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Physics project



Presented by :-BUSHRA NAAZ

XII science B

Jamia Girls sr. sec. school
This is to certify that , Bushra Naaz a student
of class XII-sci-B has successfully completed
the research on the below mentioned project
under the guidance of Dr. Ehtesham-ulHaque (Subject Teacher) during the year
2015-16 in partial fulfillment of physics
practical examination.

Signature of external examiner

Signature of physics teacher

Primarily I would thank God for being able to complete this
project with success. Then I would like to thank my physics
teacher, Dr. Ehtesham-ul -Haque whose valuable guidance
has been the ones that helped me patch this project and
make it full proof success his suggestions and his instructions
has served as the major contributor towards the completion
of the project. Then I would like to thank my parents and
friends who have helped me with their valuable suggestions
and guidance has been helpful in various phases of the
completion of the project. Last but not the least I would like to
thank my classmates who have helped me a lot.

2. Acknowledgement
3. Index
4. Aim of the project
5. Introduction
6. History
7. Construction
8. Working
9. Theory
10. Energy loss in transformers
11. Uses of transformer


To study the principle, working and
applications of Transformers .


The transformer is a device used for converting a low alternating

voltage to a high alternating voltage or vice-versa. A Transformer
based on the Principle of mutual induction according to this principle,
the amount of magnetic flux linked with a coil changing, an e.m.f is
induced in the neighboring coil. A transformer is an electrical device
which is used for changing the A.C. voltages. A transformer is most
widely used device in both low and high current circuit. As such
transformers are built in an amazing strength of sizes. In electronic,
measurement and control circuits, transformer size may be so small
that it weight only a few tens of grams where as in high voltage power
circuits, it may weight hundred of tones. In a transformer, the
electrical energy transfer from one circuit to another circuit takes place
without the use of moving parts. A transformer which increases the
voltages is called a step- up transformer. A transformer which
decreases the A.C. voltages is called a step-down transformer.
Transformer is, therefore, an essential piece of apparatus both for high
and low current circuits.

Discovery of induction
The principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered
independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in
The relationship between EMF and magnetic flux is an equation now
known as Faraday's law of induction:

Induction coils

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil,
invented by Rev . Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College , Ireland in
Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get
higher voltages from batteries. Since batteries produce
direct current (DC) rather than AC, induction coils relied upon
vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in
the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction.

First alternating current transformers

By the

1870s, efficient generators producing alternating current (AC) were

available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an
Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron
core called a 'secondary generator' in London in 1882, then sold the idea to the
Westinghouse company in the United States. They also exhibited the invention in
Turin, Italy in 1884, where it was adopted for an electric lighting system.However,
the efficiency of their open-core bipolar apparatus remained very low.
Transformers today are designed on the principles discovered by the

three engineers. They also popularized the word 'transformer' to describe

a device for altering the EMF of an electric current,although the term had
already been in use by 1882. In 1886, the ZBD (Kroly Zipernowsky,
Ott Blthy and Miksa Dri) engineers designed, and the Ganz factory
supplied electrical equipment for, the world's first power station that used
AC generators to power a parallel connected common electrical network,
the steam-powered Rome- Cerchi power plant.

A transformer essentially consist of two coils of insulated copper wire
having different number of turns and wound on the same soft iron
core .
The coil to which the electric energy is supplied is called the primary
and the coil from which energy is drawn or output is obtained is
called the secondary.
To prevent energy losses due to eddy currents, a laminated core is
used because of high permeability of soft iron, the entire magnetic
flux due to the current in the primary coil practically remains in the
iron core and hence passes fully through the secondary .this also
prevents the stray currents being generated in the conductors lying
around and the consequent power loss .

Two types of arrangements are generally used for winding

of primary and secondary coils in transformers :Core


In the core type transformers ,the

primary and secondary coils are
wound on separate limbs of the
core so that the core is largely
surrounded by the coils .

Shell type:-

In the shell type transformers ,the

primary and secondary coils are
wound one over another on the
same limb of the iron core . The
coils are very largely surrounded
by the iron core .

As the alternating current flows through the primary , it generates an
alternating magnetic flux in the core which also passes through the
This change in flux sets up an induced emf in the secondary ,also a
self induced emf in the primary .If there is no leakage of magnetic
flux ,then flux linked with each turn of the primary will be equal to
that linked with each of the secondary.


Consider the situation when no load is connected to the

secondary ,i.e., its terminals are open.
Let Np and Ns be the number of turns in the primary and
secondary respectively . Then
Induced emf in the primary coil:

Induced emf in the secondary coil: Where ,

The ratio of Np/Ns ,of the number of turns in the secondary

to that in the primary is called the turns ratio of the
transformer . It is also called transformation ratio.

In a step up transformer , Ns >Np , i.e., the turns ratio is greater

than 1 and therefore Vs >Vp . The output voltage is greater than the
input voltage.
In step down transformer ,Ns <Np ,i.e., the turns ratio
is less than 1 and therefore Vs<Vp .The output voltage is
less than the input voltage.


in primary and secondary

Assuming the transformer to be ideal one so that there are

no energy losses, then

Input power = Output power or VpIp = VsIs

Where Ip and Is are primary and secondary respectively.
Hence , Ip/Is = Vs/Vp = Ns/Np
Thus a step up transformer steps up the voltage, but steps
down the current exactly I the same ratio. similarly, a step
down transformer steps down the voltage but steps up the
current exactly in the same ratio.


loses in transformers

The main causes for energy loss in the transformers are as

follows:Copper loss:- Some energy is loss due to heating of
copper wires used in primary and secondary windings .
This power loss can be minimized by using thick copper
wire of low resistance.
Hysteresis loss :- The alternating current carries the iron
core through cycles of magnetization and demagnetization.
Work done in each of these cycles is lost as heat. this is
called hysteresis loss. and can be minimized by using core
material having narrow hysteresis loop.
Resistance of windings :- The low resistance copper
wire used for the windings still has resistance and thereby
contribute to heat loss.

Flux leakage:- The flux produced by the primary coil may

not be all linked to the secondary coil if the design of the
core is bad.
Eddy currents:-The changing magnetic field not only
induces currents in the secondary coil but also currents in
the iron core itself. These currents flow in little circles in
the iron core and are called eddy currents. The eddy
currents cause heat loss. The heat loss, however, can be
reduced by having the core laminated.


transformer is used in almost all a.c. operations In

voltage regulator for T.V., refrigerator, computer, air
conditioner etc. In the induction furnaces. A step down
transformer is used for welding purposes. A step down
transformer is used for obtaining large current. A step
up transformer is used for the production of X-Rays and
NEON advertisement. Transformers are used in voltage
regulators and stabilized power supplies.
Transformers are used in the transmissions of a.c. over
long distances . Small transformers are used in Radio
sets , telephones, loud speakers and electric bells etc.


textbook reference