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Understanding Subtraction
Math SOLS:
1.5: The student will recall basic addition facts with sums to 18 or less and the
corresponding subtraction facts.
1.6: The student will create and solve one-step story and picture problems using basic
addition facts with sums to 18 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.
Day 1
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will solve problems by finding the missing part of 6 or 7 when
the other part is known.
Terms to know:
Missing part: the part we need to find
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Small cup
Counters
Lesson 4-1 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Finding Missing Parts of 6 and 7
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Present the cup to the students. Tell them that you have 5 counters next to the cup,
but there are 6 counters in all. There is a part they can see and there is a part in the
cup. Ask them to tell you the missing part. Encourage students to explain their
ideas. Use the counters to show the students ideas.
2. Tell the students that this is a part-part-whole relationship. We know the whole
and one part, but we need to find the missing part. In this case, the missing part is
the counters in the cup.
3. As a class, work on Finding Missing Parts of 6 and 7 pages 83 and 86. Model
the problems using the document camera. Connect the dog bowl and dog food
pieces to the cup and counters. The students are given the whole. Ask a student to
give you the number they know and draw it beside the problem. The students need
to find the missing part (the amount of dog food pieces that are in the bowl).
4. On pages 84 and 85, work through the first problem with the students. Then the
students will complete numbers 2-8 independently. If time allows, complete Do
you understand? and numbers 9 and 10 together.
Assessment: Numbers 2-8 on pages 84-85

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Differentiation:
If students have difficulty finding the missing number, ask them how many more
they would need to make the whole.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will be given a cup and 7 counters. They will
work in pairs to conduct their own missing part problems.
Day 2
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will find a missing part of 8 when one part is known.
Terms to know:
Missing part: the part we need to find
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
8 yellow connecting cubes
Dark sheets of paper
Lesson 4-2 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Finding Missing Parts of 8
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Set up 8 (separated) yellow connecting cubes under the document camera. They
will represent blocks of cheese, which is the example used in the worksheet.
Cover 2 of the cubes with a dark sheet of paper. Tell the students that there are 8
cubes in all, and ask how many are missing. Encourage students to explain their
ideas. Use the cubes to show the students ideas.
2. As a class, work on Finding Missing Parts of 8 pages 87 and 90. Model the
problems using the document camera. Connect the yellow connecting cubes to
blocks of cheese. The students are given the whole. Ask a student to give you the
number they know and draw it beside the problem. The students need to find the
missing part (the pieces of cheese the mouse has hidden).
3. On pages 88 and 89, work through the first problem with the students. Then the
students will complete numbers 2-8 independently. If time allows, complete Do
you understand? and numbers 9 and 10 together.
Assessment: Numbers 2-8 on pages 88-89
Differentiation:

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If students are getting the wrong number for the missing part, ask them to check
their work by adding the part they know and the missing part to see if they make
8.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will be given 8 cubes and a sheet of paper.
They will work in pairs to conduct their own missing part problems.

Day 3
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will find a missing part of 9 when one part is known.
Terms to know:
Missing part: the part we need to find
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Lesson 4-3 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Finding Missing Parts of 9
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Hold up 5 fingers on one hand and 4 on the other. Ask the students how many
fingers you are holding up (9). Point out that they can see two parts (two hands).
Hide the hand showing 4 behind your back. Ask the students how many fingers
you are still holding up. You are holding up 9, but they can only see 5. What is the
missing part? Repeat this demonstration with hiding the hand with 5 instead.
2. As a class, work on Finding Missing Parts of 9 pages 91 and 94. Model the
problems using the document camera. Connect the known and missing parts to
dogs in and outside a doghouse. The students are given the whole. Ask a student
to give you the number they know (the number of dogs that are outside the
doghouse) and draw it beside the problem. The students need to find the missing
part (the number of dogs that are inside the doghouse).
3. On pages 92 and 93, work through the first problem with the students. Then the
students will complete numbers 2-4 independently. If time allows, complete Do
you understand? and numbers 9 and 10 together.
Assessment: Numbers 2-4 on pages 92-93
Differentiation:
If students are getting the wrong number for the missing part, ask them to count
the part they know again to be sure they have recorded the correct number. Then

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ask them to check their work by adding the part they know and the missing part to
see if they make 9.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will grab a partner and play the finger game
that was modeled at the beginning of the lesson.

Day 4
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will write and solve subtraction number sentences.
Terms to know:
Subtract: taking one number away from another
Difference: the result of subtracting one number from another
Subtraction sentence: has minus and equal signs
Minus sign
Equal sign
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Connecting cubes
Lesson 4-4 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Introducing Subtraction Number
Sentences
Lesson 4-4 Practice pages 49-50
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Place 6 connecting cubes underneath the document camera.
2. Invite a volunteer to come to the camera and pick up any number of cubes.
3. Have the student count the number of cubes he/she took. Then have the student
count the number of cubes remaining.
4. Guide the students to say the subtraction number sentence aloud, writing down
each part as it is said. Then, use the students and the minus and equal signs to
visually show the sentence.
5. On page 95 of the Introducing Subtraction Number Sentences worksheet, use
connecting cubes to model subtraction sentences. Have students come up and take
away cubes each time.
6. Complete pages 96-98 together as well.
7. Explanation of number 1 on page 96: I have 4 cubes, but I need 8 cubes. How
many cubes are missing?

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8. If students are struggling with this concept, complete the What Will You Draw?
worksheet for extra practice.
Assessment: Lesson 4-4 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Introducing
Subtraction Number Sentences and class discussion
Differentiation:
The manipulatives will concretely show students the subtraction sentences.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will be given 7 connecting cubes to conduct
their own subtraction problems.
Day 5
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will tell and act out stories about separating to find how many
are left.
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
6 chairs
Lesson 4-5 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Stories About Separating
Goldfish crackers
Connecting cubes
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Tell a story about students sitting in chairs. Have 6 students sit in the chairs in the
front of the room. Take two chairs away and have those students sit in the floor.
Ask the students how many students are left sitting in chairs. Guide students to
think of the story as 6 take away 2 is 4.
2. On page 99 of the Stories About Separating worksheet, tell a story about
goldfish swimming in a pond and being caught by fishermen (the students). Each
student will receive an individual bag of goldfish crackers. Inform them that they
cannot eat the goldfish until the lesson is over (If they eat all the goldfish, we will
have none to work subtraction problems with.) Allow students to give you the
number of goldfish swimming and the number of goldfish caught. Write the
subtraction sentence down, but have the students demonstrate each subtraction
problem with their goldfish. Once the page 99 is completed, the students may eat
the goldfish as we complete the rest of the worksheet.

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3. Since a lot of the students still have difficulty with reading, we will work through
the entire worksheet together. Each story problem will be read to the students.
Also, each problem will be demonstrated with connecting cubes and/or goldfish.
Assessment: Lesson 4-5 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Stories
About Separating
Differentiation:
The manipulatives will concretely show students the separation problems.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
Day 6
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will use connecting cubes to show the numbers in two groups
and write subtraction sentences to compare them.
Terms to know:
Compare: to find the difference of two groups by determining how many more or
fewer one group has than another
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Lesson 4-6 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Stories About Comparing
Connecting cubes
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Have 6 boys come to the front of the classroom and stand together. Then have 4
girls come to the front of the classroom and stand together. Ask the students how
many more boys are in the front of the classroom than girls. Help students see the
answer by having the four girls stand in front of four boys. Only 2 boys will be
left without a girl standing in front of them.
2. Use connecting cubes to show students the same problem (6 4 = 2). Display a
tower of 6 red connecting cubes and a tower of 4 blue connecting cubes. Ask the
students which group has more cubes. Then ask how many more. Have students
share their answers and explanations. Tell students we are comparing the groups;
we are finding the difference between two groups.
3. On page 103 in the Stories About Comparing worksheet, allow students to give
you numbers for the amount of red and blue cubes (between 0 and 9). Ensure that

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the red cubes are always greater than or equal to the blue because we are
subtracting the blue from the red.
4. On page 106, complete numbers 6-9 together.
5. On pages 104 and 105, read the word problems to the students. Model numbers 1
and 2 for the students. Then, read numbers 3 and 4 to the students but allow them
to solve the problems independently.
6. If time allows, complete Do you understand? and number 5 on pages 104-105
together.
Assessment: Numbers 3-4 on pages 104-105
Differentiation:
If students are having difficulty with comparing the groups, have them circle the
matching images in the first and second rows.
If students continue to have difficulty, reword your questions as, How many
more red cubes do you need to have the same as the blue cubes?
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will be given two colors of connecting cubes
to create their own comparison problems. They may work with a partner.
Day 7
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will connect addition and subtraction facts.
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Lesson 4-7 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Connecting Addition and
Subtraction
Counters
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. On page 107 of the Connecting Addition and Subtraction worksheet, draw 6
counters in the top box, and 4 counters in the left box. Ask the students how many
counters need to be in the right box to make 6 (2). Ask the students what
subtraction sentence does this make (6 4 = 2). Then, cover up the 4 counters in
your drawing to show students this problem. Ask them what subtraction sentence
does this make (6 2 = 4). Point out that the same numbers are used but in a
different order. Then, ask students if an addition sentence can be made from this
picture. Before guiding their answers, see what students can come up with.

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2.
3.
4.
5.

Discuss Do you understand on page 108.


Complete numbers 7-9 on page 110 as a whole class.
Discuss the problem at the top of pages 108-109.
Also on pages 108-109, complete number 1 together, then have students complete
numbers 2-4 independently. If students seem to be struggling, complete the
worksheet together.

Assessment: Numbers 2-4 on pages 108-109


Differentiation:
If students have difficulty filling in the different parts of the subtraction and
addition sentences, then have them identify the two parts in the model and the
whole.
For students who are struggling, give them counters to manipulate.
For students who finish early, they will be given counters to help them create their
own subtraction and addition problems. They may work with partners.
Day 8
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will use counters to model and solve subtraction story problems.
Blooms: Knowledge
Materials:
Lesson 4-8 Interactive Learning Worksheet: Use Objects
Counters
Pencil
Crayons
Document camera
Procedures:
1. Have 5 students come up to the front of the class. Tell the story, Five students are
on the playground, but two go inside to use the restroom. How many students are
left on the playground? Have two students sit down to demonstrate the problem.
2. On page 111 of the Use Objects worksheet, use counters to show this same
exact problem. Repeat this type of problem with numbers 2 and 3. Determine the
total number of students on the playground, but then allow students to decide how
many students will go inside to use the restroom.
3. Complete numbers 9-10 on page 114 as a whole class.
4. On pages 112-113, model numbers 1-4 with counters. For numbers 5-8, have
students use counters to solve the problems independently. The problems will be
read to the students.
Assessment: Numbers 5-8 on page 113

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Differentiation:
If students begin to add instead of subtract, remind them of the whole and the
parts.
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who finish early, they will be given counters to help them create their
own subtraction problems. They may work with partners.
Day 9
Math SOLS: 1.5, 1.6
Objective: The students will demonstrate their understanding of subtraction using a
multiple-choice format.
Blooms: Knowledge and Comprehension
Materials:
Topic 4 Multiple-Choice Test
Counters
Connecting Cubes
Pencil
Crayons
Procedures:
1. Hand out the test and give directions.
2. The problems will be read to the students, but the students will solve each
problem independently.
Assessment: Topic 4 Multiple-Choice Test
Differentiation:
For students who are struggling with reading the math problems, a verbal
explanation will be given.
For students who are struggling with the subtraction problems, manipulatives will
be available.
For students who finish early, they will silently read in the back of the classroom.