy for mass
scaling factors of 10 (used in our simulation), 100, and 900,
which correspond to a solution speedup of 10 , 10, and 30,
respectively.

Figure WA83. Energies with different mass scaling

Question W812: How does mass scaling affect the solution time?
Answer:

The stable time increment is calculated according to


Le
tstable min
c
d

where Le is a characteristic element length and cd is the


dilatational wave speed. An increase in density decreases cd,
which in turn increases tstable.

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W8.14

Question W813: What elements are used to model the blank, and does this
Answer:

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element type have an hourglass deformation mode?


The analysis uses SAX1 elements. These elements have no
hourglass modes. Consequently, hourglassing is not of
concern in the analysis.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Notes

463

Notes

464

Workshop 9
Import Analysis
Keywords Version
Note: This workshop provides instructions in terms of the Abaqus
Keywords interface. If you wish to use the Abaqus GUI interface instead,
please see the Interactive version of these instructions.
Please complete either the Keywords or Interactive version of this
workshop.

Goals

Transfer results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard.

Introduction
In this workshop you will use the import capability is used to transfer the results between
Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard to examine the effects of springback in the
analysis of the deep drawing of a can bottom. The deformed shape of the can after the
forming stage is shown in Figure W91.

Figure W91. Final deformed shape


Before proceeding, change to the ../abaqus_solvers/keywords/forming
directory.

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W9.2

Springback analysis
In the manufacturing process the part is removed after the forming has been completed
and the material is free to springback into an unconstrained state. To understand the final
shape after this physical effect, we perform a springback analysis in Abaqus/Standard.
1. Open the file w_draw_bot_spring.inp in an editor, and import the blank from
the end of the w_draw_bot analysis. Use the STATE=YES parameter on the
IMPORT option to import the material state of the elements.
Question W91: To what value should the UPDATE parameter on the

IMPORT option be set if the total Mises stresses are to be


plotted at the end of the springback analysis?
Question W92: Where do you find the information to define the STEP and
INTERVAL parameters on the IMPORT option?
2. The boundary conditions are not imported and must be respecified. In addition, it
is necessary to fix a single point, such as node set BSYM, in the 2-direction to
prevent rigid body motion. It is important to use the FIXED parameter on the
*BOUNDARY option so that BSYM is fixed at its final position at the end of the
forming stage.
Question W93: Why is it advantageous to choose Abaqus/Standard for the

springback analysis?

Analysis and postprocessing


1. Run the analysis by entering the following command:
abaqus job=w_draw_bot_spring oldjob=w_draw_bot

2. Open the output database w_draw_bot_spring.odb in Abaqus/Viewer.


3. Contour the Mises stress distribution of the 180o model.
4. Plot the final deformed model shape, as shown in Figure W91.
5. Plot the springback and formed shapes together. (First toggle off the Sweep
elements option.)
If you used UPDATE=NO, the formed shape is stored in frame 0 of the output
database. You must use overlay plots to superimpose the images in this case:
a. Select ViewOverlay Plot from the main menu bar.
b. Use the Frame Selector
or the arrows in the context bar to select
frame 0.
c. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer
formed.

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W9.3

d. Use the Frame Selector


frame 1.

or the arrows in the context bar to select

e. Use the Common Plot Options tool


to change the fill color of the
elements to blue.
f. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Create. Name the layer
springback.
g. In the Overlay Plot Layer Manager, click Plot Overlay.
h. Zoom in to examine the shape differences more closely.
If you used UPDATE=YES, the formed shape is treated as the undeformed shape
of the import analysis model (recall that when UPDATE=YES, the end state of
the previous analysis becomes the reference configuration of the import analysis;
the reference configuration is considered the undeformed shape):
a. In the toolbox, click the Allow Multiple Plot States tool
.
b. In the toolbox, click both the Plot Undeformed Shape and Plot
Deformed Shape tools

c. Use the Common Plot Options tool


to increase the deformation
scale factor so that the differences between the formed and springback
shapes are clearly visible.
Note: A complete input file is available for your convenience. You may
consult this file if you encounter difficulties following the instructions
outlined here or if you wish to check your work. The input file is named
w_draw_bot_spring_complete.inp

and is available using the Abaqus fetch utility.

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W9.4

Answers
Question W91: To what value should the UPDATE parameter on the

Answer:

IMPORT option be set if the total Mises stresses are to be


plotted at the end of the springback analysis?
The UPDATE parameter should be set to NO. When the
UPDATE parameter is set to YES, the deformed configuration
of the previous analysis is used as the reference configuration
for the import analysis. All stresses, strains, displacements,
etc. are reported relative to the updated reference
configuration and not as total values.

Question W92: Where do you find the information to define the STEP and

INTERVAL parameters on the IMPORT option?

Answer:

The status (.sta) file gives an overview of the progression on


the analysis. Information about the number of steps and the
number of increments completed in each step can be obtained
from this file.
In this analysis we wish to model the springback of the can
after the forming of the can bottom is complete: this is
STEP=1, INTERVAL=1.

Question W93: Why is it advantageous to choose Abaqus/Standard for the


Answer:

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springback analysis?
A true static procedure is the preferred approach for modeling
springback. The imported model will not be in static
equilibrium at the beginning of the step. Thus,
Abaqus/Standard applies a set of artificial internal stresses to
the imported model state and then gradually removes these
stresses. This leads to the springback deformation. In
Abaqus/Explicit the removal of the contact between the blank
and the tools represents a sudden load removal, which leads to
low frequency vibrations of the blank. While these vibrations
will eventually dissipate, this approach leads to lengthy
computation times.

Introduction to Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Notes

469

Notes

470