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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

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Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


1) What is melting point?
2) State the meaning of isotopes.

3) Explain why the temperature


remains unchanged during the
melting process.
4) Explain why the temperature
remains unchanged during the
freezing process.
5) State the main subatomic particles
of an atom.
Compare and contrast the relative
atomic mass and the relative charge
of the subatomic particles of the
atom.

Standard Answers
is the temperature at which the substance at its solid state
changes to liquid state at certain pressure.
are atoms with the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons (or with the same proton number but
different nucleon numbers).
Heat energy absorbed by the particles is used to overcome the
forces of attraction between the molecules so that the solid can
turn into liquid.
The heat lost to the surroundings is exactly balanced by the heat
energy given out / released as the molecules attracted one
another to form solid.
An atom contains three types of subatomic particles; proton,
neutron and electron.

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM

Subatomic particle
Proton

Symbol
p

Relative mass
1

Relative charge
+1

Electron

1/1840

-1

Neutron

neutral

Standard Answers

6) State the meaning of empirical formula.

is the formula that shows the simplest whole number


ratio of atoms of each element in the compound.
7) State the meaning of molecular formula. is the formula that shows the actual number of atoms of
each element that are present in a molecule of the
compound.
8) Why the method to determine the Magnesium is more reactive than hydrogen.
empirical formula of copper(Il) oxide
Hydrogen gas cannot reduce magnesium oxide to
cannot be used to determine the
magnesium.
empirical formula for magnesium oxide?
9) Why the method to determine the Because copper is not a reactive metal.
empirical formula of magnesium oxide
It reacts slowly with oxygen. Therefore, it is difficult to
cannot be used to determine the
convert copper to copper(II) oxide completely.
empirical formula for copper(Il) oxide?

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


10) State the physical properties of
Group 1.

11) State the physical properties of


Group I7.

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Standard Answers
Alkali metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
They are soft metals and can be cut easily with a knife.
All alkali metals are grey in colour with silvery and shiny
surfaces when freshly cut.
They have relatively low melting and boiling points compare to
other metals such as iron (MP : 1540C).
There have low densities end float on surface of water.
Halogens exits as diatomic molecules.
Halogens have low melting and boiling points.
They are good insulator of electricity.
They are poor conductors of heat.

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12) State the changes of the physical


properties of Group 17 when going
down the group.
13) State three special properties of
transition elements.

39
14) State the position of element , 20
in
Periodic table of Elements. Explain
your answer

15) When across Period 3 from sodium


to argon, the atomic size decreases.
Explain why.

16) When across Period 3 from sodium


to argon, the electronegativity
increases. Explain why.

17) The reactivity of Group 1 increases


when going down the group. Explain
why. (Why potassium is more
reactive than sodium and sodium is
more reactive than lithium?)

18) The reactivity of Group 17 elements


decrease as going down the group.
Explain why.

19) Why helium gas is not reactive


chemically?

20) Sodium burnt in oxygen and the


product is dissolved in water. What
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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

The physical state of halogens at room temperature changes


from gas to liquid, then to solid.
The colour of halogen becomes darker.
Transition elements form coloured ionic solution or compound.
Transition elements show various oxidation numbers in their
compounds.
Transition elements act as catalyst in certain chemical reactions.
Transition elements can form complex ions.
Electron arrangement of X atom is 2.8.8.2
X atom has 2 valence electrons. Therefore, it is in Group 2.
X atom has 4 shells occupied with electrons Therefore, it is in
Period 4.
When across Period 3 from left to right;
The number of protons in the nucleus increases. This increases
the positive charge of the nucleus.
As a result, the nucleus attraction force towards electrons
becomes stronger.
Electrons are pulled closer inside to the nucleus, causing the
atomic size to decrease.
When across Period 3 from left to right.
The atomic size decreases
The number of protons in the nucleus increases. This increase
the positive charge of the nucleus
As a result the attraction forces between the nucleus and the
electrons in the outermost shell becomes stronger
This increases the tendency to attract electrons for the atom
form a negative charge ion.
Therefore, electronegativity increases.
When going down Group 1, proton number of elements is
increase.
The shells occupied by electrons increase, atomic size increases.
The single valence electron becomes further away from the
nucleus.
Hence, the force of attraction between the nucleus and the
valence electron becomes weaker.
As a result, it is easier for the atom to lose the single valence
electron to achieve the octet or duplet electron arrangement.
When going down Group 17,
The atomic size increases.
The outermost occupied shell of each halogen atom becomes
further away from the nucleus.
Thus, the force of attraction between the nucleus and electrons
become weaker.
As a result it is more difficult to attract one electron into the
outermost occupied shell.
Helium has 2 valence electrons and achieves stable duplet
electron arrangement.
It does not need to gain, lose or share electrons with other atom
of elements.
The solution is an alkaline solution.
Sodium burns in oxygen to produce sodium oxide.

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is the property of the solution


formed? Explain why.
21) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water.
What can you observe if a piece of
blue litmus paper is immersed into
the solution formed? Explain why.

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM

Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

Sodium oxide powder dissolves in water to produce sodium


hydroxide solution.
Blue litmus paper turns red and then bleached.
When chlorine gas dissolves in cold water, it forms hydrochloric
acid, HCI and hypochlorous acid, HOCl.
Hydrochloric is an acid which tums blue litmus paper red while
hypochlorous acid is a strong bleaching agent which decolourise
the litmus paper.

Standard Answers

22) State two physical properties of ionic High melting point and boiling point
compounds.
Conduct electricity in aqueous solution molten state.
Usually soluble in water but do not dissolve in organic solvent.
23) State two physical properties of
Low melting point and boiling point.
covalent compounds.
Do not conduct electricity in all state.
Usually dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene but do not
dissolve in water.
24) Explain why sodium chloride can
Sodium chloride is an ionic compound.
conduct electricity in aqueous state
In solid state, sodium and chloride ions are held by strong
but cannot conduct electricity in
electrostatic forces of attraction in the lattice structure.
solid state.
Ions are in fixed positions and cannot move freely. Hence, ionic
compounds in the solid state do not conduct electricity.
In aqueous or molten state, ions are free to move. Therefore the
compound can conduct electricity.
25) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen
Magnesium chloride is an ionic compound whereas hydrogen
chloride are two compounds of
chloride is a covalent compound.
chlorine. At room condition,
Magnesium ion and chloride ions are held together by strong
magnesium chloride exists as a solid
electrostatic forces of attraction. Therefore, it has very high
but hydrogen chloride exists as a
melting point and boiling point and exists as solid at room
gas. Explain why.
condition.
Hydrogen chloride consists of neutral molecules.
The intermolecular force between the molecules is week.
Therefore, it has low melting point and boiling point and exist as
gas at room condition.
26) Explain the formation of ionic bond
Magnesium atom has electron arrangement of 2.8.2
It donates 2 valence electrons to achieve the stable octet
between magnesium atom, 24

12
16
electron arrangement, 2.8.
and oxygen atom, 8
A positive ion, Mg2+ is formed.
Oxygen atom has electron arrangement of 2.6
It receives 2 electrons from magnesium atom to achieve stable
octet electron arrangement.
A negative ion, O2- is formed
Positive ion, Mg2+, and negative ion, O2-, are attracted together
by strong electrostatic forces to form an ionic compound with
the formula MgO.
27) Explain the formation of covalent
Carbon atom has electron arrangement of 2.4
12
bond between carbon atom, 6 and Chlorine atom has electron arrangement of 2.8.7
1 carbon atom contributes 4 valence electrons to 4 chlorine
chlorine atom, 35
17 .
atoms.
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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

4 chlorine atoms, contribute 1 valence electron each to carbon


atom.
1 C atom shares 4 pairs of electrons with 4 Cl atoms to form 4
single covalent bonds.
All of C and Cl atoms achieve stable octet electron arrangement.
A covalent compound with formula CCI4 is formed.

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


28) State the meaning of electrolyte.

Standard Answers

Electrolyte is the substance that can conduct electricity in


molten or aqueous state and undergo chemical change.
29) Explain why solution of hydrogen
Hydrogen chloride is a covalent compound.
chloride in water can conduct
In methylbenzene, hydrogen chloride exists as neutral molecule.
electricity but solution of hydrogen
Therefore, it cannot conduct electricity.
chloride in methylbenzene cannot
In water, hydrogen chloride ionises to produce hydrogen ion and
conduct electricity?
chloride ion which are free to move.
Therefore, it can conduct electricity.
30) Explain how copper electrodes affect When electrolyse copperl(ll) sulphate solution using copper
the selective discharge of ions at the
electrodes, no ion is discharged at anode.
anode during electrolysis of
Instead, the copper anode itself dissolves to form copper(ll) ions.
copper(ll) sulphate solution.
Cu Cu2+ + 2e
31) Explain how concentration of ions in When using dilute hydrochloric acid (<0.0001 mol dm-3),
electrolyte affects the selective
hydroxide ion is discharged at anode to produce oxygen gas.
discharge of ions at the anode
4 OH- 2 H2O + O2 + 4e
during electrolysis of hydrochloric
When using concentrated hydrochloric acid (1.0 mol dm-3),
acid.
chloride ion is discharged at anode to produce chlorine gas.
2 Cl- Cl2 + 2e
32) Explain why the blue copper(ll)
The rate of the discharged of copper(ll) ions at the cathode is
sulphate solution remains
the same as the rate of ionisation of copper anode. The
unchanged when copper is used as
concentration of copper(ll) ions remains unchanged.
electrodes.
OR
The copper(ll) ions discharged at the cathode is replaced with
the copper(Il) ion formed from the anode. The concentration of
copper(ll) ions remains unchanged.
33) Explain the process of electrolysis of Sodium nitrate solution consists of Na+, NO3-, H+, and OH- ions.
dilute sodium nitrate solution using
During electrolysis, Na+ and H+ ions move to cathode and NO3carbon electrode
and OH- ions move to anode.
At cathode, H+ ion is selectively discharged because it is lower
than Na+ ion in electrochemical series.
Hydrogen gas is given out at cathode.
At anode, OH- ion is selectively discharged because it is lower
than NO3- ion in electrochemical series.
Oxygen gas is given out at anode.
34) Explain how Daniell Cell can
In Daniell Cell, zinc is more electropositive than copper.
generate electricity.
Zinc acts as the negative terminal and copper acts as the
positive terminal.
Zinc donates electrons to form zinc ions, Zn2+.
Electrons flow from zinc electrode to copper electrode through
the external circuit.
At copper electrode, electrons are received by the copper(Il)
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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

ions, Cu2+ in the copper(II) sulphate solution to form copper


atoms.
The continuous flow of electrons from zinc electrode to copper
electrode produces electric current in the Daniell Cell.

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


35) What is the meaning of strong acid
and weak alkali.

36) What is neutralisation?


37) The pH value of glacial ethanoic acid
is 9 but the pH value of dilute
ethanoic acid is 5. Explain why the
pH values of the two substances are
different

38) The pH value of solution ammonia in


water is 9 but the pH value of
solution of ammonia in
trichloromethane is 7 Explain why
the pH values of the two solutions
are different.

39) The pH values of 1.0 mol dm-3 of


ethanoic acid and 1.0 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid is 4 and 1
respectively. Explain the differences.

40) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute


sulphuric acid have the same
concentration of 0.5 mol dm-3. In a
neutralisation experiment, 20 cm3 of
nitric acid is required to neutralise
20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution
but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is
required to neutralise 20 cm3 of
sodium hydroxide solution. Explain
why.

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


41) What is salt?

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Standard Answers
A strong acid is an acid that ionizes / dissociates completely in
water to form high concentration of hydrogen ions, H+
A weak alkali is an alkali that ionises / dissociates partially in
water to form low concentration of hydroxide ions, OH Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base / alkali to
produce salt and water only
Glacial ethanoic acid, CH,COOH is a dry acid (without water)
which is consists of neutral molecules only. There is no
hydrogen ions, H+. Therefore, it does not show acidic property.
In dilute ethanoic acid, the molecules of ethanoic acid ionise to
produce hydrogen ions, H+.
The presence of hydrogen ions, H+ will cause the aqueous
solution of ethanoic acid, show its acidic property.
Dry ammonia gas (or ammonia gas) dissolved in
trichloromethane consists of neutral molecules, NH3 only.
There is no hydroxide ions, OH-. Therefore, it does not show
alkaline property.
In water, the NH3 molecules will ionise to produce hydroxide
ions, OH-.
The presence of hydroxide ions, OH- will cause the aqueous
ammonia solution to show alkaline properties.
Ethanoic acid is a weak acid.
It ionizes partially in water, to produce hydrogen ions with low
concentration. Hence, pH is high.
Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
It ionizes completely in water to produce hydrogen ions with
high concentration. Hence, pH is low.
Nitric acid is a monoprotic acid whereas sulphuric acid is a
diprotic acid.
The concentration of hydrogen ions in sulphuric acid is double
than that in nitric acid.
As a result, the volume of sulphuric acid required is half
compared to nitric acid.

Standard Answers
A salt is a (ionic) compound formed when hydrogen ion, H+ from
an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion, NH4+.

7|P age

42) Describe a chemical test to identify


the presence of carbonate ions,
CO32- in a solution.
43) Describe a chemical test to identify
the presence of chloride ions, CI- in a
solution.
44) Describe a chemical test to identify
the presence of sulphate ions, SO42in a powdered sample given.

45) Describe a chemical test to identify


the presence of nitrate ions, NO3-, in
a solution.

46) Describe a chemical test to identity


the following ions
a) Copper(ll) ion, Cu2+
b) Magnesium ion, Mg2+
c) Zinc ion, Zn2+

47) Describe a chemical test to identify


the following ions;
a) iron(ll) ion, Fe2+
b) iron(Ill) ion, Fe3+

48) Describe a chemical test to


differentiate the lead(Il) ion, Pb2+
and aluminium ion, Al3+.
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Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.


Add 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid into the test tube.
Flow / Bubble the gas liberated immediately through lime water.
The lime water turns milky / chalky.
Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.
Add 2 cm3 of dilute nitric acid into the test tube follow by about
2 cm3 of silver nitrate solution.
A white precipitate is formed.
Dissolve the sample given in distil water to produce solution.
Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.
Add 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid into the test tube followed
by about 2 cm3 of barium chloride solution.
A white precipitate is formed.
Pour 2 cm3 of the solution into a test tube.
Add 2 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid into the test tube followed by
2 cm3 of iron(II) sulphate solution. Shake the mixture well.
Hold the test tube slanted slightly.
Put a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid carefully and
slowly along the side of slanting test tube into the mixture.
A brown ring is formed.
(a) Copper(Il) ion
Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess.
A blue precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess sodium
hydroxide solution.
Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. A blue
precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess ammonia solution
to produce a dark blue solution.
(b) Magnesium ion
Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess
A white precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess sodium
hydroxide solution.
Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. A white
precipitate is formed and insoluble in excess ammonia solution.
(c) Zinc ion
Sodium hydroxide solution is added drop by drop until in excess.
A white precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess sodium
hydroxide solution to form a colourless solution.
Ammonia solution is added drop by drop until in excess. A white
precipitate is formed and dissolves in excess ammonia solution
to form a colourless solution.
(a) iron(II) ion
Pour 2 cm3 of the unknown solution into a test tube.
Add potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution into the test tube.
A dark blue precipitate is formed. Iron(II) ions confirm present.
(b) iron (Ill) ion
Pour 2 cm3 of the unknown solution into a test tube.
Add potassium thiocynate solution into the test tube.
A red blood colouration is formed. Iron(lll) ions confirm present.
Pour 5 cm3 of each solution into two separated test tubes.
Add 2 cm3 potassium iodide solution, KI into each of test tube.
The solution in the test tube produce yellow precipitate consists

Chemistry SPM Quick Review F4

8|P age

49) Describe a chemical test to identify


the presence of ammonium ions,
NH4+ in a solution

Frequently Asked Questions in SPM


50) What is the meaning of alloy?
51) State the aims of making alloys

52) State the optimum conditions for


the Contact process
53) State the optimum conditions for
the Haber process
54) What is the meaning of polymers?
Name the monomer of polythene
and polyvinyl chloride.
55) Bronze is an alloy consists of copper
and tin. Explain why bronze is harder
than copper.

56) Explain the industrial process


involved in the manufacture of
sulphuric acid Write all the chemical
equations involved.

of lead(Il) ion.
Pour 2 cm3 of an unknown solution into a test tube.
Add sodium hydroxide solution is added into the test tube
Heat the mixture and place a damp red litmus paper near the
mouth of test tube.
The damp red litmus paper turns blue. Ammonium ions present.

Standard Answers
Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed
composition in which the major component is a metal.
Improve the appearance of the pure metal
Improve the strength and hardness of the pure metal
Increase the resistance to corrosion of the pure metal
Catalyst
- Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5
Temperature - 450C
Pressure
- 1 atmosphere.
Catalyst
- Iron filling
Temperature - 450C - 550C
Pressure
- 200 atmospheres
Polymers are long chain molecules made up of many identical
repeating units called monomers.
Ethene and chloroethene respectively.
Copper atoms in copper block are of the same sizes and
arranged in an orderly arrangement.
The layers of copper atoms slide over easily if force is applied.
The copper atoms and the tin atoms are of different sizes.
The presence of tin atoms disrupts the orderly arrangement of
copper atoms to bronze block.
This reduces the layers of copper atoms from sliding over one
another easily.
Molten sulphur is burnt in excess air to produce sulphur dioxide
gas.
S + O2 SO2
Sulphur dioxide and excess oxygen gas are passed over
vanadium(V) oxide catalyst at 450C and pressure of 1
atmosphere.
2 SO2 + O2 2 SO3
Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to
form oleum
SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7
The oleum is then diluted in water to produce dilute sulphuric
acid
H2S2O7 + H2O 2 H2SO4

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