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HANDBOOK

FOR COGENERATION
AND COMBINED
CYCLE POWER PLANTS
Second Edition

Dr. Meherwan P. Boyce, P.E.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Boyce, Meherwan P.
Handbook for cogeneration and combined cycle power plants /
Meherwan P. Boyce. 2nd ed..
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-7918-5953-7 (alk. paper)
1. Cogeneration of electric power and heat. 2. Combined cycle power plants.
I. Title.
TK1041.B68 2010
621.199dc22
2009043330

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION
PREFACE

1. AN OVERVIEW OF POWER GENERATION


Distributed Generation ..............................................................................
Diesel and Gasoline Engines ...................................................................
Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines ......................................................
Gas Turbines . ...........................................................................................
Micro-Turbines .......................................................................................
Fuel Cell Technology ...............................................................................
Solar Energy-Photovoltaic Cells ............................................................
BioMass Systems .......................................................................................
Wind Energy ............................................................................................
Cogeneration ..............................................................................................
Cogeneration Qualifications ...................................................................
Gas Turbine Cycle in Cogeneration Mode . ..........................................
Combined Cycle Plants .................................................................................
Availability and Reliability ..........................................................................
Properties of Gas Turbine Exhaust .............................................................
Steam Generation Calculations ..............................................................
Gas Turbine Heat Recovery ..........................................................................
Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems .....................................
Environmental Effects .............................................................................
Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle Plants ..................................................
Air Separation Unit ....................................................................................
Residual Nitrogen Injection .......................................................................
Coal Gasifiers ..............................................................................................
Carbon Capture and Sequestration . .........................................................
IGCC Plants Commercial and Proposed Plants . ....................................

iii
xv

1
17
21
21
21
22
23
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27
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35
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TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

Velocity-Stage, Curtis-Type Impulse Turbine........................................ 251


Pressure-Stage, Rateau-Type Impulse Turbine...................................... 251
Arc of Peripheral Admission to the Total Circumference..................... 254
General Flow Arrangement................................................................... 258
Single-Flow Single Casing Turbines....................................................... 259
Extraction Flow Turbine......................................................................... 259
Compound-Flow or Tandem Compound Turbine................................. 260
Cross Compound Turbine....................................................................... 260
Double-Flow Turbines............................................................................ 261
Steam Turbine Characteristics................................................................ 261
Features and Structure of Large Steam Turbines in Combined
Cycle Plant Application............................................................................... 262
Features and Structure of HP and IP Nozzles and Blades......................... 263
HP and IP Nozzle Diaphragms................................................................ 266
Blades...................................................................................................... 268
Blade Attachments................................................................................. 271
Features and Structure of LP Blades........................................................... 272
Gland Seal System........................................................................................ 276
Interstage Seals....................................................................................... 277
End Seals.................................................................................................. 277
Required Material Characteristics............................................................... 278
Blade Materials............................................................................................ 280
Surface Treatments...................................................................................... 282
Steam Turbine Performance....................................................................... 282
Change in Main Steam Temperature.................................................... 286
Change in Main Steam Pressure............................................................ 288
Change in Steam Flow............................................................................ 288
Change in Reheat Steam Temperature................................................. 288
Change in Reheat Steam Pressure......................................................... 288
Change in Condenser Back Pressure...................................................... 293
Change due to Operational Hours........................................................ 295
Change in Power Factor......................................................................... 295

6. AN OVERVIEW OF PUMPS

297

Range of Operation................................................................................. 297


Pump Selection........................................................................................ 301
Pump Materials........................................................................................ 302
Types of Pumps............................................................................................. 305
Process Pumps..................................................................................................... 305
Sump Pumps............................................................................................. 305
Axial-Flow Pumps..................................................................................... 306
Turbine Pumps......................................................................................... 306
Regenerative Pumps................................................................................ 306
Gear Pumps.............................................................................................. 307
Screw Pumps............................................................................................ 307

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vi COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS

2. CYCLES

61

Combined Cycle Plant Operation ............................................................... 61


The Brayton Cycle ....................................................................................... 61
Inlet Cooling Effect . ................................................................................ 63
Regeneration Effect . ............................................................................ 70
Increasing the Work Output of the Simple Cycle Gas
Turbine ..................................................................................................... 74
Intercooling and Reheat Effects ............................................................. 75
Injection of Compressed Air, Steam, or Water
for Increasing Power ............................................................................... 77
Combination of Evaporative Cooling and Steam
Injection ................................................................................................... 81
Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles .................................................................... 81
Compressed Air Energy Storage Cycle . .................................................. 81
Actual Cycle Analysis ................................................................................... 84
The Simple Cycle ..................................................................................... 84
The Split-Shaft Simple Cycle . .................................................................. 86
The Regenerative Cycle ........................................................................... 87
The Intercooled Simple Cycle .................................................................. 89
The Reheat Cycle ..................................................................................... 89
The Intercooled Regenerative Reheat Cycle .......................................... 91
The Steam Injection Cycle ....................................................................... 91
The Evaporative Regenerative Cycle .................................................. 100
The Brayton-Rankine Cycle ................................................................... 100
Summation of Cycle Analysis ................................................................... 104
A General Overview of Combined Cycle Plants ........................................ 104

3. PERFORMANCE AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS


Major Variables of a Combined Cycle Power Plant .................................
Plant Location and Site Configuration ..............................................
Plant Type ...........................................................................................
Plant Size and Efficiency ......................................................................
Type of Fuel ..........................................................................................
Types of HRSG . .....................................................................................
Types of Condensers ............................................................................
Enclosures ..............................................................................................
Plant Operation Mode: Base or Peaking .............................................
Start-up Techniques . ............................................................................
Performance Standards ...........................................................................
ASME, Performance Test Code on Overall Plant Performance............
ASME, Performance Test Code on Test Uncertainty: Instruments
and Apparatus ......................................................................................
ASME, Performance Test Code on Gas Turbines . ...............................

117
119
119
122
122
128
128
129
130
130
131
131
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TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

ASME, Performance Test Code on Gas Turbine Heat Recovery


Steam Generators ...............................................................................
ASME, Performance Test Code on Steam Turbines ..........................
ASME, Performance Test Code on Steam Condensing
Apparatus . ............................................................................................
ASME, Performance Test Code on Atmospheric Water Cooling
Equipment . ..........................................................................................
ISO, Natural Gas Calculation of Calorific Value, Density
and Relative Density ..............................................................................
Table of Physical Constants of Paraffin Hydrocarbons . ....................
Mechanical Parameters ............................................................................
API Std 616, Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical
and Gas Industry Services ......................................................................
API Std 618, Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum,
Chemical and Gas Industry Services ......................................................
API Std 619, Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors
for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services . ........................
API Std 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum,
Chemical and Gas Industry Services ......................................................
API Std 677, General-Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum,
Chemical and Gas Industry Services ......................................................
API Std 614 , Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil
Systems and Auxiliaries for Petroleum, Chemical and
Gas Industry Services ..............................................................................
ANSI/API Std 610 Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum,
Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services . ..............................
API Publication 534, Heat Recovery Steam Generators . .....................
API RP 556, Fired Heaters & Steam Generators .................................
ISO 10436:1993 Petroleum and Natural Gas
Industries General Purpose Steam Turbine for
Refinery Service .....................................................................................
API Std 671, Special Purpose Couplings for Petroleum
Chemical and Gas Industry Services ......................................................
ANSI/API Std 670 Vibration, Axial-Position, and
Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems ..........................................
API Std 672, Packaged, Integrally Geared Centrifugal Air
Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas
Industry Services ..................................................................................
API Std 681, Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps and Compressors ..............
Gas Turbine ...............................................................................................
Gears ............................................................................................................
Lubrication Systems ...................................................................................
Vibration Measurements ...........................................................................
Specifications ............................................................................................

133
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140

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viii COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS

4. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS TURBINES

155

Industrial Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines ......................................................... 165


Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines ............................................................... 168
Medium-Range Gas Turbines . ................................................................. 169
Small Gas Turbines ..................................................................................... 170
Major Gas Turbine Components . .............................................................. 173
Compressors . .......................................................................................... 173
Regenerators . ....................................................................................... 189
Combustors ..................................................................................... 190
Combustor Design Considerations.......................................................... 194
Typical Combustor Arrangements.......................................................... 195
Air Pollution Problems............................................................................. 196
Dry Low NOx Combustor......................................................................... 201
Catalytic Combustion............................................................................... 208
Features of Catalytic Combustion........................................................... 208
Catalytic Combustor Design.................................................................... 211
Turbine Expander Section............................................................................ 212
Radial-Inflow Turbine.............................................................................. 214
Mixed-Flow Turbine................................................................................. 215
Axial-Flow Turbines................................................................................. 215
Impulse Turbine....................................................................................... 219
The Reaction Turbine.............................................................................. 222
Turbine Blade Cooling Concepts............................................................. 225
Turbine Blade Cooling Design................................................................ 227
Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics................................................................ 231
Instrumentation and Controls.......................................................................................237

5. AN OVERVIEW OF STEAM TURBINES

239

Introduction................................................................................................. 239
Non-Condensing Cycle............................................................................ 239
Condensing Cycle.................................................................................... 239
The Rankine Cycle........................................................................................ 240
Heat Rate and Steam Rate.....................................................................243
Turbine Component Efficiency..............................................................243
Mechanical Efficiency.............................................................................244
The Regenerative - Reheat Cycle...........................................................244
Steam Turbine.........................................................................................246
Classifications of Steam Turbines........................................................... 247
Steam Flow Directions............................................................................ 247
Steam Passage Between Blades............................................................. 249
Turbine Stages in Series.......................................................................... 249
Single-Stage or Simple-Impulse Turbine............................................... 250
Multistage Impulse-Type Turbine.......................................................... 251
Velocity and Pressure Stage Combination............................................ 251

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

Velocity-Stage, Curtis-Type Impulse Turbine........................................ 251


Pressure-Stage, Rateau-Type Impulse Turbine...................................... 251
Arc of Peripheral Admission to the Total Circumference..................... 254
General Flow Arrangement................................................................... 258
Single-Flow Single Casing Turbines....................................................... 259
Extraction Flow Turbine......................................................................... 259
Compound-Flow or Tandem Compound Turbine................................. 260
Cross Compound Turbine....................................................................... 260
Double-Flow Turbines............................................................................ 261
Steam Turbine Characteristics................................................................ 261
Features and Structure of Large Steam Turbines in Combined
Cycle Plant Application............................................................................... 262
Features and Structure of HP and IP Nozzles and Blades......................... 263
HP and IP Nozzle Diaphragms................................................................ 266
Blades...................................................................................................... 268
Blade Attachments................................................................................. 271
Features and Structure of LP Blades........................................................... 272
Gland Seal System........................................................................................ 276
Interstage Seals....................................................................................... 277
End Seals.................................................................................................. 277
Required Material Characteristics............................................................... 278
Blade Materials............................................................................................ 280
Surface Treatments...................................................................................... 282
Steam Turbine Performance....................................................................... 282
Change in Main Steam Temperature.................................................... 286
Change in Main Steam Pressure............................................................ 288
Change in Steam Flow............................................................................ 288
Change in Reheat Steam Temperature................................................. 288
Change in Reheat Steam Pressure......................................................... 288
Change in Condenser Back Pressure...................................................... 293
Change due to Operational Hours........................................................ 295
Change in Power Factor......................................................................... 295

6. AN OVERVIEW OF PUMPS

297

Range of Operation................................................................................. 297


Pump Selection........................................................................................ 301
Pump Materials........................................................................................ 302
Types of Pumps............................................................................................. 305
Process Pumps..................................................................................................... 305
Sump Pumps............................................................................................. 305
Axial-Flow Pumps..................................................................................... 306
Turbine Pumps......................................................................................... 306
Regenerative Pumps................................................................................ 306
Gear Pumps.............................................................................................. 307
Screw Pumps............................................................................................ 307

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 COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS

Centrifugal Pumps................................................................................... 307


Pump Application in Combined Cycle Power Plants.................................. 312
The IP-LP Circulating Pump..................................................................... 312
HP Feed Water Pumps............................................................................. 313
The HP Circulating Pump......................................................................... 314
Condenser Pumps.................................................................................... 314
Cooling Water Pumps.............................................................................. 314
Lubrication Pumps................................................................................... 314
Fuel Pumps............................................................................................... 315
7. HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS

317

Introduction ................................................................................................317
Design Considerations . ..............................................................................320
Multipressure Steam Generators ..........................................................320
Off-Design Performance .......................................................................322
Construction of the HRSG .....................................................................323
Casing of the HRSG . ..............................................................................324
Forced-Circulation System .....................................................................324
Back-Pressure Considerations (Gas Side) ..............................................324
Finned Tubing ........................................................................................324
Tube Materials .......................................................................................324
HRSG Design Requirements ..................................................................325
Economizers ...........................................................................................326
Evaporators ............................................................................................327
Attemperators .......................................................................................329
Desuperheaters ......................................................................................330
Deaerator ....................................................................................................333
Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems . ...............................335
Design Features .....................................................................................338
Once Through Steam Generators .........................................................342
HRSG Operational Characteristics . .......................................................344
HRSG Effectiveness ................................................................................346
Water Chemistry ....................................................................................346
Water Treatment Plants ........................................................................348
Chemical Storage and Dosing ...............................................................352
HRSG Chemical Cleaning .......................................................................352
Vibration and Noise . .............................................................................356
Filter Housing, Duct Work, and Insulation . .........................................357
Diverters, Silencers, and Burners ..........................................................360
HRSG Reliability and Durability ............................................................365

8. CONDENSERS AND COOLING TOWERS

367

Condensers .................................................................................................. 367


Types of Condensers .............................................................................. 369

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xi

Condensate Polisher Systems ................................................................


Available Condensate Polisher Technology ..........................................
Condenser Fouling ......................................................................................
Cooling Towers . .....................................................................................
Design of Cooling Towers .....................................................................
Chemical Water Treatment for Cooling Towers .......................................
Cooling Tower Biological Control . .......................................................
Cooling Tower Scale Control .................................................................
Dispersants . ............................................................................................
Corrosion Inhibitors ...............................................................................
Development of a Cooling Tower Treatment Program ......................

9. GENERATORS, MOTORS AND SWITCH GEARS

Motors ........................................................................................................
Constant Speed Motors ........................................................................
Alternating Current Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors ......................
Synchronous Alternating-Current Motors ..........................................
Power-Factor Correction ......................................................................
Generator . ...............................................................................................
Design Characteristics . ........................................................................
Switchgear ...............................................................................................
Electrical Single Line Diagram ..................................................................

10. FUELS, FUEL PIPING AND FUEL STORAGE


Fuel Specifications ...................................................................................
Fuel Properties .........................................................................................
Heavy Fuels ................................................................................................
Cleaning of Turbine Components ............................................................
Turbine Wash ........................................................................................
Compressor Washing ............................................................................
Fuel Economics ..........................................................................................
Heat Tracing of Piping Systems ................................................................
Types of Heat-Tracing Systems ............................................................
Choosing the Best Tracing System .......................................................
Storage of Liquids ...................................................................................
Atmospheric Tanks .............................................................................
Elevated Tanks ......................................................................................
Open Tanks .........................................................................................
Fixed Roof Tanks . .................................................................................
Floating Roofs Tanks ............................................................................
Pressure Tanks . .....................................................................................
Calculation of Tank Volume ................................................................
Container Materials, Insulation and Support ....................................

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381
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385
389
390
390
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392

395

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402
417
423

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427
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442
446
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448
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452
458
459
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HANDBOOK
FOR COGENERATION
AND COMBINED
CYCLE POWER PLANTS
Second Edition

Dr. Meherwan P. Boyce, P.E.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

Condenser Calculations ............................................................................


Performance Curves . ................................................................................
Performance Computations ...................................................................
General Governing Equations . .........................................................
Gas-Turbine Performance Calculation . ..............................................
Heat-Recovery Steam Generator ........................................................
Steam Turbines ...........................................................................................
Plant Losses ..........................................................................................
Nomenclature ...........................................................................................

14. MAINTENANCE TECHNIQUES


Philosophy of Maintenance ......................................................................
Maximization of Equipment Efficiency and Effectiveness ....................
Organization Structures ............................................................................
Performance-Based Total Productive Maintenance Program ..........
Implementation of a Performance-Based Total Productive
Maintenance .......................................................................................
Maintenance Department Requirements .........................................
Spare Parts Inventory .........................................................................
Inspections ...........................................................................................
Condition and Life Assessment ..........................................................
Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability ........................................
Maintenance Scheduling . ..................................................................
Maintenance Communications ............................................................

15. COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT PROBLEMS


Gas Turbines .............................................................................................
Inlet Filtration Problems . ....................................................................
Evaporative Cooling ............................................................................
Axial Flow Compressor ........................................................................
Inlet Guide Vanes ................................................................................
Compressor Blades . .............................................................................
Diaphragms ..........................................................................................
Diaphragm Seals ..................................................................................
Diaphragm Contact .............................................................................
Compressor Problems and Failures .....................................................
Compressor Vanes and Blades ............................................................
Cooling Air Contamination .................................................................
Combustion Systems ............................................................................
Diffusion-Type Combustors . ...............................................................
Dry Low-NOx Combustors . ..................................................................
Dynamic Combustion Monitors ..........................................................
Transition Piece . ..................................................................................

546
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572

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580
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588
589
589
590
598
599

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603
606
607
607
611
611
611
615
615
615
616
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641
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650

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xiv COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS

Axial Flow Turbines .............................................................................


Turbine Blades .....................................................................................
Wheel Space . .......................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold . ...............................................................................
Gas Turbine Expansion Joint Failures .................................................
Heat Recovery Steam Generators ............................................................
Failures Experienced in HRSGs ............................................................
Chemical Sampling and Analysis .............................................................
Man Service Platforms . ............................................................................
Freeze Protection .....................................................................................
Steam Turbine ..........................................................................................
HP Turbine Section ...................................................................................
IP Turbine Section . ...................................................................................
LP Turbine Section ....................................................................................
Foreign Object Damage/Domestic Object Damage . ..............................
Gland Seal Systems ...................................................................................
Lubrication System Failures .....................................................................
Bearings . ..............................................................................................
Gears .........................................................................................................

653
662
671
672
676
677
680
689
690
691
692
694
699
702
706
708
709
715
722

APPENDIX A

725

APPENDIX B

729

BIBLIOGRAPHY

731

INDEX

747

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

761

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PREFACE

A Handbook for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants discusses the
design, fabrication, installation, operation, and maintenance of combined cycle
power plants. The book has been written to provide an overall view for the
experienced engineer working in a specialized aspect of the subject and for the
young engineering graduate or undergraduate student who is being exposed to
the field of power plants for the first time. The book has proven to be very useful
as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses as well as for in-house
company training programs related to power generation, and I believe that the
new edition will further extend the knowledge of the engineer in this field.
The second edition is not only an updating of the technology, which has taken
great leaps forward since the year 2001, but I have also rewritten the introductory
chapter to bring the reader new information in the power industry, especially
carbon sequestration technology, which will be a topic of great interest in the
years to come. The power industry has, in the past 8 years, embraced the combined
cycle power plants and, with the new high-efficiency advanced gas turbines, is at
the center of this growth segment of the industry. This has led to the rewriting of
the following chapters: Chapter 1, An Overview of Power Generation; Chapter
5, Steam Turbines; Chapter 7, Heat Recovery Steam Generators; and Chapter
8, Condensers and Cooling Towers.
A new chapter has been introduced, Chapter 15, Case Histories of Problems
Encountered in Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants. This is an
extensive treatise on the many problems associated with the combined cycle
power plants and some of the solutions that have achieved higher efficiencies
and reliability. This chapter explains in depth the problems encountered and with
145 figures fully illustrates the many failures encountered in cogeneration and
combined cycle power plant applications.
This book has been used extensively by engineers in the industry, and I have
used it in the many courses I have taught in this area. The suggestions from these
engineers have guided me in my writing of the second edition of this book. The
new chapters have been written with an eye toward the new issues both from a
technical and legal point of view in the operating of power plants. In this new
edition, I have introduced extensive sections on the chemical treatment of the
water used in combined cycle power plants. The chemistry sections and related
information have been provided by David Addison of Thermal Chemistry Limited,
New Zealand. I have also used many topics that have been well researched by the
Electric Power Research Institute in its many publications.

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xvi COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS

Cogeneration and combined cycle power plants are not new, but with major
improvements in all of the building blocks such as power plant, gas turbines,
HRSGs, steam turbines, and condensers, an update of the book was necessary.
Technology efficiencies in the mid-1950s are common today, and with a little bit
of ingenuity, efficiencies in the low 1960s will be possible. With emphasis on CO2
reduction, these high efficiencies will make it possible to achieve the lofty goals
of greenhouse gas reductions. These high efficiencies have totally revolutionized
the industry, making the old steam plants a thing of the past.
The use of cogeneration and combined cycle power plants in all industries,
and in the power generation field, has mushroomed in the past few years. It is to
these users and manufacturers of cogeneration and combined cycle power plants
that this book is directed. The book, with its new chapter on case histories, will
give the manufacturer a glimpse of some of the major problems associated with
his equipment in the field and help the user to achieve maximum performance
efficiency and high availability for his plant.
I have been involved in the research, design, operation, and maintenance
of various types of combined cycle power plants since the early 1960s. I have
also taught courses at the graduate and undergraduate level at the University
of Oklahoma and Texas A&M University, and now, in general, to the industry
for the past 30 years. I have taught over a hundred courses to 3000 students
from over 400 corporations around the world. The enthusiasm of the students
associated with these courses gave me the inspiration to undertake this endeavor
of updating the book. The many courses I have taught over the past 37 years
have been an educational experience for me as well as for the engineers who
have participated in these courses. The Texas A&M University Turbomachinery
Symposium, which I had the privilege to found and chair for seven years and
which is now in its 38th year, is a great contributor to the operational and
maintenance sections of this book. The discussions and consultations that
resulted from my association with highly professional individuals have been a
major contribution to both my personal and professional life as well as to this
book.
In this book, I have tried to assimilate the subject matter of various papers,
and sometimes diverse views, into a comprehensive, unified treatment of
combined cycle power plants. Many illustrations, curves, and tables are
employed to broaden the understanding of the descriptive text. Mathematical
treatments have been deliberately held to a minimum so that the reader can
identify and resolve any problems before he is ready to execute a specific design.
In addition, the references direct the reader to sources of information that will
help him to further investigate and solve his specific problems. It is hoped that
this book will serve as a reference text after it has accomplished its primary
objective of introducing the reader to the broad subject of combined cycle power
plants.
I wish to thank the many engineers whose published work and discussions
have been a cornerstone to this work. Lastly, I wish to acknowledge and give
special thanks to my wife, Zarine, for her readiness to help and her constant
encouragement throughout this project. I also would like to thank my assistants
Donna Masters and Shannon Reynolds for the many hours they have spent in
helping me put this new edition together.

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PREFACE xvii

I sincerely hope that this new edition will be educational and interesting to
read as it was for me to write and that it will be a major reference in the fastgrowing field of cogeneration and combined cycle power plants.

MEHERWAN P. BOYCE
HOUSTON, TEXAS
September 2009

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