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The New York Yankees are

Honored to Support the Commissioning


FPO AE 09579-1721

Dear Friends and Family,

It is truly an honor and a privilege to bring this magnicent warship to New York for her commissioning and
to bring her to life. The commissioning of a naval vessel is traditionally a time of celebration, the welcoming of a
new ship and its crew, to the eet. This ceremony marks the culmination of much hard work and is a symbol of our
great national pride and steadfast resolve. Todays events capture these things, but also encapsulate so much more.
Specically, this commissioning is also a homecoming, a chance for each of us to bring NEW YORK home and
introduce her to all New Yorkers.
September 11, 2001, will forever be a day that stands in the minds of those who experienced it. On that day, all
the citizens of the United States became New Yorkers, and our country was transformed. An act that was meant to
tear us apart and show our weakness brought us together as a nation and made us stronger. With 7.5 tons of steel
recovered from the World Trade Center site and forged into the bow of this ship, the crew of USS NEW YORK will
ensure that the world will never forget that day. The spirit of those who have gone before us inspire us each day.
We draw strength from their sacrice and have placed the mantle of their memory upon our shoulders.
Today, Mrs. Dotty England will help commission NEW YORK with the words, Man our ship and bring her to
life. This moment is the product of several years of planning and dedicated eort by many great Americans. The
shipbuilders of Northrop Grumman persevered in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Gustav to complete
this very special ship built to carry the Navy-Marine Corps team well into the 21st century. Many of those
shipbuilders, as well as the Navys support team, made signicant sacrices to continue production, in order to get
us here today. My heartfelt thanks to them, for their hard work and dedication and to so many more, who were vital
in completing this eort that we now know as NEW YORK.
Additionally, a specic group of people have been relentless in their labors to make this day both a reality and a
success. We could not have reached this moment without the personal support of Governor Paterson and Mayor
Bloomberg. The Commissioning Committee, led by Mr. Robert Woody Johnson and RADM(ret) Robert Ravitz,
have strived for years to bring this day to fruition. All of their work and support is humbly appreciated.
The Navy specically selected the members of the crew before you today for the unique responsibilities and
challenges of pre-commissioning duty. NEW YORK sailors are smart, hard-working and enthusiastic, and they
have done a magnicent job in preparing her for eet service. Each crew member has their own story as to how they
became part of the NEW YORK team. I encourage you to talk to them, to nd out why they have joined, why they
are here and why they serve. I am incredibly proud of each and every one of them!
After commissioning, NEW YORK will take her place in the eet and serve for 40 years as a roving ambassador
and symbol of American technological prowess, industrial might, security personied and dreams fullled.
Thank you for joining us to celebrate the commissioning of this great warship and to commemorate those who
have gone before us.
Strength Forged through Sacrice. Never Forget.
F.C. Jones





New Yorks agricultural

producers are proud to be
part of this historic day.
David A. Paterson, Governor, New York State
Patrick Hooker, Commissioner, New York State
Department of Agriculture & Markets






IPAA Leadership:

The Mission
Matters Most



CONTRIBUTING WRITERS.............................................................................................................. 22
COMMANDING OFFICER ............................................................................................................... 29
EXECUTIVE OFFICER ....................................................................................................................... 31
COMMAND MASTER CHIEF.......................................................................................................... 33


DOROTHY HENNLEIN ENGLAND ............................................................................................... 34

USS New York Sponsor
OFFICIAL SPONSORS ........................................................................................................................ 36

We honor the many lost in the

name of freedom. We remember

USS NEW YORK COMMISSIONING COMMITTEE .............................................................. 39

MARK OF WARRIORS ........................................................................................................................ 41

their sacrifice and congratulate

the crew of LPD 21.

By Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.)

USS NEW YORK: A NEW SHIP, A NEW MISSION, A NEW RESOLVE.............................. 44

Every day, Alions maritime

By Arthur Herman

experts help the Navy

NEW YORK, NEW YORK ................................................................................................................... 58
By Bob McManus

THE MAIN BATTERY .......................................................................................................................... 60

engineer mission success.

Because thats what matters.

By Col. Gary J. Ohls, USMCR (Ret.) and Lt. Col. David F. Overton, USMC (Ret.)

USS NEW YORK WELL DECK AND FLIGHT DECK OPS .................................................... 68
By Mark D. Faram

BUILDING USS NEW YORK ............................................................................................................. 80

Pride Overcomes Construction Challenges
By Edward L. Winter

A SHIP, A STATE, A CITY, AND ITS PEOPLE ........................................................................... 90

By Doug Tsuruoka


For over forty years, ACL has safely transported

thousands of shipments across the Atlantic. This
particular shipment was one tall order!
ACL transported the steel beams that anchor New
York Citys FREEDOM TOWER. The first shipment of 99
beams, ranging in length from 31' to 56', was manufactured in Luxembourg. They were secured at the steel
mill onto ACLs unique 42' flatbed trailers and then
driven directly onto the ACL vessel in Antwerp. The
load presented no problem for the ships 420 metric
ton capacity stern ramp.
Upon arrival in the USA, ACL followed up with the
delivery all the way to the building site at Ground Zero
in New York City. The steel columns that ACL transported
are being used to anchor the FREEDOM TOWER, rising
from approximately 70' below street level.
Shipping to/from Europe, West Africa, Mediterranean
and the world, ACL is the recognized expert in handling
shipments that are too tall, too wide, too long or too
heavy for other carriers. We also carry the component
parts in our containers, making ACL the ideal carrier
for all aspects of project cargo. If your cargo is hard-

(Associated Press Images)

to-handle, remember to call ACL first!


The Mission
Matters Most

THE WAY AHEAD FOR AMERICAS SEA SERVICES ........................................................... 98
A Strategy for the 21st Century
By Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.)

EXPEDITIONARY WARFARE COMES OF AGE IN WORLD WAR II............................... 110

Naval Architecture.

By George Daughan

Marine Engineering.

THE LEGACY OF THE SHIPS NEW YORK ..............................................................................124

Program and Acquisition

By James L. Nelson


ITS IMPACT ON AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE ...............................................................................132

Production Support.

By Col. Gary J. Ohls, USMCR (Ret.)

With 70 years of innovation

THE NAVY AND NEW YORK CITY............................................................................................. 144
By Richard H. Wagner


A TRADITION CARRIES ON IN USS NEW YORK (LPD 21) ................................................156

and experience, Alion helps

you achieve your mission.
Because thats what matters.

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

By Colin E. Babb

A HISTORY OF THE NEW YORK COUNCIL ............................................................................ 162

Navy League of the United States
By Richard H. Wagner


PRESIDENT OF NORTHROP GRUMMAN SHIPBUILDING ................................................ 171
By John D. Gresham and Susan L. Kerr

PLANKOWNERS ................................................................................................................................. 177



Colin E. Babb
Colin Babb is a senior writer with Naval Air Systems Command, and he previously served for more than six years
as an associate editor for U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings and Naval History magazines. He is currently working on
his doctorate in military history at the University of Maryland in College Park. email: m_canard@yahoo.com
Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.)
Rear Adm. Callos latest book, John Paul Jones: Americas First Sea Warrior, earned the Naval Orders Samuel
Eliot Morison Award. He has also written three books about Adm. Lord Nelson and was U.S. editor for Whos Who
in Naval History. He writes frequently on naval subjects for magazines and newspapers. Callo is a Yale University
NROTC graduate, and he earned a Surface Warfare designation during two years of sea duty in the U.S. Navys
Atlantic Amphibious Force. He was a senior advertising agency executive and a producer for NBC-TV and PBS
programs. He earned a Peabody Award as line producer for the NBC-TV prime time program, Tut: The Boy King,
and a Telly Award for his script The Second Life of 20 West Ninth, which aired on the History Channel and PBS.
He is a Naval History magazine Author of the Year. email: jfc1952@aol.com
George Daughan
George Daughan holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He spent three years in the United States Air Force during the Vietnam War and was an instructor at the Air Force Academy. Subsequently, he taught at the University of
Colorado, the University of New Hampshire, Wesleyan University, and Connecticut College. He is the author most
recently of: If By Sea: The Forging of the American Navy From the Revolution to the War of 1812, for which he
received the Samuel Eliot Morison Award from the Naval Order of the United States. email: georgekayd@aol.com
Mark D. Faram
Mark Faram is currently the senior staff writer and the Hampton Roads Bureau Chief for the Navy Times.
His assignments have taken him on board scores of U.S. Navy operating units, including USS San Antonio,
the first of the Amphibious Transport Dock (LPD)-class ships. His interests include researching and writing
about the lives and history of those in the Navy and he has published a book entitled Faces of War The
Untold Story of Edward Steichens World War II Photographers. Faram served on active duty in the Navy
for nine years as a photographers mate and as a diver, second class, and he continues to apply his special
combination of writing and photographic skills in his work. He is a graduate of the Military Photojournalism
Program at Syracuse University. email: mark@markfaram.com
John D. Gresham
John D. Gresham lives in Fairfax, Va. He is an author, researcher, game designer, photographer, and military commentator with numerous publishing, design, speaking, and television appearance credits in his
portfolio. He was the primary researcher and partner to Tom Clancy on his best-selling series of non-fiction
guided tour books about military units. These include Submarine (1993), Armored Cav (1994), Fighter
Wing (1995), Marine (1996), Airborne (1997), Carrier (1999), and Special Forces (2001), all published by
Berkley Books.
His book DEFCON-2 (with Norman Polmar), a new single-volume history of the Cuban missile crisis,
was published in 2006. His latest book, Beyond Hell and Back (October 2007, with Dwight Zimmerman),
describes seven key U.S. special operations missions. email: teknrdprod1@aol.com
Arthur Herman
Arthur Herman has authored ve books. His latest, Gandhi and Churchill: The Epic Rivalry That Destroyed an
Empire and Forged Our Age (2008), was a nalist for the Pulitzer Prize. His previous book, Rule the Waves: How the
British Navy Shaped the Modern World (2004), moved him to the forefront of American naval historians and was a
U.S. and Canadian best-seller. How the Scots Invented the Modern World (2001), a New York Times best-seller, sold a
half-million copies. His military analyses appeared in Commentary, The Wall Street Journal, New York Post, and Wall
Street Journal Asia. His Commentary article predicting the success of the Iraq surge circulated at senior Pentagon
and White House levels, while his article, Who Owns The Vietnam War?, was featured in a public discussion with
Henry Kissinger at the New York Historical Society. He has been commentator on military matters on major network
television news programs. email: drarthurherman@comcast.net


For employment opportunities, visit www.buschjobs.com


Bob McManus
Bob McManus has lived in Buffalo, Binghamton, Albany, Brooklyn, and Manhattan. He is editorial page editor of The
New York Post and a Cold War veteran of the U.S. Navys submarine service. email: snipe303@mac.com
James L. Nelson
James L. Nelson was born and grew up in Lewiston, Maine, and after working in the television industry for two
years he ran away to sea, sailing aboard reproductions of three famous ships of the Age of Sail: Golden Hind, Lady
Washington and HMS Rose. In 1994, Nelson finished By Force of Arms, his first book, and married former shipmate Lisa Page. They now live in Harpswell, Me., with their four children. Nelson has written 14 books, both fiction
and nonfiction. His novel Glory in the Name was the 2004 winner of the American Library Association/William
Young Boyd Award for best Military Fiction and his latest nonfiction work, George Washingtons Secret Navy was
selected for the 2009 Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval History. He is a graduate of UCLA Film School. Noted
author Patrick OBrian described Nelson as a master of both his period and the English language.
email: jlnelson@suscom-maine.net
Col. Gary J. Ohls, USMCR (Ret.)
Gary Ohls currently serves as associate professor of Joint Maritime Operations in the Naval War College Program
at the Naval Post Graduate School. He received a Ph.D. in history from Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas,
holds three masters degrees, and is a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, R.I. Prior to
his current assignment, Professor Ohls served as a member of the Maritime History Department at the Naval War College in Newport. Colonel Ohls served 35 years in the United States Marine Corps, including duty as an enlisted man,
regular ofcer, reserve ofcer, and reserve ofcer on active duty. During this service, he performed in both command
and staff positions at various locations worldwide and at sea. Additionally, he has worked in management positions
with Northrop Grumman Corporation and the Aerospace Corporation. email: gjohls@nps.edu
Lt. Col. David F. Overton, USMC (Ret.)
David F. Overton, MS, is associate professor of Joint Maritime Operations at the U.S. Naval War College in Monterey, Calif., and adjunct faculty for the Marine Corps University Command and Staff College Distance Education
Program. He served 26 years in the U.S. Marine Corps; four years as an enlisted electronics technician and 22 years
as a Naval Flight Ofcer in the EA-6B Prowler aircraft. He has more than 2,000 ight hours, with 250 hours logged in
air combat operations. He and his wife, Susanne, are both Norwalk, Conn., natives. He is a retired lieutenant colonel
and now resides in Monterey with his wife. email: dfoverto@nps.edu
Doug Tsuruoka
Doug Tsuruoka is a former foreign correspondent who has worked for Newsweek, the Far Eastern Economic Review,
AP-Dow Jones News Service and other publications. He is currently an editor at Investors Business Daily. A native New
Yorker, Tsuruoka spent his early years editing community papers in Brooklyn. He also worked on the staff of the New York
State Assembly and the New York City Board of Correction. He graduated from Harvard College and the Graduate School
of Journalism at Columbia University. email: dudtsuru54@aol.com
Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner is a writer and photographer specializing in ships and history. He is the editor of The Log, the ofcial
journal of the Navy League of the United States, New York Council and publishes Beyondships.com, which is devoted to
ships and naval history. His articles have also appeared in The Supreme Court Historical Society Quarterly, the World
Ship Society Porthole, the Journal of Supreme Court History, and the New York Law Journal Magazine. Mr. Wagner holds
degrees from Cornell University, John G. Hagan School of Business and Pace University School of Law. He also studied
law at Cambridge University. A member of the New York bar, he was Senior Litigation Counsel for Verizon and appeared
regularly before the federal and New York courts. He is an ofcer and director of the New York Council of the Navy
League and a member of the Naval Order of the United States. email: lognynlus@aol.com
Edward L. Winter
Edward Winter, APR, is manager of communications for the Avondale Facility of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding
Gulf Coast. He has worked at the Avondale shipyard in the New Orleans area, where USS New York (LPD 21) was built, for
nearly 25 years in various positions in employee relations, public affairs, public relations, and communications. A native
of New Orleans and a graduate of the University of New Orleans, Winter is an accredited member of the Public Relations
Society of America and a member of the International Association of Business Communicators and the Press Club of New
Orleans. He is also a board member of the Jefferson Parish Chamber of Commerce and Raintree Children Services. He
resides in the New Orleans area with his wife of 25 years, Yolanda, and the couple has one daughter, Emily.
email: ed.winter@ngc.com


Looking to the future with their

strength and spirit in mind.
Empire BlueCross BlueShield is proud to support the launch of the
USS New York, representing the best of our city and the people we serve.

Services provided by Empire HealthChoice HMO, Inc. and/or Empire HealthChoice Assurance, Inc., licensees
of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, an association of independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans.

North American Headquarters

701 North West Shore Blvd.
Tampa, FL 33609, USA
Tel. (813) 639-1900 Fax (813) 639-4344


NOVEMBER 7, 2009

Strength Forged Through Sacrice. Never Forget.

Ross W. Jobson and Peter M. Antell
Chief Operating Ofcer
Lawrence Roberts
Vice President,
Business Development
Robin Jobson
Assistant to the Publisher
Alexis Vars
Project Director
Jim Huston
Project Lead
Ken Meyer
Account Executives
Stevan Ball
John Grifn, Lt. USN (Ret.)
Adam Longaker, Jim Pidcock
Jay Powers, Gary Radloff
Derek Robinson, Adrian Silva
Robert John Thorne
Director of Information Systems
John Madden

Contributing Writers
Colin E. Babb, Rear Adm. Joseph F.
Callo USNR (Ret.), George Daughan
Mark D. Faram, John D. Gresham
Arthur Herman, Bob McManus
James L. Nelson, Col. Gary J. Ohls
USMCR (Ret.), Lt. Col. David F. Overton
USMC (Ret.), Doug Tsuruoka,
Richard H. Wagner, Edward L. Winter
Editorial Director
Charles Oldham



Consulting Editor
Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo
USNR (Ret.)
Senior Editor
Ana E. Lopez
Rhonda Carpenter
Iwalani Kahikina
Assistant Editor
Steven Hoarn
Art Director
Robin K. McDowall
Design and Production
Rebecca Laborde
Daniel Mrgan
Lorena Noya
Kenia Y. Perez
Production Assistant
Lindsey Brooks
Editorial Intern
Stephanie Whitehall

%0:)0- +6
35$77 :+,71(<%2(,1*

Sales Support
Joshua J. Roberts
Ofce Administrator
Aisha Shazer

Clyde Sanchez
Cover photo courtesy
of Northrop Grumman
Copyright 2009, Faircount Media Group. All rights reserved. Reproduction of editorial content in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.
Faircount Media Group does not assume responsibility for the advertisements, nor any representation made therein, nor the quality or deliverability of the
products themselves. Reproduction of articles and photographs, in whole or in part, contained herein is prohibited without expressed written consent of the publisher, with the exception of reprinting for news media use. Printed in the United States of America. Permission to use various images and text in this publication
was obtained from the U.S. Department of Defense and its agencies, and in no way is used to imply an endorsement by any U.S. Department of Defense entity
for any claims or representations therein. None of the advertising contained herein implies U.S. government, U.S. Department of Defense or U.S. Department of
the Navy endorsement of any private entity or enterprise. This is not a publication of the U.S. Department of Defense or the U.S. government.

)5$1./,167 32%2;


More than seven tons of steel that once towered above a nation
will now be put into service to protect it.
With more than seven tons of steel from the World Trade Center forged into her bow, the USS New York has entered
service as a fully commissioned ship in the greatest Navy on earth. Campbell-Ewald and The Interpublic Group of
Companies are proud to serve as sponsors of such an inspirational part of Americas past, present and future.

Photograph courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding.

Strength forged through sacrice. Never forget.

The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey celebrates the commissioning of USS New York.



Cmdr. F. Curtis Jones was born and raised in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
He has most recently been on the staff of the Naval Personnel Command (NPC) as deputy director of Surface Warfare Ofcer Distribution. While attached to NPC, he deployed to Afghanistan and
became part of Joint Task Force Paladin, the counter-improvised explosive device team.
He previously served as executive ofcer of USS Coronado (AGF 11), the agship of the Commander, Third Fleet based in San Diego. Prior to duty on USS Coronado, Jones was assigned to the
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) in Omaha, Neb., as an emergency actions ofcer
and later became aide-de-camp for the Deputy Commander, USSTRATCOM.
Jones previous sea duty included the pre-commissioning crew of USS Bataan (LHD 5), both in
Pascagoula, Miss., and Norfolk, Va., and as chief engineer for USS Cleveland (LPD 7), homeported in
San Diego. There he received the Surface Navy Associations Arleigh Burke Award for operational
His initial sea assignment was in 1989 on the USS San Jose (AFS 7), homeported in Guam. From
1989 to 1993 he made deployments to the Western Pacic and the Middle East, including Operation
Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.
A 1989 graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a bachelors degree in philosophy, Jones received his commission through the Navy Reserve Ofcer Training Corps at MIT.
He earned a masters degree in national security affairs from the Naval Postgraduate School in
Monterey, Calif., where he was active in student government and served a term as chairman of the
Ofcer Student Advisory Committee.
Jones personal awards include the Defense Meritorious Medal (two awards), Meritorious Service
Medal (three awards), Navy Commendation Medal (two awards), Navy Achievement Medal (two
awards), and the Army Achievement Medal.




Cmdr. Erich Schmidt was most recently on the staff of the Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces
Command as the current readiness ofcer.
He previously served as chief of staff for Maritime Pre-positioning Ship Squadron One,
forward-deployed to the Mediterranean. Prior to duty with the squadron, Schmidt was assigned to the Operational Test and Evaluation Force Command in Norfolk, Va., as the operational test director for the Navys newest amphibious ship type, the San Antonio class.
Previous sea duty included USS Sides (FFG 14), homeported in San Diego, where he
served as operations ofcer. During that tour, the Sides was awarded the Battle E award
for operational excellence on a deployment to the Western Pacic in support of a readiness
and training exercise with ve allied navies. He later served as operations ofcer in USS
Austin (LPD 4), homeported in Norfolk.
In 1997, Schmidt was assigned to the Expeditionary Warfare Training Group, Pacic in
San Diego, Calif., as an instructor in amphibious warfare, where he qualied as a master
training specialist.
Schmidts initial sea assignment in 1992 was with the USS South Carolina (CGN 37),
aboard which he deployed to the Mediterranean and Adriatic in support of peace-keeping
operations in Bosnia. In 1995 he served on the staff of Commander, Amphibious Squadron
Five, where he was supporting arms coordinator and assistant operations ofcer, deploying to the Western Pacic and the Arabian Gulf.
Schmidt graduated from the University of Arizona in 1991 with a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering, receiving his commission through the Navy Reserve Ofcer Training Corps. He earned a masters degree in educational technology in 2004 from Troy State
Schmidts personal awards include the Navy Commendation Medal (four awards), the
Navy Achievement Medal (three awards), and numerous campaign and unit citations.


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CMDCM(SW) Robert W. Stocklin has served on active duty for 28 years.
Stocklins most recent assignment was command master chief of Naval
Support Activity Mid-South in Millington, Tenn. He was previously command
master chief of USS John L. Hall (FFG 32), homeported in Pascagoula.
Prior to serving in USS John L. Hall, he was CMC of USS Portland (LSD
37), during which time he deployed with Amphibious Task Force East,
landing Marines in the Gulf Region in advance of the initial air strikes at
the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Previous sea duty included USS Inchon (MCS 12), where he served as
legal ofcer and force protection ofcer; USS Detroit (AOE 4), where he was
legal ofcer; and USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63), where he served in the legal department.
Stocklin entered active service in 1981 at the Great Lakes, Ill., Recruit
Training Center, receiving yeoman training at A School prior to reporting
to USS Peterson (DD 969) in 1982. He earned a legalman rating, attended
Naval Justice School, and served in the staff judge advocates ofce in Newport, R.I. He is a native of Philadelphia, Pa.
Other shore assignments included a Naval Legal Service Ofce Detachment in Corpus Christi, Texas, and the Senior Enlisted Academy in Newport, R.I.
Stocklins personal awards include the Navy Commendation Medal (four
awards), the Navy Achievement Medal (two awards), and the Good Conduct
Medal (ve awards).



USS New York Sponsor
With a rm two-handed swing, the bottle
shattered and the Champagne sprayed over
the bow of a ship with a unique place in
history from her very beginning. The future
USS New Yorks sponsor, Dotty England,
spoke the essential words: In honor of the
city, the state, and the people of New York and
in the name of the United States of America,
I christen thee New York. May God bless this
ship and all who sail in her.
With the words of that time-honored naval ceremony, including the accompanying expression of hope for the safety of
those who defend our country on and from the sea, the wife of
then-Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon England brought a
new ship another signicant step closer to becoming an ofcial
part of the United States Navy.
With her words, England was leading a traditional observance that has been an essential step in making a ship an ofcial unit of the United States Navy since the nations founding
more than two centuries ago. In this instance it was a ship with
a very special link to 9-11 and New Yorkers.
Following the ceremony at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding
in Avondale, La., she added a personal note:
For me it is a humbling and profound honor to represent
the victims, their families, and the heroes of 9-11, the people
of New York, and all Americans in sponsoring this ship. Navy
tradition says that during christening the ship receives the
spirit of the sponsor. But with this unique ship, we now give
it not only my spirit but the spirit of the 9/11 heroes, the spirit
of New Yorkers, and the indomitable American spirit. We will
keep that same spirit in our hearts and minds forever. We
will never forget our heroes and their loved ones, and we will
never forget all those who stand on watch today to preserve
our freedoms and liberties.
England is a native of Maryland and is a proud resident of
Fort Worth, Texas. She and her husband met when they were
students at the University of Maryland, and they were married
in the campus chapel. She and former Secretary England
have three grown children and three grandchildren. During
her husbands service in Washington, she divided her time
between Texas and Virginia and took an active interest
in community and cultural affairs in both locations. While


her husband was serving two separate tours as Secretary

of the Navy during 4.5 years between 2001 and 2006, she
devoted her time to the families of the men and women of
the Navy and Marine Corps, with particular emphasis on
their housing, medical care, and the other special needs of
our U.S. Navy and Marine Corps families. Presently she is
enjoying activities with her extended family, traveling, and
participating in community activities in Fort Worth.
As part of her role as the sponsor of USS New York, Mrs. England also focused on the well-being of the shipyard workers
who were part of the ships construction team. She pointed out
that those workers, many of whom had their homes destroyed
and their families dispersed by Hurricane Katrina, had remained undaunted in carrying out the important work of building not only a ship, but a tribute to the spirit of America and to
the spirit of New York.
In 2003, Mrs. England participated in the ceremonial pouring of 7.5 tons of steel salvaged from the World Trade Center
Twin Towers to form USS New Yorks bow stem. She also ofciated over the keel laying of the ship in 2004.
When asked to describe her role as the sponsor of USS New
York. Mrs. England put strong emphasis on the future:
While part of USS New Yorks motto is Never Forget, its
very important to think in terms of this ships future and her
important role in the defense of the United States. The men
and women of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps who will go to
sea in USS New York embody the rst half of the ships motto:
Strength Forged through Sacrice, and they deserve every bit
of support we can give them in the coming days and years. They
are the best our nation has to offer, and they will be involved in
difcult and at times dangerous tasks, and I will do my part
in seeing that they continue to get the support they need and
deserve. The last lines of that promise reect the nal part of
the traditional role of a ships sponsor: remain in contact with
the ships crew in the future.

T&CO. 2009




The USS New York Commissioning Committee would
like to express appreciation for the generous support
of corporations, foundations, other organizations and
individuals. Listed by level of giving, they include:

City of New York
Robert Wood Johnson IV, Owner and Chairman, New York Jets
Merrill Lynch
New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets
INTREPID Sea, Air and Space Museum
New York Yankees
North American Airlines
Conde Nast
New York Yacht Club
Tiffany & Co.
Campbell-Ewald Advertising
DeVito Fitterman Advertising
Interpublic Group
Navy League of the United States, New York Council
New York Post
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
September 11th Families Association
American Society of Composers,
Authors and Publishers (ASCAP)
American Defense Systems, Inc.
Rear Adm. Joseph Callo, USNR (Ret.) and
Capt. Sally McElwreath Callo, USN (Ret.)
DRS Technologies, Inc.
Fairbanks Morse Engine
Gryphon Technologies
Hess Companies


Home Box Ofce (HBO)

L-3 Communications Corporation
Mutual of America
Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding
Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems
Rolls-Royce Naval Marine, Inc.
Florence and Robert A. Rosen Foundation
Treadwell Corporation
American Legion Post 754, New York Athletic Club
ASCO Power Technologies
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Benaroya
Dunkin Donuts
Faircount Media Group
H&H Bagels
New York Community Bank Foundation
Northrop Grumman Information Systems
Mr. and Mrs. Erik Olstein
Juliette and Frank Reidy
Lt. and Mrs. Norman Keller, USNR (Ret.)
Mr. and Mrs. David Molloy
Overseas Military Sales Corporation
Sandy Hook Pilots
Sperry Marine Northrop Grumman
Matt Wilson Insite Media, LLC
Ms. Pauline Brown
Fleet Reserve Association, Northeast Region Fund, Erie, Pa.
Knights of Columbus, Cavallero Council, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Scott Koen
The Wolkowski Family


American Legion, St. Stanislaus Memorial Post 1771,
Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Kenneth Anderson, USNR (Ret.)
Mr. Arthur S. Bookbinder
Ms. Martha Duncan and Ms. Maggie Thompson
EWA Technologies, Inc.
Fleet Reserve Association Branch 115, Bethlehem, Pa.
Albert Fried & Company, LLC
Mr. and Mrs. F. Thomas Jones
Mr. Timothy Jones
Mr. Michael A. Kling
Mr. J. Robert Lunney
Mr. Michael Luper
Mrs. Marilyn McLellan
Marine Corps League, ET Brisson Detachment, Naples, Fla.
Marine Corps League Troy, New York Detachment
Naval Reserve Association,
ENS James Burke Chapter, Larchmont, N.Y.
Omni Financial
Mr. Raymond Saleeby
Mr. Kevin Wensing
Mr. William Adelaar
American Legion, Board of Education Post 1088, Bronx, N.Y.
American Legion, Dan OConnell Post 272
American Legion, Patrick J. Salessio Post 1310,
Staten Island, N.Y.
American Legion, Samuel H. Young Post
American Legion Watkins-Kellett Post 277, Staten Island, N.Y.
Capt. Robert S. Bazan, USN
Mr. Bryan Birch
Catholic War Veterans Post 1934, Staten Island, N.Y.
Catholic War Veterans, Eugene L. Kelley Post 1937,
Pine Bush, N.Y.
Capt. Matthew Coffey, USNR (Ret.)
Commander, Naval Enlisted Reserve Association 3rd District
Mr. and Mrs. Donald P. Dillon
Mr. Bernard Eldredge
Mr. John Festa
Fleet Reserve Association Branch 226, Staten Island, N.Y.
Fleet Reserve Association, Long Island Branch 071
Fleet Reserve Association, James R. Smith, RVPNE
FRA, NERA, AL, Scranton, Pa.
Mrs. Antonia Fontana
Mr. Timothy Forbes
Radioman 1st Class Richard K. Hadley, USN (Ret.)
Mr. John M. Harrington
Joe Buff Incorporated
Korean War Veterans Association Chapter 171, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Korean War Veterans Association, Rockland County

Korean War Veterans, Central Long Island Chapter

Ladies Auxiliary, FRA Northeast, Manchester, N.J.
Ladies Auxiliary, FRA Unit 124, Lakehurst, N.J.
Ladies Auxiliary, FRA Unit 226
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Langan
Marine Corps League, Catskill Detachment
Masonic War Veterans Post 6, Staten Island, N.Y.
Mr. James V. Mazzone, Sr.
Mr. Albert Menendez
Naval Enlisted Reserve Association, USS Briarcliff Chapter,
Staten Island, N.Y.
Nicholas & Lence Communications LLC
Northeast New York State Chapter of the Chosin Few, Inc.
Mr. Jose Noyes
Mr. Benedict P. Reyes
Mr. John Reynolds
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United Staten Island Veterans Organization
Veterans of Foreign Wars, Argonne Marine Park Post 107,
Brooklyn, N.Y.
Veterans of Foreign Wars, Ridgewood Post 123
Mr. Benedict J. Vilardo
Mr. and Mrs. Viviano
Mr. Russell Warshay
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Mr. Adrienne Zysman

Empire State Building
Gray Line New York
Hard Rock Cafe New York
I Love NY
L&B Spumoni Gardens
Mini Cards NYC
Modells Sporting Goods
NYC & Company
New Yorker Hotel
New York Marriott Downtown
New York Marriott Marquis
Planet Hollywood
Silverstein Properties
Starbright Floral Designs





Dorothy Hennlein England
Robert Wood Johnson IV
Rear Adm. Robert A. Ravitz, USN (Ret.)
Matthew J. Harrington
Merrill Lynch
Harold Z. Steinbrenner
Capt. Sally C. McElwreath, USN (Ret.)
Cmdr. Peter D. Galasinao, USN (Ret.)
Richard T. Kenney
Peter A. Wolkowski
Fund Raising: Erik K. Olstein, Chairman. Joseph Benaroya,
Senior Chief James E. Brown, USN (Ret.), BMCM(SW) Eugene Culligan, USN (Ret.),
The Hon. Steven S. Honigman, Councilwoman Sheila Marcotte
Special Events: Jenna Marrone, Chairwoman. Christopher Hughes, Kerri Giovanelli
Crew/Family Event Coordination: Jenna Marrone and Donald H. Rullman Sr., co-chairs.
Larry Bamberger, Ira Goldberg, John Romanovsky
Media: Christopher Mittendorf
Web Site: JOC Kerry E. Smith, USNR (Ret.), James Barker, Merrilly Noeth
Sponsor Relations: John R. Dillard, Chairman. Peter A. Wolkowski
Government Liaison: Capt. Christopher P. Boylan, USN (Ret.)
INTREPID Sea, Air & Space Museum Liaison: Lisa Yaconiello
Internal Ship Theme: Capt. Frank Pascual, USN
Advertising: Anthony DeVito
Gifts: Richard H. Wagner
Committee Members
Jennifer Adams, Rob Binns, Lt. Col. Robert Black, NYNM, Bryan Birch, Larry Brennan, Lu Caldara,
Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.), Phil Crosland, Chris DeVito, Joan Donovan,
Linda Federici, Steven Forsyth, Robert Haggerty, Matthew Higgins, The Hon. John G. Ingram,
Ross Jobson, Jonathan Jones, Clarice Joynes, William Kraus, Lee Ielpi, The Hon. Vincent I. Leibell,
Steve Loevsky, J. Robert Lunney, James Mazzone, Debbi McCallam, James D. McDonough,
Capt. Andrew McGovern, Capt. Henry Mahlmann, Jack McDermott,
Roger Newman, Richard Othmer, Rear Adm. Robert A. Rosen, NYNM, Ralph Slane, Kenneth Sparks,
Thomas Spina, Dr. Daniel M. Thys, MD, Capt. Kevin Wensing, USN (Ret.), Ken Winkler
Navy Commissioning Coordinator
William Huesmann
Commissioning Protocol
Janice Comber



By Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.)

It was a warm, crystal clear morning on March 1, 2008, as guests gathered at

Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding in Avondale, La. They were at the shipyard for
the christening of USS New York (LPD 21). There was a special anticipation in
the air that you could feel. The speeches and the music punctuated regularly
by heartfelt applause moved briskly. As the ship rode comfortably at her
mooring lines, Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Gary Roughead distilled her
mission into a few words: to be globally positioned and to take the ght forward.
Then came the climax. New Yorks sponsor Dotty
Hennlein England gave a determined swing, shattering the Champagne bottle on the ships bow. Then
she followed quickly with an historic declaration and
an ancient blessing: I christen thee New York. Godspeed to all who sail in her.

A Special Mark
The bow of the ship towered up and over the ofcial party during the christening ceremony, and
there were two things that were very special about
that bow. The rst was that it contains seven and a
half tons of steel reclaimed from the World Trade
Center after 9/11. The second was a small reproduction of New Yorks coat of arms generally referred to
as the ships crest that had been xed to the ships
bow for the ceremony.
Its hard to image anyone focusing on the small
crest in the excitement of the moment. Few perhaps

nobody actually thought about its importance to

the men and women who would take New York to
sea. But the details of that crest are very signicant.
Those who will bring New York to life at the moment
of commissioning in the United States Navy and
those who follow them in her crew will surely shape
a true character for their ship day by day. But the
crest is the beginning of that process. And it will
also be an ongoing reminder of how and why this
special ship came to be.
The tradition of the coat of arms goes back thousands of years, appearing rst in Egypt, before the
recorded dynasties of the pharaohs. In those dim
early times, the predecessor to the coat of arms was
called a serekh, and it was used to identify military allegiances as well as the products of different
groups. The use of coats of arms for towns, families,
military units, and kings and queens burgeoned
during medieval times, and that usage continues today as a distinctive mark for ships of the U.S. Navy.


With thousands observing, Dotty H. England (right), ships sponsor, triumphantly raises the Champagne bottle she used to christen LPD 21, New York. The fth Northrop
Grumman-built amphibious transport dock ship of the San Antonio class contains 7.5 tons of World Trade Center steel in her bow. Joining England in celebration are
(left to right) U.S. Navy Cmdr. F. Curtis Jones, LPD 21s prospective commanding ofcer; her husband, then-Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon England; and Northrop
Grumman Shipbuilding President Mike Petters.

Toward the top of USS New Yorks
crest there is a cluster of elements that
connect the ship with New York State and
New York City. First, there are seven golden rays of light, representing the seven
rays of light projecting from the crown of
the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.
And there is a coincidence in the number
of light rays and the seven seas that will
be New Yorks domain. Then there is a
depiction of the hills and lakes of New
York State, along with curved rows of maple leaves, all adapted from the ofcial
seal of New York State.
Beneath the cluster of items representative of New York State and New


York City, there is a shield. Within the

shield there is a gray chevron pointed
upward, representing New Yorks bow,
which contains the steel from the Twin
Towers. There also are two gray bars
representing the Twin Towers. A phoenix is depicted rising from the ames
of the 9/11 attack. On the phoenixs
breast there is a small shield with two
drops of blood that represent the sacrice of life of the rst responders, as
well as blue, red, and light blue stripes
representing the New York Police Department, the Fire Department of New
York, and the Port Authority of New
York and New Jersey respectively.
Three stars symbolize the three battle
stars earned by the battleship New
York (BB 34) during the Atlantic and
Pacic actions of World War II.
Behind the shield there are crossed
swords; one is a ceremonial sword for a
U.S. Marine enlisted person and the other is a ceremonial sword for a U.S. Navy
enlisted person. The crossed swords
focus on the historic importance of the
enlisted men and women of the Navy
and the Marine Corps. They also re-

mind us of the important links between

the Navy and Marine Corps. Finally, the
traditional Navy colors of blue and gold
are prominent in the crest, with blue
representing the sea and gold symbolizing excellence.

Food for Thought

The words Never Forget are emblazoned at the bottom of the crest. Those
words are the second half of New Yorks
motto: Strength Forged through Sacrice. Never Forget. Those six words
carry a double message.
There is appropriate emphasis on the
importance of remembering the attack
on innocent civilians on 9/11 as well as
those who responded with great courage on that day, running toward danger
and their duty when everyone else was
running away from peril.
Of equal importance, the statement is
also forward looking. It reminds us of the
special strength of the men and women
who will take USS New York to sea now
and in the future in defense of their
country and their fellow citizens.

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

Today, and among other things, a

ships crest reminds us of the individuality of each Navy vessel. Those ships may
be manufactured in colossal shipyard
assembly lines, they may be part of a
class of similar ships, and they may frequently be ordered about in squadrons
or eets, but any sailor will tell you that
each ship takes on a distinct personality
all its own.

Returning the Salute.


n this special day, the families

and friends of those we lost at the
Pentagon on September 11, 2001 rise
together to salute the crew and mission
of the U.S.S. New York.
We stand with you in our belief
that patriotism is a moral duty; that
freedom must be defended; and that a
vigorous defense of freedom is the only
guarantee of Americas enduring liberty.
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 200l took more than 3,000
lives in New York City, Shanksville, Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C.
The Pentagon Memorial Fund, Inc. was organized by the families of
victims to build and maintain a quiet, dignied shrine of reection to
remember and honor the 184 men, women and children who lost their
lives in attack on the Pentagon.
Ofcially dedicated on September 11, 2008, the Pentagon
Memorial reminds visitors that every one of these lost lives was special
their dreams cut short, their loved ones left behind. The Pentagon
Memorial will remind all who visit that patriotism is a moral duty; that
freedom comes at a price; and that the victims of the September attacks
paid the ultimate price.
The Pentagon Memorial is now complete, but critical resources
are still needed to preserve and maintain it for future generations of
visitors from around the world. Your support today can ensure that new
generations always have a special place to visit, to learn about and reect
on the events on September 11, 2001.

Please contribute on-line by going to:

Or mail your tax-deductible gift to:
Pentagon Memorial Fund, Inc.
P.O. Box 3879
Gaithersburg, MD 20885

remember. reect. renew.

e Penttago
gon Memo
al Fund
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By Arthur Herman

USS New York (LPD 21) is also about the size of a young battleship. The famous Royal Navy battleship Dreadnought and
Germanys feared Graf Spee in World War II displaced less
tonnage. Her length of 684 feet is 110 feet longer than her behemoth World War II namesake, the battleship New York (BB
34). Today she arms herself with 30 mm chain guns and Rolling Airframe Missile launchers instead of 14-inch guns; and
she carries a multitude of technologies that would bewilder
the builders of the old battlewagon. Yet New Yorks four supercharged diesel engines give her a top speed nearly twice that
of comparable ships of the World War II engine era, with the
smooth handling of a speedboat.
USS New York is special in another way, as well. In her bow
she carries 7.5 tons of steel melted down from the ruins of the
World Trade Center. Everywhere she goes she will be a visible
and deant reminder of the 3,000 lives lost in the attack eight
years ago on 9/11: the worst attack ever suffered on American
New Yorks motto is Strength Forged through Sacrice.
Never Forget. Her mission is force projection in the 21st century. This is a ship built for action on a truly global scale.
She is designed to transport and land some 800 Marines,
plus their equipment and supplies, using LCAC air cushion
landing craft and EFVs, or Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles,
which travel as efciently on land as they do at sea. These she
can carry in her 24,000 square feet of vehicle deck space,
along with an LCU (Landing Craft Utility), which can transport
three M1A1 Abrams battle tanks at a time. In addition, shell


offer a ride to more Marines using various combinations of MV22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, CH-53 Super Stallion helicopters, or
CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters, from her ight deck.
Historically, the U.S. Navys mission has dictated the shape
of every naval vessel bearing the name New York. There was
the gunboat of the American Revolution that served on strategically important Lake Champlain and the frigate that protected
U.S. commerce in the Mediterranean during the Quasi-War
with France. There was a 74-gun ship of the line built for a Navy
of wooden walls and iron men, when America sought to defend
herself from possible European adversaries. There was an armored cruiser commissioned in 1893, on the eve of the building
of the Panama Canal and creation of Americas rst blue-water
eet. Then came the battleship New York (BB 34), which was

Photo courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

A San Antonio-class amphibious transport

dock (or LPD) is an impressive sight at sea or
in port. She may not have the majestic presence of a eet aircraft carrier or the sleek
lines of an Aegis destroyer. But her broad,
condent bulk sits easy in the water; her massive twin masts stand proudly against the sky.


The future USS New York (LPD 21) during builders trials, a major piece of a new amphibious paradigm.

commissioned in 1917 and which served with distinction in two

world wars.
New York (LPD 21) is the sixth U.S. Navy ship to carry that
name and fth in her class of amphibious transport dock ships,
which are an essential part of the new face of amphibious/expeditionary warfare in the 21st century.
Once upon a time, amphibious/expeditionary warfare was
the neglected stepchild of naval strategy.
Americans have always been superb at putting ghting men
into action on land from the sea. The Navys rst major amphibious operation came during the Mexican War in 1847, when its
ships landed more than 13,000 troops at Vera Cruz. It was the
single largest number of American soldiers to disembark on
hostile foreign soil until D-Day in World War II.

That latter war also saw the famous Marine amphibious assaults at Tarawa, Iwo Jima, Saipan, and a host of other lesser
islands. And of course, the Navy and Army joined forces in the
biggest and most famous amphibious attack of them all: D-Day,
on June 6, 1944.
A successful amphibious landing could change the course
of a war, as D-Day proved, and later Gen. Douglas MacArthurs
daring landing at Inchon during the Korean War. However, unless they achieved complete surprise, these old-fashioned frontal assault landings were also highly risky.
Putting large numbers of men ashore in the presence of
an enemy left both men and ships exposed and vulnerable.
Lengthy bombardments from naval guns or from airplanes
were necessary to reduce enemy positions along the beach,



and to secure approaches to the beachhead. The air bombardment before the Marines stormed Iwo Jima lasted nearly six
months. For three days before the nal assault, ve battleships
steadily pounded the island at a range of less than 3,000 yards
(by a strange twist of historical fate, one of those battleships
was BB 34 New York).
Even after that, Marines landed in a hailstorm of enemy re
that killed or wounded nearly 2,312 men in the rst 18 hours.
At Tarawa in 1943 less than 30 percent of the rst wave of Marines even reached the beach. That entire three-day operation
cost the Marine Corps 1,000 killed and 2,000 wounded all
for an island of less than 3 square miles. A year later, the rst
hours on Omaha Beach cost more than 3,000 men and dozens of
amphibious vehicles. Things looked so bleak from Gen. Omar
Bradleys agship USS Augusta, that he contemplated calling a
halt to the entire Normandy invasion.
It was not just the men in the assault waves who suffered,
or the crews of the DUKWs and amphibious tractors (or amphtracs) who transported them. As they waited offshore, Navy
ships were just as vulnerable. At the Veracruz landings in 1847,
a sudden storm tore more than 20 ships loose from their anchorages and ran them aground. During landings in World War II
at Salerno and Anzio, American and British ships came under
constant air attack by German planes. During operations off
Okinawa in 1945, no less than 26 ships were sunk by Japanese
kamikazes, and another 368 damaged.


Amphibious warfare was demanding in other ways. The term

implies a dual capability, meaning for use on land and at sea.
However, it was hard to judge which should take precedence,
and no armed service ever felt entirely at home with the notion.
Naval strategy, for example, focused on the clash of ghting
ships at sea; or later, on aircraft carriers, the queen of battles,
and submarines and nuclear deterrence from under the waves.
Army and Marine commanders kept their minds on what happened on the beach and farther inland; they largely took the
Navys role as a gloried shuttle service, for granted.
Organizing a major amphibious landing was an exercise in
improvisation, and frustration. It meant having to come up with
suitable vehicles (like the swimming Sherman tanks devised
for D-Day, many of which sank), equipment, and tactics. It also
required a sharing of resources and coordination of leadership
among services with very different cultures and command
structures. This ensured that things rarely, if ever, went strictly
according to plan.
And at every stage, one question dominated every task force
commanders mind: will the beachhead we have just taken with
such a loss of lives and vehicles, hold? After all, the scene at
the beachhead could be fast and furious, confusing to men and
ofcers alike. Having to decide from scant or contradictory
information whether a seemingly disastrous assault like
Omaha Beach might actually be a success, could stretch a
commanders judgment to the breaking point. The heavy stakes

Photo copyright Mark D. Faram

Landing Craft Air Cushioned (LCACs) from the Norfolk, Va.-based Assault Craft Unit Four, move between the amphibious assault ship San Antonio and Onslow Beach at
Camp Lejeune, N.C., as the ship ofoaded Marines and their equipment after its seven-month inaugural deployment to the Persian Gulf and Horn of Africa. The amazing
LCACs, which y over water and land, are one leg of LPD 21s amphibious triad.




L-3 is honored to have contributed our systems and expertise to this outstanding new addition
to the U.S. Navys fleet. We wish the USS New York and its crew great success in the years
ahead. You will carry the spirit of New York wherever your mission may take you.


Photo courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding.

L-3c om . com


Long may she carry the memory of those we lost and love.
Gordon M. Aamoth Jr.

Howard G. Gelling Jr.

Debra Paris

Joseph P. Anchundia

Evan H. Gillette

Christopher Quackenbush

Thomas M. Brennan

Thomas Glasser

A. Todd Rancke

Mark J. Bruce

Douglas J. Irgang

David H. Rice

Timothy G. Byrne

Allison Horstmann Jones

John M. Rodak

Kathleen Hunt Casey

Robert A. Lawrence Jr.

Mark H. Rosen

Judson J. Cavalier

John R. Lenoir

Kristin Irvine Ryan

Jeffrey M. Chairnoff

Alan P. Linton Jr.

Frank G. Salvaterra

Thomas R. Clark

Salvatore Lopes

Michael V. San Phillip

Christopher R. Clarke

Stuart S. Louis

Herman S. Sandler

Thomas J. Collins

Garry W. Lozier

Susan Kennedy Schuler

James L. Connor

Vita M. Marino

Davis G. Sezna Jr.

John Cooper

Kevin D. Marlo

Linda J. Sheehan

Frederick J. Cox

Kenneth M. McBrayer

Craig A. Silverstein

Kevin R. Crotty

John F. McDowell Jr.

Bruce E. Simmons

Thomas G. Crotty

Stacey Sennas McGowan

Jeffrey R. Smith

Welles R. Crowther

Daniel W. McNeal

Colleen M. Supinski

David A. DeFeo

Sharon Moore-Mohammed

Richard J. Todisco

Constantine Economos

James D. Munhall

Kevin M. Williams

Michael H. Edwards

Christopher Newton-Carter

Alan L. Wisniewski

John W. Farrell

Diana J. OConnor

Martin P. Wohlforth

Thomas J. Fitzpatrick

J. Andrew OGrady

John W. Wright Jr.

Christina Donovan Flannery

Peter J. ONeill Jr.

Julie Zipper

Christopher T. Orgielewicz

We salute the men and women of USS New York (LPD21) as they sail in defense of freedom.

We will never forget them.

Sandler ONeill + Partners, L.P.


U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class John K. Hamilton

An HH-60H Sea Hawk helicopter assigned to the Tridents of Helicopter Anti-submarine Squadron (HS) 3 takes off from the ight deck of USS San Antonio (LPD 17)
during a vertical replenishment with the Military Sealift Command eet replenishment oiler USNS Tippecanoe (T-AO 199). San Antonio was the agship of Combined
Task Force 151, a multinational task force established to conduct counter-piracy operations in and around the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea.
San Antonios use as agship on the deployment conrms the advanced command and control and other capabilities of the San Antonio class, of which New York is a
part. This photo also shows the very large ight deck and hangar area of the class.

of success or failure prior to the British landings at Gallipoli in

1915 forced one admiral to resign in a state of nervous collapse.
No wonder Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote out a letter of
resignation as Allied Supreme Commander the day before the
Normandy invasion, just in case the landings failed. And no
wonder President Harry S Truman preferred to drop the atomic
bomb to force Japan to surrender at the end of World War II,
rather than risk the horrendous American casualties that an
amphibious invasion of Japan would have cost (Japanese navy
planners estimated that kamikazes alone could wipe out 30 to
50 percent of the Allied invasion eet).
Today, the old paradigm is gone, along with Mae West life
vests and DUKWs. Contemporary amphibious warfare, known
more accurately as expeditionary warfare, is no longer improvised or undersized or precariously perched between victory
and disaster. In fact, the new joint-force, combined arms expeditionary era, of which USS New York (LPD 21) is an essential
part, is going to set the new paradigm for all warfare in the 21st
This marks a sea change in military thinking. For all its risks
and costs, the Navy, Army, Marines, and Air Force used to see

the amphibious battleeld as only a transitional phase between

their normal modes of engaging the enemy on the land, at sea,
or in the air. The beachhead itself was a temporary foothold before men and machines got down to the real business of ghting farther inland, and before ships returned to their normal
duties at sea.
A globalizing age has forced military strategists to envision
a very different scenario. It can be summed up as continuous
forward deployment. In an era in which dire threats can materialize with dizzying speed at any point on the globe, from piracy and terrorism to natural disasters like the 2003 tsunami in
the Indian Ocean, the U.S. Navy will need a steady and strong
forward-presence posture in order to be the rst responder. Its
Expeditionary Strike Groups are the foundation of this capability. The new amphibious transport dock ships like USS New
York are the building blocks on which that foundation is built.
In the new paradigm of expeditionary warfare, Navy amphibious assault ships enable the Marine Corps to set its mobility
triad in motion. These are the air-cushioned LCACs, which can
transport 24 Marines and 60 tons of their equipment into battle;
the EFVs, which can hit the beach with 17 troops on board and



drive inland at speeds up to 45 mph; and the new vertical takeoff, tilt-rotor aircraft known as the Osprey, which has a combat
range of more than 400 miles and can put up to 32 Marines into
action at a time.
The new amphibious transport dock will allow an Amphibious Ready Group/Marine Expeditionary Unit or ARG/MEU to
project American power just about anywhere from the sea and
then withdraw; or if need be remain on station over the horizon and out of sight to watch and wait for a crisis to dissipate;
or alternately, to move in to dominate and control events.
At the typical ARG/MEUs core is a cruiser-destroyer squadron consisting of an Aegis cruiser, Aegis destroyer, and a frigate; a submarine; and the ships of the Amphibious Readiness
Group proper. These include an amphibious assault ship (LHA)
carrying a formidable combination of helicopters and vertical
take off aircraft; a landing ship dock (LSD); and one or more
LPDs like New York or one of her sister ships, plus the men,
tanks, and equipment of a Marine Expeditionary Unit or MEU:
some 2,200 Marines in all. These in turn can be augmented by
special operations forces, including Navy SEALs and Marine
Force Reconnaissance detachments.
Once set in motion, the ARG/MEU is a smooth, well-oiled
machine geared for forward deployment and force projection.
It involves a seamless coordination of ships, Marines, and air


support into a single integrated battle force, ready to move into

action from 200 miles at sea to 150 miles inland.
What will be the new face of amphibious operations? While
submarines clear the water ahead of the strike group, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) circle overhead providing information on the enemys positions and capabilities. Aircraft like
the AV-8B Harrier II and AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters
provide 360 degree protection from the air as Marines load up
in their LCACs, EFVs, and Ospreys some 20 miles from their
target even as special operations teams are own in by Ospreys or landed covertly in LCACs in order to reconnoiter the
situation on the ground, disable enemy defenses, or secure key
positions in advance.
Within an hour or two the rst Marines are landing not as
exposed targets on the beach but snug and secure in their
armored EFVs as they move quickly from the shore and drive
inland to dominate and control vital strategic points. At the
same time, satellite links enable the Navys Force Net system
to convey images of the assault to, and maintain real-time communications with, the strike groups commander and his staff in
his combat information center (CIC), as well as a multitude of
status screens at the Pentagon and the White House.
In the new expeditionary warfare, the old beachhead concept is gone, along with many risks and uncertainties. Instead,

U.S. Navy photo by Journalist Seaman Recruit Jeff Hall

Representing two generations of Marine Corps rotary-wing aircraft, a CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter completes a landing near a V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft aboard the
amphibious transport dock USS San Antonio (LPD 17). San Antonio was conducting several tests in the Atlantic Ocean using the Osprey and Sea Knight to determine
what these aircraft are capable of doing with the Navys newest class of amphibious transport dock ships.

Edelman is proud to
sponsor and support the
USS New York.
We congratulate the ships
crew and their families.


a coordinated combined arms warfare approach enables the

Navy and Marines to control the tempo of the operation from
start to nish. And since the amphibious eet may be dozens
of miles from the objective, and since there is no prolonged
naval bombardment, the enemy have no idea when the Marines
are coming or where they will strike. Even when it is operating alone, USS New York will be able to deploy EFVs, LCACs,
and Ospreys from sea to shore to points inland with a seamless
speed that will surprise and frustrate our foes just as it reassure friends and neutrals on the ground.
In fact, the new expeditionary paradigm dissolves the difference between land and sea ghting, creating a true joint hybrid
form of warfare. The same hybrid effect can be seen in the
new technologies that are vital to it. The EFV is an amphibious assault vehicle like its World War II ancestors the DUKW
and amphtrac. But it is also an armed and dangerous light tank
free to maneuver many miles inland. The Osprey is a tilt-rotor
aircraft that is half a helicopter and half a twin-engine aircraft,
able to transport Marines into the combat zone and then carry
the wounded, or move civilians, out of harms way.
Likewise, the new New York will be connected to a joint
command and control system that dissolves the old conict between the different services cultures and resources. In fact,
the ARG/MEU can be commanded by a Navy admiral or a Marine general, since both will know what the other services men
and resources can do, and what they can accomplish together.


Backed by a lean core staff of no more than 12 members, this

marks a major breakthrough in joint arms warfare and interservice cooperation.
All this is made possible by the Navys new communications
technology, or Force Net, which has in effect linked every vessel into a single integrated network. It is apparent everywhere
you go on USS New York, where 500 miles of electrical cable
service the computer systems that make it one of the smartest
ships aoat.
Step into her combat information center, and you are as close
to the bridge of the starship Enterprise as youll ever be. Computer screens and video displays surround you on all sides,
monitoring every aspect of the ships position, weaponry, and
performance. Force Net also enables commanders half a world
away to see what her captain sees in the CIC, and monitor the
ships progress as she sails into port or sails into the battle
The same internal net system allows New Yorks engineers
to drive her four supercharged diesels and check their status,
not just on the bridge or in the engine room, but from a variety
of points in the ship. Damage control ofcers use the same system to check electrical relays and watch for warning signs of
a possible re outbreak or other threats to the ship. Add in the
unceasing round of damage and re control drills; special antichemical and anti-bio warfare equipment; and anti-terrorist
force protection training exercises involving every member of

Courtesy of USMC PEO Land Systems

The Marine Corps EFV is several times faster in water than its predecessors, representing a game-changing capability in amphibious tracked vehicles. On land, its speed,
agility, networking capabilities, and repower make it a formidable ghting vehicle.

We Will Never Forget.

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United States Navy on
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Congratulations to the crew of USS New York (LPD 21).

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U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Geronimo Aquino

Sailors aboard the amphibious dock landing ship USS Tortuga (LSD 46) launch a Landing Craft Utility (LCU) during training exercises. LCUs are also employed by amphibious transport dock ships like the New York, and can carry three M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks or more than 400 Marines at a time.

the crew, and USS New York is not only a smart but a safe and
secure vessel for everyone on board.
The weapons, warfare, and technology at this level of sophistication demand a skilled and motivated crew. When you meet
the men and women of USS New York, you realize that they are
switched-on in the best, military sense of the word: alert, focused, and condent even under adverse circumstances. New
Yorks Executive Ofcer Cmdr. Erich Schmidt, has guided
them through every step of their pre-commissioning training.
Ive watched this crew come together for almost two years,
he said, they are truly the best America, and the Navy, have
to offer.
The crew comes from a variety of backgrounds and from
a spread of states from Hawaii and Kansas to New York. But
all share a dedication to their work, to their service, and to
the New York Navy tradition. The building and christening
of this New York has enabled them to meet and stay in touch
with the World War II veterans who served in the old BB 34
battleship, and who wear the same USS New York ball cap
with pride.
However, there is also a special pride in serving in LPD 21:
its direct ties to 9/11 and its legacy for this country. For many, it
was 9/11 that got them into the Navy in the rst place or kept
them in it. Chief Petty Ofcer Keenan Gresham, for example,
was headed for retirement after 22 years in the Navy when the
planes hit the Twin Towers. I knew then we were at war, he

recalled. He put off retirement, and swung back into active service with an extra sense of purpose and will. Now, to actually
serve on board the Twin Towers ship is, Gresham admitted,
the highlight of a two-decade-long career.
Other sailors and ofcers feel the same. One said he knows
he will have other tours of duty on other ships, after New York.
But hell always ask himself, Will they be as good as my rst
ship, LPD 21?
Others have an even more personal connection. Her skipper,
Cmdr. F. Curtis Jones, is a native New Yorker; Yeoman 2nd Class
Aaron Palacio was sitting in his high school class in Manhattan
on Sept. 11, 2001, when his stunned teacher had to tell her students that the World Trade Center had just been attacked.
Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Kevin Muses high school
teacher had a brother who was in the WTC when the planes
hit. Both of Muses grandfathers had been in the Navy, but the
incident galvanized his decision to join. It gave me a chance
to ght back, he said.
Muse originally chose to ght back as part of the Marines,
and served a full tour of duty in Iraq. That gave him a chance to
see the war on terror up close and personal, and see American
courage and resolve in action. They tried to break our spirit
on 9/11, Muse added, but it didnt work. Now he has a chance
to vindicate the sacrice of 9/11 in an even more direct way.
At least two members of New Yorks re and damage control team know that sacrice, as well. At her reghting train-



PO Box 807, Woodbury, NJ 08096



U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Jason R. Zalasky

The amphibious dock landing ship USS Carter Hall (LSD 50), the amphibious transport dock ship USS San Antonio (LPD 17), and the guided-missile destroyer USS
Roosevelt (DDG 80) transit the Atlantic Ocean. Carter Hall, San Antonio, and Roosevelt were deployed as part of the Iwo Jima Expeditionary Strike Group, which was
supporting maritime security operations in the U.S. Navys 5th and 6th Fleet areas of responsibility. Expeditionary Strike Groups can project American combat power
from the sea to almost any place on Earth.

ing school, Damage Controlman 3rd Class Christina Gallegos

worked with civilian reghters who knew 9/11 rsthand. Fireghters from as far away as Norfolk, Va., and Washington, D.C.,
had been summoned to help to ght the conagration. Many
had colleagues who had died there.
These civilian reghters were, she said, a constant source
of awe and inspiration to her. For Gallegos, serving in the ship
made from steel from those Twin Towers is a matter of supreme
Damage Controlman 1st Class (SW/AW) Bershers has
watched reghters working with steel from the Twin Towers:
men from his grandfathers re station in Long Island making
crosses at the request of victims families, after they themselves fought the horric blaze in vain. Bershers is a career
Navy man as well as a New York native; USS New York is going
to be his seventh ship. Bershers had planned to be in lower
Manhattan on that fateful September 11, on leave with friends:
I would have been seven blocks away, he remembers, when
the planes hit.
Instead, his leave was canceled and he remembers the wave
of emotion that swept over him when he heard the news back
in Norfolk. He tried desperately to go to New York City to help
in the volunteer effort, but he was ordered to stay: The whole
base [Norfolk Naval Station] was in lockdown at the time. However, like many on the crew he fought long and hard to get a

berth in LPD 21. At his own expense, he drove down to New

Orleans to attend the ships christening. Serving in USS New
York is more than the culmination of 18 years in the Navy; for
Bershers, it is a personal mission.
Finally, there is Personnelman Specialist Seaman Dupree.
Shes from Kansas, but comes from a Kenyan family.
She had heard the news of 9/11 on the radio, when it really
hit home what this country meant to her. I had to give back to
the society that has changed so many peoples lives for the better, including her own family, she said with quiet pride. I knew
I needed to join the military.
Like the rest of the crew of USS New York, Dupree knows the
terrorists hate us for not for what America has done wrong, but
for what it has done right as a haven of prosperity, freedom, and
liberty for all peoples of all races and religions. Serving in this
ship is her way of thanking America for extending a helping
hand to her, a legacy for my children and family, and a way to
remember the thousands who unexpectedly paid the ultimate
sacrice for freedom on 9/11.
The motto is: Strength Forged through Sacrice. Never forget. As New Yorks skipper Jones said: The men and women
of USS New York will never forget. Nor will we. And we will
always feel grateful for these men and womens brave dedicated service and the ship that proudly carries them across
the seas.




By Bob McManus

He sought easy passage to the Orient. What he found was

something quite different: Passage to the interior of a vast wilderness that time and toil would transform into an American state of
the rst rank by some standards, a great nation in its own right.
New York, in its 50-million-square-mile entirety, is a study in
physical contrast, cultural conict and hopeful aspiration. Its
history parallels Americas indeed, in some ways American
history begins in New York.
Hudson could push Halve Maen, scarcely 85 feet long, only
to present-day Albany, 150 miles upriver from the great bay to
the south. Beyond that, travel along the Hudson all the way to
its wellspring, Lake Tear of the Clouds, deep in the Adirondack
high peaks was by Iroquois canoe, or by foot.
That would change.
The rst Europeans most of them mapmakers had quickly grasped the strategic character of the Hudson River-Lake
George-Lake Champlain corridor. Armies French, English,
American moved up and down its length for decades. And
so it was not by happenstance that in the autumn of 1777, a British invasion force under Gen. John Burgoyne was southbound
along the Hudson, intent on bisecting the edgling American
Battle was joined at Freemans Farm, and concluded at Bemis Heights, both overlooking the widening river at present-day
Schuylerville. When the Battle of Saratoga was over, George
Washingtons ragtag army had gained international credibility
and an independent United States of America had become a
very real possibility.
And so it came to pass.
Soon Robert Fultons steam boats were plying the Hudson to
Albany, and railroads were running along its banks. A grand
canal was dug, linking the river to the Great Lakes, transporting the Industrial Revolution rst into the Mohawk Valley and
then to the vast interior of America transforming the entire
continent in the process.
New York, especially.
Tangible wealth, personal freedom and seemingly limitless
opportunity worked as magnets among the restless poor of Europe and beyond.
Waves of immigration broke over the state: rst came the
Irish, Germans and Italians; then Eastern Europeans, Jews and
African-Americans and, most recently, newcomers from Central and South America, Southwest Asia, the Caribbean Basin
and Africa.
This was and remains a fractious mix. But therein resides
the magic the genius of New York.
Its politics are contentious, and often corrosive but four
of its governors have gone on to the White House, including


the transformative Roosevelt cousins, and thats more than any

other state can claim.
Its economics can bewilder vast wealth arrayed conspicuously alongside crippling poverty. But appearances deceive:
New Yorkers care for their own, and penniless new arrivals
through hard work, entrepreneurial spirit and an occasional
touch of good fortune are soon on their way to the economic
and cultural mainstream.
And nowhere more quickly than in New York City, where The
Bronx is still up, the Batterys still down, and the people still
ride in a hole in the ground. After all these years, still a helluva
There is friction; how could there not be. And theres been
wrack and riot across the decades because of it. But friction
generates energy, too, vast pools of it an essential raw material for material success and cultural cohesion.
In that respect, New York is peerless.
The city can seem forbidding to newcomers. And in fact it is
not for everybody.
Yet those who arrive and linger nd it intoxicating, compelling. Broadway. Museum Mile. Ruth and Mantle and Maris. The
Giants. The Jets. The 69 Mets. It may not be true that if you hang
out in Times Square long enough, youll run into everybody you
know but it seems as if it could be.
Then there are the landmarks: The statue in the harbor, the
iconic bridge, the ballpark in The Bronx and the skyline recognized round the world, now missing two tall buildings.
This also speaks to the singularity of New York.
Those who declared war on America in the fall of 2001
wanted the world to take note so where better to begin than
at the intersection of Wall Street and the loudest media megaphones on the planet. The World Trade Center fell and the city
shuddered but it survived and recovered. This is nothing
Ground Zero is only a cannon-shot from where Henry Hudson made landfall those four centuries ago. Then came the
Dutch, and the English. There was revolution, civil war, domestic insurrection, nancial panic and social unrest well
into recent times.
Through it all, New York City coped.
It evolved.
It became the economic, cultural and social locus of America envied, a little, by civilized people around the world for its
brash good humor, its studied nonchalance and its unappable
Its not always easy to love New York.
But who would want to live anywhere else?
Not I.

U.S. Coast Guard photo by Public Affairs 2nd Class Mike Hvozda

It was fully 400 years ago when Henry Hudson an Englishman under hire to the Dutch turned
the bow of Halve Maen into the mouth of the river that today bears his name.




By Col. Gary J. Ohls, USMCR (Ret.)
and Lt. Col. David F. Overton, USMC (Ret.)

Of course the weapons, equipment, and tactics of Marines

have changed since that exceedingly tough amphibious ght
at Iwo Jima. But the determination, mission orientation, and agility of the individual Marine remains constant. Todays Marines
have many specialties just as those of World War II yet the
idea that all Marines are primarily riemen remains fundamental to Marine Corps training and thinking.ii Each Marine learns
basic infantry skills upon entering the Corps, and receives refresher training throughout his career, be that one enlistment
or many. The phrase every Marine a rieman essentially


means, Every Marine regardless of military occupation specialty is rst and foremost a disciplined warrior.iii
The essential rite of passage for a U.S. Marine is the Corps
legendary boot camp, which introduces young American
civilians into the demanding world of the United States Marine
Corps. Marine Corps boot camp has traditionally been tough
and, if anything, has become more so over the years. During
the late 1990s, Marine leaders introduced a capstone event
called The Crucible, which tests the physical and mental
stamina of recruits before they graduate and earn the title of

U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Alvin D. Parson

The main battery of the new and highly capable USS New York remains the same as for all amphibious ships in the American eet the embarked U.S. Marine. The standing of that Marine
in the American military ethos was perhaps most eloquently expressed by Fleet Adm. Chester
W. Nimitz. Reecting on the Marines who fought the battle of Iwo Jima during World War II,
Nimitz avowed that Uncommon valor was a common virtue. The granite base of the U.S. Marine Memorial at Arlington, Va., now bears these words.i In the tradition of the Corps, todays
Marines constantly strive to be worthy successors to those who have gone before.

U.S. Marine Corps photo Staff Sgt. Jennie Ivey, USAF


Opposite page: U.S. Marine Corps Gen. James F. Amos, assistant commandant of the Marine Corps, poses with Marines with Personal Security Detail, Regimental Combat Team 6 at Camp Ramadi, Iraq, Feb. 7, 2009. Marines comprise the main battery of the Gator Navy. Above: New U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) recruits from the Marine
Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD) Parris Island, S.C., nish the nal phase of basic training. The Crucible is a nal three-day eld exercise where recruits participate in day
and night operations along with food and sleep deprivation to test their endurance.

Marine. The Crucible lasts 54 hours and includes food and

sleep deprivation, more than 45 miles of marching, combat
courses, problem solving reaction courses, and team-building
Warrior Stations, to name only some of the events.iv
Although an important culminating experience, the Crucible
is only part of the boot camp experience. Numerous other timetested activities ll the crowded days of this demanding curriculum, including condence courses, rappelling, combat water survival, marksmanship training, tactical movement, pugil
stick ghting, close order drill, physical training, and academic
study on essential subjects from administration to warghting
tactics. The ultimate goal of all this effort is to create a basic
Marine of high character and moral strength who embodies the
core values of Honor, Courage, and Commitment.v
After graduation from boot camp, the new Marine receives
orders to the School of Infantry at Camp Pendleton, Calif., or
Camp Lejeune, N.C., for further training in basic infantry skills.
Those who specialize in the infantry occupational eld report
to the Infantry Training Battalion for advanced training in that
military occupational specialty. Those designated to serve
in non-infantry specialties report to Marine Combat Training
Battalion (MCTB) to enhance the ghting skills they learned
in boot camp.vi Upon completion of the MCTB program, these
Marines attend a follow-on school for their military specialty.
Throughout their time in the Corps, all Marines, regardless
of their area of specialty, continue to maintain basic ghting
skills, including physical tness, weapons training and

requalication, and essential subjects training and testing.

The oft repeated phrase Every Marine a rieman is clearly
not an empty slogan, but a cultural imperative of the Corps.vii
And although New York will hold Marines possessing many
different specialties, they will all be Marine riemen rst and
Another unique program that contributes to the individual
Marines ghting skill is the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP). Initiated in the year 2000, the MCMAP augments Marine Corps capability by providing a systematic
training regimen for the mental, character, and physical development of Marines.viii The MCMAP applies to all Marines
regardless of rank or specialty as they progress through their
careers. The program involves a ranking system consisting of
ve levels of belts, with the highest Black Belt having six
degrees. Advancing through these ratings not only includes
the three basic elements of the program (mental, character,
and physical development), but also involves completing certain rank-appropriate professional military education requirements.ix The MCMAP is an innovative program that has made
an already good Marine even better.
The typical Marine warrior today carries a combat load that
is simultaneously similar and dissimilar from that of his World
War II equivalent. Both had the best protective system available for their time and carried a state-of-the-art combat rie.
But the protection available to todays Marine is far greater
than during the 1940s. In addition to an improved and lighter


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U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Sean P. McGinty


U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist David Rush

Above: Sgt. Maj. Larock W. Benford, I Marine Expeditionary Forces Ground Combat Elements 47-year-old sergeant major, demonstrates wrestling techniques
to the service members of I MEF Headquarter Group (Forward)s most recent
martial arts instructor course. Benford was one of many guest instructors who
took his time to teach the 95 service members who attended the Marine Corps
Martial Arts Program MAI class on Camp Fallujah. Left: Marine Corps Sgt. Edward Mertz of Combat Service Support Group Three (CSS-3), Marine Corps Base
Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, conducts Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP)
Tan Belt training to fellow Marine Corps cadre on board Naval Station Pearl
Harbor. The training is conducted in order to prepare the Marines for various
security taskings.

helmet, the Marines who serve on board New York will possess
personal protective equipment (body armor and other protective devices), which they can tailor to the tactical needs of their
mission.x As opposed to the sturdy M-1 Garand rie of World
War II, todays Marine carries the lighter yet more rapid ring
M16A4 assault rie with an optical scope and illuminator.xi Arguably, both the M-1 Garand and the M16A4 represent the premier combat rie of their time. Another item newly available to
commanders is the individual communications system based
on the PRC-153 radio. When utilized, this system will, for the
rst time, permit squad leaders to talk by radio to every Marine
within the unit.xii Other items of individual equipment such as

cartridge belts, canteens, load bearing devices (packs), and

eld uniforms have substantially improved over the years, yet
provide a similar function to all generations of Marines. The
same is true for their various supporting units, including artillery, close air support, logistical systems, and naval support.
But regardless of differences or similarities, the Marines deployed on board New York like those who fought at Iwo Jima
can have full condence that their country will provide the
best equipment, support, and preparation available at the time.
Todays Marine is more likely to operate in a joint environment than in times past, even though the Navy and Marine
Corps team remains the key context for deployment and op-



erations. xiii Although the Navy and Marine Corps team is technically a joint force, it is actually something much more. For
more than 200 years, the Navy and Marine Corps have worked
together, building a common institutional culture in the eld
of amphibious and expeditionary warfare. xiv The Marines embarked on New York, along with their sailor counterparts, are
the clear beneciaries of this rich tradition and symbiotic relationship.
In a broader sense, the concept of team effort suffuses all
aspects of the professional environment in which Marines
operate past or present. Regardless of how much individual
training is included in the various Marine Corps programs, it is


always within a framework of team effort and the dependence

of one Marine upon another. Whereas it is crucial that Marines
have faith in their countrys support, it is even more critical that
they trust in the delity of fellow Marines once committed to
action. This concept permeates Marine Corps training and provides the key ingredient for success across the entire range of
military operations. Individual Marines ght and operate as a
tightly knit team within well exercised units, always ready to
live up to their tradition of being the rst to ght.xv
A notable aspect of the Marines who will serve on board
New York is their youth. Todays Marines are not only younger
than those who served at Iwo Jima, but are considerably

U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Robert M. Storm

Lance Cpl. Ryan R. Irving (left), infantryman, from Elburn, Ill. and Lance Cpl. Curtis D. Land, infantryman, from Cedar Falls, Iowa, take security posts during a meeting between Marines and villagers. In preparation for elections, Marines conducted a preemptive attack on known areas of anti-coalition militia activity. The hybrid battleelds
of today demand more leadership and decision-making capability from within the ranks.



We Will Never Forget

We join the USS New York in

honoring those who have served
our country. The Marine Corps
Scholarship Foundation honors
Marines, and Navy Corpsmen
serving with Marines, by providing June Jurgens, Levittown, NY
life-changing scholarships to their Heroes Tribute Scholarship
sons and daughters, with special
emphasis on children whose parent was
killed or wounded in action on or since
September 11, 2001.
To join our efforts visit www.mcsf.org or
call 1-866-IWO-JIMA (496-5462).
Marine Corps Scholarship Foundation
Honoring Marines by Educating Their Children

Were proud to be part of the USS New York Commissioning Team.

Feel free to contact us for your next mission.



younger than the average age within other U.S. services. The
Marine Corps also has the fewest number of ofcers in relation
to its enlisted members.xvi This means that younger and more
junior enlisted Marines must assume greater responsibility
in combat situations than is the case with other services. As
a result, Marine Corps leaders have undertaken to enhance
leadership and decision-making capability within the junior
ranks particularly for noncommissioned ofcers in the ranks
of corporal and sergeant. The irregular and hybrid battleeld
upon which Marines of the 21st century must operate further
compounds the need for such an endeavor. Marine Gen.
Charles C. Krulak best gave voice to the problems of this new
reality while serving as Commandant of the Marine Corps
during the late 1990s. Among other things, Krulak became the
proponent of two transformational concepts the three block
war, and the Strategic Corporal.xvii Only slightly understood
at that time, Krulaks concepts have become hallmarks for how
U.S. forces must adjust for the ambiguous battleeld of the
twenty-rst century.xviii
As Krulak pondered the chaotic environment in which his
Marines would likely operate in the future, he observed that
individual Marines on the ground could potentially confront
the entire spectrum of tactical challenges. Conceived of for
an urban environment, Krulak contended that Marines could
conduct humanitarian activity, separate warring factions, and
engage in pitched battle all within three contiguous blocks.xix
In Krulaks words, Without direct supervision, young Marines
will be required to make rapid, well-reasoned, independent
decisions while facing a bewildering array of challenges and
threats. In the hybrid and amorphous conicts Krulak envisioned in the worlds littorals of the future, battles could be won
or lost not in the minds of great commanders, but in the minds
of our strategic corporals.xx
The Marines of New York will benet from Krulaks prescience as the Marine Corps has adjusted its training program to better prepare not only Strategic Corporals (and Sergeants), but also Marines of all ranks for the new operational
environment they must face. xxi Yet with the focus on junior
leaders that Krulak brought to the surface, ongoing efforts
are under way to continue enhancement in this area. Among
the more recent innovations is the squad leaders initiative,
resulting in a professional military education (PME) opportunity at the junior NCO level. xxii As stated in the recent Marine Corps publication, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025,
The ability to conduct both types (civil-military and combat)
of operations, simultaneously, is the essence of the force as
a two-sted ghter capable of offering an open hand to
people in need or a precise jab to an adversary in an irregular
warfare environment; while at the same time, ready to wield a
closed st in the event of major combat operations. xxiii When
Marines on board New York go ashore, they enter not only a
nebulous situation, but also one which is likely to be highly
dynamic, requiring all their training, intelligence, and experience to be the warriors expected by the nation in an age
of hybrid warfare. The program that resulted from the squad
leaders initiative will greatly contribute to that end.
The Marines of New York are likely to be up to the task,
not only due to their education and training, but because of
the extent of their experience. Although youthful in years,
todays Marines are highly experienced, spending as much
time deployed abroad as at home. Of course, this is due

in large part to the demands of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Yet Marine Corps leaders intend to reduce this
deployment-to-dwell rotation cycle from a ratio of 1:1 as it
now exists to a ratio of 1:2 as a result of the increase in force
structure currently under way. As a point of reference, the
rotation cycle before the advent of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom amounted to a 1:3 ratio. xxiv
It is clear that the demands of this high operational tempo,
coupled with the greater level of responsibility required of
the junior ranks, has placed an unprecedented burden on
todays Marines. Fortunately, the young Marines of our era
have risen to the challenge.
It is clear that todays Marines many of whom will serve
on board New York are both similar to and different from
their predecessors. The greatest difference is in their equipment and the operational environment in which they serve.
But in the most important things, such as dedication to duty,
integrity, and courage, they are truly worthy successors to the
Marines who landed on Iwo Jima in 1945, and to those who
have served America in myriad places and times for well over
two centuries.

Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Strategy 21, 3 March 2000, 6.
Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025,
(undated), 8.
training_matrix; USMC pamphlet, Description of Recruit Training. Copy in
possession of the authors.
http://marines.com/main/index/making_marines/recurit_training/training_matrix; U.S. Marine Corps pamphlet, Description of Recruit Training,
undated. Copy in possession of the authors.
U.S. Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025,
(undated), 8.
Marine Corps Order 1500.54A, 16 December 2002, 2.
Marine Corps Order 1500.54A, 16 December 2002, 4-8.
Lieutenant Colonel Sean Riordan, USMC, Interview by the authors, 13 May
2009; Marine Corps Message R 162016z, MARADMIN number 0254/09, 16
April 2009.
Marine Corps brochure, Typical Personal Infantry Marine Combat Load,
28 January 2009. Copy in possession of authors.
Major David Wallace, USMC, interview by the authors, 13 May 2009.
Marine Corps concept paper, The Long War: Send in the Marines,
(undated), 31.
Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Strategy 21, 3 November
2000, 2, 21.
Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy, 2025,
(undated), 6.
Marine Corps Community Services, Headquarters, Marine Corps,
Personal and Family Readiness Division, The Marine Corps A Young and
Vigorous Force Demographics Update, June 2008, 2; United States Marine
Corps Organization and Missions, Seapower Magazine Almanac, January
Charles C. Krulak, Cultivating Intuitive Decisionmaking, Marine Corps
Gazette, May 1999.
United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Evolving the MAGTF for the 21st Century, 20 March 2009, 3.
Brill P. Arthur, Jr., The Three-block War, Sea Power, November 1999.
Charles C. Krulak, Cultivating Intuitive Decisionmaking, Marine Corps
Gazette, May 1999.
Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025,
(undated), 14, 20, 24; Marine Corps concept paper, The Long War: Send in
the Marines, (undated), 29; Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps
Strategy 21, 3 November 2000, 6-7.
Lieutenant Colonel Sean Riordan, USMC, interview by the authors, 13
May 2009.
Marine Corps concept paper, Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025, (undated), 6; Marine Corps concept paper, The Long War: Send in the Marines,
(undated), 34-35.
Marine Corps concept paper, The Long War: Send in the Marines,
(undated), 14.




By Mark D. Faram

That crisis could be a war, humanitarian relief, or even a

hostage rescue. For those reasons, every detail of the ship was
designed and built to ensure that the deployment and eventual
recovery of the Marines, or other embarked forces, goes off
quickly and efciently. The operation eventually comes down
to the ships ight deck and well deck operations.
Thats what were here for and the reason this ship was built
for Marines and their needs from the ground up and with
their input along the way, said Navy Lt. Terry Menteer, who for
the past 18 months has been responsible for safe operation of
the ight deck as air boss for New Yorks sister ship, USS San
Antonio (LPD 17). The two ships are part of a new class of LPDs,
the Navy designation as amphibious transport dock.
As a result of those joint Navy-Marine development efforts,
the new San Antonio-class ships are light-years ahead of their
predecessors in the ability to complete their basic missions,
and as each successive ship in this new class hits the eet, new
missions previously not thought of or even possible for a gator
in the past are becoming routine.
We not only have the ability to operate as part of a larger
expeditionary strike group, but we can also operate independently or as a command ship of our own group of ships, Menteer said. New possibilities for this class of ships are being
realized every day were out here.
The most basic theories of amphibious warfare operations
are the same as when Marines stormed ashore in the island
hopping campaigns of World War II, though the gear used to
get them there has improved exponentially.


Photo copyright Mark D. Faram

When USS New York (LPD 21) deploys for the

rst time, the measure of her success will be
her ability to get Marines and their gear ashore.
She is, after all, a gator a reference to one
of natures aggressive amphibians and sailor
talk for an amphibious ship. And as a gator her
whole reason for being is to transport Marines
wherever they are needed and deploy them
quickly to deal with the crisis at hand.


A Landing Craft, Air Cushioned, from the

Norfolk, Va -based Assault Craft Unit Four
exits the stern gate of the USS San Antonios
well deck in Chesapeake Bay, just off Naval
Amphibious Base, Little Creek, Va. The craft
were leaving the ship for the nal time after
the ships seven-month inaugural deployment
to the Persian Gulf and Horn of Africa.



U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Hodges Pone III

Photo copyright Mark D. Faram

Left: Members of the ight deck crew of USS Mesa

Verde (LPD 19), an amphibious transport dock and
sister ship of New York, prepare for the arrival
of an MV-22 Osprey aircraft. Mesa Verde sailors
and approximately 375 Marines participated in an
Amphibious Squadron/Marine Expeditionary Unit
exercise used to test the capabilities of both entities
during joint forces missions. LPD 17-class ships can
operate up to ve Ospreys. Above: Air department
sailors wash salt water off the ight deck of the
amphibious platform dock San Antonio in preparation
for ight operations in the Atlantic Ocean. The
massive hangar bay is open behind the sailors, while
the tower, where the air boss controls operations,
is on the upper left of the structure.

Conventional landing craft have given

way to LCACs, (Landing Craft, Air Cushion), Marine Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles, and other specialized amphibious craft to speed men and equipment
ashore. Helicopters, too, are now gradually giving way to new technology as
well, with a new generation of tilt-rotor
MV-22 Osprey warbirds that can hover
like a helicopter, but y fast and far like
a xed-wing aircraft.
With the rst four San Antonio class
of ships and now with New York that
evolution has taken the next step, combining tried-and-true practices with new
ship designs and technology in a way
that will make the nearly 800 Marines on
board even more of an effective ghting
team. Heres a peek at how its done.

Flight Deck Ops

Air boss Menteer has own from
some of the Navys smallest ight decks
on destroyers and frigates as a eet SH60 Seahawk pilot, and he said San Antonios 98-foot wide and 15,200 square feet
of black non-skid is a relatively spacious
platform for any pilot, Navy or Marine, in
the middle of a pitching sea.

As the man in charge of all ight deck

operations on a new LPD, he said hes
got a slightly different view today than
he did in the pilot seat. Doing this job
gives me a completely different perspective on what a ship has to do to
make what I do possible there are a lot
of moving parts and pilots get a little impatient with that, he said. Ill take that
perspective back to the eet with me
when I leave this assignment.
But for those in the cockpit, he said
New Yorks ight deck will be a welcome sight in the middle of an open
ocean, when compared to many other
ight decks in the eet.
Its far less scary, because its a very
large deck. Its signicantly larger than
the LPD-4 class of ship the predecessor of the San Antonio class so that
makes it a lot nicer to work off of, he
said. As far as versatility, he added,
theres four or ve ight deck congurations you can use, depending on what
the winds are, what the mission is, and
the mix of aircraft on board.
Obviously, he said, the San Antonioclass ships cant launch and recover the
same mix of aircraft that the larger deck
Wasp-class amphibious ships or even

the still bigger, full decked, nuclear

powered, attack aircraft carriers [can],
but for its size, it packs a punch rarely
seen in a ship with limited real estate.
Though the ship primarily embarks
Marine aircraft, Menteers ight deck
crew is all Navy, with 19 ight deck
specialists in his air department. There
are aviation boatswains mates (aircraft
handling), who direct the movement of
the aircraft around the ight deck and
individually control the launching and
recovery operations using hand signals.
Also on board are their companion ratings of aviation boatswains mate (fuels)
who are responsible for fueling aircraft
on deck and maintaining the supply of
aviation fuel on board.
Like any ight deck in the eet, these
sailors wear special uniforms for their
environment. The aircraft handlers wear
re-resistant clothes, including heavy
duty pants and bright yellow turtleneck
shirts for the senior handlers, while the
junior sailors in the group wear blue
Their fuels counterparts wear the
same uniform, but their jerseys are purple in color, giving them the nickname
of grapes.



Also on board are a couple of aviation

support equipment technicians, sailors
who operate and maintain the ground
support equipment needed to move aircraft around the deck and in and out of
the ships hangar.
Aircraft land on and launch from
spots on the ight deck. For normal,
non-combat operations, Menteer said,
they use two spots, one on the forward
part of the ight deck and one on the aft
area of the ight deck.
When aircraft land on the ship in this
conguration, they approach the ship
from either the starboard or port side at
a 45-degree angle to the ships centerline
and land facing that direction as well.
If we get into a more combat oriented environment where we need to put
more aircraft in the air such as the [UH1] Hueys and [AH-1] Cobra gunships
ships, each of those two main spots can
be split in half, increasing my landing
capacity from two to four, Menteer said.
But in this conguration the pilots must
land from aft to forward along the ships
Menteer said the original concept
for the ship was to launch two aircraft
simultaneously, and for the larger
aircraft thats how it works. But pushing
the envelope, hes found with smaller
aircraft, such as the Hueys or Cobras
armed with missiles, they can rework
the deck to handle four at a time,
allowing for a quicker launch of more
combat power. That gives us the ability


for a near simultaneous launch of two

sections of two aircraft each, he said.
For the most part, the pilots and aircraft that operate from an amphibious
ship are from the U.S. Marine Corps,
though from time to time Navy aircraft
operate from the LPDs.
The ship was designed and built to
handle the new tilt-rotor MV-22 Osprey.
These aircraft take off and land like a
helicopter, but once airborne, they y
like a xed-wing aircraft, with a greater
range and speed. They are ideal for not
only Marines, but special operations
forces as well.
By the time New York makes her rst
deployment, ofcials said, the Osprey
will be a common sight in the Marine
air combat element on the ight decks
of LPDs.
We have the ability to operate with
two Ospreys on the ight deck and one
in the hangar, Menteer said. But in special circumstances, we can handle ve,
two operating on the ight deck, two
folded on the ight deck, and one in the
When the ship is ying aircraft, Menteer is orchestrating the ballet from
a perch overlooking the ight deck,
known as the tower. There, he and
his assistant, known as the mini-boss,
watch the whole deck from just inside a
large window high up on the port side of
the ship, looking aft.
Between the seats in the tower are the
air bosss controls for the landing deck

lights, reghting equipment, and the

equipment for communications with the
deck, other stations in the ship, and the
aircraft. On the older amphibious ships,
the tower operator had access to only
one communications frequency. But on
the new LPD class, the air boss can dial
into any communications net on the ship
from a handset right next to his seat and
talk to the bridge as easily as to the pilots hovering over his deck.
The air boss is also has responsibilities in ight deck emergencies, including res, and from his seat, the air boss
can start the major reghting equipment running, saving precious time in
the crucial rst moments of a re.
To ght fuel res on the ight deck,
the Navy uses AFFF aqueous lm
forming foam. Sailors call it A triple
F. This mixture is sprayed on the re,
smothering it. On older ships, sailors
had to rst go below decks and start
the system that mixes the formula and
pumps it up to the deck hoses.
Now we hit that button and that activates the pump down in the AFFF station
and that sets the proper AFFF mixture,
Menteer said. That way its already going before our people get out on deck
and are exposed to the re.
Teams of sailors can attack a ight
deck re from one of four locations split
between the two main deck spots. The
forward spots are contained inside the
ship, one in the starboard passageway
and one in the port passageway leading
to the ight deck. For the aft spot, they
are accessed through the ships catwalks
one on the starboard side and the other
on the port side.
Here, too, the Navy is using
advanced ship design to improve
Instead of having the gear exposed
on the catwalks and out in the weather,
its been moved into a compartment
inside the skin of the ship, Menteer
said. We take the panel off prior to
ight quarters, a little more work for us
on the front end in setting up for ight

U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class David A. Brandenburg

From top to bottom, a UH-1N Huey, an AH-1W Super

Cobra, a CH-46 Sea Knight, and a CH-53E Super
Stallion y in formation. New York and other ships
of the class can sustain any of these aircraft on a


We salute the Builders and

Crew of the USS New York!
Our dedicated Ironworker
Locals 40/361/580 and
Operating Engineer Locals
14/15 clean-up crew removed
some of the steel that became

We are proud to be part of

the rebuilding effort of

DCM Erectors, Inc.


Proud to Power
the USS New York

One of the four

Fairbanks Morse Colt-Pielstick
PC 2.5 STC main propulsion diesel engines
during installation at the shipyard.


Photos copyright Mark D. Faram

Above: Sailors work in the massive well deck aboard San Antonio washing down
Landing Craft, Air Cushioned (LCACs) from the Norfolk, Va.-based Assault Craft
Unit Four. The craft had just returned to the ship after completing their ofoad of
Marines and their equipment at Onslow Beach, Camp Lejeune, N.C. Right: LCACs
from the Norfolk, Va.-based Assault Craft Unit Four preparing to depart the ship.

operations, but it keeps the gear protected from the salt water
and the elements. That also prevents wear and tear on the
gear, making it more dependable.
One of the new LPDs most obvious features is the 1,500-squarefoot hangar space. How many aircraft the ship can keep in the
hangar at one time varies by aircraft. For example, at one time
the hangar can accommodate: four AH-1 Cobras, or three UH-1
Hueys, or two CH-46 Sea Knights, or two SH-60 Seahawks, or one
CH-53 Sea Stallion, or a single MV-22 Osprey.
Though the ship doesnt have aircraft mechanics aboard
full-time, she does have the capability to support basic maintenance. We can provide level-one maintenance for the Ospreys. We have everything we need here to sustain an Osprey
for a deployment, he said.
The same holds true for just about any helicopter in the Navy
and Marine Corps inventory, up to and including the large
CH-53 Sea Stallion aircraft operated by the Navy and Marine
When the aircraft come on board, they come with all the
support personnel required for them during the deployment,

he said. What we provide are dedicated maintenance shops

for them and storerooms for their gear and spare parts.

Well Deck Ops

The well deck is where the Marines and their equipment
are loaded into the LCACs, Marine Expeditionary Fighting
Vehicles, and other specialized amphibious assault craft. Its
part of a cavernous space, but once loaded with Marines and
deployed, its cram-packed with vehicles and the rest of the
Marines combat cargo.
Keeping track of all this material in San Antonio and making sure it gets to shore quickly is the duty of Marine Chief
Warrant Ofcer 2 Anthonie Scott, the ships combat cargo
One of the few Marines attached to the ships company, Scott
has served for 17 years in the Corps, most as combat cargo



ofcer on three other ships. He says its the size and versatility
of the LPDs cargo areas that make well deck operations run
efciently and quickly.
Theres a capability to deploy with 797 Marines and their
gear on board these ships. For the Marines, this means armories in each berthing area for weapons such as M16 ries and
sidearms. Also aboard are ve other Marine armories to store
machine guns and larger weapons.
Stowing their other gear, such as tanks, artillery pieces, and
assorted trucks, is another story. Those items end up in the
23,261 square feet of total stowage area on the ship, split among
the 9,348 square feet of main vehicle area, 6,538 square feet
of upper vehicle area, and 7,375 square feet of lower vehicle
area 4,500 more square feet of space than the previous class
of amphibious transport docks had.
This space and conguration gives us an incredible amount
of versatility in how we initially load the equipment aboard the
ship, but more importantly in how we plan mission packages
later for off-load, Scott said. It allows us to spread the equipment out and then pull it out in custom mission packages.
That just wasnt the case in the cramped cargo area on
the older class of amphibs, where the gear for the most part
had to leave the ship in the reverse order from how it was


Getting grunts and gear to the beach, he said, is also

substantially faster on the new LPDs, not just because of increased space but because of how the interior of the ship was
For example, Scott said, Our ladder openings are large
enough to accommodate fully loaded Marines wearing their
packs and carrying their ries. Before, on the older ships, when
you had 10 Marines trying to get from one deck level to another
for debarkation it was labor intensive.
Marines would have to stop at the bottom or top of each ladder and pass their gear through one item at a time. Now they
keep moving, and that cuts the time it takes to load them out
in half.
The nal loading out takes place in the well deck, an area
the size of a gymnasium in the aft area below the main deck.
The well deck provides an interior dock and allows the landing
craft to be loaded inside the ship, sheltered from the rolling
waves outside where most of their World War II counterparts
were forced to load.
Craft go in and out of the ship through the stern gate, huge
doors that make up the stern of the ship. But that gate can be
dropped, opening the well deck to the sea. The hollow sides
of the well deck theyre called wing walls can be ooded, allowing the ships stern to be lowered in a controlled

Photo copyright Mark D. Faram

A look from the wing walls of the well deck forward into the cargo storage areas of the amphibious transport dock ship San Antonio.

Honor. Courage. Commitment.

Deutsche Bank proudly salutes the brave men and

women of the USS New York (LPD 21).
Our commitment to a better tomorrow starts today.


Photo copyright Mark D. Faram

LCACs from the Norfolk, Va. based Assault Craft Unit Four head for home after exiting the stern gate of the USS San Antonios well deck in the Chesapeake Bay, just
off Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, Va.

sinking to the desired depth, which depends on the type of

craft being used.
Well decks in older class ships had a bottom made of wood.
Maintaining the wood by cleaning and sanding and especially
replacing it was one of the dirtiest jobs in the Navy.
But all that has changed with this class of ship, Scott said.
Our well deck has composite ooring that is bolted into place
in four-foot squares, he said. So if theres damage or corrosion, we can go in and unbolt that section and replace it easily. The material helps the LCACs operate more efciently
as the composite material offers signicantly less friction as
the craft moves over it, resulting in smoother operation and
less chance of damage to their huge inatable rubberized air
bags the craft ride on.
The wing walls of the well deck are coated with a special
rubberized composite material that protects both the ship and
the landing craft from the inevitable crunches that occur especially in rough seas.
When its time to hit the beach, the men and material to be
loaded out make their way from the cargo areas, down steep
ramps and onto the landing craft. As with the ight deck, the
craft are guided into spots for loading. Spot one is in the for-

ward part of the well deck and spot two is in the aft area, and
the LCACs line up front-to-back down the center of the well.
We have the ability to do what we call speed bumping,
Scott said. Thats when you drive a vehicle over the LCAC
in spot one to load the LCAC in spot two, allowing us to load
two vehicles simultaneously. This wasnt possible in the older
classes of amphibious ships, Scott said, where the LCACs had
to be loaded out one at a time.
The exibility of this ship gives us so many options in the
well deck, he said. We are able to move equipment without
forklifts and to stage equipment when and where we need to,
making load planning very easy.

The Long View

The christening brochure for New York pulls the long range
potential for her and her sister ships together: The ships will
support amphibious assault, special operations, or expeditionary warfare missions throughout the rst half of the 21st
century The multi-mission, versatile LPD ships will take
the power, will and courage of the United States to the four
corners of the world.




Pride Overcomes Construction Challenges
By Edward L. Winter

Each ship built by Northrop Grumman has a special place in the hearts and minds of all the
workers who built it. USS New York (LPD 21), however, is truly special, because it contains 7.5
tons of World Trade Center steel in its bow stem. In tangible terms, New York holds sacred the
memory of the heroes and victims who died on Sept. 11, 2001. Its also special because the shipbuilders who built it share a kindred spirit with the people of New York, a unique bond born
from two separate tragedies.
The shipbuilders who built New York endured their own
tragedy with Hurricane Katrina, the worst natural disaster in
our nations history. They felt an afnity with all New Yorkers
because even though the dimensions of the event were different they also knew what it was like to experience loss and
devastation as a result of a catastrophic disaster. Since then,
restoring their personal lives has been paramount. With an eye
toward the future, recovery, restoration, and rebirth have been
dominant motivations.
If certain indomitable qualities such as determination, resiliency, and perseverance were the driving forces in the personal recoveries of the builders of New York, these same qualities
were also manifested when it came time to resume building
the ship. Many of the workers were back in the shipyard within a couple of weeks after Katrina. They needed their jobs, of
course, but they also felt compelled to continue building New
York. Theyre proud of the ship and they needed the ship, as did
New Yorkers and the nation.
Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding President Mike Petters
commended the workers at the New York christening ceremony in 2008: Im very proud of our shipbuilders who are building New York. They overcame many personal challenges and
construction obstacles and they persevered. This ship literally symbolizes so much of what is great about our nation and
Americans; our strength in overcoming tragedy, our tradition of
honoring heroes, and our universal belief in a brighter future.
Such a special U.S. Navy vessel had its origins more than
two decades ago when the Navy implemented new ways of procuring ships. This LPD 17 class acquisition reform movement
led to new and innovative design processes as well as to major
changes for future ships.
In the beginning, increased emphasis was placed on incorporating shipbuilding considerations during the earliest stages of design. But despite these new design concepts and sophisticated computerized engineering tools that produced as
near-complete design drawings as possible, building ships as


complex and innovative as New York was nonetheless a daunting challenge.

It still required all the sweat equity, hands-on strength, and
creative problem-solving that are part of all naval construction. New York was no different, and Northrop Grummans
shipbuilders worked with their hands, heads, and hearts to
make it happen.
New York is big: 684 feet long, 105 feet wide, about 18 stories
tall (more than twice the height of the Statue of Liberty if you
stood it on end). It contains more than 500 miles of electrical
cable, enough to reach from New York City to Cleveland, and
then some. There are nearly 60 miles of pipe, and over 40 miles
of ber-optic cable, enough to install high-speed digital Internet service to 1,000 homes. It also contains more than 315 tons
of paint, enough to paint nearly 2,000 average-sized homes, inside and out. So the task at hand was huge.
New York features many rst-of-a-kind capabilities, and it
represented an ongoing learning experience for the builders.
But it was an experience they welcomed and ultimately mastered. The builders compare it to a oating city, with the same
infrastructure requirements, including generators and electrical systems, piping and plumbing systems, air-conditioning,
heating, ventilation, living accommodations, food services, re
control, and medical facilities, to name just some of a citys infrastructure requirements.
But because this was also a warship, many additional capabilities were essential, including propulsion systems, command and control, combat, communications, tactical lift, and
ships self-defense systems, among several others.
According to Northrop Grumman Shipbuildings LPD Program Manager Doug Lounsberry, overseeing this massive LPD
21 construction process were highly skilled and exceptionally
motivated program managers, construction managers, and directors, all ably assisted by superintendents, line foremen, and
thousands of workers. Managing this complex job required
detailed preparation, planning, and constant attention to budget

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding


Construction aboard the amphibious transport dock ship New York (LPD 21) at Northrop Grumman Shipbuildings Gulf Coast shipyard. More than 11,000 tons of steel
were used in building the ships hull.


In memoriam

Darya Lin

Suzanne Kondratenko
May your memory be honored
in the commissioning of this vessel.

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman


U.S. Navy photo

Above: Three veteran employees of Amite Foundry open the ladle containing
more than 20 tons of molten steel from the World Trade Center. The steel
became the bow stem of USS New York (LPD 21), named in honor of the victims
and heroes of the Sept. 11, 2001 tragedy. Left: Throughout her service to the
nation, USS New York will carry a piece of New York City, the embodiment of the
sacrice of more than 3,000 New Yorkers.

and schedule, noted Lounsberry. We worked closely with the

Navy from the outset as an Industry-Navy team, and we also had
a strong working relationship with all the subcontractors and
vendors who supported ship construction.
While a major management responsibility of a ship program
manager is to pay close attention to schedule and budget, it
also includes monitoring the daily work of the projects directors and managers, along with hundreds of workers in many
different crafts welders, ship tters, electricians, pipetters,
machinists, sheet metal mechanics, painters, and many others.
One of our biggest challenges is in sequencing all the craft
work to achieve the highest possible rst-time quality and avoid
re-work, which is very costly and affects schedule, explained
LPD 21 Program Manager John Wilson. At peak production,


Honors the Commissioning of the


And Wishes Its Crew and Troops
Safe Passage and a Speedy Return Home
The Scrap Recycling Industry Is Proud
of the Role It Played in
Recycling and Forging the Steel
from the World Trade Center
into the Bow Stem of the USS New York
The Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc. (ISRI) is the Voice of the Recycling
Industry. ISRI represents more than 1,600 companies in 21 chapters nationwide that
process, broker, and consume scrap commodities, including metals, paper, plastics, glass,
rubber, electronics, and textiles. With headquarters in Washington, D.C., the Institute
provides education, advocacy, and compliance training, and promotes public awareness
of the vital role recycling plays in the U.S. economy, global trade, the environment and
sustainable development. For more information about ISRI, please visit www.isri.org.

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding


Left: Part of New Yorks armament is a 30 mm

cannon. The Mk. 46 Mod 1 is a remotely operated
naval gun system using a 30 mm high-velocity
cannon and second-generation thermal day-night
sight for close-in ships protection. Built by General
Dynamics, Mk. 46 Mod 1 is the naval derivative of
the turret originally developed for the U.S. Marine
Corps Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle.
Below, left: Pictured top to bottom, Northrop
Grumman Shipbuilding composites tters Delwin
Bass and Kimmy Lizana and berglass mechanic
leaderman David Seals sand the joints of the New
Yorks (LPD 21) aft lower mast in preparation for
lamination. Production work at Northrop Grummans
Gulfport Center of Excellence had restarted following
the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, with all work
being done on diesel-generator power and the
company working with Mississippi Power to restore
permanent electric hookup.

more than 1,300 workers are onboard

during a single shift, and for them to be
effective requires a managers understanding the entire scope of work and
communicating effectively. We needed
to be constantly focused on safety while
also achieving the next construction
milestone, and do so within budget. It
demands constant attention and is a
delicate balancing act.
Managers must be proactive and meticulous in planning all work to ensure
that necessary tools are on hand and
proper equipment is in the right place,
at the right time, and in good working
order. We had to make sure all needed
materials were owing on board in a
timely fashion, noted John Lotshaw, who
served as an LPD 21 ship director. We
needed to be creative and innovative in
executing the work, and expect the unexpected. You have to be exible, and
keep the work moving, even if material
is not there when you need it, or a crane
malfunctions, or something else doesnt
go as planned.
The construction process begins with
steel fabrication and assembly. New
York is built with 11,250 tons of steel. It is
made up of 210 ship modules, with each
unit ranging in weight from about 30
tons to 140 tons. Steel plates and structural beams are welded together to form
these ship units in the steel fabrication
and assembly areas.
Shipbuilders pre-outtted units for
New York with as much material as
possible prior to their addition to the
ship. This is a critical step to improving


ALLPRO Imaging
Proudly Supports the Commissioning
of the USS New York.
To the Men and Women who protect
and defend the American way of life, we
thank you.
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To the USS New York:

Proud journey and much
appreciation to every
Man and Woman aboard.

w w w. a l l p r o i m a g i n g . c o m


efciency and reducing the construction cycle time, noted

Dave Bergeron, who was director of unit construction in the
build area. Piping, ventilation, electrical wire-way hangers,
ladders, gratings, and other components are all installed on the
units prior to erection.
Package units are also built at this stage. They consist of
a skid or steel base, on which pumps, motors, piping, valves,
gauges, and other instrumentation are installed, continued
Bergeron. These packages are then installed either on units
or directly on the ship. Its much easier and safer on the worker
and more cost-efcient to pre-outt than it is to install everything inside the ship once it is erected.
Towering gantry cranes with lift capacities up to 300 tons
raise units onto the ship in the building ways. Often, several
units are blocked together into a grand block assembly and
erected onto the ship by multiple cranes. A 578-ton grand
block assembly for New York consisting of six units was lifted
by four cranes and set the sector record for ships, noted Crane
Department Superintendent Mike Norman. Blocking multiple
units for erection increases efciency and reduces construction time. But all lifts require the utmost attention to safety, accuracy, and precision by all involved, including engineering,
rigging, and safety.
The shipyards accuracy control experts, responsible for
verifying accurate dimensions and measurements on ship
units, played pivotal roles in New Yorks construction from the
beginning, utilizing advanced optical measuring tools and instruments to ensure the units matched up, t properly, and were
of high quality.
According to LPD 21 Construction Manager Doug Blethen,
the well-planned unit erection process and craftwork sequencing began from mid-ship over the keel, stretching out port and
starboard, extending fore and aft, and ultimately, straight up.
Once the ship had taken shape, riggers and ship tters landed and installed large pieces of equipment for the power and
propulsion systems, including ve generators, four main diesel propulsion engines, the 350-foot-long starboard propeller
shaft and nearly 200-foot-long port propeller shaft, as well as
the heavy struts and rudders.
Completing the more than 1,100 compartments and tanks on
New York was critical to delivering the ship to the Navy. The
craftsmen assigned this task worked hard and often in cramped,
tight spaces, but again, sequencing the right craft in the right
order was very important to achieve compartment completion,
added Blethen, and for the workers comfort and safety. We
needed them to perform rst-time, high-quality work.
Another challenge was pulling thousands of feet of cable throughout the ship, over and around sharp angles and
through tight spaces. The ships sheer size and conguration
complicated this task, but good coordination and execution
paid off, explained LPD 21 Ship Superintendent Tommy Barrett. It was a big, difcult job that required shipbuilder brawn
and muscle to pull and connect all this cable to so many different systems.
Because New York carries upward of 800 Marines, extra
wide passageways were built into the ship to better accommodate them and their full battle gear and weapons. This is a
marked improvement, allowing Marines to more easily embark
on their missions from either the well deck or the ight deck,
said Gawain Hank Corcoran, who was a ship director for New
York. Even the location of the armory on this ship is different,

much closer to where the Marines need it to be for when they

exit the ship.
Since New York accommodates a mixed gender crew, its
builders not only had to include such obvious needs as separate living quarters, they also had to be aware of ergonomic
design factors that differed from ships with an all-male crew.
Having female crew members also led to other ergonomic
changes, added Corcoran, such as installing equipment, meters, and instruments at lower heights to accommodate shorter
females who would operate them.
Installation of components for command and control, communications, combat, and weaponry and radar systems can be
extremely intricate. On New York, these jobs were assigned to
experienced technicians and electronics specialists who had
experience in this type of work on previous LPD ships.
Another LPD technological advancement on New York is
the incorporation of stealth design features, which presented building challenges over earlier LPDs. According to Jay
Jenkins, who was involved early on as an LPD program manager, the unique prole of these ships, with their two composite enclosed masts and the clean lines, are not just for
aesthetics. These elements are part of the stealth design to
reduce the ships overall radar cross section, said Jenkins,
making them more difcult for enemy radar to pick up and
The angled projections on LPD ships hulls are a dramatic
departure from the standard 45 or 90 degrees built into more
conventional hulls. A challenge to building stealthy ships is
meeting the surface atness tolerances on the shell plating and
eliminating distortion of thin steel plates during welding, explained Jenkins. To solve this problem, our R&D experts developed a process called ame straightening. Very skilled craftsmen heated small areas of the plate and then rapidly cooled
the spots with a spray of water, causing the steel to contract,
and eliminating most of the surface deection. Our craftsmen
mastered this technique so it was not a major construction challenge on New York.
A different approach to topside design is also incorporated
into New Yorks stealth features. The absence of typical topside clutter, such as re equipment racks, antennas, speakers,
vents, and other hardware, further reduces the radar cross section. Workers were creative in nding ways to make the topside
equipment retractable, portable, or stowable below deck all
with the stealth design idea of making the ship appear smaller
on radar.
Because metal reects radar, special composites and other
materials that absorb radar were used on New York, including
reective lm for glass. The Advanced Enclosed Mast/Sensor
System consists of two large, eight-sided composite structures
that enclose radar and communications antennas within an advanced hybrid frequency surface. These masts are the largest
composite structures ever installed on U.S. Navy steel ships
and they represent revolutionary advancement in topside design. They are designed to signicantly reduce the ships radar
cross section signature and are a dramatic departure from the
traditional stick masts installed on previous Navy ships.
The composite masts are built at Northrop Grumman Shipbuildings Composite Center in Gulfport, Miss., where engineers
and highly trained craftsmen work with special resin composite
materials. They are regarded as some of the most knowledgeable and skillful professionals in the composites eld.



U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Corey Lewis

Cmdr. Curt Jones, prospective commanding ofcer of the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock ship Pre-Commissioning Unit New York (LPD 21) signs the
delivery document aboard the ship at 9:11 a.m. on Aug. 21, 2009. Also participating in the ceremony is Irwin F. Edenzon, vice president and general manager of Northrop
Grumman Shipbuilding, and Supervisor of Shipbuilding Gulf Region Capt. Mary Beth Dexter.

Another specialized material used on New York is titanium, a

non-corrosive material that has an expensive up-front cost, but
because of its durable qualities will require no maintenance
and actually outlast the life of the ship. Primarily used for re
main and saltwater piping systems, approximately 12,000 feet
of titanium pipe is on New York.
Titanium is a very delicate and tricky material to work with,
so welders underwent rigorous training to learn how to weld it
to meet stringent Navy certication requirements. The welders
have progressed to the point that Northrop Grummans titanium shop is widely recognized as a leader in the use of titanium
in construction.
Also new to the LPDs and New York is the Shipboard Wide
Area Network (SWAN) that links all the ships systems by a
computer and ber optics network, supporting everything from
combat systems to directions to the rudder. The development
of the automated SWAN helped make it possible to dramatically reduce crew size.
Because all of the ships systems are linked by the SWAN,
its proper installation was crucial for all of New Yorks systems
and operations to function properly, explained Tommy Dufrene, who served as LPD 21 ship director. So we made sure

that all the shipbuilders put early emphasis on accurately installing this vital shipboard network.
Dufrene added that not only was the SWAN complicated to install, but it was even more challenging to test. Shipbuilders who
tested this network on New York were aware that for the SWAN to
pass testing, all of its components and electronic connections had
to work awlessly, so proper installation was critical and challenging. Sadly, Dufrene passed away in December 2008 and did not
get to see New York completed. But he was extremely important in
this ships construction and is remembered by his fellow Northrop
Grumman shipbuilders. His skill and dedication is a special example of the spirit instilled in New York during her construction.
Despite the many challenges, shipbuilders are a hearty and
robust group, especially those who built New York. Because of
Katrina they faced serious personal problems and construction
obstacles, but persevered. USS New Yorks future in the Navy
eet and in service to America ofcially begins with the commissioning ceremony. But Northrop Grummans shipbuilders
know that it really began years ago in their shipyard. All of us
at Northrop Grumman are proud and privileged to have played
a part in bringing about this great new ship, added Petters,
and we all wish her and her crew nothing but the best.



istory shows that famous ships often carry pieces of the
communities that made them.
Copper spikes from Paul Reveres Boston foundry secured
the stout planking for the rst six frigates of the U.S. Navy authorized by Congress in 1794. USS Philadelphia lost in the war
against the Barbary pirates in 1803 was among them.
Rarely has the bond between a ship and a community been
more powerful than in the case of the USS New York (LPD 21).
The nearly 700-foot-long amphibious warship carries seven
and a half tons of recycled steel in its bow from the World Trade
Center in memory of the 9/11 terror attacks.
LPD 21s commanding ofcer, Cmdr. F. Curtis Jones, of Binghamton, N.Y., is himself a native New Yorker. Heroism literally
is the backbone of this ship, Jones said at New Yorks christening in Avondale, La., in March 2008.
The ships motto, Strength Forged Through Sacrice. Never
Forget, is a vivid reminder of the events of that day. It is this
symbolism that will bind LPD 21 to generations of New Yorkers
in years to come.
But the ships ties to New York are as much about people as
they are about symbols and mottos. Here, in their own words, is
what the ship means to New Yorkers, and a few of their stories.
The Siller family of Staten Island knows a lot about strength,
sacrice and not forgetting 9/11. On that day more than eight
years, ago, Stephen Siller, a member of Squad 1, an elite rescue unit of the Fire Department of New York, had just nished
the overnight shift at his rehouse in the Park Slope section of
Brooklyn. The father of ve was off duty and driving home to
spend the day with his family.
Siller heard on his scanner about the attack on the Twin
Towers. He immediately turned around and sped toward


the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel hoping to join his unit at the

Trade Center. When police told him that cars werent allowed
through the tunnel, he strapped on his re-ghting gear and
dashed along the tunnel catwalk toward Lower Manhattan.
A passing re truck picked up Siller and drove him to West
Street, near Ground Zero. That was the last time anyone saw
him alive. Family members believe that he met up with his
Squad 1 teammates and went to save lives in the towers,
where they died together.
One thing the Siller family did over the last seven years to
keep Stephens memory alive was to organize a Tunnel to
Towers run every year on Sept. 29. The 1.7-mile race traces
the reghters course on that fateful morning. Twenty-ve
thousand people signed up for the last run, and their numbers
surge each year. The Sillers have used the tunnel run and other
events to raise more than $4 million to aid military families and
other causes.
The commissioning of USS New York has a special meaning
for Frank Siller, Stephens brother. To me, my brother was a
reghter who had an option [on 9/11], Frank said. Stephen
was on his way home from work. He turned around, went back
and ran through the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel to get to the Towers, where he perished with 343 other reghters. To me, thats
a direct correlation with our military and our rst responders
and the strength and courage they always show in protecting
this great country. This steel that came from Ground Zero to me
shows the strength and resolve that America always has and
which is not going to go away. This war on terror is going to be
an everlasting battle. And we have to have the backbone of the
steel [in this ship] that was taken from Ground Zero to stand up
and continue to protect America.

U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Corey T. Lewis

By Doug Tsuruoka

U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographers Mate Eric J. Tilford

U.S. Navy Photos by Photographers Mate 2nd Class Jim Watson


Opposite page: Sailors assigned to Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) New York (LPD 21)
have a moment of silence for fallen New York City rst responders and civilian victims
as they touch a steel beam recovered from the World Trade Center. The ship has 7.5
tons of World Trade Center steel in her bow. Above: A reghter emerges from the
smoke and debris of the World Trade Center. Right: While working around-the-clock to nd
survivors, a rescue worker takes a moment to reect on the impact of the devastating
terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. It was an emotional time for the rescue
workers because many of them had lost co-workers and friends in the days devastation.
Bottom, right: A lone re engine at the crime scene in Manhattan where the World Trade
Center collapsed following the Sept. 11 terrorist attack. Surrounding buildings were
heavily damaged by the debris and massive force of the falling Twin Towers.

The name USS New York reportedly had its genesis in a letter that former New York Gov. George E. Pataki wrote to then-Navy Secretary Gordon England shortly after 9/11. Mayor Michael
Bloomberg of New York City also wrote to the secretary. They
asked the Navy to revive the name USS New York in honor of
9/11s victims and to confer it to a surface warship involved in the
war on terror. Although until then it was Navy policy to reserve
state names for nuclear submarines, they asked that an exception be made so the name New York could be given to a surface
ship. The request was granted in August 2002.
When news of the ship-naming was announced, it was done
from the deck of the former carrier USS Intrepid, the oating
air and space museum docked at Pier 86 on Manhattans West
Side on Sept. 7, 2002. Ofcials involved in the project informed
the public at this time that the new Navy ship would carry steel
from the World Trade Center in its bow.
Publishing consultant Russell MacAusland is descended
from a long line of New England sea captains and soldiers. The


U.S. Navy photos by Photographers Mate 2nd Class Jim Watson


U.S. Navy photo by Photographers Mate 2nd Class George Trian

Left: Rescue workers conduct search and rescue attempts, descending deep
into the rubble of the World Trade Center. Above: Workers pour steel, recycled
from the World Trade Center, into a mold, which would form the bow stem of the
amphibious transport dock ship USS New York (LPD 21), at the Amite Foundry.
About 24 tons of steel was salvaged from the World Trade Center. Approximately
10 percent of the steel was lost when the foundry superheated the 48,780
pounds of steel to 2,850 degrees Fahrenheit.

19th-century clipper ship William H. Prescott, which sailed out

of Salem, Mass., was named after his great-great-grandfather,
a famous U.S. historian. His great-great-great-great-greatgrandfather, Minuteman Col. William Prescott, led Continental
troops at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. It was his ancestor
who shouted, Dont re until you can see the whites of their
eyes! as the Redcoats attacked.
MacAusland was at home on the morning of 9/11 when he
learned of the attack on the Twin Towers. He raced to the roof
of his Midtown Manhattan apartment building with a pair of
binoculars. He saw the billowing black smoke and the men and
women trapped on the upper oors. He will never forget what
he saw that day.
Said MacAusland: In colonial times, the Minutemen provided
a select, highly mobile, and rapidly deployable force, qualities
that the USS New York will provide our country going forward.
Dennis McKeon is executive director of Where To Turn, a
support group for 9/11 survivors and their families. Ive had
discussions with many 9/11 families and most are very supportive of the fact that steel from the World Trade Center is being
used in the ship. Its because it keeps alive the memories of
those who died, McKeon said.
McKeon says the emotional symbolism of the steel in the
New Yorks bow cant be overstated. At least a portion of the
steel from the Trade Center is being used to support our military personnel in the war on terror, McKeon said.
Where To Turn is busy with its own project to honor the victims of 9/11. Theyre searching for an exhibition site to house
a 16,000-square-foot quilt that lists the names of everyone who

died. The huge patchwork was made by artist Corey Gammel.

It has photos and other personal items sewn into it. Its a pretty
phenomenal thing, and we plan to house it in a renovated building on Staten Island, McKeon said.
Younger New Yorkers also feel the ships connection to 9/11.
The New York Military Youth Cadets provides a military-based
program for boys and girls between the ages of 12 and 18. The
goal of the Queens-based nonprot group is to instill self-condence, discipline, and respect for society in kids from some of
the toughest neighborhoods in the city.
At the time of 9/11, I was only 6 years old and in school, said
Cadet Corp. Perez Jesus. I remember being told by my teacher that the city had been attacked. Everyone was real scared
and confused. It was not until three years later that I joined the
cadets, and it was there that I began to learn and understand
what had happened. Im 13 years old now and because of being
a cadet, I have met older cadets who are now serving in the
armed forces, and I have come to understand what took place
that day and the fact that if it were not for those who serve we
would not be able to live in the freedom that we have. Some
[former cadets] enlisted because of what took place that day
and have served in Iraq and returned safely, and others are
serving at the present time. This is why I feel that the USS New
York represents that commitment to defend this country and
our way of life.
The USS New York means peace of mind and a feeling of
safety, said 14-year-old Cadet Corp. Gabriela Mejia. We can
go to sleep knowing that our sailors are protecting us and the
rest of the world.
Jonathan Salazar, an adult staff member of the cadets said:
Im 19 now, but when I was 12, I lived through the events of 9/11.
With the building of the USS New York, I know the rest of the
world will get to see the resolve of the people of New York and
be reminded that we will never forget.


U.S. Marine Corps photo by GSgt. Chris Randazzo


Wounded warriors await the start of the 8th Annual Tunnel-To-Towers Run in New York City on Sept. 27, 2009. The run commemorates Fireghter Stephen Siller, New York
City Fire Department, who ran 3.1 miles through the tunnel connecting Brooklyn and Manhattan on Sept. 11, 2001, carrying 70 pounds of gear to assist at the World Trade
Center before dying in the towers collapse.

Brooklyn baseball writer and historian Tom Knight says that

metal building material from the citys past sometimes occupies
an ironic place in history. In the 1930s, Knight, 82, recalls that
the rusting iron girders from the Fifth Avenue elevated subway
tracks in Brooklyn were dismantled and sold as scrap metal to
Japan several years before Pearl Harbor. The same thing happened to the Second Avenue elevated subway in Manhattan.
All that iron went to Japan. People used to say that pieces
of the El [came back as shells and bombs] that killed a lot of
Americans during World War II, said Knight, who holds the
title, Ofcial Baseball Historian of Brooklyn, and whose ancestors fought with the Union Army in the Civil War.
But of the steel from the Trade Center in the New Yorks bow,
Knight said: Its a great memorial for those who died. I lost a lot
of friends on 9/11. I dont think anything like this has ever been
done before.
Its tting to end this story about USS New York by talking
about another uncanny coincidence that binds LPD 21 even
more tightly to the city and state for which its named. Its a direct connection to what historians say was one of the rst ships
to drop anchor in New York Harbor nearly 400 years ago.
In the late summer of 1613, Dutch captain Adriaen Block and
his ship Tyger visited the tip of Lower Manhattan to trade muskets for animal skins with the local Lenape Indians.
Disaster struck in November when a re broke out in
Tygers hold and burned the ship to the waterline. Block and


his crew were forced to winter over, building crude cabins

that represented the rst European community on Manhattan
Island not far from where St. Pauls Church and Ground Zero
stand today.
The Dutchmen salvaged sails and other ttings from Tyger
before she burned. By the following spring, they had cobbled
together another ship, Onrust or Restless, with help from the
Native Americans. They used their new ship to explore the East
River and Long Island Sound, venturing as far north as Cape
Cod, before returning to Europe in 1614.
Born of re, Onrust, with timbers hewn from the then primeval
forests of Manhattan, was literally the rst ship to be built and
launched in the great bay that later became New York Harbor.
The story is amazing in its own right. Yet something else happened a few centuries later that connects Tyger directly to USS
New York and 9/11.
In 1916, work crews digging a tunnel for New York Citys
rst subway line uncovered some ancient timbers near the
intersection of whats now Greenwich and Dey Streets. It
turned out to be the prow and keel of Tyger, just as Blocks
crew had abandoned it four centuries earlier. The wreck was
found buried with an old Dutch ax, beads, and other objects
that historians said made it certain that it was Blocks ship.
The charred prow was hastily excavated, preserved, and
eventually displayed in the Marine Gallery of the Museum of
the City of New York. What remained of the ship was reburied

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Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding


USS New York will embody the memory of those who died on 9/11, as well as the strength and resolve of those who remember them.

and lay undisturbed until 1968, when work began on the rst
World Trade Center site.
According to Unearthing Gotham by Anne-Marie E. Cantwell
and Diana diZerega Wall, ofcials of the South Street Seaport
Museum realized that work on the 110-story Twin Towers was
taking place almost on the exact spot where the Tygers keel
had been covered over a half century earlier.
The museum recruited two urban archaeologists Bert Salwen and Ralph Solecki to recover the rest of the Tyger before
the bulldozers got to it.
The two men dug at a spot about 20 feet below ground,
some yards east of where the North Tower of the Trade Center was being built. After weeks of painstaking work, they
found nothing.
One explanation is that the coordinates were off and that Salwen and Solecki dug in the wrong spot. This is likely, since the
archaeologists, at the time, had information that hardhats had

found an old intlock pistol and other Dutch artifacts nearby.

In all probability, what was left of the Tyger became part of the
permanent foundation of 1 World Trade Center.
So the story turns full circle the timbers of one of the
rst ships to moor in New York City likely became part of the
soaring glass and steel of what was for a few years the tallest
building on Earth. And it is a few of the steel girders hurled
down in that inferno on 9/11 that today form the bow of USS
New York.
Blessing a vessel has been a part of maritime culture for
thousands of years, said Reverend David M. Rider, president
and executive director of the Seamens Church Institute of
New York and New Jersey, a 175-year-old nonprot that aids
merchant sailors. We bless a ship when we dedicate it with
symbols of our hope for strength and safety. This new ship by
its very nature is imbued with the hopes and blessings of a resilient people with a rich history.


U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kyle D. Gahlau


The aircraft carier USS Kitty Hawk (CVN 63) sails in formation with Australian, Canadian, South Korean, and
U.S. Navy ships during a Rim of the Pacic (RIMPAC) 2008 exercise group photo off the coast of Hawaii. Kitty
Hawk was taking part in RIMPAC with units from the United States, Australia, Chile, Japan, the Netherlands,
Peru, South Korea, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. Exercises such as RIMPAC are examples of the everyday
execution of A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower, as was the homeporting in Japan of the Kitty
Hawk and her battle group. Kitty Hawk has now been replaced by USS George Washington (CVN 73).




A Strategy for the 21st Century
By Rear Adm. Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Ret.)

During the past three decades, the U.S. Navy

has published a number of strategies. Those
documents not only determined how U.S.
naval power would be employed, they also
helped determine the kind of weapons and
the number of people the Navy needed to
support U.S. national policy.
The rst of those strategies was the white paper initiated in
the late 1970s by then-Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Thomas
Hayward. The challenge at the time, as Hayward put it, was that
the United States had a one-and-a-half ocean navy for a threeocean commitment.
The white paper, called The Future of the United States
Navy, became the cornerstone of the dramatic rebuilding of
the Navy during the administration of President Ronald Reagan, and it was the strategic rationale for the six hundred-ship
force shaped by then-Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman. In
the opinion of many, that Reagan-era Navy played an indispensable role in the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Then, toward the end of 1992, the Navy and Marine Corps
published a new strategy called From the Sea. It began:
The world has changed dramatically in the last two years, and
Americas national security policy has also changed our strategy has shifted from a focus on a global threat to a focus on
regional challenges and opportunities.
One of the different elements of From the Sea was its
recognition of the need for capabilities required in the complex operating environment of the littoral or coastlines of the
earth. During the initial years of the 21st century, From the
Sea was adjusted to match the continuingly shifting geopolitical landscape.
In October 2007, again based on a changed geopolitical
landscape, the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Coast
Guard jointly published A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower. The preface spells out a new approach to creating a coherent strategy:



Never before have the maritime forces of the United States

the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard come together
to create a unied maritime strategy. This strategy stresses
an approach that integrates seapower with other elements of
national power, as well as those of our friends and allies. It describes how seapower will be applied around the world to protect our way of life, as we join with other like-minded nations to
protect and sustain the global, inter-connected system through
which we prosper. Our commitment to protecting the homeland
and winning our Nations wars is matched by a corresponding
commitment to preventing war.

An Unusual Process
The strategy that follows that statement is the result of a process that had begun a year earlier, and it recognizes that the
strategic landscape has once again changed radically; how
radically was violently underscored by 9/11.
In the new Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower, the emphasis shifts from the possibility of a symmetrical,
large-scale war, accompanied by the probability of regional
conicts, to the actuality of an asymmetrical war including
direct attacks on the United States plus the possibility of symmetrical war with one or more national powers.
To complicate todays strategic challenges, a broad
spectrum of dangerous geopolitical problems are playing
out beyond sometimes far beyond the initial arenas of
ongoing, asymmetrical combat in Afghanistan and Iraq.
There are, for example, Iran and North Korea embarked on


nuclear weapons programs, an increasingly aggressive and

rearming Russia, constant armed violence in various formats
in the Middle East, unfriendly and bellicose behavior by
anti-United States dictators in the Caribbean, destabilizing
terrorist attacks in Pakistan and India (both nuclear powers)
and other areas of Asia and Africa, pirates practicing their
trade in a strategic portion of the oil tanker route off the coast
of Somalia, and a global economic collapse with signicant
strategic implications, to name a few. It was indeed a time for
a revised seapower strategy to meet the more diffused and
more immediate threats.
Faced with the radically different geostrategic paradigm,
the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard did more than set
out to develop parallel strategies, they got together to develop
a common strategy. It was, as the strategy itself states: a historical rst. The nations three sea services began the process
by introducing a surprising element to the methodology to be
used for framing a new maritime strategy.
In addition to reaching out to expected sources, such as the
Ofce of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
combat and component commanders, and relevant Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard components, the three maritime
services introduced a distinctly non-military aspect to the process: They sought input from local community leaders, civilian
opinion makers, and civic groups. This thinking outside the
box was called A Conversation with the Country. That notably
different initial part of the process was led by Navy Vice Adm.
John G. Morgan, Jr., then-Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for
Information, Plans, and Strategy.

U.S. Navy photo by Lt. Adam Cohen

An F/A-18 Hornet from the Tomcatters of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 31 ies over Afghanistan during routine operations. VFA-31 was assigned to Carrier Air Wing
(CVW) 8, deployed aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71). The Nimitz-class aircraft carrier was on a scheduled deployment in the 5th Fleet area of responsibility,
focused on reassuring regional partners of the United States commitment to security, which promotes stability and global prosperity.

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U.S. Marines assigned to the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit assist U.S. citizens departing from the American Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. At the request of the U.S.
ambassador to Lebanon and at the direction of the secretary of defense, the United States Central Command and the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit (24 MEU) assisted
with the departure of U.S. citizens from Lebanon. Forward presence of naval assets greatly speeds the reaction time required for such operations.

In a letter of invitation to one local session that was part

of the conversation, Morgan pointed out, Exactly how these
forces (Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) should be employed to support national policy objectives in this new and
complex security environment is the subject of an ongoing
discussion. He went on to describe the civilian outreach he
was leading: We are seeking the ideas and opinions of distinguished men and women from all walks of life, which will
help to inform the analyses we are conducting through more
traditional means.

U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Jeffrey A. Cosola

The Product
One of the most noteworthy features of the strategy that resulted was the greater degree to which it commits the three
maritime services to cooperation among themselves. Interservice cooperation has been a rallying cry among the military
services since World War II, but the new strategy moves signicantly beyond commitment; its a call to assertive action.
In addition, the new strategy requires seriously increased
cooperation with U.S. economic, political, and military partners
around the world. In this respect, it reects a global view of
maritime defense based on the strong links between maritime

power and the ongoing trends toward a steadily increasing

global interdependence among the worlds nations.
Those interservice and international aspects of the strategy
recognize a need to preserve peace and prosperity as well as
win wars.
Finally, the new strategy puts increased emphasis on the
inherent exibility of naval power to meet the expanding and
shifting challenges of an asymmetrical war in which indiscriminate terror is the main weapon. It also recognizes the need to
meet a conceptually and geographically wide variety of future
At its heart, the new Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century
Seapower identies six core capabilities that must be maintained for it to work successfully: forward presence, deterrence, sea control, power projection, maritime security, and
nally, humanitarian assistance and disaster response.

Forward Presence
Forward presence of naval forces increases the
efficiency of the strategy. In particular, reacting to an
emergency immediately and on scene often resolves or
mitigates a problem at a reduced cost of money, materiel,




The Cooperative Strategy states: Preventing war is preferable to ghting wars, and this involves the proactive use of
maritime forces to raise the negative potential of war for potential enemies. This capability encourages the resolution of
disputes through diplomacy. This capability is, however, inescapably linked to a credible national will that naval force will
be used as a last resort when the safety of the United States
and its people is threatened. This is an important point that is
often missed: there must be the will for the presence of the way
to be a credible deterrent.

Sea Control
Free access to the seas is a prerequisite to the use of naval
power. If those who would do us harm control ocean choke

U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Mark Logico

and lives than would be expended after the emergency had

expanded with time.
Evacuating U.S. citizens trapped in a combat zone, as has
happened in the Middle East, or delivering humanitarian aid
in a natural disaster, as is done regularly after hurricanes,
tsunamis, earthquakes, and other natural catastrophes, are
examples. In a military context, reacting to Saddam Husseins
invasion of Kuwait before he had time to consolidate his conquest contributed to the ability to oust him without a prolonged
military campaign and greater loss of life.
Forward deployment of naval forces also provides visible evidence of the U.S. commitment to its partners around the world,
as well as the ability to join with them quickly to meet mutual
threats. The U.S. 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean and the U.S. 7th
Fleet in the Western Pacic have been highly visible examples
of this capability, as is the homeporting of an aircraft carrier in
Yokosuka, Japan.


Opposite page: The Military Sealift Command hospital ship USNS Mercy
(T-AH 19) is anchored off the island coast of Weno, part of Chuuk State in the
Federated States of Micronesia, during Pacic Partnership 2008. Mercy is the
primary platform for Pacic Partnership, a four-month humanitarian mission
providing engineering, civic, medical, and dental assistance to Southeast Asia
and Oceania. Humanitarian assistance is a central element of the seapower
strategy. Right: A U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Barbers Point C-130 crew ies
over USS Crommelin (FFG 37), homeported in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and the FSS
Independence, a patrol boat from the Federated States of Micronesia, patrolling
in the Western Pacic Ocean. Both the Coast Guard and Navy have shared goals
of protecting the fragile ecosystems of Oceania as well as enforcing maritime
laws throughout mutual areas of responsibility.

points, if local law contravenes long-standing international

custom by denying access to ocean areas traditionally open
to all nations, if an enemy is capable of denying U.S. use of an
ocean area through the use of submarines, or if modern-day
pirates are able to threaten commercial sea lanes, execution
of a credible maritime strategy becomes increasingly

Power Projection

U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Ofcer 3rd Class Michael De Nyse

This element of the strategy emphasizes the ability of such

elements of U.S. naval power as carrier battle groups, embarked Navy-Marine Corps expeditionary forces, submarines,
or special warfare units to apply national power where and
when needed and at times and places that are inconvenient
for our enemies. Advanced technology aircraft, large-deck aircraft carriers, exible and hard-hitting expeditionary warfare
forces, technologically advanced submarines, and adaptable
littoral combat ships are among the elements of this maritime
As was the case with deterrence, this is a strategic element
that is closely linked to the national will to employ naval forces
in something more than a purely defensive posture. It requires
a national consensus that offensive capability is an ongoing
part of a sound seapower strategy.

Maritime Security


The ability of all nations to use the oceans for non-aggressive

purposes is a strategic companion to the U.S. ability to use the
oceans for its defense. This element of the strategy is closely
connected with the need for increased interoperability with
other navies and coast guards around the world. Realistic and
ongoing training with allies and potential allies is basic to this
element of the strategy.

In November 2008, the Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Gary

Roughhead published a description of the Navy Ethos. In many
ways it is the necessary companion of A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower. It denes the most basic Navy
values that sustain the strategys core capabilities. It adds the
people factor to the equation by identifying, in the Chief of Naval Operations words: our services overarching set of beliefs,
embracing Navy core values.
To characterize the Navy Ethos in 21st century terms, the
Chief of Naval Operations reached out for input from active
duty and Reserve component, as well as civilian employees of
the Navy throughout the world. The articulation that emerged
reects how the members of todays Navy dene themselves,
and it reads:
We are the United States Navy, our nations seapower
ready guardians at peace, victorious at war. We are
professional sailors and civilians a diverse and agile force
exemplifying the highest standards of service to our nation,
at home and abroad, at sea and ashore. Integrity is the

Humanitarian Assistance
and Disaster Response
This component of the strategy is an extension of all of the
other elements of the strategy and it involves the move of humanitarian assistance from a corollary of naval activity to a
central element in a seapower strategy. The rapidly transportable technical capabilities of Navy ships and squadrons, the
skills of Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard personnel, and
the underlying goodwill of Americans are all part of this core



U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Eric L. Beauregard

Members of a visit, board, search, and seizure (VBSS) team from the guided-missile cruiser USS Gettysburg (CG 64) and U.S. Coast Tactical Law Enforcement Team
South Detachment 409 capture suspected pirates after responding to a merchant vessel distress signal while operating in the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) area of
responsibility as part of Combined Task Force (CTF) 151. CTF 151 is a multinational task force established to conduct counter-piracy operations under a mission-based
mandate throughout the CMF area of responsibility to actively deter, disrupt, and suppress piracy in order to protect global maritime security and secure freedom of
navigation for the benet of all nations.

foundation of our conduct; respect for others is fundamental to

our character; decisive leadership is crucial to our success.
We are a team, disciplined and well-prepared, committed to
mission accomplishment. We do not waver in our dedication
and accountability to our shipmates and families. We are
patriots, forged by the Navys core values of honor, courage
and commitment; in times of war and peace, our actions reect
our proud heritage and tradition. We defend our nation and
prevail in the face of adversity with strength, determination
and dignity. We are the United States Navy.
At a U.S. Naval Institute conference in February 2009, a junior Marine Corps ofcer commented on his career motivation in a panel discussion. He talked of seeing the events of
9/11 unfold on television and why he and others have enlisted
in the Marine Corps. In summing up, he said: Simply put, its
because we want to win. In blunt Marine Corps style, he managed to express the basic rationale for a maritime strategy
within an ethos supporting its execution, and he did it in eight

On Any Given Day

A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is a real-time guide for Navy/Marine Corps/Coast Guard support of
national policy, but in the end, it must be dened by actions,
the specics that add up to the future safety and prosperity of
ourselves, our children, and our grandchildren. Following are a
few typical examples of the everyday execution of the Cooperative Strategy at a variety of locations. The items provide representative snapshots of what the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and
Coast Guard were doing on any given day during 2008:
 ;ZW#'%JHHHarry S. Truman Carrier Strike Group
departed Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates, for ongoing
combat support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and the
maintenance of maritime theater security in its area of
 ;ZW#'%JHHSan Jacinto conducted operations in the
Black Sea with NATO and Partnership-for-Peace units from
Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.


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U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Don Bray

The guided-missile destroyer USS OKane (DDG 77), the Japan Maritime Self
Defense Force destroyer Setogiri (DD 156), and the guided-missile frigate USS
Rodney M. Davis (FFG 60) steam in formation during a photo exercise for the Rim
of the Pacic 2008 exercise.

BVgX]&i]Z[jijgZJHHNew YorkAE9'&lVh

<gjbbVcH]^eWj^aY^c\^cEVhXV\djaV!B^hh#New York^h





Cdk#&'JHHTheodore Roosevelth8Vgg^Zg6^gL^c\:^\]i

A Focus on the Future

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By George Daughan

The United States entered World War II 27 months after it began ofcially with Adolf Hitlers invasion of Poland in September 1939. It took a direct Japanese attack on Dec. 7, 1941, and a German declaration of war four days later to get us fully engaged. While we slept, Hitler extended
his dominion over most of Europe and invaded Russia, with excellent prospects for success.
In the east, Japan extended her empire to Manchuria, eastern China, Indo-China, Burma, the
Malay Peninsula and Singapore, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, and Thailand. Italy, the
third Axis power, proved more of a burden than a help to her allies. Germany and Japan alone,
however, were powerful enough to create a new totalitarian order in the world. But they had to
move quickly, before the United States became aroused, since neither had the industrial capacity to defeat us. Fortunately, their hubris blinded them to this fundamental reality, and they
awakened the sleeping giant in the nick of time.
Once in the war, the United States became the leader of
a tripartite alliance with the British and Russian empires
a strange coalition that Hitler, until the very end, thought
would fall apart. The rst job of the Allies was to stop German and Japanese advances. This happened quicker than
anyone expected. The Nazi invasion of Russia in 1941 failed
to reach Leningrad, Moscow, or the Caucasus before the onset of winter, and once the ghting resumed in May 1942,
Hitler was defeated at Stalingrad in a few months. Japanese
expansion was halted even sooner at the Battle of the Coral
Sea the rst week of May 1942, and a month later at the Battle
of Midway.


Having stopped the Axis advances, the Allies then had to roll
them back a daunting task. The United States was required to
mount expeditionary assaults in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean,
and the Pacic on a scale never before imagined. Misguided
disarmament policies after World War I had left us militarily unprepared, forcing our armed forces to pay dearly while we got
fully geared up to ght. By the middle of 1943, however, Americas industrial strength was totally engaged, and our superb
political and military leadership, supported by the indomitable
patriotism of our ghting men and women, doomed our enemies.
Even though ultimate victory was never in doubt, the Axis
fought with a tenacity that tried our soul. Germanys relative

U.S. Marine Corps Historical Center

U.S. Marines in Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel (LCVPs) head for the beach at Iwo Jima on Feb. 19, 1945, during the initial landings. Mount Suribachi looms in the
background, and to its left is USS New York (BB 34), bombarding Japanese positions.

strength led Roosevelt and Churchill in 1941 to give the European Theater priority, but because of Pearl Harbor, America
was not about to ignore the Pacic. Thus, we fought a gigantic,
two-ocean war simultaneously, carrying nearly the entire burden against Japan.
Americas Army chief, Gen. George Marshall, recommended
a cross-channel invasion in 1942 aimed directly at the heart of
Germany, taking advantage of Hitlers preoccupation with Russia. Churchill and Roosevelt, however, decided they were not
yet ready and opted instead for a landing in North Africa in
November 1942.
With Hitler still distracted in Russia, a combined AmericanBritish expeditionary force under Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
made a remarkable crossing of the Atlantic, avoiding German
U-boats, and began landing in Morocco and Algeria on Nov.
8, 1942. Because Vichy Adm. Jean-Francois Darlan decided to

change sides, the Allied landings at Oran, Algiers, and Casablanca met minimal resistance. Eisenhower pressed on toward
Tunis to meet British Gen. Bernard Montgomerys Eighth Army
fresh from its triumph at Alamein in early September. They
planned to trap German Gen. Erwin Rommel in Tunis, thus
reclaiming all of North Africa. Hitler, however, despite being
bogged down in Russia, reinforced Rommel, igniting a long
battle that did not end until May 13, 1943.
Even before Eisenhowers landing, an American expeditionary force on Aug. 7, 1942, landed on Guadalcanal, one of
the Solomon Islands in the southwestern Pacic, to start rolling
back Japanese conquests. Only 2,200 Japanese guarded the
island and its unnished airbase, making the initial amphibious landing relatively easy for the U.S. Marines. But the Japanese high command, realizing this was just the beginning,
made a mighty effort to defeat us. As Tokyo committed more


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and crew of USS New York.
Rolls-Royce is behind you
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National Archives photos

resources, the ghting turned grim,

lasting until Feb. 7, 1943. Sixteen hundred American Marines and soldiers
died and 4,200 were wounded, while
23,000 Japanese soldiers were killed.
Five major naval battles were fought, in
which a combined total of 24 warships
were sunk. The number of sailors and
airmen lost was heavy.
In every theater, amphibious landings
were the hallmarks of American expeditionary forces, as we became highly
procient at combining, in the words
of Samuel Eliot Morison, air, surface,

submarine, and ground forces to project

ghting power irresistibly across the
ocean. Learning and improving as we
went along, we nonetheless paid a heavy
price in blood for not being prepared
By the summer of 1943, American industry was producing weapons in stupendous quantities. The United States
Navy enjoyed almost an embarrassment of riches, wrote British historian
John Keegan. Large, Essex-class carriers; light, Independence-class carriers;
escort carriers; new battleships; refur-

bished old battleships; heavy and light

cruisers; dozens of new destroyers; new,
fast transports; cargo vessels; and large
numbers of specialized support ships
were all being built.
To make our eets even more devastating, we developed the capacity to operate them at long distances from their
bases for extended periods. Utilizing
specially designed ships for fuel, repair,
ammunition, spare parts, and other supplies, medical services, and even oating dry docks, American expeditionary
forces, particularly our fast carriers,
could operate at heretofore unheard of
distances from their home bases for a
long time. In addition, the supply forces
allowed us to set up advanced bases
rapidly and to re-supply them quickly.
We developed nine different landing
and beach craft LSTs (Landing Ship,

Left: U.S. Marines of the 1st Marine Division storm

ashore from their landing craft at Guadalcanal on
Aug. 7, 1942. The initial landing was essentially
uncontested, but thereafter the Japanese fought
a grim battle against the Marines. Below: Landing
Ships, Tank (LSTs) at the French naval base of La
Pecherie in Tunisia take M-4 Sherman tanks aboard
two days before the invasion of Sicily in July 1943.
Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel (LCVPs) wait
in the harbor just beyond the tanks, which are
equipped with wading gear.



Tank), LVTs (Landing Vehicle, Trackedamphtracs) LCMs

(Landing Ship, Mechanizedtank loaded), LSDs (Landing Ship,
Dock), LCPs (Landing Ship, Personnel), LCIs (Landing Ship,
Infantry), LCTs (Landing Craft, Tank), LCVPs (Landing Craft,
Vehicles and Personnel), and LSMs (Landing Ship, Medium),
as well as the amphibious truck, DUKW. American factories
produced in excess of 80,000 of these indispensable vehicles.
They played essential roles in the amphibious landings at Sicily, Salerno, Anzio, Southern France, Normandy, and against
the Japanese on New Guinea, the Solomons, the Philippines,


the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana Islands, and on

Supported by Americas stupendous productivity, the war
to reclaim Europe and the Pacic proceeded, after the middle of 1943, at an accelerated pace. On the night of July 9-10,
1943, Eisenhower landed troops on Sicilys southern beaches.
There can be no drawn battle, no half-success, in an amphibious landing, Morison wrote, it is win all splendidly or lose
all miserably. The combined American-British force, unlike
the confused earlier landings in North Africa, got ashore with

National Archives

The rst wave of Marines hits the beach at Saipan from their Landing Vehicles, Tracked (LVTs), and take cover behind a sand dune while waiting for the following three
waves to come in.






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National Archives


U.S. Army 1st Division troops wade into the ght at Omaha Beach, Normandy, June 6, 1944, from a Coast Guard-manned LCVP.


We will Never Forget.

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Two Coast Guard-manned LSTs open their great jaws in the surf that washes
on Leyte Island beach, as soldiers strip down and build sandbag piers out to the
ramps to speed up unloading operations.


USS New York (LPD 21)

Pride. Honor. Patriotism. Raytheon salutes the men and women of the
USS New York for your service and commitment to the safety and security of
our country and our freedoms.

2009 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.
Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.
LPD 21: U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Corey Lewis


Marine Corps Historical Center

A group of Marines in the Iwo Jima beachhead get

organized as preparations are made for movement inland. Behind them is one of the specialized
LVT (A)-4s, with its turreted 75 mm howitzer for
destroying pillboxes and strongpoints.

little difculty, utilizing the new seagoing landing craft: LSTs LCTs, LCIs,
and DUKWs to good effect. In the rst
48 hours, 80,000 men were ashore and
more than 8,000 assorted tanks and vehicles. By Aug. 16, Sicily was liberated.
Subsequent landings on the Italian mainland at Salerno in September
1943, and at Anzio in January 1944, were
more difcult. Under Gen. Albert Kesselring, the Germans fought hard to prevent American Gen. Mark Clarks four
divisions from acquiring a foothold at
Salerno, but the dogged G.I.s, supported
by naval gunre, naval air, and groundbased air, succeeded within a week in
establishing a beachhead. Kesselring retreated, and Clark took Naples on Oct. 1.
Making a large commitment of men
to force the Nazis out of Italy, however,
was questionable, since tying down a
substantial number of German units
could have been accomplished just
as well by a low-casualty holding
operation south of Rome.
In the Pacic, a dual road to Tokyo
was planned, whereby Gen. Douglas
MacArthur and Adm. William F. Halsey
would move simultaneously up the coast
of New Guinea and the Solomons, with
a view to crushing the main Japanese
base at Rabaul on New Britain and then
re-taking the Philippines as a prelude to

striking Japan itself. The second track,

supported by Adm. Ernest King, chief
of Naval Operations, and led by Adm.
Chester W. Nimitz, would conduct amphibious attacks on Japanese bases
in the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and
Mariana Islands, preparatory to joining
in the attack on the Philippines and then
Japan. Bases at Guam, Tinian, Saipan,
and Okinawa were to be used for the
strategic bombing of the Japanese
Although there were enormous difculties along the way, this two-pronged
strategy worked well, and in a remarkably short time. Things were speeded
up when Nimitz began the practice of
leapfrogging, starting with Tarawa and
Makin in the Gilbert Islands. The battle
for Tarawa was four days of bloody hell,
Nov. 19-23, 1943. One thousand Marines
and sailors lost their lives and double
that number were wounded. All the Japanese defenders were killed. Weakly defended Makin was taken easily on Nov.
24, but the Japanese deployed nine submarines against the attack force, and
they exacted a heavy toll.
Next on Nimitzs agenda were the
Marshall Islands. On Jan. 31, 1944, U.S.
forces landed on the northern islands
of Kwajalein Atoll, and the next day on
the much larger Kwajalein Island itself.

All told, Americans landed on 30 of the

atolls various islets, and by Feb. 7, 1944,
were in full control. The hard lessons
learned at Tarawa were put to good use.
Three hundred seventy-two American
Marines and soldiers died, and nearly
8,000 Japanese.
Nimitz kept up the momentum. On
Feb. 14, American forces attacked Eniwetok Atoll, and simultaneously hit Truk
Island, a major Japanese base. Eniwetok
was taken by Feb. 22 at a cost of 339
Americans and almost 2,700 Japanese
nearly their entire force. No amphibious
landing was needed to neutralize Truk.
Guam, Tinian, and Saipan in the Mariana Islands were next. Japan considered
Saipan part of her home islands. Three
thousand ve hundred miles from Pearl
Harbor and 1,000 from Eniwetok, the
Marianas required an unprecedented
sea effort against fanatical Japanese
resistance. From June 15 to Aug. 12, the
battle raged.
In the midst of the ght for the Marianas, the Battle of the Philippine Sea
took place from June 19 to 21. It was the
greatest of the carrier battles of the war
and destroyed Japanese naval air power. After this great victory, the Marianas
were secured, but at a mind-numbing
price. Three thousand four hundred
and twenty-six American soldiers and
Marines died on Saipan alone, while
the Japanese ghting till the last man
again lost 24,000.
While we were ghting for the Marianas, the supreme battle for Europe
commenced with the greatest amphibious landing of them all at Normandy on
June 6, 1944. The Allies particularly
the British had hoped that an invasion
would be unnecessary, that the Allied
air campaign against Germany would
bring her to her knees, or that Hitler
would be assassinated and a new, more
exible government formed. But nothing
of the kind occurred, and the Normandy
invasion went forward.



Although the American and British air forces had not forced
the surrender of Germany, they did provide critical support by
destroying a good deal of Germanys widely dispersed industry, particularly many of her aircraft factories. They also crippled the German communications network in northern France,
hit guided missile stockpiles, and contributed to blocking the
English Channel to U-boats (58 of them).
More than 6,400 vessels were committed to the Normandy
battle, including more than 4,000 landing craft and hundreds


of transports. One hundred and four destroyers, seven battleships, and 23 cruisers provided critical naval re support, and
12,000 aircraft, including 5,000 ghters, were employed. British and American strategic bombing was momentarily turned
away from Germany to support the landing. In addition, hundreds of planes and gliders dropped or carried thousands of
paratroopers behind the beaches.
In all, 130,000 troops were landed on five Normandy
beaches on D-Day. The defenses were far more severe than

National Archives

A massive task force carves out a beachhead at Okinawa, April 13, 1945. Landing craft and ships of all classes and sizes blacken the sea out to the horizon.


any encountered in the Pacific. Nonetheless, within five

days more than 325,000 Allied men were ashore, with more
than 54,000 vehicles and 105,000 tons of supplies. Within a
month, 1 million troops and their equipment had been landed. But the costs were severe. The Allies suffered 209,000
casualties during the battle for Normandy. Thirty-seven
thousand Allied troops died, along with 16,714 airmen. The
dearly bought victory at Normandy was the beginning of
the end for Hitler.
In support of the thrust at Normandy, an amphibious landing
code-named Dragoon was made in southern France on Aug.
15, 1944. By Aug. 28, Marseilles and Toulon, the two immediate
objectives, had surrendered.
Having obtained a rm foothold in France, the Allied drive
from both the west and the east inexorably crushed the Nazis.
After Hitlers suicide, Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945.
In the Pacic, the two-pronged assault on the Japanese
empire continued to drive relentlessly toward Tokyo.
MacArthur landed his troops on Leyte on Oct. 20, 1944,
beginning the liberation of the Philippines. The amphibious
landing triggered the great naval Battle for Leyte Gulf four
separate engagements that established, along with the Battle
of the Philippine Sea, American dominance on the water.
By the middle of December, Leyte was in American hands.
On Jan. 9, 1945, MacArthur began the ght for Luzon, and Manila
was nally cleared of Japanese defenders on March 4, 1945. In
the meantime, beginning on Nov. 24, 1944, B-29 Superfortresses began the bombing of Japan from the Marianas. This led to
the amphibious attack on Iwo Jima on Feb. 19, 1945. A grueling,
bloody ght ensued. By the time the island was captured on
March 16, more than 22,000 Japanese had been killed nearly
their entire force while the Americans suffered a heartrending
6,812 killed and 21,837 wounded.
Nimitz next attacked Okinawa in the Ryukus. Amphibious
landings began on April 1, 1945. Kamikazes, which had been in
use by the increasingly desperate Japanese since Leyte, were
now fully employed. Almost 300 suicide attacks occurred, with
devastating results for U.S. ships. The battle on the island was
expected to be bloody, and it was. In the end, nearly 5,000 sailors were killed, and 4,800 wounded, while 7,613 American soldiers and Marines died and 31,800 were wounded.
The United States was, at that point, poised to invade Japans home islands. The largest expeditionary force ever
contemplated was in the ofng, and based on past experience, millions on both sides were sure to die. To avoid this
slaughter, President Harry S Truman decided to drop two
atom bombs one on Hiroshima and one on Nagasaki forcing Japan to surrender on Aug. 15, 1945.
The greatest catastrophe in human history thus ended. Fifty
million had died, and tens of millions more endured unimaginable suffering. The disaster was made more awful by the knowledge that it was preventable. The resentments and ambitions of
the Axis powers could have been contained had not the folly of
disarmament obtained such a hold on the American mind after
World War I. Since 1945, the United States, having learned the
lessons of the war, remained, at great cost, prepared militarily,
and although, tragically, there have been small conicts, there
has not been another all-embracing war. Instead, the world
has enjoyed what might be called Pax Americana, under which
there has been a general peace, making possible an era of unprecedented growth and prosperity for all people.




By James Nelson
It was sometime in September of 1776 when the rst armed vessel of the United States to carry
the name New York slid into the lower reaches of Lake Champlain. She was an odd looking
thing, about 50 feet long and 15 feet on the beam, drawing around 5 feet from the waterline to
her at bottom. Though she had a mast that carried a square mainsail and a square topsail, she
was essentially an oversized rowboat. She was known in the local vernacular as a gundalow, or
This New York was not, strictly speaking, a part of the Continental Navy. That branch of the service had been established
by the Continental Congress in October 1775. Five months before the gondola New York slid into fresh water, the Continental
Navy and Marine Corps had staged their rst amphibious landing on the island of New Providence (now known as Nassau in
the Bahamas).
But there was no ofcial naval presence on Champlain. The
defense of the lake was an Army affair.
The enemy, 10,000 British and German troops, were coming
south, but their only way through that wilderness was over the
water. Both sides understood that the issue would be decided
not between armies but between ghting ships. But rst, those
ships would have to be built.
The British could call on the expertise of their naval personnel stationed in the St. Lawrence to build a eet to contest the
lake. The Americans, building their own eet, had no such resource. That, to some extent, explains the New Yorks appearance. The one boat that the people on the frontiers knew how to
build was the bateaux, the at-sided, at-bottomed, ubiquitous
transport used on northern waters. New York was, in essence,
an oversized bateaux, with a 12-pounder cannon over her bow,
and two 9-pounders on each side.

Around the time that New Yorks keel was laid, Gen. Horatio
Gates, the commanding ofcer at Fort Ticonderoga, put in command of the little eet his most experienced sea-going ofcer,
Gen. Benedict Arnold. Arnold, a former merchant captain, lit a
re under the boatbuilders, greatly speeding production, eager to beat the British in their wilderness arms race.
On Oct. 11, 1776, New York took her place in the line of
battle, ready to stop the British movement down Lake Champlain. Arnold, in a brilliant tactical move, formed his eet up
in a half-moon line tucked in behind Valcour Island. The enemy, he knew, would have to sail past the island, and then try to
claw their way upwind to attack, which the larger, better armed
ships would not be able to do.
It worked just as Arnold had hoped. By noon the enemys
smaller, oar-driven gunboats had come up and engaged the
Americans, while the larger vessels were unable to sail against
the adverse wind. For 5 hours, the New York and her consorts
delivered a brutal pounding to the British eet, and received as
much or worse in return.

U.S. Naval Historical Center photograph

The modernized USS New York (BB 34),

leads USS Nevada (BB 36) and USS Oklahoma (BB 37) during maneuvers in 1932.



New York took more than her share of punishment. By late

afternoon all of her ofcers save her captain were dead. Her
aging bow gun exploded, sending shards of iron through her
crew, wounding one man and killing another. By the time darkness put an end to the battle, New York and her companions
were battered, their crews decimated, their guns all but out of
Rather than wait for destruction to come with the morning
sun, Arnold led his eet under the cover of darkness and fog
right through the British lines, a move that impressed even the
enemy, and away south toward Ticonderoga. A two-day running
battle followed, in which nearly all of Arnolds eet were taken
or destroyed by their own crews. New York, alone among the
gondolas, managed to reach Fort Ticonderoga. There was nothing left to oppose the British advance, but the campaigning season was too far advanced for them to continue, so they withdrew
to Canada for the winter.
The following year, Gen. John Burgoyne led the British troops
in another push for Albany. This time, the British naval force
was so overwhelming that the Americans could offer no resistance, and they did not even try. New York and the other ships
left from Arnolds brave little eet were burned at Skenesborough (now Whitehall, N.Y.) where they had been built.
The only battle that the rst New York fought was, in the
short term, a defeat for the Americans. But in the long term it
was anything but. The years delay that Arnold had won for the
Americans, at the cost of his eets destruction, allowed the
American army to rebuild to the point where it could actually
defeat Burgoyne at Saratoga the following year. The little New

York and her consorts were the rst link in a chain of events
that would ultimately lead to American victory in the War for
It would be another 27 years before a vessel named USS New
York red a gun in anger.
The second New York was a considerably more impressive
vessel than the rst, a 36-gun frigate built in her namesake city
and launched on April 24, 1800. Lofty, fast, and well-armed with
9- and 18-pounder guns, USS New York was part of the second
wave of naval shipbuilding that had begun in 1794 with the
construction of USS Constitution and the other ve frigates that
comprised the early Navy. Those rst ships had been built to
counter the menace that Algerian pirates presented to American shipping in the Mediterranean, but by the time New York
was commissioned, the Navy had bigger sh to fry.
By the mid-1790s, France was in the early days of its bloody
revolution, and the new French government viewed the United
States new treaty with England, the Jay Treaty, to be in violation of Revolutionary War agreements signed between the two



Library of Congress

A period illustration of the armored cruiser USS New York (ACR 2).

governments. French privateers began to scoop up

American merchantmen that were trading with the
British, and the Quasi-War with France was under way.
New York sailed for the Caribbean in October of
1800, where she convoyed American merchantmen
and patrolled the waters for French warships and privateers. But by the time New York was on station, the
Quasi-War was winding down. By May of the following
year, the United States had managed an uneasy peace
with both Britain and France, and the frigate was laid
up in ordinary at the Washington Navy Yard.
Even though England and France were no longer
causing problems for the United States, the nations
of North Africa, the Barbary States, could always be
counted on to stir up trouble. Around the time that
the frigate New York was laid up, the rulers of Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers were upping their demands
for tribute, which the United States had been paying for nearly a decade. With the U.S. Navy now free
from having to protect American shipping from the
French, it was decided that the Barbary States had
received enough payment in specie, and payment of
another kind would be in order. New York was recommissioned in 1802, and under the command of James

Barron sailed for the Mediterranean, where she became the agship of Commodore Richard Morris.
Morris made the best of his little squadron, escorting American shipping and showing the ag off the
Barbary coast. New York twice engaged Tripolitan
gunboats that swarmed out of harbors of North Africa,
hoping to overwhelm the superior American ships
with sheer numbers of boats and men. The pirates
were, however, driven off by the devastating re from
the frigates broadsides.
New York was sent to Malta to replenish her stores.
There she received a 17-gun salute from the British
eet under the command of Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson. Soon after, Morris was relieved of command of
the squadron by Edward Preble, whom the Jefferson
administration hoped would be more aggressive in
his dealings with the Barbary pirates. New York returned to the Washington Navy Yard, where she was
again laid up in ordinary. The lovely, graceful frigate
had the bad luck to still be there 11 years later when
the British captured the Navy yard during the War of
1812 and burned her to the waterline.
The next USS New York met a similar fate, though
before she was able to accomplish much, in fact,



before she was even launched or commissioned. Originally

intended as a 74-gun ship-of-the-line, she was laid down in
1820 at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Virginia. By 1825 she
was ready to launch, but nonetheless remained on the stocks
for an incredible 36 years as the world of men-of-war shifted
from sail to steam. Finally, on the night of April 21, 1861, she
was burned where she sat by the panicked Union defenders of the shipyard, who were certain that they were about
to be overrun by secessionist forces. Also going up in that
conagration was the Union sail and steam ship USS Merrimack, which would be reborn as the Confederate ironclad
CSS Virginia.
Seventy years separated the laying of the 74 gun New Yorks
keel and the building of the next ship to bear that name, but
in that time the science of naval warfare had undergone a
transformation unmatched in the entire history of seafaring.
The fourth New York (including a screw sloop that had been
renamed New York in 1869), was designated ACR 2. It was a
384-foot armored cruiser, a thoroughly modern ship of war that
incorporated the latest thinking in armor plating, heavy guns,
and long cruising range.
During the years of peace from her launching in 1891 to the
outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, USS New York
sailed with the South Atlantic, the North Atlantic, and the European Squadrons. At the outbreak of the war she steamed out of
Hampton Roads, Va., bound for Cuba, where she participated
in the bombardment of Matanzas and San Juan while the eet
searched for the Spanish naval forces under the command of
Adm. Pascual Cervera y Topete. New York was made the agship of Adm. William Sampsons eet, which soon had the Spanish eet bottled up in Santiago.
New York had actually left the blockading eet, carrying
Sampson to a meeting with army commander Maj. Gen. William Shafter, when the Spanish eet nally emerged. Sampson
raced back to the ght, arriving in time to command the last
stages of the battle, which resulted in the destruction of the
Spanish squadron. The eet under my command, Sampson
wrote to the Navy department, offers the nation as a Fourth of
July present the whole of Cerveras eet.
Over the decade following the Spanish-American War, the
armored cruiser New York served as agship to the Asiatic
Fleet, calling at Japan, China, Russia, and the Philippines. She
transferred to the Pacic Squadron where she again served
as agship before she was decommissioned in 1905 for modernization.
In 1909, New York was recommissioned and rejoined the
Asiatic Fleet. Two years later, still in the Far East, her name
was changed to Saratoga. At the beginning of World War I, her
name was again changed, this time to Rochester. She spent the
war primarily escorting convoys across the Atlantic, and after
the armistice served as a transport bringing troops home. In
the years between the wars, the former New York was stationed
in Central and South America, before once again, and for the
last time, steaming to the Far East. In 1933 she was decommissioned in Shanghai and then moved to the Philippines, where
she remained at her mooring until she was scuttled in December 1941, to prevent her being captured by the Japanese. Like
her predecessor at Norfolk, the armored cruiser New York was
destroyed to keep her out of enemy hands. Unlike the wooden
ship-of-the-line, she saw much honorable service before she
was lost.


The 19th century armored cruiser New York was sailing under the name Saratoga when the fth New York (whose keel
was laid on 9/11/1911) was launched at the Brooklyn Navy Yard
in Brooklyn, N.Y. Designated BB 34, the latest USS New York
was 200 feet longer than ACR 2 and displaced four times the
tonnage. New York slid into the East River on Oct. 30, 1912,
and soon after was agship of Rear Adm. Frank F. Fletchers
squadron, blockading Vera Cruz during the crisis with Mexico
in 1914.
In 1917, New York steamed for Europe to take part in the
naval action of World War I. At Scapa Flow she joined the
American Squadron in the Grand Fleet, a naval presence so
powerful that the Germans did not even attempt a major naval engagement. New York ended the war as part of the eet
that escorted President Woodrow Wilson to the Versailles
From the end of World War I to the beginning of World War
II, New York was primarily part of the Pacic Fleet, serving
also as a training vessel for midshipmen at the Naval Academy. With Americas entry into World War II, the battleship
became part of the North Atlantic convoys, fending off German U-boats and bringing merchant vessels safely into port.
In 1942, New York was stationed off the coast of Africa, providing gunre support for the Allied invading forces. She then
escorted convoys from the United States to Africa in support
of the invasion. She continued in that mission until 1944, and
after another brief turn as a training ship, she steamed for the
West Coast to prepare for amphibious operations in the Pacic
New York was getting on in years by the time she was
called upon to help drive the Japanese out of the Pacic Islands, but she was nonetheless at the vanguard of that offensive, joining the pre-invasion bombardment of Iwo Jima. The
aging battleship took her place in the most prolonged bombardment of the war, ring more rounds than any other vessel, and scoring a direct hit on an enemy ammunition dump
with her 14-inch shells.
After repairs to her propellers she joined in the attack
on Okinawa, arriving in time to participate in the ve days
of shelling that preceded the landing on the island. For 76
consecutive days, New York was in the thick of the action,
covering landings, shelling enemy positions and providing
close support for troops on shore. A kamikaze swept down
on her, but she proved to be a lucky ship. The enemy plane
only grazed her, taking out her spotter plane as it sat on the
catapult. Shortly before the hard-won capitulation of Okinawa
was secured, New York was under way for Pearl Harbor. There
she began preparations for the coming invasion of Japan, a
nal battle that was made unnecessary by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
New Yorks ghting career was ended by the atomic bomb,
and the ship herself nearly was as well. After serving as a
transport, she was selected to take the part of a target ship
for the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll, a project known as
Operation Crossroads. On July 1, 1946, New York endured
and survived a surface blast of an atomic bomb, and later
that month lived through an underwater explosion as well.
She was later towed to Pearl Harbor, where she was studied
for the next two years. Finally, in the summer of 1948, the
35- year-old ship, veteran of both world wars, winner of three
battle stars during World War II, was towed out to sea 40

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DoD photo courtesy of General Dynamics Electric Boat

An aerial port bow view of the Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered attack submarine USS New York City (SSN 696) under way. While not named for the state, the New
York City preserved the tradition of service to the nation.

miles from shore to again serve as a target. For eight hours

she was pounded by sea and air attacks before nally slipping beneath the waves.
Then in 1979, the nuclear-powered attack submarine USS
New York City was commissioned. Although not carrying
exactly the same name as the U.S. ships named New York
that preceded her, New York City faithfully preserved the

tradition of service to the nation during a major portion of

the Cold War.
From the American Revolution through World War II, wherever American naval power was most needed, a ship with
the name New York was under way, sailing or steaming to the
sound of the guns. It is a proud tradition. It is a tradition that
will carry on.



By Col. Gary J. Ohls, USMC (Ret.)

For many Americans, the concept of amphibious warfare derives from the World War II
model where landing forces assaulted foreign
shores against determined resistance. These
actions resulted in very high casualties, yet
proved uniformly successful in achieving
American military objectives. They involved
isolating and preparing the amphibious objective area with naval and air power, then
aggressively introducing landing forces to
assault defended positions. Naval task forces
not only inserted amphibious troops, but also
sustained them with naval gunre, tactical aircraft, and logistical support once ashore. The
circumstance of geography coupled with the
weapons and equipment available at that time
dictated this type of warfare. To ensure incremental progress in the war effort, military and
naval forces of the United States needed to attack Pacic islands held by Japanese forces
and conduct forced entry on the European
continent against beaches defended by the
German army. Weapons such as attack aircraft and precision naval gunre coupled
with newly designed amphibious ships, landing craft, and tracked vehicles made these
attacks possible.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, no such equipment

or weapons existed for assaulting defended beaches. Commanders attempted to land their forces in areas where resistance would be light or nonexistent. Even the two most
sophisticated landings of the 19th century the assault on
Veracruz during the Mexican-American War and the attack
at Fort Fisher, N.C., during the Civil War did not require
assault forces to ght their way ashore. The advantage of the
initiative coupled with the inherent mobility of sea forces
usually permitted the naval echelon to deliver forces at the
point of attack faster than land-based defenders could react.
On occasions where landing forces experienced opposition
on the beach, it usually consisted of light resistance used
only to delay and harass.
During the second half of the 20th century, amphibious
thinking from World War II began to change. Although retaining the ability to conduct forced entry against defended
beaches, American commanders no longer expected to conduct such operations. With the advent of larger and more agile amphibious ships, advanced assault landing craft, and innovative helicopter technology, options for amphibious attack
developed well beyond the frontal assault mode. Harkening
back to amphibious warfare of earlier America, new doctrine

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

New Providence Raid, by V. Zveg, depicts Continental sailors and Marines landing on New Providence Island, Bahamas, on March 3, 1776. Their initial objective, Fort
Montagu, is in the left distance. Close off shore are the small vessels used to transport the landing force to the vicinity of the beach. They are (from left to right): two captured
sloops, the schooner Wasp and the sloop Providence. The other ships of the American squadron are visible in the distance. The operation was commanded by Commodore
Esek Hopkins, and the Marines by Capt. Samuel Nicholas. The New Providence raid was the most successful American amphibious operation of the Revolutionary War, and
proved the logic of using Marines in landing operations. As such, it was the beginning of the Navy and Marine Corps amphibious warfare team.

called for unopposed insertions at landing sites where enemy

forces could not concentrate. In a manner of speaking, modern technology and innovation permitted amphibious warfare
to progress forward into the past.
Whereas the amphibious navy of the 21st century has modernized its weapons, equipment, and doctrine, its fundamental
role in landing operations has not changed appreciably from
the days of early America. It still must deliver ground forces
ashore, provide supporting res, sustain the operation, and
withdraw for future actions. In accomplishing this mission, the
benchmark for success has been the strength and quality of
the relationship between naval and landing force commanders. In the modern era, this equates to Navy and Marine Corps
leaders because that unique team has become Americas preeminent amphibious and expeditionary force.

The sui generis relationship between the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps began during the Revolutionary War when Congress established the Continental Navy on Oct. 13, 1775, and
the Continental Marine Corps on Nov. 10, 1775. The following
year, as Americas commander in chief, Gen. George Washington, remained preoccupied with British strategy and operations in the American Northeast, the new Navy and Marine
Corps team under Commodore Esek Hopkins and Marine
Capt. Samuel Nicholas conducted a successful amphibious
raid on the Bahamian island of New Providence. The amphibious force captured two forts, the town of Nassau, and carried
off large quantities of ordnance and military stores all vital
to the American war effort.
The New Providence operation constituted the most successful American amphibious action of the Revolution and



one of its most important naval victories. In addition to the

stores of ordnance, Hopkins brought back three captured
ships, along with Gov. Montford Browne and two other British
ofcials as prisoners of war. This later proved helpful to Washington, who exchanged Browne for generals John Sullivan and
William Alexander (Lord Stirling), captured during the battle
for New York. Not all Navy and Marine Corps operations of the
Revolution proved so successful, nor were all landings limited
to the sea services. Many large-scale attacks involved Army
forces with Marines participating only as their shipboard duties allowed. But the logic of using Marines in landing operations proved irresistible, and the professional relationship
forged by Hopkins and Nicholas initiated a tradition that grew
through a process of both cooperation and conict into an
important American institution.
At the end of the American Revolution, the United States
found itself in a state of near exhaustion. Needing to economize
on expenses and having a weak central government under the
Articles of Confederation, American leaders effectively disbanded the active services, auctioning off the last vessel of the
Continental Navy in August 1785. Although the new republic
possessed no naval service between 1785 and 1794, pressure
mounted throughout that period to create a credible capability.


The capture of American seamen by Algerian and Moroccan pirates as early as 1784 drove pro-defense advocates to demand
creation of a maritime service able to protect the American
merchant eet. During March 1794, Congress passed an act
that authorized President Washington to either buy or construct
six frigates and provide for their crews. Ostensibly intended
to protect American commerce from state-sponsored piracy
along the North African coast, the Navy Act of 1794 marked the
rst important step toward creating a professional navy. Subsequent treaties with Algiers and Tripoli stemmed the immediate
crisis, but advocates of naval power proved strong enough to
retain at least some semblance of a navy thereafter.
Within the next 25 years, the United States found itself involved in no fewer than four wars. These included the Quasi
War with France, fought mostly at sea in the West Indies between 1798 and 1801; the Barbary War against Tripoli in the
Mediterranean during 1801-1805; the War of 1812 (often called
the second war for independence) conducted from 1812 to
1815; and a brief naval conict with Algiers in 1815. All except
the War of 1812 were primarily naval conicts, and that war
contained essential naval and amphibious elements.
The most interesting amphibious incident of the Quasi War
occurred in May 1800 at the Spanish port of Puerto Plata,

Collection of the National Museum of the Marine Corps

From the very beginning, the Navy and Marine Corps were a team.
One of the primary missions of early Marines aboard U.S. Navy
ships was delivering accurate re against personnel of an enemy
ship, as these Marines in the rigging of USS Wasp are doing in
the painting USS Wasp vs. HMS Reindeer, by Staff Sgt. John F.
Clymer, 1945.



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Images courtesy of the U.S. Marine Corps History Division


Left: Maj. Samuel Nicholas. As a captain, Nicholas led the Continental Marines in the young nations rst amphibious raid. Right: Lt. Presley OBannon, with seven other
Marines, a U.S. Navy midshipman, and a mercenary army, took the fortress at Derna and raised the American ag for the rst time over foreign soil.

Santo Domingo, where French authorities held a captured

British ship named Sandwich. Capt. Silas Talbot of the frigate
USS Constitution learned of its presence in the Spanish port
and sought an opportunity to capture the prize. Talbot placed
about 90 Marines and sailors under command of Navy Lt.
Isaac Hull and Marine Capt. David Carmick into an innocuous
looking sloop named Sally. Once alongside Sandwich, the
sailors quickly captured the vessel while Marines assaulted
the protective forts and spiked their guns. The amphibious
raid on Puerto Plata proved a model of cooperation, speed,
efciency, and effectiveness even though of dubious legality.
A second amphibious raid of the Quasi War occurred in
September 1800 on the Dutch island of Curaao. When local
authorities refused to assist the French frigate Vengeance
severely damaged in battle with the American frigate USS
Constellation they evoked the ire of French ofcials who invaded the island, driving its inhabitants into a single fort and
intimating hostile intentions toward expatriate Americans.
The United States Navy responded by sending the sloops of
war USS Merrimack and USS Patapsco into the area and landing a force of Marines led by Lt. James Middleton. The American naval and amphibious action forced the French to withdraw, leaving the island in allied hands. These amphibious
actions, like the naval service in general, proved an effective
(if limited) tool of U.S. policy during the Quasi War.
The Barbary War of 1801-1805 began primarily because
the Bashaw of Tripoli, Yusuf Karamanli, resented the larger

American tribute paid to Algiers, Tunis, and Morocco for

safe passage within the Mediterranean Sea. Despite treaties
negotiated during the 1790s, unstable relations between the
United States and Barbary rulers remained the norm. During
the initial phases of the war with Tripoli, American leaders
attempted to bring Yusuf to heel through a naval blockade
and offshore bombardment. When this approach proved
ineffective, the idea of regime change gained credibility
among American leaders. This concept sprang from an
ongoing effort by Hamet Karamanli Yusufs older brother,
who believed himself the rightful ruler to regain control of
Tripoli. Hoping to exploit the conict between America and
Tripoli, Hamet guaranteed lasting peace if the United States
helped restore him to power. Commodore Edward Preble,
the American commander in the Mediterranean, believed
supporting Hamet offered a prospect for success and that
restoring him to power would bring substantial benets to the
United States throughout the Barbary Coast.
Commodore Samuel Barron arrived in the Mediterranean during September 1804, commanding the largest naval force the
United States had ever assembled up to that time. In addition to
a powerful naval squadron, Barron carried instructions from the
president of the United States directing, in the strongest terms
yet, aggressive and determined action against Tripoli and other
Barbary powers if necessary. In addition, he brought William Eaton, who held a commission from the Secretary of the Navy as
the U.S. naval agent to the Barbary Regencies, subject only to the


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Library of Congress

A depiction of the landing of the American forces under Gen. Wineld Scott at Veracruz, March 9, 1847. The cooperation between U.S. Navy Commodore David Conner
and Scott represented a future model for the Navy and Marine Corps team.

orders of Barron. Eaton was determined

to install Hamet as Bashaw of Tripoli, and
believed the rst step involved capturing
the city of Derna in the eastern part of the
principality. Attacking Derna would open
a second military front, thereby increasing political, economic, and diplomatic
pressure on the Bashaw in the view of
American commanders on the scene. To
undertake the Derna operation, Eaton
rst needed to nd Hamet, last known to
be in Alexandria, Egypt.
Barron assigned Master Commandant Isaac Hull who had previously
worked with Marines in the capture of
Sandwich at Puerto Plata and the brig
Argus (later Hull added Hornet and Nautilus), to support Eatons effort to locate
Hamet and conduct operations against
Derna. Marine Lt. Presley OBannon
became the third key ofcer of this dynamic team that exemplied, in every
way, the concepts of cooperation and
mutual support. Arriving in Alexandria
in November 1804, Eaton located Hamet
who had allied himself with a Mameluke faction and made nal plans
for joint and combined action with Hull,
OBannon, and Hamets supporters. The
American commanders envisaged an at-

tack on Derna from both land and sea,

and then driving westward along the
coastline to capture Benghazi and the
capital city of Tripoli. The expeditions
strength would reach about 500 to 600
men including OBannons detachment
of seven U.S. Marines.
While Hull prepared his ships for
the assault, Eaton and OBannon undertook one of the most heroic and arduous marches in military history across
a hostile desert with limited provisions
and mutinous comrades. After arriving
outside Derna, Hull began a powerful
bombardment of the city and its forts,
destroying several batteries and eventually driving some of the Tripolitans from
their guns and defenses. The Marines
then attacked along the beach at waters
edge with Hulls naval guns clearing
the way. Concurrently, Hamet and his
mounted Arabs circled south and west
of the city, attacking from the opposite
direction. Eaton and OBannon led a
direct assault that carried the hostile
ramparts and part of the city. OBannon
then turned the defenders guns on the
eeing enemy just as Hamets Arabs attacked from landside, resulting in complete victory and possession of both fort

and city. Just before turning the forts

guns on the eeing enemy, OBannon
had removed the enemy standard from
its staff and planted the American ag
for the rst time on a hostile foreign
shore. The United States Marines had
gone to the shores of Tripoli.
The loss of Derna, coupled with the
bombardment and blockade of Tripoli, caused the Bashaw to seek peace
through the ofces of the Spanish consul
in Tripoli. Tobias Lear the U.S. consul
general to Algiers negotiated a favorable treaty in 1805, which did not include
the traditional tribute or customary presents to the Bashaw. American success
in the Tripolitan War had many components, of which the capture of Derna was
only one. Yet that action constituted the
key ingredient, and succeeded despite
its complexity and many potential failure points. In the nal analysis, Derna
was captured because of the active, assertive, and cooperative leadership of
the three principal commanders: Eaton,
Hull, and OBannon.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, there followed numerous expeditionary operations in the Caribbean,
Central America, and the Pacic Basin.



The subjugation of California during the 1846-1847 MexicanAmerican War resulted primarily from a series of amphibious landings along the Pacic coastline spearheaded by the
Navy and Marine Corps team, often in conjunction with Army
units ashore or aoat. Of course, the landing at Veracruz during 1847 ultimately resulted in the capture of Mexico City
and the subsequent treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Veracruz operation primarily involved Army and Navy elements
with Marines serving in a more subsidiary role, though many
served all the way to the Halls of Montezuma. The cooperation
between Commodore David Conner and Gen. Wineld Scott
in capturing the key costal city of Veracruz proved exemplary
and provided an excellent future model for the Navy and Marine Corps team.
Over time, the role of the Marine Corps evolved from a small
ancillary organization into the major military force that exists
today. An important reason for that expansion involved the leadership of key ofcers in the 1920s and 1930s. During that era,
senior military ofcers throughout the world believed amphibious warfare had no place in serious military planning, due to
the disastrous 1915 Gallipoli campaign of World War I. But a
small group of Marine and Navy ofcers thought otherwise,
and worked to develop the theory, concepts, doctrine, and
equipment that proved so critical to the amphibious successes
of World War II. This intellectual undertaking, coupled with


operational achievement in actual warghting, established the

Marine Corps as the lead service for amphibious warfare within the American military establishment, and created the basis
for its elevation among the military services.
Although disagreement and discord often exists between
Navy and Marine Corps leaders on important issues including
equipment design, tactical and operational employment
of forces, and command relationships, it is typically the
productive type that results in better policy, doctrine,
plans, and operations through the interchange and vetting
of ideas and concepts. Ultimately, this process contributes
to improved war preparation and success in combat. The
most notable example of this at work is the World War II
relationship between two giants of that era, Richmond Kelly
Turner and Holland M. Smith. As a rear admiral during the
Central Pacic Campaign of 1943-1945, Turner commanded
the navys amphibious force while Smith, holding the rank
of major general and later lieutenant general, commanded
the Marines. Both men were highly intelligent, strong willed,
and totally dedicated to the honor and success of their
service. They often clashed and some of their confrontations
became legendary throughout the Pacic. Yet both valued
the role of the others branch and their disagreements always
focused on how to best accomplish the mission. They often
compromised, but only after all possible options received

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal (second from left), confers with Vice Adm. Richmond Kelly Turner (left), Lt. Gen. Holland M. Smith, and Rear Adm. H. W. Hill
(right). The relationship between Turner and Smith was sometimes stormy, but they worked together to develop outstanding operational plans, and fought and won their
way across the Pacic together during World War II.






U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Zachary L. Borden

U.S. Marine Corps MV-22 Ospreys, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 263, Marine Aircraft Group 29, prepare for ight on the deck of the multipurpose amphibious assault ship USS Wasp (LHD 1). Wasp was on surge deployment to the Middle East. Todays Amphibious Ready Groups are the inheritors of traditions
crafted over more than 200 years of Navy and Marine Corps history.

due consideration under the strongest

possible sponsorship. As Smith
characterized their relationship after
the war, Kelly Turner and I were to
be teammates in all my operations. He
commanded Fifth Amphibious Force
while I commanded the expeditionary
troops that went along with the Navy
and our partnership, though stormy,
spelled hell in big red letters to the
Technically, the Navy and Marine
Corps team constitutes a joint force, and
its expeditionary incursions qualify as
joint operations. Yet in reality, the Navy
and Marine Corps team constitutes
something much better than a joint
organization. The two services have roots
in a close and integrated tradition built
over two centuries of operating together,
making them two integral elements of a
single naval force. This goes far beyond
simply working together in planning and
operations. It includes such key elements
as combined staffs, common doctrine,
frequent exercises and operations, and a
sense of shared experiences, all of which

contribute to a common institutional

culture in the eld of amphibious and
expeditionary warfare. The fact that both
services reside within the Department
of the Navy is also important, but does
not adequately explain the symbiotic
nature of their relationship. That is
more correctly found in the history and
traditions of the two branches.
During the 1990s, as Americas sea
services sought new roles and missions
for the post-Cold War era, they issued a
series of strategic and operational concept papers most typied by the document entitled From the Sea. This
missive attempted to redirect the Navy
away from the blue water strategy of the
1980s toward a more littoral approach
focused on peace operations, humanitarian actions, and power projection
in support of U.S. overseas objectives.
The concepts embodied in From the
Sea emphasize the importance of unobtrusive forward presence and the
exibility of sea-based expeditionary
forces. It brought the Navy closer to the
Marine Corps in terms of roles and mis-

sions and seemed to offer a new and

different approach in the use of naval
forces within the New World Order.
The resulting expeditionary mindset
created an environment exemplied by
high operational tempos for Americas
Amphibious Ready Groups.
Although raised to a new level of prominence in From the Sea, Amphibious
Ready Groups have been around for a
very long time and are the true inheritor
of traditions crafted at New Providence
in 1776, Derna, Tripoli, in 1805, the Central Pacic in the 1940s, and numerous
climes and places in the over 200 years
of American history. As Lt. Cmdr. Terry
OBrien stated in his 1993 Marine Corps
Command and Staff College thesis
paper, From the Sea has not discovered a new form of warfare it has rediscovered the capabilities of the Navy/
Marine Corps team. In an era heavily
inuenced by the jointness mentality
spawned by the 1986 Goldwater-Nicholas Act, it would be hard to nd a better
model than the Navy and Marine Corps
amphibious team.



U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class David Danals


By Richard H. Wagner
To those who dont know its history well, New York City may not appear to
be a Navy town. However, the connection between the U.S. Navy and New
York goes back to the dawn of the country. In fact, New York Harbor was
a site of major military action during the American Revolution, and the
relationship has continued to the present.

The amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3) passes by the Statue of Liberty as it
steams up the Hudson River during the Parade of Ships for Fleet Week New York 2008.
More than 4,000 sailors, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen would participate in various
community relations projects and make a port call to New York City.


In memory of our heroic

employees who made
the supreme sacrifice on
September 11, 2001
we salute the commissioning
of USS New York.

Up and down Broadway there

are a million stories

We will never forget.

New York City Long Island JFK Airport Westchester New Jersey Connecticut Florida California

this is one of them.

The USS New York will write the last chapter.

Library of Congress

U.S. Naval Historical Center


Above: David Bushnells Turtle. Sgt. Ezra Lee attacked the Royal Navys HMS
Eagle unsuccessfully in New York Harbor with the submarine. Right: Commodore Stephen Decaturs unsuccessful sortie in command of USS President also
originated in New York Harbor.

The rst naval engagement in New York was not a battle

between warships but rather a joint operation where sailors
transported soldiers. George Washington knew that, after
being forced to evacuate Boston in March 1776, the British
would probably attack New York next, because New York
City was Americas most important port, and if the British
could capture the Hudson River, it would split the colonies
in two.
As Washington anticipated, on June 28, 1776, Gen. William
Howe landed an army on Staten Island, and during July, the
Royal Navy under Howes brother, Adm. Lord Richard Howe,
brought more troops and more ships. An eyewitness wrote:
The whole bay was full of shipping as it could be. I thought all
London aoat.
Because then-New York City and the immediately surrounding area was ringed by water, the British could strike where
they wished. Washingtons 20,000 men were positioned along a
line running from Flatbush in Brooklyn, across the East River,
to the southern tip of Manhattan and then up to Washington
Heights in northern Manhattan. Washingtons artillery at the tip
of Manhattan made an attack on the American center a poor
option, and also precluded the British sailing up the Hudson
and attacking Washingtons right ank. However, if the British
could take Brooklyn Heights the highest point in the area
Washingtons position would be untenable.

Realizing the importance of the Heights, Washington deployed the majority of his army to Brooklyn. But on Aug. 22, using nearly 90 frigates, the British moved 20,000 men from Staten
Island to Brooklyn. Over the next few days, the British inicted
heavy casualties, and the Americans retreated to their fortications on Brooklyn Heights.
Because of the casualties they had sustained attacking
fortied positions during the Battle of Bunker Hill, the British
decided not to assault Brooklyn Heights immediately. After all,
Washington had his back to the East River and the Royal Navy
controlled the waters. To the British, Washingtons position was
While Washington did not have any ships to challenge the
Royal Navy, he did have sailors. A regiment of seamen from
Marblehead, Mass., had come down to ght in New York. Washington directed the Marbleheaders to secure some small boats


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National Archives

The Monitor after her ght with the Merrimack.

Near the gunport can be seen the dents made by
the heavy steel-pointed shot from the guns of the
Merrimack. Monitors hull was forged at nine locations in Brooklyn and Manhattan.

and ferry the Continental Army across

the East River during the night of Aug.
29-30. Everything had to be done in complete silence to avoid alerting the encircling British Army or the Royal Navy.
Accordingly, the sailors tied their shirts
around the oars to mufe the sound. In
the morning, a thick fog covered the nal stages of the evacuation. Washington was in the last boat across.
The signicance of what these sailors
did cannot be overstated. If the Continental Army had been forced to surrender in Brooklyn, the rebellion would
have been only a footnote in British history textbooks.
Within a few days of the evacuation
the Americans struck back against the
British eet in New York Harbor with the
rst attack by an American submarine
on an enemy warship.
During the Boston campaign, Washington was approached by a young Yale
graduate named David Bushnell, who
had the preposterous idea of attacking
the British eet from underwater. Although I wanted faith myself, Washington wrote, I furnished him with money

and other aids to carry it into execution.

Bushnell called his craft The Turtle
because it looked like two turtle shells
glued together. Since she was only 7 feet
high and 4 feet in diameter, there was
only room for one man inside. By moving
handles inside the craft, the driver operated two screw-like oars. One moved
Turtle forward and backward, while the
other helped the craft to ascend and descend. Diving and surfacing were also
facilitated by foot-operated valves that
allowed water to be pumped in and out
of tanks in the hull. Normally, Turtle traveled along with a snorkel extending 6
inches above the surface, but she also
had the ability to dive deeper for short
Turtles armament consisted of a
50-pound keg of gunpowder with a timedelayed intlock detonator. After diving
under an enemy ship, the subs driver
would drill a hole in the enemy hull
and attach the bomb with a chain. Then
Turtle would pull away before the bomb
On Sept. 6, 1776, Turtle was ready to
challenge the British eet in New York

Harbor. With Sgt. Ezra Lee at the controls, Turtle attacked HMS Eagle, Lord
Howes 64-gun agship, not far from Liberty Island.
Lee dove under Eagle, but his drill
could not penetrate the British ships
hull, either because of the copper
sheathing used to protect the wood
against marine growth or because of
the hulls curvature. With his air supply
running out, Lee gave up and surfaced.
When a patrol boat spotted her, the sentries red muskets as their boat rowed
after the strange craft. Lee released
Turtles bomb, which exploded near the
mouth of the East River. The ensuing
geyser so startled the British that they
did not pursue Turtle any farther.
Bushnell labored for some time ineffectively and though advocates for his
scheme continued sanguine, he never
did succeed, Washington recalled.
However, he continued, I then thought
and still think that it was an effort of genius.
The War of 1812 also created connections between the U.S. Navy and New
York. By December 1814, the war was a
stalemate. The Royal Navy, the largest
navy in the world, blockaded Americas
ports, crippling the American economy.
What remained of the small United
States Navy was bottled up in ports
along the East Coast. In New York Harbor, Commodore Stephen Decatur waited for a chance to break out. Decaturs
bold exploits during the Barbary Coast
war had won him international fame, and
his victory over HMS Macedonian while
commanding USS United States had
been one of the bright spots for America
in the war.
Decaturs current ship, USS President,
had been built in New York Harbor in
1800, and was a technological marvel.
She was bigger and more powerful than
any British frigate and faster than the
British ships of the line. On the open
ocean, she could outrun anything that
could sink her and sink anything that
could catch her.




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National Archives

New Yorker John P. Hollands USS Holland. Holland was the worlds rst fully operational submarine and was built in Elizabeth, N.J.

Decaturs orders were to take President to the Indian Ocean

to attack the commerce between Britain and her Asian colonies, in order to force the Royal Navy to deploy ships away
from America. The only obstacle was a powerful British otilla,
which included a modied ship of the line, blockading just outside New York Harbor.
When an early winter storm blew the British otilla out to sea,
Decatur seized the opportunity and brought President out into
the outer bay, but the ship ran aground off Sandy Hook. The
crew lightened President, but the waves merely lifted her and
then smashed her keel down against the hard sand. Finally, after hours of toil, the badly damaged President was free, but the
gale was blowing her away from New York Harbor.

Given the damage and the proximity of the enemy, Decatur

could have scuttled the ship and taken the crew back to the
safety of the shore. However, America did not have ships to
spare, and he took President along Long Islands coast toward
New England in hope of nding a safe place for repairs.
Suspecting that the Americans might use the gale to break
out, Commodore John Hayes, in command of the British otilla,
scouted the surrounding waters before returning to station. As
luck would have it, Hayes frigates spotted the crippled President and he gave chase with his squadron.
It was clear that President could not outrun the pursuers, so
Decatur launched a desperate plan to turn, board, and capture
the lead British frigate, Endymion. However, although Deca-



tur succeeded in putting Endymion out of action, she kept far

enough away to prevent Decatur from boarding.
With two more British frigates about to come within range,
Decatur had no choice but to break off. However, President was
suffering not only damage caused by the grounding but also
from the ght with Endymion. Decatur had taken several calculated risks: leaving New York under the cover of the storm, continuing on after the grounding, and giving battle to Endymion.
He could turn again, hope to defeat the two frigates before
Hayes in his modied ship of the line arrived, and then outrun
the capital ship. However, that would further risk the lives of
his crew with little chance of success. Rather than go down in a
blaze of glory for prides sake, Decatur took what was, for him,
undoubtedly the more difcult path, and he struck his colors.
One of the more unusual connections between New York
City and the Navy involves the only American capital ship lost
during World War I, a ship that now lies just outside of New
York Harbor, 13.5 miles south of Fire Island Inlet. USS San Diego
(ACR 6) was an armored cruiser a class of warship just short
of being a battleship. During World War I, her primary role was
Atlantic convoy duty.
On July 19, 1918, she was returning to New York to pick up
another convoy when a lookout spotted what appeared to be a
periscope in the water. San Diegos captain, Harley H. Christy,
sent the crew to battle stations and after several shots were
red, the submarine disappeared. Nonetheless, Christy continued to zig-zag at approximately 15 knots and kept his crew
at alert.
Less than an hour later, an explosion sent smoke a hundred
feet high, and water began pouring into San Diegos port engine room. In an attempt to save his ship, Christy decided to
try to beach San Diego on Long Island. However, the engine
spaces ooded and the ship sank within 30 minutes of the explosion. After abandoning ship, her crew reportedly sang The
Star Spangled Banner as their ship went down.
Being a battleground is not New York Citys only connection
to the Navy. For example, New Yorkers have built a long line
of Navy ships; many were innovative and many helped shape
Americas sea services.
USS Monitor, the most famous Civil War warship, was a consequence of the Unions Anaconda Plan, which sought to end
the rebellion by encircling the Southern states. Vital to this
strategy was a naval blockade that would prevent the Confederacy from trading with countries such as Britain and France.
The Confederate States had no pre-existing navy and no realistic hope of building one. Instead, it looked to technology. Lt.
J.M. Brooke, CSN, proposed to take the remains of a steam frigate that had been burnt to the waterline when the Navy abandoned its base at Norfolk, Va., and turn her into an ironclad ram.
Such a ship would be impervious to round shot red from the
wooden-hulled Navy blockaders, and she would be able to sink
such ships by gunre or by ramming. Commissioned as CSS
Virginia, she is more often remembered by her original name:
When news of the Southern plan leaked out, leaders in Washington called for proposals for a ship to counter Merrimack. New
Yorker John Ericsson submitted a plan for a radically different
ship with no sails or elaborate rigging just steam power. She
would be made almost entirely of iron and would be only 173 feet
long, with a beam of 41 feet. Rather than rows of guns along the
sides, she would have a revolving turret with two 11-inch guns,


and her freeboard would be so low that the sea would wash
across her decks, making her a very difcult target.
To save time, Monitors hull was forged at nine locations in
Brooklyn and Manhattan, and she was built in only 120 days.
On March 6, 1862, she left New York and proceeded to Hampton Roads, Va., where Merrimack had just begun attacking the
blockading Union ships. Two days later, the two ships met and
battled for four hours until Merrimack withdrew. Although Merrimack was only damaged, she was never again able to attack
the blockade eet, and the crucial Union blockade continued.
John Holland was an Irish immigrant who taught school on
the New Jersey side of New York Harbor, and he was at the
center of another naval technological advance associated with
New York City. He had always been interested in the sea, and
in his spare time Holland studied the work of ship designers,
eventually developing his own design for a workable submarine. However, when he sent the design to the Navy in 1875, it
was rejected.
Undaunted, Holland found funding from an unusual source.
The Fenian Brotherhood wanted to oust Britain from Ireland,
and Holland persuaded them that with his submarine, they
would be able to challenge the Royal Navy. Impressed by a
30-inch model that Holland demonstrated at Coney Island, the
Fenians funded the construction of two full-size submarines.
There is scarcely anything required of a good submarine
boat that this one did not do well enough, or fairly well, Holland
said of the second of these boats. She was built in Manhattan
and launched in the Hudson in 1881. Hollands design is widelyrecognized as the rst modern submarine.
Over time, the Fenians withdrew their support, but various
other backers came and went while the Navy vacillated about
whether or not it needed submarines. Meanwhile, Holland
tested and improved his design in New York harbor. Finally,
after Adm. George Dewey, the hero of the Battle of Manila Bay,
testied before Congress in 1900 in support of Hollands submarines, the United States made a rm commitment. Its rst
true submarine, USS Holland (SS 1), was built in Elizabeth, N.J.,
part of New York Harbor.
New York Naval Shipyard, generally called the Brooklyn
Navy Yard, is another important chapter in New York Citys
connection with the Navy. In 1801, the federal government
purchased 40 acres along the East River in Brooklyn for a
shipyard, and by the time the yard was decommissioned in
1966, New Yorkers had built many famous Navy ships there,
including USS Fulton (the Navys rst steam-powered ship),
USS Maine (BB 2, one of the rst battleships and whose sinking
led to the Spanish-American War), USS New York (BB 34,
which fought in World War I and World War II), USS Arizona
(BB 39, which still lies at Pearl Harbor), and USS Missouri (BB
63, where the Japanese surrender was signed), as well as the
aircraft carriers Bennington (CV 20), Bon Homme Richard (CV
31), Kearsarge (CV 33), Oriskany (CV 34), Franklin D. Roosevelt
(CV 42), Saratoga (CV 60) and Independence (CV 62). The last
capital ship built in Brooklyn, USS Constellation (CV 64), left the
U.S. eet in 2003.
In addition to building them, ships were repaired and upgraded at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. For example, Dr. Lee Forrests radiotelephone was tested there in 1907 and then installed throughout the Great White Fleet. The yard installed the
radar that enabled the battleship Washington (BB 56) to turn
back a more powerful force in a night battle in November 1942,

Blue of the Mighty Deep

Gold of Gods Sun.

Celebrating the Commissioning of the USS New York





Twenty-ve years ago, New York City began an annual tradition called Fleet Week, a few days that focus on those who
are currently serving the United States in its sea services. During that week each year, the Navy arranges for several ships
to spend some of their liberty time in the Big Apple, and the
city turns out to express its appreciation for the visiting sailors
and Marines.
When all is said and done, it seems that New York City really
is a Navy town.

Library of Congress

helping thwart the Japanese in their efforts to retake Guadalcanal. In 1952, USS Antietam (CVA 36) was modied in Brooklyn to
become the Navys rst angled deck aircraft carrier.
The fact that the Navy has been shaped by people from
New York is yet one more connection between New York City
and the Navy. For example, Theodore Roosevelt, one of the
most inuential advocates for a strong U.S. Navy, was born in
Manhattan in 1858. Teddy Roosevelt inuenced naval strategy, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, he fought to rebuild
the Navy, which had been allowed to deteriorate following the
Civil War. He also advocated new technologies, and as president he continued to strengthen the Navy and deployed the
Great White Fleet to sail around the world to demonstrate that
America had become a world power.
Beyond famous individuals, many thousands of New Yorkers
have helped shape the sea services by serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, and 76 sailors and Marines from
New York State have received the Medal of Honor. Thousands
of New York civilians worked in the Brooklyn Navy Yard and in
satellite industries that supplied the Navy yard. And to these
numbers must be added the thousands of families that have
sacriced to support loved ones who served directly in the nations sea services.



A 1915 photo of USS New York (BB 34) in the

Brooklyn Navy Yard, where she was built. Her
keel was laid on Sept. 11, 1911.



This ower bowl with Henry Hudsons

Half Moon as a handle was made by
Tiffany & Co. and presented to the
battleship USS New York (BB 34) circa
1916 by the state of New York.

(LPD 21)
By Colin E. Babb

Master Ebbitt was writing to the Herald to donate $2 of his

hard-gotten money saved up for Christmas to a state-wide
subscription effort that was raising money for a formal presentation silver service to be given to what was at the time the U.S.
Navys newest all-steel warship, the armored cruiser USS New
York (ACR 2). This service would be a representation of the Empire State, preserved in silver, that would accompany the ship
during the course of its career at sea. The cruiser, launched
only days before at the Cramp Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pa.,
was the latest installment in a movement barely a decade old to
create a new Navy for a United States that was just reawakening to the possibilities of modern naval power. Ebbitt, and many
other New Yorkers like him, saw the creation and donation of
a silver service as a way to show just how much this new Navy
meant to him, and today that spirit has been carried on in the
new USS New York (LPD 21).
The Herald had more than a passing interest in the project
to purchase a silver service for the New York; the newspaper,
in fact, led the effort to raise money for the service. The paper
also put its money where its mouth was by contributing $500
toward the $6,000 thought necessary to purchase a service of
suitable size and quality. It was a grand gesture in an era that


appreciated and encouraged amboyant expressions of patriotism. On the occasion of the presentation of the service to the
armored cruiser New York in October 1893, New York Congressman Amos J. Cummings declared that the silver service embodies not only the gratitude but the hopes of the people. From this
time on it is an integral part of the armored cruiser in war and in
peace, a mute reminder of their love and condence.
Today, this presentation silver service, combined with that of
the battleship New York (BB 34) made more than two decades
later, remains a stunning reminder of Empire State craftsmanship and artistry from a bygone time. The tradition of donating
silver services and other valuable keepsakes to warships is an
old one, but it saw its heyday in the United States in the years
1890 to 1920, a time corresponding to a renaissance in naval
shipbuilding and a national mood that was profoundly aware
of the role the Navy was playing in the countrys emergence
as a world power. Perhaps more than in any other era of United
States history, many average Americans at the dawn of the 20th
century (even 12-year-old boys) were bound to agree with President Theodore Roosevelts assertion that we have deliberately
made our own certain foreign policies which demand the possession of a rst-class navy.

Photo courtesy of U.S. Naval Academy Museum

I am only a small boy just twelve years old, but I read the HERALD, and Im awfully glad that
we are going to have a navy at last that amounts to something, wrote Henry Ebbitt, a young
Gothamite and reader of The New York Herald, in December 1891. When I grow up, wrote the
precocious boy, I want to know that I have done something to make the fellows who will do the
ghting on the New York feel that they and their ship are appreciated.


For the generations that funded, built, and manned the armored cruiser and battleship New York, there was no ner expression of civic pride in that Navy than the presentation of a
rst-class silver service. These essentially dining sets were
eminently practical. However fancy or decorative they might
have been, they were meant to be used and not just to be observed from afar. Such presentations by cities, states, or other
organizations go back to the earliest days of the U.S. Navy, and
mirror similar customs in other navies, such as the Royal Navy.
According to the Naval Supply Systems Command, which manages presentation silver in the Navy, currently there are more
than 18,500 objects associated with silver sets in storage, on
display, or on ships.
The earliest U.S. naval presentation silver dates from the
late 18th and early 19th centuries, to the time of the Barbary
Wars and the War of 1812. The deeds of captains during heroic
victories at sea, such as those of Isaac Hull, Stephen Decatur,
and Oliver Hazard Perry, were commemorated with gifts of silver vases, urns, and tableware sets from thankful citizens in
seacoast cities such as Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia. The
practice of honoring individual achievement continued to the
Civil War, when Tiffany & Co. marked key moments such as
Abraham Lincolns rst inauguration in 1861 with a silver pitcher presented to the president, and the battle between the USS
Monitor and CSS Virginia in 1862 with a ve-piece tea set given
to Monitor Chief Engineer Alban C. Stimers by the ships designer, John Ericsson.
In the 1880s, the Navy came out of a 20-year slumber when
the aging wooden, sail-steam hybrid vessels held over from
the days of the Civil War began to be replaced with new ships
of all-steel construction with all-steam power plants, electric
generators, and modern naval weaponry. By the time of the
launching of the armored cruiser New York in 1891, the U.S.
Navy was just beginning to build its rst battleships. These
vessels arrived in the midst of the golden age of presentation silver, when people were eager to show their appreciation
for an Army and Navy that were important and visible symbols of the nations new-found identity as a modern industrialized country, respected around the world for its technological
achievements. Rather than honoring the activities of individuals, the silver of this era was intended to honor vessels and
their namesakes.
The naming of these new ships was done with a certain
amount of thought, and was intended to be both logical as well
as practical. Cruisers were to be named for cities, while the larger battleships would be named for states. The wisdom of the
laws that assign American place names to our naval vessels is
apparent, observed The New York Times in 1891. They supply a
sensible system of nomenclature instead of the old-time Greek
and Indian medley, spiced with zoology, mythology, and abstract
ideas. And in addition, they often arouse a specic local interest in the navy, which we see nowadays manifesting itself in the
form of very handsome christening gifts. The service for the armored cruiser New York was one of the earliest made in this new
movement, and New York City leaders in particular had every
intention of making it the grandest service in the Navy thus far.


The effort to give the New York a presentation silver service

began, perhaps appropriately enough, on Thanksgiving in 1891
with an editorial in The New York Herald. Knowing how keenly
the ofcers and men of our navy appreciate every evidence
of national and State approval the HERALD proposes that our
citizens shall contribute to a service of plate to be presented
the ship when she is rst commissioned, the paper declared.
The following day, the Herald announced the very rst contributions to the cause: $100 from J. Seaver Page and $2 from a
Believer in the New Navy. Soon, the Herald put $500 of its own
money into the pot, and over the next several months it gave
updates on the campaign, proudly listing new donors by name
and the amount of money they had contributed. Assistant Secretary of the Navy James Russell Soley thought that the gift of a silver service to the New York was a capital idea, and Jefferson
M. Levy, who was the then-current owner of Thomas Jeffersons
estate of Monticello, hoped that the paper would succeed in
obtaining a large sum and thereby be enabled to make the service of gold instead of silver.
In March 1892, the campaign came to an end when it was announced that a nal $1,400 would be contributed by Jeannette
Thurber, president of the National Conservatory of Music of
America, from ticket sales for a concert given on March 23 on
behalf of the New York. The Herald announced a prize of $200
for the winning design for the silver service, and eventually
28 sets of designs were submitted, of which 13 were deemed
worthy enough to be submitted to the panel of judges. The winning design chosen by the panel was submitted by Charles Osborne, chief designer of the Whiting Manufacturing Company,
one of the nations leading silver rms.
It took more than a year-and-a-half to make the service, which
was presented on Oct. 25, 1893, to the newly commissioned New
York. The captain, John W. Philip, accepted it as an important
symbol that would embody on foreign stations the hospitality
and good fellowship of the American people at home. The
service was, in terms of number of pieces, somewhat modest

Photo courtesy of U.S. Naval Academy Museum

A silver punch bowl, made by Whiting and presented to the armored cruiser USS
New York (ACR 2), circa 1878 by the New York Yacht Club.

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about 20 major pieces but it was

decorated with ornate representations
of the Stars and Stripes, an American
eagle, and the Seal of the State of New
York. The centerpieces were several
punch bowls, one of which was an
additional piece donated by the New
York Yacht Club. Recently, the set was
valued at more than $260,000.
The silver service served as an important part of a ships ability to entertain guests, a function taken advantage of perhaps more in the past than
today, but silver services still serve
their original purpose in the modern
eet. Even in the early decades of
the 20th century, the use of silver services for ofcial occasions was often
dictated by the whim of commanding
ofcers. The elaborate service made
for the cruiser Maryland (ACR 8) in
1905, for instance, was used regularly
in the ofcers mess; by the late 1920s,
however, the service was largely kept
in storage on board the new caretaker,
the battleship Maryland (BB 46). Because the centerpieces of most silver
sets were almost always punch bowls,
the etiquette and use of presentation
sets for foreign or ofcial visitors often
revolved around the time-honored ceremony of toast giving.
Until the early 20th century, such
toasts of course were made with various
alcoholic concoctions. All this changed
in 1914 with the issuance of General Order 99, signed by Secretary of the Navy
Josephus Daniels, which prohibited
alcohol on all Navy vessels and shore
stations. Unfortunately for the new battleship New York, about to be commissioned in April of that year, the secretarys order (which would take effect on
July 1) arrived just in time to put a bit of
a crimp in the plans for a new silver service to be added to that of the old cruiser. On April 7, just before signing the
Carswell Bill that appropriated $10,000
for a new presentation silver service that
eventually would be purchased from Tiffany & Co., New York Gov. Martin Glynn
was asked what would be substituted for
the punch bowl now that liquor had been
banned in the Navy. Pickle dishes, I
guess, was the governors sly reply.
In the end, the new service actually
did receive a punch bowl (presumably
for nonalcoholic punch). The new service added important new pieces, such
as coffee pots (to serve the liquid that
soon overtook alcohol as the favored

One of the new silver pieces for USS New York from
the ships silver registry at Tiffany & Co., an example of one of the items that individuals or companies
have purchased for the ship, some of them bearing
engraving honoring a 9/11 victim or veteran, or
simply wishing the ship Fair Winds and Following
Seas. The new silver will join pieces from previous
ships named New York, circa 1878 and 1914, many
of which were designed by Tiffany.

shipboard beverage) and cigar boxes.

The central design of the service was
the combined use of the seals of New
York and the Department of the Navy,
and incorporated elements from Dutch
and English silver from the 17th century.
The centerpiece, meant for fruit or owers, has a miniature model of Henry Hudsons ship, the Half Moon, which entered
New York Harbor in 1609. The service,
completed in late 1916, now consists of
more than 80 pieces and is valued at
about $400,000.
The combined sets served faithfully
on board the battleship New York for
nearly 30 years, being removed for operations during both world wars, until
permanently removed in 1945 just before the ship was decommissioned.
Because of the size and quality of the
ships silver service, the set was sent
to the Naval Academy in Annapolis,
Md., nominally under the care of the
academys museum. Much of the silver,
however, ended up at Buchanan House,
the residence of the academys superintendent, where it has been used for
entertaining foreign and domestic dignitaries. By one estimate, Buchanan
House was hosting about 10,000 guests
a year by the 1970s and was thought to
be only second to the White House in
terms of the number of ofcial government visitors who were entertained
there. Because of the nearly continuous use of the silver service (greater,
indeed, than that of any active ships
in the eet), the Navy declined six requests between 1952 and 1986 to have
the service either moved to a new vessel or back to the state of New York.
In each case, various Navy ofcials
cited the importance of the service to
the Naval Academy and the tradition
of keeping silver services with ships

bearing the name of the state from

which they had been received.
Today, a new USS New York (LPD 21)
is entering the eet, the rst vessel to
bear the name of both the state and
city of New York in more than 60 years.
A large portion of the historic silver
service from the armored cruiser and
battleship New York will go on board
its namesake vessel, carrying on the
old custom. These priceless objects
of naval silver will be carried to sea
once again, to serve as telling reminders of the storied past of the Navy and
as symbols of the people of the Empire
State, which has given and sacriced
so much for the sea services and the
With the new New York, additional
items will be added to the service. The
rst of those new items is a coffee and
tea service donated by Tiffany & Co.
In addition, and as a special feature
to match the more utilitarian needs of
the times, Tiffany has created a registry for the ships silver service, a list
of what New York needs in the way of
silver items. Now individuals can use
the registry to purchase silver directly
for the ship, and anyone interested in
becoming part of the history of the
new USS New York can go to the USS
New York Commissioning Committee
ofcial Web site (www.ussny.org) and
click on a navigation bar labeled Be
Part of Naval History to get to the Tiffany registry.
Once again, silver and steel have
been bonded. This time the steel contains 7.5 tons of that metal from the
remains of the Twin Towers, and the
silver, as established by long tradition,
has come from New Yorkers in support
of those who are defending their values
and lives.



Navy League of the United States
By Richard H. Wagner

A student of the history of sea power, Theodore Roosevelt

was very concerned about the type of thinking that led to
such post-war reductions. During the second half of the 19th
century, he had seen the vast state-of-the-art eet that existed at the end of the Civil War become small and obsolete. Since he believed that a strong Navy was a deterrent to
war, he viewed as short-sighted the notion that spending on
the sea services in times of peace is wasteful. Accordingly,
as a public gure, and especially as Assistant Secretary of
the Navy in the rst William McKinley administration, he
pressed for naval preparedness.
At the same time, Roosevelt gathered around him like-minded people to help campaign for a strong Navy. Since Roosevelt


was a prominent New Yorker, it is not surprising that many of

the people who joined this circle were also New Yorkers.
In 1901, Roosevelt became president of the United States,
and made building and maintaining a strong, modern Navy a
key element of his agenda. Britain, Germany, Japan, and other powers were modernizing and enlarging their eets. Still,
there was a need to educate and persuade other public ofcials and the general public why it was necessary for America
to do the same when two vast oceans separated her from these
potential belligerents.
During a meeting of the New York Commandery of the Naval
Order of the United States in November 1902, Herbert Satterlee
suggested the formation of a civilian organization that would

Photo by Bryan Birch

Looking across American history, one sees that in the Civil War, the Spanish American War,
World War I, World War II, and at the end of the Cold War, the United States had a large and
powerful eet. Thus, it is tempting to conclude that from the time of President Lincoln onwards,
America has always had a powerful Navy. However, what actually happened was that after each
major conict, spending on the Navy and Marine Corps was cut drastically and the size of the
sea services reduced to a shadow of their former selves, only to be rebuilt in haste when the
next war was upon the country.

Photo by Richard H. Wagner

Photo by Richard H. Wagner


provide support for the United States Navy similar to that provided to the Royal Navy by Great Britains Navy League. The
idea met with general approval and after obtaining the support
of the Navy Department, and with Roosevelts encouragement,
a committee met at the New York Yacht Club to draft a constitution for such an organization. Then, in January 1903, the organization was incorporated in New York as the Navy League of the
United States.
Membership in the new organization would be open to all
except serving sea services personnel and members of Congress. Members would be grouped into local organizations
called councils, which would promote the interests of the
sea services on the local level. There also would be a national
board of directors and national ofcers who would interact with
the national government. Since the Navy League was a New
York corporation, both the national ofcers and the New York
Council were based in New York at the beginning.
As is evident from the successful around the world cruise
of the Great White Fleet at the end of the Roosevelt administration, Roosevelt and the Navy League met with initial success in persuading Congress and the public of the need for
a strong Navy. However, in the administrations that followed,
political and public sentiment turned against spending on
the Navy, which was deemed wasteful at best and provocative at worst. As a result, the military in general was largely
unprepared when the United States entered World War I in
The war created new roles for the Navy League beyond that
of educating the public about the sea services. Local councils
assisted in recruiting for the Navy and Marine Corps. In addition, the Navy League became involved in providing direct
support for members of the sea services and their families, in-

Photo by Bryan Birch

Opposite page: A group of New York Navy Leaguers during a visit to USS George
Washington (CVN 73). Above: Capt. James B. Boorujy, commanding ofcer of USS
Nassau (LHA 4) addressing members of the New York Council in his quarters on
Nassau. Above right: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen
speaks with New York Council President Dr. Daniel Thys. Right: Sea cadets of the
New York Council sponsored Capodanno unit at the controls of USS Springeld
(SSN 761) during a Council visit.

cluding legal services for sailors and Marines and insurance

for their dependents. Also, since the government had not made
adequate preparation to clothe the sea services, Navy Leaguers sent clothing and other items of comfort to those serving in
the Navy and Marine Corps.
Following World War I, America went into disarmament
mode, and the sea services were slashed. At rst, this was the
result of optimism that the world would not repeat the mistakes
that led to the war, but then as dictators took power in Germany,
Italy and Japan, isolationism became the driving force. Still, the
Navy League continued to argue for naval preparedness as the
nations rst line of defense.
One of the ways of engendering support for the sea services was through Navy Day celebrations organized by the Navy



Photo by Richard H. Wagner

Capt. Boorujy and New York Council visitors to USS Nassau.

League. The rst Navy Day was Oct. 27, 1922 a date selected
because it was Roosevelts birthday. The festivities included
visits by Navy ships to American cities, where thousands would
go on board. In New York, it also included an annual dinner
where government ofcials and senior ofcers would speak.
These events attracted a great amount of press coverage and
helped to keep the Navy in the public eye.
In 1932, New Yorker Franklin D. Roosevelt became president. Like his cousin, he had been an Assistant Secretary of
the Navy and was a great believer in sea power. However, public sentiment was still strongly isolationist. Consequently, Roosevelt was grateful for the Navy Leagues outspoken support for
his ship building program.
When war came, the Navy League again provided direct
support for those serving in the Navy and Marine Corps and
their families. The New York Council started a family assistance program that purchased gifts and household necessities
for Navy families. Some 2,200 shopping orders were placed
each day in New York alone.
It also continued to play an active role in Navy Day celebrations. The parade along Fifth Avenue in 1942 featured 10,000
sailors and drew 300,000 spectators.
After the war, the government once again slashed the eet.
Indeed, considerable currency was given to the idea that nuclear weapons had made the Navy obsolete. The Navy League
argued strongly against such notions and was vindicated when
the Korean War demonstrated that a strong Navy was still very
much needed.
At a Navy League dinner in New York in 1952, Fleet Adm.
William Bull Halsey urged the League to continuously keep
before our people the need for an up-to-the-minute Navy, and
keeping the Navy in the public eye was a top priority for the
League throughout the Cold War period. To this end, in 1957,
New York Council President John J. Bergen persuaded New
York City ofcials to hold a parade honoring 67 Navy ag ofcers and Marine generals who led the sea services to victory
in the Pacic.

During this period, the Navy League also increased its

commitment to youth programs. At the urging of Adm. Arleigh
Burke, the Navy League created the Naval Sea Cadets Corps
as a separate but related organization. The New York Council
remains a sponsor of several sea cadet units.
Concerned about the unpopularity of the Vietnam War, the
Johnson Administration attempted to reduce the cost of the
war by reducing capital spending on the Navy. It also sought
to reduce cost by under-paying Navy sailors. The Navy League
protested both policies and was successful in persuading Congress to pass an increase in pay for the military.
After the Vietnam War, the sea services once again suffered
severe cutbacks. However, with the election of Ronald Reagan
in 1982, the governments attitude toward the Navy changed,
and it was recognized that a strong Navy was key to defeating
the Soviet Union. However, the public and Congress also had
to be persuaded.
The New York Council recognized that one of the ways of
developing public support for the Navy was to let the public
get to know the Navy rst hand. There were no longer any Navy
bases in New York, ships were not being built at the Brooklyn
Navy Yard, and there was no longer a draft, so most New Yorkers never had any contact with the Navy. To rectify that situation, the New York Council proposed having a otilla of Navy
ships come to New York each year so that New Yorkers could
visit the ships and the crewmembers and embarked Marines
could visit the city. After the successful visit to New York by
the battleship Iowa (BB 61) for the re-opening of the Statue of
Liberty, the Navy agreed, and the rst Fleet Week was held in
1987. The New York Council has remained an active participant
in Fleet Week ever since.
In addition to the annual Fleet Week visits, the New York
council has sponsored Navy ship commissionings. In April
1997, it hosted the commissioning of USS The Sullivans (DDG
68). Shortly after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, the Council played
a leading role in the commissioning of USS Bulkeley (DDG 84),
which, like the commissioning of USS New York, took place at
Piers 86-88 in Manhattan. The Council also participated in the
commissioning of USS Lake Champlain (CG 57) in 1988.
Today, the New York Council is building upon its history. Just
as in 1902, the objective remains to provide support to the sea
The rst task undertaken by the Navy League was to educate
people about the sea services. In keeping with that mission,
the council presents programs throughout the year to inform
its members and the public of current issues facing the sea
services. Recently, these included talks by former Secretary of
Defense William Cohen, Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon
England, Congressman Steve Israel, and Deputy Secretary of
Defense Tom Hall. A panel including former U.S. Senator James
Talent discussed the need for an adequate defense budget.
Rear Adm. Robert Reilly, USN, commander, Military Sealift
Command, was on another panel that discussed the state of the
U.S. Merchant Marine. The council has also presented three
symposia featuring members of the faculty of the Naval War


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connections made daily


Photos by Richard H. Wagner

Above: Council Executive Director Richard Kenney with Rear Adm. Charles
Michel (USCG) at the Coast Guard Art Program reception. Right: Navy
Leaguers and Sea Cadets man the galley of USS Winston Churchill (DDG 81).

When the sea services were developing a new maritime

strategy, the council hosted a public forum where then-Chief of
Naval Operations Adm. Michael D. Mullen spoke. It also hosted
a public forum where business leaders were able to speak with
Secretary of the Navy Donald Winter.
Each year the council offers opportunities for members to
meet on-duty sea services personnel and thus learn rst-hand
about todays services. In 2008 these included visits to USS
Bataan (LHD 5) and USS Nassau (LHA 4).
Communication is key to getting ones message across.
Accordingly, in addition to the programs and events described
earlier, the council publishes its own magazine, The Log,
which features articles about the sea services in New York, the
councils activities, naval history, and the issues confronting the
sea services. It is distributed to the councils members, senior
ofcers of the sea services, colleges and universities, libraries,
and to executives of the merchant marine. In addition, the
councils Web site brings the Navy Leagues message to an even
wider audience.
The council also helps to inform the public about the sea services by encouraging scholars to write about the sea services.
It co-sponsors with the Theodore Roosevelt Association and
the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute the Roosevelt
Naval History Award, which is presented each year to an outstanding author of a book on naval history.
A council tradition since World War I has been providing
direct morale-enhancing activities to members of the sea services. To this end, the council has adopted the following ships
and stations: Coast Guard Sector New York; SUBGROUP TWO;

USS Dallas (SSN 700); USS San Juan (SSN 751); and USS Springeld (SSN 761). Council members periodically travel to the SUBASE in New London and provide lunch to the crews of one or
more boats. Contributions are also made to the boats holiday
parties as well as on other special occasions.
Similarly, the council hosts a number of events for the crews
of ships that have not been ofcially adopted. In recent years,
these have included a dinner cruise for the sailors from USS
Anzio (CG 68) and USS George Washington (CVN 73) as well
as for sailors stationed in the Norfolk, Va., area. The council
also took over the galley duty during USS The Sullivans recent


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Photo by Richard H. Wagner

Left: Council Vice President Richard Wagner presents a cake to commanding

ofcer Lt. Amy Florentino during a council visit to USCGC Katherine Walker
(WLM 552). Above: Council President Dr. Daniel Thys presents professors from
the Naval War College at a Council Symposium.

visit to Staten Island and provided meals to the crew of USCGC

Abbie Burgess (WLM 551) during her call in New York.
The council makes a special effort to ensure that the Navy
crewmembers and embarked Marines visiting New York for
Fleet Week feel welcome. In addition to a reception for the
commanding ofcers, the council hosts a dinner for junior ofcers and a dinner cruise for some 200 senior enlisted personnel. The council also distributes tickets to Broadway shows to
visiting service personnel.
Next, the council seeks to support sea services personnel
by furthering their professional education. The council donates
thousands of dollars each year to the Marine Corps University
Foundation, which inter alia distributes books to the eet and
shore stations worldwide. It also donates to the Naval War College Foundation to help it enhance the learning experience at
the War College by providing books, equipment and facilities
not covered by government appropriations.
Another tradition that goes back almost a century is providing direct assistance to sea services families. The council
offers scholarships to young people whose parents are from
the New York metropolitan area and who have served or are
serving currently in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or
Merchant Marine. These are in addition to the scholarships the
council awards to ve midshipmen from the U.S. Merchant Ma-

rine Academy and ve cadets from the SUNY Maritime College

at Fort Schuyler.
The council provides scholarships in memory of Corp. Jason
Dunham, USMC, who received the Medal of Honor for his actions in Iraq, and in memory of Lt. Michael Murphy, USN, who
received the Medal of Honor for actions in Afghanistan. Their
names, along with all of the other New Yorkers who have received the Medal of Honor, are engraved on a plaque the council maintains in Times Square.
The council also holds a fundraiser each December for the
Marine Corps Toys for Tots program.
Support for sea services youth programs has long been a
priority for the Council. It sponsors NJROTC units at George
Washington High School and at Graphic Communication Arts
High School in New York City and provides support to the
units at Westbury High School and Freeport High School on
Long Island. The council is the sponsor of the Capodanno Sea
Cadet Unit as well as the Aegis and Liberty Divisions of sea
In sum, the New York Council is actively maintaining a century-old tradition of supporting Americas sea services. The
council is always looking for new members to get involved in
the support of the U.S. Navy. The council ofce can be reached
at (212) 825-7333 or online at www.NavyLeague.org.







By John D. Gresham and Susan L. Kerr

Warships do not just spring to life: They have

to be designed and built for the crews that
will sail them into harms way. The process of
constructing ships like USS New York (LPD
21) often takes decades to complete, and represents one of the most high-risk commercial
ventures available to those with ambition and
a desire to make money. Military shipbuilding
is one of the last great heavy industries left
in America, which used to lead the world in
such ventures. So someone doing it well and
making money in the process is cause for celebration among investors as well as interest
among politicians and competitors.
Today, only a handful of American companies dare to compete
in this business, and the unqualied leader is Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding (NGSB). An amalgam of legacy shipbuilding
enterprises, including Newport News Shipbuilding, Litton Ingalls,
and Avondale Shipbuilding among others, NGSB is the product of
a massive industrial consolidation that only today is being fully
integrated. Exclusive builders of aircraft carriers and amphibious ships for the U.S. Navy, they also build nuclear submarines
and guided missile destroyers. Employing 40,000 workers in four
main yards, doing $5.5 billion in yearly business, NGSB is the largest private employer in states like Virginia and Mississippi.
Mike Petters, the president of NGSB, runs this massive enterprise. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and ofcer in nuclear submarines, 48-year-old Petters runs the single largest shipbuilding concern in the Western Hemisphere. What follows are
his thoughts on USS New York, NGSB, the shipbuilding business,
and the special folks he chooses to associate with: shipbuilders.
John D. Gresham Youve been building these things (warships) for a while havent you?
Mike Petters [Laughs] Im starting to get long in the tooth!
Ive been building ships at Newport News and for Northrop
Grumman for over 20 years, and Ive been associated with shipbuilding and ships and shipyards for over 25 years.

Youve worked on aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines, and

all sorts of other warships. What is it you see in the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock ships that makes them
unique, both in terms of their construction and capabilities?
My full introduction to this ship, the San Antonio-class (LPD 17)
amphibious transport dock ship, was about a year and a half ago
when we decided to integrate the business. I think one of the
things that sets warships apart from all other kinds of vessels is
that they are typically very focused in their missions, and their
designs are very specic to what they set out to accomplish. I
dont think that is different in this class of ships, the LPDs, versus
the nuclear submarine and aircraft carrier designs we produce.



In this case, they support our expeditionary Navy and carry Marines and put them
ashore. What weve found in the process
of building these ships is that they have
a lot of exibility and capability that has
been called on lately by the U.S. Navy.
What are your general impressions
of the LPD 17-class ships, and the New
York in particular?
The whole LPD 17 class is a pretty capable design. What I think is different
about the New York from earlier ships of
the class is the emotion thats attached
to it. We have steel from the remains of
the World Trade Center in the bow, and
the ship is being built at our yard in New
Orleans. There is a denite connection
between the cities of New York and
New Orleans over the things that have
happened to both places in the past few
years. The cities have mutually supported each other, and for me, in terms of
all of the shipbuilding experiences Ive
seen and Ive seen a few this one has
a lot more emotion tied up into it by the
communities involved. The City of New
York and the City of New Orleans are attached to this ship, and theyre attached
to each other. I think that thats going to
create a strength in the crew that will
serve it well for decades.
Presently, the LPD 17 construction
program is structured and shared between the Northrop Grumman shipyards at Avondale, La., and Pascagoula, Miss. What have you accomplished
so far with the two yards supporting
each other?
Were still working our way through
a lot of that. The New York is from our
Avondale yard, and if you look at the next
four ships we have under contract, two
of them are going to be delivered from
Pascagoula, and two of them will be
delivered from Avondale. The delivery
of New York from Avondale will greatly
inform the delivery team in terms of
the construction processes and procedures. One of the things we did when we
decided to do this integration business
was put a test-and-trials team together
that is responsible for the tests and trials of all the ships were going to deliver
from the Gulf Coast.
And it has been a busy summer 2009
for them, because they have been going through the trials of a destroyer
out of Pascagoula, and theyve turned
right around in a matter of just days and


gone over to Avondale to lead a very

successful set of trials on New York.
That same team is then scheduled to
come back and lead the builders trials
on Waesche, a U.S. Coast Guard cutter
out of Pascagoula. This is just one area
where we are taking the lessons we
have learned in each yard and integrating them into our delivery teams. The
integration effort of Northrop Grumman
Shipbuilding includes our efforts to incorporate quality workmanship into all
of these ships, whether its pipe and
welding quality, or electrical quality,
or even the hull and mechanical quality. We also have developed and implemented the exchange forms to make
sure we standardize our processes,
track our quality metrics, and continue
to drive rst-time quality into everything that were doing.
Obviously, some of the early units of
this ship class (LPD 17) had some quality problems, many of which pre-date
the acquisition of either yard (Avondale and Pascagoula) by Northrop
Grumman. What is the current state of
the program from a quality standpoint
at delivery, and what are you doing to
make them better?
Well, rst of all were absolutely
committed to the quality of the product [the LPD 17 amphibious transport
dock ships], and our emphasis has
been on trying to improve the quality
further upstream during the construction process. My word for that is rsttime quality. By this I mean the quality
of the work that is being done early in
construction to be of delivery quality.
It is incredibly disruptive to the shipbuilding process to do something at the
beginning of construction, only to have
to do it over later in construction. Its
harder to get at, and its disruptive to all
the workers around it.
What we are seeing now is that by
giving our people the tools they need,
by setting the expectations for them,
and then by nding the right metrics
and tracking their performance earlier
in the stages of ship construction, we
are seeing some pretty impressive improvements in those rst-time quality
metrics. The proof of this will be seen
in the delivery of the ships. I believe the
trials that we just ran on New York represent just that. It is a data point of 1,
but I believe that trial is indicative of the
kind of improvement were going to see

over this class of ships as we go forward

building the later units of the class.
New York is the fth unit of the class.
How has she gone together down at
Avondale, and how have those sea trials that you just talked about gone?
Well, shes gone together very well.
The folks at Avondale now have a couple of these [LPD 17-class ships] under
their belt, especially as we have begun
the process of integration and really
been able to bring some of the lessons
from all our shipbuilding enterprise
components to bear on this product.
Weve been able to head off some issues before they became major issues
at the end of construction. What that
led to was a sea trial here last month
[July] that was remarkable in every regard. The t and nish of the ship was
very good, as was the functionality of
the ship. The Navy appears to be very
happy with the product that we have at
this point, and were working our way
through to get to delivery this year.
You referenced earlier the special
story of this ship and the connection
it has to 9/11 and the World Trade Center. If you can, please explain to the
people who are going to read about
this what that means in terms of the
construction, and what your workers
did with the metal from the Fishkill
disposal site. What was the reaction
of your employees to working on a
ship like this?
I think that any time you have the
kind of national tragedy that we had
in New York, and you give Americans
the opportunity to participate in some
way to memorialize that, to heal from
that event, I think that they will rise
to that occasion, and I dont think this
situation is any different. After all that
had happened in New York on 9/11, the
shipbuilders in New Orleans were going to be honored by having the chance
to build this ship with that steel. That
would have been special in itself. But
then you compound this with the Hurricane Katrina story, and what Katrina
did to the Gulf Coast and our Avondale
shipyard, particularly the ooding in
New Orleans and the shipbuilders who
were displaced from their homes by
that storm. Then they see New York City
reghters and rescue teams there
on the site helping them. That creates
a special level of bonding between



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those two cities. The New Orleans re

departments and rescue teams were in
New York in September 2001, and the
New York re departments and rescue teams and policemen were in New
Orleans in 2005. For the shipbuilders
to have a chance to participate in that
American history is an incredibly moving and emotional event for them.
How much recovered steel from Fishkill went into the bow of USS New York?
It was about seven and a half tons.
After New York how many more LPD
17s is Northrop Grumman contracted
to build?
Four currently. There is already longlead funding for the fth and the sixth
units. Were moving to negotiate the
contract for the fth one presently, and
look forward to building more ships
based upon the LPD 17 hull. Right now
we have two planned in each yard. We
certainly will continue to review hows
the best way to produce them and
where they should be produced and all
of that, but right now weve got two to go
in each [yard]. For a lot of reasons these
ships have been a class run in two shipyards, and there have been different
build strategies at each facility. What
were doing now is focusing on creating a single-class build plan, because
we can see where this class is going.
The functionality and capability of the
San Antonio-class carries it far beyond
the existing LPD requirement. We see
having a class plan, a series production
plan, and being able to work through a
common process as a way for us to take
some signicant costs out of building
them. To the extent that were able to
take the cost out of it, were able to determine our future.
A personal question now. Speaking
for the tens of thousands of people of
Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, how
do you feel about building ships?
[Laughter] Let me tell you about shipbuilding. Just who is a shipbuilder?
Shipbuilders are usually the rst ones
to leave their neighborhoods in the
morning to go to work and theyre the
last ones to come home at night. Often,
theyre the ones who leave after a Little
League practice to go back to work at
night, and they come home in the morning just in time to see their kids off to
school. They are the ones who coach


those Little League teams. They are

the ones who hold your schools and
churches together. They are the fabric
of the community. And they are the fabric of the communities wherever they
live, whether its in Virginia or Mississippi, Louisiana or California. When
they come to work, they want to do a
good job. And they are able to do something that most of us dont get a chance
to, and that is to take raw material and
somehow with their hands transform
it into something that is greater than
They make it into something that is
going to go out and make history for 30,
40, or even 50 years. They do that with
their hands. They just didnt wake up
and say, I can go do this. They had to
learn how to do the shipbuilding trade.
They had to take instruction from people who have been building ships for
a long time. They had to go to school,
they had to be apprentices, they had
to go to engineering classes, and they
had to get degrees. So, theyve not only
had to work with their hands, but also
they have a lot of knowledge and intelligence in their head in this, because
shipbuilding is a very complex business. We have craftsmen who can run
their ngers across a plate and tell you
whether its at or not. They can also
do that with a laser beam. So, its not
just their hands, but their heads too.
But what I love about shipbuilders the
most is that every single thing they do,
they put their hearts into it. Whether it
is the work that they are doing, the work
that their co-workers are doing, the way
they look out for each other from a safety
and quality standpoint. They have the
unique opportunity to come to work every day and use their hands, their heads,
and they use their hearts. And then they
go home and they hold our communities
up. Where else would you want to work?
Where else could you nd that? There
are other places where you can get that,
but I happen to have the privilege of being associated with 40,000 people who
get the chance to do that every single
day. When I wake up in the morning, I
cant wait to get here. That is what shipbuilding is!
And its a multi-generational business, isnt it?
Therere all kinds of nuances to it. I
mean, weve got ve generations now
working together here in Virginia. Were

now on four generations down in Mississippi. You stop and think about how many
college educations were spawned here
in this shipyard, how many nighttime
round the dinner table discussions between parents and their children started
with a day laborer in the shipyard? How
many loaves of bread were baked to support the work that was going on in the
shipyard? It is mind-numbing to step
back and see what the impacts the people in this business have on the fabric of
our society.
Hows your personnel base holding
up in terms of retirements versus new
hires and trainees?
Were about to go into a pretty heavy
hiring process at Newport News, and
we have been hiring aggressively on the
Gulf Coast. Whats happening in Newport News is that were going through
the post-Cold War retirement phase of
our workforce. Whats happening on the
Gulf Coast is that were bringing entirely
new people into the business. So its a
couple of different personnel challenges
on both ends of our business geographically. Weve by and large been able to
hire to the numbers that we wanted to
hire to. But its not just hiring people. Its
making sure they have the training and
certications that they need. Its making
sure theyre qualied to do the work that
we assign them, and that were able to
track and evaluate all of that. Creating
or enhancing those training courses and
institutions where we already have them
is a big part of what were working on
right now.
As we sit here today, how do you feel
about this company that you run?
Im pretty optimistic about the future.
If you step back and look at the portfolio of things that shipbuilding is going to be doing somebody has to be
building something, and were going to
be making something. We are still working through some of the challenges of
recapitalizing the Gulf Coast shipbuilding facilities after Hurricane Katrina, for
example. As we have worked our way
through those issues, as we work our
way out of those issues and we integrate
this business, I see a portfolio of work
that will provide a healthy base of business for many years. My focus is on making sure that we continue to provide the
kind of future and the kind of leadership
that our shipbuilders deserve.


Command Leadership
CDR F. Curtis Jones, USN
CDR Erich Brian Schmidt, USN
CMDCM(SM) Robert William Stocklin, USN

LT Stephen D. Argroves, USN
ENS Maria J. Batdorff, USN
LCDR Laura Jane Bender, CHC, USN
LT Peter J. Blameuser, USN
ENS Mauricio Blondet, USN
LT Reza Chegini, USN
ENS Timothy Gorman, USN
ENS Paul Guebert, USN
LCDR Christopher Harris, USN
ENS Jamal L. Headen, USN
LT Jeffrey A. Hextell, USN
ENS Paul John Kloepping, USN
LTJG Michael R. Kreider, USN

LTJG Angela Laird, USN

ENS Jason Lancaster, USN
LT Erin Elizabeth Millea, D.D.S., USN
LTJG John Moore, USN
ENS Jeremy Mowery, USN
ENS Howard W. Newell III, USN
LTJG Dennis Palaniuk, USN
LTJG Robert B. H. Phaneuf, USN
LT Melissa Renee Proud, USN
LT James D. Raymond, USN
LTJG Kyle Recker, USN
LTJG Richard A. Reese, SC, USN
LTJG Shallia Saptoro, USN
LT Vaughn Schneider, USN
ENS Philip B. Smith, USN
LT Adam Michael Van Den Boom, M.D., USN
LTJG Matt Walton, USN
LT Donald V. Wilson, USN
LT Richard Zabawa, USN
LT Elizabeth Worley Zdunich, USN



Photo courtesy of Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding

BM2 Ryan Abbott, USN
OS2(SW) Mitchell Adams, USN
IT2(SW) James C. Alcorn, USN
EM1(SW) Gary Lynn Allbee Jr., USN
ITSN(SW) Justin R. Anderson, USN
ENFR Matthew Arthur, USN
ET3(SW) David K. Atkins, USN
DCFN Nicholas A. Atkins, USN
SK2(SW/AW) Darrius Mackellis Austin, USN
FCC(SW) Ronald L.B. Bailey Sr., USN
GM3 Scott Bailey, USN
ENFR Dereck Baker, USN
ITSN Joshua A. Barker, USN
EN1(SW) Joshua Barnes, USN
ET2(SW) Joseph R. Bennett, USN
DC1(SW) Paul George Bershers, USN
IT3 Jhrimack E. Besarra, USN
ABF1(AW/SW) Joseph William Birdsell, USN
EN2(SW/AW) Kyle Blackniak, USN
HTC(SW) Joshua Boeltz, USN
ENFR Charles Bolanos, USN
ENFR Esteban Bolanos, USN
ENFR Duane Boltinghouse, USN
EN1(SW) Michael Borden, USN
ABH3 Matthew Thomas Bork, USN
IT1(SW) Geoffrey D. Box, USN
CSSA Andrew Lee Bradford, USN
ABF2(AW) Karlus Breaux, USN
ENFR Benjamin Brennan, USN
ICFN Brandy L. Briggs, USN
ITC(SW/AW) Hakeen S. Bristow, USN
HM1(SW/AW) Mark Gregory Brown, USN
EM2(SW/AW) Ramel Bumanglag, USN
DC1(SW) Clayton D. Byington, USN
ENFA Alan Cai, USN
HM3 Malarie Dawn Campbell, USN
SN Israel Cardenas III, USN
BMSA John Carlson, USN
EN1(SW) Timothy Carlton, USN
YN1(AW) Mia Raychelle Carney, USN
DCFN Michael Carpenter, USN
ENFR Richard Casey, USN
BMSR Thomas Casey, USN
PSC(SW/AW) Ronald Undra Chandler, USN
SK1(SW/AW) Joquel Natarkie Chapple, USN
QMC(SW) Venetta Victoria Charles, USN
IT1(SW) Brett C. Cheuvront, USN
ETCS(SW) David P. Close, USN
HT2 James Coker, USN
BMSA Marcus Coleman, USN
EMFA Andre Collins, USN
SN Tyler D. Collins, USN
SR Peter Colon, USN
GM3 Christine E. Cooke, USN

YN1(SW) Craig Thomas Copeland, USN

BMSA Hector Cortes, USN
EN2 Argenis Cottesgonzales, USN
HM1 Winette Cox, USN
EMFN Christopher Craft, USN
ET2 Darrell E. Crawford, USN
IC3(SW) Zachary L. Cripe, USN
ENC(SW) Mark J. Cromer, USN
ABHC(AW/SW) Timothy Gregory Croxton, USN
SA Bryant Curley, USN
HM3 Dale Melvin Daffron, USN
BMSA Peter DAlessandron, USN
BM2 Ozell Daniels, USN
GMC(SW/EXW/SCW) Richard Daue, USN
BM1(SW) Alan O. Davenport, USN
BMSN Adrionnia B. Davis, USN
OS1 Robert Earl Davis, USN
CSCS(SW/AW) Mary Beth Davis-Wells, USN
QM2(SW/AW) Brandy Nicole Day, USN
FCC(SW) John James DeAngellis, USN
HM2 Kristina Leonora Decena, USN
CSSR Shawn Clinton DeHorney, USN
CTT1(SW) Charles Denham, USN
SKC(SW/AW) Rosa Esthela-Barrera Diaz, USN
ET3 Matthew J. Dimmick, USN
OS1(SW/AW) Amanda April Doige, USN
SR Lee Van Domingo, USN
ENFN Dwayne Donaldson, USN
ENFR Paul Dotson, USN
CTT3 Richard J. Doucette, USN
BMSA Timothy Dronko, USN
EN2(SW) Samuel C. Dugo, USN
PSSN Ruth Wambraire Dupree, USN
CSSR Brian Joseph Dvorak, USN
BM2(SW/AW) Walter Stanley Dybis, USN
HM2 Cleora Dannyel Edwards, USN
EN3 Kam-Mira Edwards, USN
CTT1 Kerstin Elliott, USN
HM2 Holly Eve, USN
BMSN Felix Fernandez, USN
EN1 Alexander Figueroa, USN
SSgt Juan C. Fisher, USMC
BMSN David Foley, USN
ENFN Vincent Fontana, USN
OS2 Cecilia A. Fosu, USN
DCFN Zita E. Foto, USN
DC2(SW) Christina Gallegos, USN
RP1(FMF) Edmond Peter Garrett IV, USN
ENCM(SW) Christopher Gary, USN
IT1(SW/AW) Genita M. Gentry, USN
BMSA Mark George, USN
QM3 Myra Gillespie, USN
DCFR Randall Ginn, USN
HMC(SW) Colin T. Glynn, USN
EMFN Avinash Gomes, USN
OS2(SW/AW) Daquita J. Goodrich, USN


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U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Corey Lewis

Information Systems Technician 2nd Class

James Alcorn raises the Navy Jack for the rst
time aboard the amphibious transport dock ship
Pre-Commisioning Unit (PCU) New York (LPD 21)
after the Navy took custody of the ship.

R S, U . S. N AV
E R.

The Department of Defense did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.


CWO2 Greg Gorczyca, USN

IC3 Benjamin Gorter, USN
EN3 Tameka R. Granison, USN
SR Ian Graves, USN
ET1(SW) Thomas M. Grawl, USN
DCFN Nicholas Ryan Gregrow, USN
SKC(SW) Keenan George Gresham, USN
ENFR Max Groesbeck, USN
EMFA Shoulong Gu, USN
EN3 Trevor Gulish, USN
PC1 Joseph Earl Guss, USN
OS2 Andrew Hahn, USN
HTFN Zachary Hanes, USN
FC1(SW/AW) Chad Eugene Hardwick, USN
IT1 Bryan T. Harman, USN
YNSN Kimberly Sue Harman, USN
SKSN Jordan Johnnie Harris, USN
CSSN Noah Tommy Harrison, USN
BMSA Keegan Hartman, USN
BMSN Jeffrey W. Haynes, USN
FC3 Chaley Henderson, USN
GMC(SW) Robert Henderson, USN
IT3 Sylas G. Hensley, USN
EN1(SW/EXW) Brandon Higgs, USN
SHSN Victoria Highsmith, USN
EN3 Christopher Hill, USN
EMFN Jordan Hoff, USN
SA Christopher Hoffman, USN
EN1(SW) Donald C. Holmes, USN
ET3 David L. Howard, USN
SK1(SW) Carl Anthony Hunt, USN
EM3 DeAnna Jackson, USN
EMFR Isaiah Jackson, USN
CSSA Karlows Jea Jackson, USN
IC1(SW/AW) Alan Jernigan, USN
DCC(SW/AW) Enrique C. Jograj Jr., USN
OCS Anthony Johnson, USN
ABF3(AW) Daniel Nevell Johnson, USN
CTT3 Jonathan Johnson, USN
IT2(SW) Lavar Johnson, USN
ENFR Rebbecca Johnson, USN
OS1(SW) Ronald Johnson, USN
ET3 Travis Johnson, USN
ENFR David R. Jones, USN
HMC(AW) Jason Paul Jordan, USN
ENCS(SW) Thomas O. Kane, USN
IC1(SW) Eric Keef, USN
EM1(SW) Kraig Kellar, USN
ET3 Ethan E. Kempf, USN
ETC(SW/SCW/EXW) Michael William Kerrigan, USN
QMSN Timothy Kidd, USN
OSSN Micah Kimbrell, USN
ET1(SW/AW) Daniel E. Kinder, USN
MAC William Jason Kline, USN
OS2(SW/AW) Marrion Canzell Knight, USN

AS3 Michael Vincent Knorr, USN

QMSN Christopher Koch, USN
SR Michael Kolbeck, USN
SHSN Srdjan Kremonic, USN
DC1(SW) Mark A. Kryger, USN
BMCS(SW) Chaas C. Kunze, USN
ITSN Mikal S. Kuyothrote, USN
IT3 Jeremy W. Landrum, USN
ENFN Scott Langford, USN
SKSN Adam Carl Ledet, USN
PS2 Kum-Seng Lee, USN
PSC Thomas Bradford Lehman, USN
MC1(SW/AW) Corey Tryone Lewis, USN
FC2(SW/AW) Neco Lewis, USN
QMSN Jason Lightburn, USN
HTFN Stephen Lippold, USN
CSSR Ronald Anthony Longfellow, USN
BM2 Steven Christopher Love, USN
SN Corey Lyons, USN
OS2 Shatara M. Mackey, USN
ET3 Juan Madrigal, USN
BMSN Darius Magee, USN
SA Marquis Manuel, USN
ABHAA Hannah Lee Marihugh, USN
DC2(SW) Brian Martin, USN
SH1(SW/AW) Daniel M. Martinez, USN
ABFAN Kathy Martinez, USN
OSSN Raulito Martinez, USN
BMSA Darren Martins, USN
CTT3 Mallory Maurer, USN
FC3 Stacey R. Mays, USN
ABHAN Francis Joseph McCarthy III, USN
BM1(SW) Roderick McCaskill, USN
EN2 John McConico, USN
HM1 Michelle Yolanda McCray, USN
SN Benjamin McDowell, USN
CWO3 Shawn E. McGowan, USMC
FC2(SW/AW) Jeremy L. McHenry, USN
CS2 Gloria Nadecha Medina, USN
SR Jhonnier Mejiaherrera, USN
DCFN Donita Milgan, USN
SN Grant Mills, USN
ET3 Eric Miravite, USN
FC2(SW/AW) Derek E. Mitchell, USN
IT3 Brian T. Moller, USN
PSSN Antwan Deawn Montague, USN
ET1(SW) Glen Moody, USN
BMSN Carlos Moore, USN
ABFAN Keith Bernard Moore, USN
HMC(SW/AW) Casey Raquel Moorer, USN
SR Jordan Morelli, USN
ABFAA Edward Moreno-Bahena, USN
OS1(SW) Earl Morey, USN
SR Brandon Morris, USN
HTFN Tiffany Moser, USN



GySgt John B. Mulder IV, USMC

IT2(SW) James Murray, USN
HM3(FMF) Kevin Joseph Muse, USN
FC2 Kelli N. Myers, USN
ET2(SW) John T. Nagy, USN
SHSN Ronald P. Nepacena, USN
SHC(SW/AW) Hilton L. Newton, USN
QM1 Steven M. Olague, USN
SN Rocky Orr, USN
YN2 Michael Anthony Ortiz, USN
HM1 Donald Charles Orton, USN
HTFN Ty D. Ottbeiriger, USN
YN2(SW/AW) Aaron Elroy Palacio, USN
PS3 Woodson Raynard Parker, USN
EM2(SW) Suzie Sophia Parris, USN
BM2 Tricia L. Pearson, USN
OS3 Anthony Pugradt, USN
DCC(SW) Matthew J. Platto, USN
ABHAN Kevin Robert Probach, USN
CTTC(SW/AW) Richard Rabineau, USN
BMSN Gaspar Ramos, USN
AS2(AW) Willie Louis Ratliff, USN
BM3(SW) Franklin Rendo, USN
ABFAR Robert Anderson Richardson, USN
GMSN Ashley N. Roberts, USN
MR2 Robert Rodado, USN
SH2(SW) Ebony Kiysha Rogers, USN
EM3 Jaime J. Rojas, USN
SR Zachary Romena, USN
OS2 Arnaldo Romero, USN
BMSR Joseph Romero, USN
FC2(SW) Kenneth G. W. Ruth, USN
OS1(SW/AW) Narissa Latrice Samuels, USN
ENFR Joseph Sanchez, USN
CSSR Jasmine Deneka Sanders, USN
IT2(SW) Nicole Saunders, USN
EN1 David Sellers, USN
EN2(SW) Eric Selmer, USN
ET3 William Adam Shempert, USN
SK1(SW/AW) Ursula D. Sheran, USN
CS1 Jeffrey Shermak, USN
ABH2(AW/SW) Dustin Alyn Shipman, USN
ENFR Paul Silatolu, USN
SR Ryan Simpson, USN
HT1(SW) William Sisk, USN
SR Brandon J. Smalley, USN
QMSN Adam Smith, USN
CS1(SW/AW) Danielle Smith, USN
EM2(SW) Jason Smith, USN
BMSR Lamar Smith, USN
SR Leslie Smith, USN
ENFR Danita Soto, USN
QMSN David Soto, USN
CSSA Florentino Soto, USN
FC3 Mary Spell, USN


HTFN Keiaria Spires, USN

DC2(SW/AW) Jennifer Stage, USN
ETC(SW/SCW) Benjamin Cameron Stearns, USN
EMC(SW/AW) Todd A. Steiner, USN
EM2 Christopher Stevens, USN
ITCM(SW/AW) Sean M. Stewart, USN
HT1(SW) John Stinnett, USN
ITSN Alexander T. Stokes, USN
CSSN Anna Stuckey, USN
HT1(SW) Wesley A. Stump, USN
ET3 Nicholas Styles, USN
FC1(SW/AW) Michael Sullivan, USN
EN2 Glenn Swift, USN
CWO4 Scott Sylvester, USN
BMCS Patrick Taffe, USN
IT1(SW) Shareef H. Talbert, USN
ENFR Darius Talley, USN
HM2(SW) Roy Antoine Teague, USN
ABHAA Donna Joy Terrado, USN
QM3 Debra Thomas, USN
ENFR Dennis Thomas, USN
NCC(SW/AW) Lori Lynn Thomas, USN
CS1 Travis Thomas, USN
ENFR Corey Thompson, USN
CWO3 Manfred Tiedemann, USN
EMFN Lester Toledo, USN
CSSR Guinno Torres, USN
OS1 Jerred M. Truman, USN
GM2(SW/AW) Mindy H. Tutti, USN
CS2 Chrystelle Usher, USN
ENFR Salud Valdez Perez, USN
SK2(SW/AW) Yudi E. Vazquez, USN
ISC Tricia D. Viviano, USN
SR Nicholas Vonpechmann, USN
ITSN Brandon M. Waddell, USN
ICFN Shatara Ward, USN
ENFR Jonathan M. Watford, USN
QM2 Dominique Wheelock, USN
IT2(SW) Daniel D. White, USN
GM3 Eric L. White, USN
ICFN Lawrence White, USN
IT3 Robert D. White, USN
EN1 Antonn A. Williams, USN
OS2 Cory Williams, USN
ABFAA Keon Markee Williams, USN
ABHC(AW/SW) Douglas Lee Wilmoth, USN
HM2(SW) Latoya Monique Wilson, USN
BMC(SW) Jared E. Winegardner, USN
SH2(SW/AW) Jason Raynard Winns, USN
CSC(SW/AW) Jerryl Winters, USN
SR Anthony Wizner, USN
ENFR Randy Woodhead, USN
CTM2 Laron Worsley, USN

A Powerful Symbol of Freedom and Resolve

Forged with 7.5 metric tons of salvaged
steel from World Trade Towers and the
spirit of American resolve, Curtiss-Wright
is proud to have had a hand in producing
mission critical hardware for the USS
New York. Spirit, sacrifice and dedication
is endemic in the legacy our founding
fathers bequeathed to us. They would be
pleased that we are a part of this mission
to protect freedom wherever its

2009 Northrop Grumman Corporation

Never Forget.

USS NEW YORK LPD 21 is the newest addition to the U.S. Navys 21st Century amphibious assault
force. Led by 7-1/2 tons of World Trade Center steel melted into her bow stem, the 684-foot-long ship can
transport and land nearly 800 Marines, their equipment, aircraft and supplies. USS New York symbolizes
the strength and courage of our nation. The craftsmanship of our highly skilled shipbuilders who built this
ship and the resolve of the nest men and women in uniform who will sail her into harms way, are themselves
a testament to the strength and power of the American spirit. Strength forged through sacrice. Never forget.