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..

2
16-

16-
.
,
.
8086
Intel. , ,
,
.
,
.
8086 1978
.

. ,
8086, .
80- , 8086
. 8086
,
. Intel

, . 1982 Intel
, 80186. 80186 8086
. Intel
80286.
Intel,
Intel386, Intel486 Pentium .
1987 Intel 80186: 80C186/C188. 80C186
80186 .

.
1990 80C186EB.
8086 ,
28

2. 16-


.
1991 . 80C186
: 80C186XL, 80C186EA 80C186EC.
.
2.1. 8086
8086 16-
.


.

,
1
, 65536 65536 .
, , 24
.
256
: , .
8086
- ,
.

( ) ,
,
( ,
).
8086
,
.
.2.1.
8086

(), ()
.
,
,
29

..

/,
/.
: 8- ;
16- ; 16-
() ; 16- ; 16 .

AH AL
BH BL
CH CL
DH DL
SP
BP
SI
DI

(20 )

CS
DS
SS
ES
IP


(16 )

(20 )


(8 )

.2.1.

. ,
, 8
, ,
.
30

2. 16-


.
: 16- , 16-
, 16- .
,
,
.
8086

.


.

MN/MX.
256
0 255, ,
.

.

.
()
, ,
.

.

(INT NMI) .
,
,

.

31

..

2.2. ,

.
: /, . .
MN/MX.
MN/MX 1, MN/MX 0.
.2.2.
,
.
,
, .

. 2.2. 8086
.
/. . 2.2
AD A. 8086
32

2. 16-

,
/.
.
-
. (A19 A16)
. .
/ (AD0AD15)
.
BHE ( ) ,

(D8D15). BHE
. BHE
-.
A0 BHE.
.
.
. , ,
.

.
ALE ( )
,
/. ALE ,
.
(WR) ,
/.
.
(RD) ,
,
/.
/ (DT/R)
.
, .
.
(DEN)
. DEN , .
33

..

. DEN , DT/R
.
/ (M/IO) , .
, /.
.
(INTR) . , .
(INTA) .
.
(NMI)
2. .
HOLD ( ) ,

. HLDA .
HLDA,
. HOLD
HLDA .
,
.
LOCK ,

. LOCK
. LOCK
(LOCK)
,
.
LOCK ,
.
QS0 QS1
. .2.1
.
(S0S2)
, ,
.2.2.
HOLD-HLDA /
(RQ/GT).
8086.
34

2. 16-

2.1

QS1

QS0


2.2

S2

S1

S0

( )

CLK, RESET, READY - .


RESET
, ,
.
, RESET
. CLK
. READY ,
/
. READY 1
.
, ,

.
, ,
1 - 4.
CLK
.
35

..

:
/;
.
1
.
2 4. 1 /
.
ALE,

.
2 /.
4.
RDY.


4 .
. 4
1
() ,
.
.
.2.3
.

ALE.

. 2 A/D ,
RD, . ,
/
, DT/R DEN.
( )
ALE /. 2
A/D
.
4. WR 2
4.

36

2. 16-

CLK
M/IO
ALE
BHE

A19A16
AD15AD0

RD
DT/R
DEN
WR
DT/R
DEN

. 2.3.
2.3.
- ,
, ( )
. . 2.4.

:
( ), .
: ;
, ,
DX.

SP, ,
SI, DI.

37

..

H
15

8 7
AX
AH

AL

BL

BX
BH
CX
CH

CL
DX

SP

BP

SI

DI

15

CS
DS
SS
ES

15

DL

DH

PSW
O D I T
F F F F

0
S Z
F F

A
F

P
F

C
F

. 2.4.

. 8 (, AL, , BL, , CL, DH,
DL), , , , DH
, AL, BL, CL, DL -
.
38

2. 16-

.
.2.3.
2.3

AX

, /

AL

, / ,
,

AH

BX

CX

CL

DX

,
/

SP

SI

DI


. 8086 16- : CS, DS, SS,
ES.
, :
. :
OF,
;
SF, ;
ZF, ;
AF,

;
PF,
;
CF,
.
39

..

:
DF,
;
IF,
;
TF,
.
20-
.
1
FFFFFH.
: , , .
- ,
8- ( ).
- ,
16- ( ),

, - . 16-
.
, .
()
, -
.
-
,
32- . 32-
,
.


.
,

8086,
1 ,
.
- ,
16 65536 ; , 10.

. .2.5.
40

2. 16-

. 2.5.
, .
65536 16.

,
, , .
-

.
8086
512 (.2.6): (D15-D8)
(D7-D0).
.
D7-DO ,
- D15-D8 .
0,
.
, ,
A0=0. , ,
=0 (.2.4).
,
.
.
41

..

0FFFFFH

0FFFFEH

00003H
00001H

00002H
00000H

A19..A1 D15..D8 BHE

D7..D0 A0

. 2.6.
2.4
BHE A0
BHE

A0

0
0

0
1



(D15D8)

(D7D0)

64 .
.
.
,
.
16- .
20- .
4
.
, ,
4 0.
.
42

2. 16-

- ,
.

,
.
, .

(EA).
.2.5 ,

.
2.5



CS

IP

SS

SP
(DS
CS, ES, SS

)

DS
CS, ES, SS SI

ES

DI
BP
SS
CS, DS, ES EA

,
.
.
2.4.

, .
,
,
,
, .. . ,
,
.
, ,
43

..

. ,
,
,
.
,
:
,
;
(
),
;
,
,
;
,
, .

,
.
.

( ) .
( ,
), ( ).
8086 16-
,
. ()
.
.
,
, , ,
( ).

, .

, .
8086 .
,

. ( )
,
44

2. 16-


. , (
) 8086
.
.2.7. (
).
7

0 7

d w

0 7
mod reg m/r

dispL

0
dispH

. 2.7.
()
d w. d
: d=l, , d=0,
.
, reg .
( ) .
w () : w=l,
, w=0 . ,
d w (.2.6).
2.6
d w


, : mod ,
reg r/m /. reg
, .
reg .2.7.
, DX,
SP, , SI, DI .

.

45

..

2.7

reg ( r/m)

8-

16-

000

AL

001

CL

010

DL

DX

011

BL

100

SP

101

CH

110

DH

SI

111

BH

DI

mod .
, , r/m
. mod=11,
, .
mod 11 ( ), r/m
8- 16- .
mod ,
() disp,
:
00, disp=0 ;
01, disp=dispL 8- ,
16 ;
10, disp=dispH, dispL .
r/m ,
.
:
mod=00 r/m =110, EA=dispH, dispL.
. ,
(16- ) ( 8- 16 ).
( ), (SI DI),
.
24 .

8086
.
46

2. 16-

.
,
.

. .
3- reg r/m (
mod=11). w 8-
16- ( ). ,
,
,
.
: AL, , AX, BL, ,
. .
.
8 16 ,
. ,

.
.
.


.
,
.
16 , - 8 (
16 ).
,
,
,
. .
, ,
.
.

,
.
, .
,
.
(
47

..

) .

, .
.

(. 2.8). , , SI DI
, SI DI.

.
.
,
, ,
.
.

LEA,
. ,
CALL
16- .

. 2.8.
. (
)

. ,

( ).

, , , ,
. ,
48

2. 16-

, 8 16
. .
.
[BREG] DISP
.
[BREG+DISP]

. BREG

.2.9.
.
( ,
)
, , SI
DI.
.
,
.
,
.
8086 .
,
16 .
ADDR16 [IREG],
. ADDR16 16- , IREG
SI DI. ,
,
.
,
() .
49

..

- .
.
,
, (. 2.10).
,

. ,
SI DI , ..
. 8086
8- 16- ,
.
, .
,
, .

, .
,

.
.
,
.

, , . . .

[BREG] ADDR16 [IREG], ..
.
.
,
,
PC. PC ,
(,
PC ).
8086
,
( ). 8-
, 16 ,
PC. ,
+128-127
. (SHORT)
, 80%
. ,
50

2. 16-

,
, .. , .
-.

,
.

. 2.10.
.
.
.
, SI
() -, DI ()
-.
SI DI
.
-. -
,
, .

. ,
-,
. 8-
, ,
0255.
-
51

..

: DX
065535.
DX
-.
,
DX.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
.
,
, ,
.

.
2.5.
135
, :
, ,
, , ,
.

- -.
:
, /, , .


(, ,
) ,
- ,
.


( ) n .

, , ,
.
52

2. 16-


64 .

. :
, ,
, .

:
,
.

,
.
-
, ,
/.
. -
,
.
. ,
8086 ,
,
.
: ; -;
;
.
, .
POPF SAHF,
.

, ,
. MOV
(, ).
:
MOV dst,src;

dst:=(src)

MOV src
dst .
MOV mem/reg,mem/reg.
.
53

..

MOV , mem MOV mem,


. ,
MOV AL, AL
BETA, MOV ALPHA,
ALPHA.
AL
ALPHA,
ALPHA+1. ,
( )
.
3 .
MOV sreg,mem/reg MOV mem/reg,sreg
/.
,
. ,
MOV sreg, mem/reg
CS, .
2 4 .
; (8+)
(9+) . MOV sreg, mem/reg
, . .
. , , DS
F000,
MOV AX,0F000H;
MOV DS,

; DS F000

XCHG .

, .
.
2 4 (
) 17+ (
). XCHG
.
, XCHG .
XCHG ,
N.
XLAT AL 256- ,
. , AL
54

2. 16-

, .
XLAT :
1) AL ;
2) ( DS) AL.
XLAT
.
11 .
LEA,LDS,LES
, ()
, .
LEA, LDS LES
.
LEA reg,mem
( )
( !)
. , ,
,
XLAT. LDS LES
: ,
DS;

, DS
( LDS) ES ( LES).
2 4 . , LDS
SI, LES DI,
SI DS,
DI ES.
LAHF SAHF
8086 8080.
LAHF
( ),
SAHF
(
).
. 8080
PSW
. : PUSH PSW
, POP PSW PSW
. 8086 LAHF SAHF
.
55

..

2.8


MOV dest,src (dest)(src),

PUSH src

(SP) (SP) 2
((SP) + 1:(SP))(src)

POP dest

(dest)((SP)+1:(SP))
(SP) (SP) + 2

XCHG dest,src

(temp) (dest)
(dest) (src)
(src) (temp)

XLAT

AL ((BX) + (AL))

/
IN acc, port
(AL) (port) or
(AX) (port)
OUT port, acc

(dest) (AL) or
(dest) (AX)


LEA dest, src
(dest) EA
LDS dest, src

(dest) (EA)
(DS) (EA + 2)

LES dest, src

(dest) (EA)
(ES) (EA + 2)

DS

ES


LAHF
(AH)(SF,ZF,AF,PF,CF) AH
SAHF

(SF,ZF,AF,PF,CF)(AH) AH

PUSHF

(SP) (SP) 2
((SP) + 1:(SP)) Flags

POPF

Flags ((SP) + 1:(SP))


(SP) (SP) + 2

56

2. 16-

, :
LAHF
;
PUSH AX ; PUSH PSW
POP AX ;
SAHF
; POP PSW
PUSH
POP. ,

, SP.
:
,
SP.
SP SS. , POP
PUSH. , CALL
RET . PUSH
.
PUSH mem/reg
, POP mem/reg

. PUSH reg POP reg
.
PUSH sreg POP sreg
. , CS
.
, PUSHF POPF

16- .
TF,
.
, 8

. ,
PUSH reg POP reg.
-.
w, ,
. AL
() (). IN , port OUT port,
. IN
, OUT
57

..

.

00FF. IN , DX OUT DX,
, 16-
DX FFFF.
DX ,
.
.
-
, .
8086
, ,
.

: , ,
.
,
. 8
16 , , ..
. 8-
0255, 16- 065535. ,
, , . 8- 16-.
() : 0 ,
1 . . -128+127 8-
-32768+32767 16- .
.
,

, .
( )
6 .

; INTO
.
-, : CF
( ) ( )
.
; AF
( ) ( )
.
58

2. 16-

; SF
( 7 15)
. ;
, ; ZF
; PF
1, 8
; 0 ( PF
);
OF
, ..
(
2
. , INC reg,
w, ,
. .2.9.

ADD dst, src dst: =(dst)+ (src).
dst src
dst.


ADC dst,src dst: = (dsf) + (src) + (CF).

, ADD, . ,
CF,
.
:
INC dst dst:= (dst)+1.

. INC
, CF
. dst .

.

.
CF.
59

..

2.9

ADD dest, src (dest) (dest) + (src)

ADC dest, src (dest) (dest) + (src) + (CF)

INC dest

(dest) (dest) + 1

If ((AL) and 0FH)>9 or (AF)=1 ASCII

then (AL) (AL) + 6


(AH) (AH) + 1
(AF) 1
(CF) (AF)
(AL) (AL) and 0FH
DAA
If ((AL) and 0FH)>9 or (AF)=1
then (AL) (AL)+6; (AF)1
if (AL) > 9FH or (CF) = 1 then
(AL) (AL) + 60H, (CF)1

SUB dest, src (dest) (dest) (src)



AAA

SBB dest, src (dest) (dest) (src) (CF)


DEC dest

(dest) (dest) 1
:
(dest) 0FFH (dest)
(dest) (dest) + 1
:
(dest) 0FFFFH (dest)
(dest) (dest) + 1
CMP dest, src (dest) (src)
AAS
If ((AL) and 0FH)>9 or
(AF)=1 then (AL) (AL) 6
(AH) (AH) 1
(AF) 1
(CF) (AF)
(AL) (AL) and 0FH
DAS
If ((AL) and 0FH)>9 or
(AF)=1 then (AL) (AL)6;
(AF)1
if (AL) > 9FH or (CF) =1 then
(AL) (AL) 60H, (CF)1
NEG dest

60


ASCII

2. 16-

. 2.9

MUL src

src :
(AX) (AL) (src)
If (AH) = 0
then (CF) 0
else (CF) 1 (OF) (CF)
src :
(DX:AX) (AX) (src)
If (DX) = 0
then (CF) 0
else (CF) 1 (OF) (CF)

IMUL src

src :
(AX) (src) (AL)
src :
(DX:AX) (src) (AX)

AAM

(AH) (AL) / 0AH


(AL) (AL) mod 0AH

ASCII

src :
(AL) (src) / (AX)
(AH) (src) mod (AX)
src :
(AX) (src) / (DX:AX)
(DX) (src) mod (DX:AX)
src :
(AL) (src) / (AX)
(AH) (src) mod (AX)
src :
(AX) (src) / (DX:AX)
(DX) (src) mod (DX:AX)
(AL) (AH) 0AH + (AL)
(AH) 0

DIV src

IDIV src

AAD

ASCII

NEG (
) : NEG dst
dst=0 - (dst).
, .
80 8000 ,
OF. ,
61

..

CF , ,
, CF=0.

. ,
. ,

.
( AF)
.
8086 :
.
.

.
AL, 16-
AL.
(ext) AL. src ,
, 32
DX .
DX.
, OF CF
,
DX. OF CF
.
MUL . IMUL src
, MUL src,

. ,
DX,
( 00 (0000) FF (FFFF)
()), OF CF
. ,
. OF, CF=0.
IMUL .
8086 ,
.

( AL, DX 8- 16- )
src. AL ( ),
( DX).
.
62

2. 16-

.
( FF FFFF) ,
0, .
:
; IF TF
0; CS
; CS 00002,
PC ; PC
00000.
0,
: 00000 00002.
0 (,

),


.
IDIV ,
DIV, .
-127+127,
, -32767+32 767, .

0.
IDIV .
8086
: (BCD-) (ASCII). BCD- (
), 8421; ASCII-
( ),
0011 ( ASCII), .
BCD- :
,
, .
BCD- ,
BCD- :
, . . , 9;
,
16,
10. ,
AF, CF.
BCD-, ADD ADC
AL,
63

..

DAA.
:
1) AF=1 AL
( 1015),
AL 06 AF
;
2) CF=1 AL
, AL 60
CF .
DAA AL , OF, DAA
.
BCD-, , :

SUB SBB, , AL,
DAS .
8086
,
DAS :
1) AF=1 AL
, AL 06 AF
;
2) CF=1 AL
, AL 60 CF
.
.
, 8086, NOT (), AND (), OR (), XOR
( , .. 2) TEST,
,
( ).
, .. .
.2.10.
:
AND
OR
XOR
TEST
NOT
64

dst, src dsi:=(dsi)^ (src)


dst, src dst:==(dst)\/ (src)
dst, src dst:=(dst)@ (src)
dst, src
(dst) (src)
src
src:= (src)

2. 16-

NOT .
AND, OR, XOR TEST
:
OF CF ,
;
SF, ZF PF
,
; AF .
AND
,
- .
.
OR
1 ,
.
XOR
,
.
w, ,
, .
mem/reg, count. mem/reg
, a count ( )
.
1 ( ) CL.
1 , -
CL,
. ,
, (
). 1 CL
: v=0, count=1, v=l,
count=(CL).

() .
.
: AF ; CF
,
OF=1, () ;
65

..

OF ; OF
CF; SF, ZF PF . RCL RCR
,
CF 1 . 8086

, 255.
SHL SHR
. , , . SAL
SAR .
,
, ,
.
. SAL
SHL
.
. , ,
SAR , IDIV
, , . , -10 () 2 3, -10 4 -2.
, IDIV ( ) , SAR
, - .
:
MOV [DI],0
;
AND DL,OFH
;
MULT:
MOV AL,[SI]
;
INC SI
;
AND AL,OFH
;
MUL DL
;

;
ADD AL,[DI]
;

;
MOV [DI],AL
;
INC DI
;
MOV [DI],
;
DEC
; JNZ MULT
;

66

2. 16-

2.10


NOT dest
:
(dest) FFH (dest)
:
(dest) FFFFH (dest)
AND dest, src
(dest) (dest) and (src)
(CF) 0; (OF) 0
OR dest, src
(dest) (dest) or (src)
(CF) 0; (OF) 0
XOR dest, src
(dest) (dest) xor (src)
(CF) 0; (OF) 0
TEST dest, src

SHL dest, count


SAL dest, count

(dest) and (src)


(CF) 0; (OF) 0
15(7)

CF
0
15(7)

SHR dest, count

CF
0

SAR dest, count

15(7)

15(7)

15(7)

15(7)

15(7)

CF

ROL dest, count


CF

ROR dest, count

CF

RCL dest, count


CF

RCR dest, count


CF

67

..

.


. ,
,
.
PC.

. CS PC.

. ,

, ,
.
,
( PC CS), .
8086 .
,
IRET.

.
()
- PC
.
( NEAR).
-
PC CS
(: ).
( FAR),
.
8086
, , ,
, (.2.11).

PC PC CS, .
JMP dispL
, . (
16 ) PC, ,
68

2. 16-

JMP.
-128+127. ,
, - .
.
,
.
JMP disp ,
, 16- . - ,
-32768+32767 ,
JMP disp.
JMP mem/reg
. , , 16- ,
. ,
dispL, dispH .
8086 19
, .
. ,
( JCXZ ),
.
(
AF), .
,
PC (
16 ), ,
. ,
.
-128+127 .
, ,
.
.
JMP, -32768+32 767 .
, ,
JMP,
. ,
JMP
.
JMP RET.
69

..

2.11


Jcond disp8
If cond=1
, then (IP)(IP) + disp8

If inter-segment
CALL dest

then (SP) (SP) 2
dest

((SP)+1:(SP))(CS)
(CS) SEG
(SP) (SP) 2
((SP) +1:(SP)) (IP)

(IP) dest

RET
JMP dest

If inter-segment
then (CS) SEG
(IP) dest


(CX) (CX) 1
LOOP disp8

if (CX) 0
then (IP) (IP) + disp8
LOOPE/LOOPZ disp8 (CX) (CX) 1
, /
if (ZF) = 1 and (CX) 0
then (IP) (IP) + disp8
(CX) (CX) 1
LOOPNE/LOOPNZ
, /
if
(ZF)
=
0
and
(CX)

0
disp8

then (IP) (IP) + disp8


JCXZ disp8
If (CX) = 0
,
then (IP) (IP) + disp8 CX=0

70

INT num

INTO

IRET

2. 16-

2.12

JA/JNBE

(CF or ZF)=0

JAE/JNB

CF=0

JB/JNAE

CF=1

JBE/JNA

(CF or ZF)=1

JC

CF=1

JE/JZ

ZF=1

JG/JNLE

((SF xor OF) or ZF)=0

JGE/JNL

(SF xor OF)=0

JL/JNGE

(SF xor OF)=1

JLE/JNG

((SF xor OF) or ZF)=1

JNC

CF=0

JNE/JNZ

ZF=0

JNO

OF=0

JNP/JPO

PF=0

JNS

SF=0

JO

OF=1

JP/JPE

PF=1

JS

SF=1

JCXZ ,
, , ( CX)
.

. , , ZF=1
MORE, 0400
.
:
JNZ NEXT ; ZF=0
JMP MORE ; ZF=1
NEXT:
JMP .
71

..

,
( ) ,

.

.
,
, .
CALL
.
.

, CALL.
. ,
, RET
.
,
, .
8086
. ,
. ( NEAR),
( FAR).
PC, PC CS.
, CALL ,
; CALL
dispL. PC CS CALL
JMP,
( SS)
SP. ,
SP
.
8086 ,

.
CALL addr
5 ,
.
: SP 2;
SP SS CS;
72

2. 16-

SP 2; SP SS
PC; PC
, CS seg.
CALL mem
. PC
CS ,
PC, - CS.
RET
. ,
PC, SP 2.
( )
.

.

PC. ,
-128 +127 .

.
, .
LOOP ( ),
, ()0,
PC- ;
(()=0 )
. , LOOP MORE
:
DEC

JNZ
MORE
, .
LOOP.
, LOOP 5
( ) 17 ( )
.

.
LOOPE LOOPZ
, ,
(-
PC), () 0 ZF=1.
. ,
73

..

LOOP
ZF.
6 18 .
LOOPNE LOOPNZ
.
LOOP,
ZF.
8086 ,
.
,
() INT, ,
NMI ,
,
.
INT type ,
.
v , , , ,
INT.
v=0,
- ,
. v=l,
0 255.

INT

: 2;
(
PUSHF); IF TF (
); 2;
CS; ADDRESS
4; CS
ADDRESS+2; 2;
PC; PC
ADDRESS.

,
.

, . . .
,
,
. ,
74

2. 16-


.
INT ( 3)
.
000H
.
CALL
, , ,
,
.

IRET.

IRET
,
.
IRET INT:
PC; SP 2;
CS; SP 2;
;
SP 2.

- ,
. 8086
,
.
REP,
.

, .
64
. ,
.
-, -
. , -
,
. -
.
. SI
-,
DI 75

..


LEA, LDS LES.
SI
DI ,
. DF
(DF=0) (DF=1) .
,
- ,

. ,
.

. ()
REP.
, ,
( )

DS:SI, ES:DI .
: REP, REPE, REPZ,
REPNE REPNZ.
.
. REP
MOVS STOS
", ", .. ,
. REPE REPZ
,
REP. CMPS SCAS
ZF=1,
. REPNE REPNZ
, ZF
. .
.
.
, ,
,
(, ).

.
76

2. 16-

, . ,
, (, ). , ,
,
.
MOVS.
: MOVS dst.src dsi:=(src)
src,
SI, dst, DI,
SI DI . .
REP MOVS -. . ( )
MOVSB MOVSW, ( W-). .
CMPS.
: CMPS dst,src (src)-(dst)
dst,
DI, src,
SI.
, . -
. , ,
CMPS JL (, ), , src dst.
CMPS REPE (
REPZ), ",
". REPNE ( REPNZ) ", (
)". , CMPS
.
SCAS. ( )
: SCAS dst ()-(dst)
dst ( ),
DI, AL ()
77

..

().
, . REPE (
REPZ)
, .
SCAS REPNE ( REPNZ),
" ,

".
LODS.
: LODS src := (src)
, (
), SI, AL
, SI .
.
,
MOV , src INC SI ( DEC SI -
.
LODSB LODSW, .
STOS.
: STOS dst dst:=(ac)
() AL () ,
DI, DI .
ES,
, - .
.

, .
.

.

, -
. .
CLC, CMC STC ,
1 CF.
RCR RCL. CLD STD
DF.

SI DI . CLI STI
IF.
78

2. 16-

CLI IF
INT ( ).
NMI
.
IF .
STI IF 1,
INT.
, STI.
2.13


STC

CLC

CMC

STD

CLD

STI

CLI


HLT

WAIT

ESC

LOCK


NOP

HLT
.
CLR, NMI,
INT, .
,
.
WAIT ,

TEST.
79

..

WAIT .
LOCK, ,
( ) LOCK
. LOCK
.
ESC ,
()
.
,

NOP ( ) .
,
.

1. 8086?
2.
. ?
3. 8086.

.
4. 8086.
.
5. .
. .
, ?
6. 8086?
, ?
7. ? ,
, , ,
, , ?
8.
8086?
9.
?

80

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