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# JMU Elementary Education Program

Whitley Craig
Peak View Elementary

## A. A Trip to the Store

B. CONTEXT OF LESSON
The students will complete a sorting activity prior to the lesson, which will serve as a preassessment. The students will be given five different cards that each have pictures of
coins on them representing a different value less than 100 cents. The students will count
the coins on each of the cards and write the corresponding amount underneath the
pictures. After the students have done so with all five cards, they will order them from
least to greatest monetary value. We will then ask them how they know which coin cards
are greater/lesser than the other ones. This will help us gauge their understanding of coin
value and comparisons between sets of coins.
This is an appropriate lesson for the students at this point of the year because it fits will
into the curriculum sequence. This lesson fits nicely with the vertical and horizontal
planning that is created to address topics before, during, and after 2nd grade.

## Vertical Planning: There are many money-counting concepts that must be

understood before the students are able to count and compare coins up to two
dollars (SOL 2.10). Some of these basic concepts were covered in earlier
grades, including knowing how to identify the equivalencies of pennies to
nickels, dimes, and quarters (SOL 1.7) and how to determine the value of a
collection of coins that is less than 100 cents (SOL 1.7). These earlier SOLs
help form foundations of money counting and introduce vocabulary that are
important to SOLs that will be addressed in this lesson. My lesson will get
them prepared for SOLs they will face in later grades. It will be a basis for
understanding how to determine the value of bills and coins totaling \$5.00 or
less and how to make change (SOL 3.8).

Horizontal Planning: By this point in the year, the students should be able to
estimate and determine the sum and difference of two whole numbers less
than 99 (SOL 2.6/2.7). These are both skills that are needed to understand how
to count and compare a collection of coins whose total is \$2.00 or less.
Mastery of these SOLs will provide framework for the upcoming lesson.

This lesson is appropriate because it will build on other related concepts they have just
learned. It will move their thinking from simple to complex. By relating past concepts to
new ones, they will be following a suitable progression of learning for second grade.

Money is not referenced in the Common Core State Standards learning progressions.
This is because money is only present in the standards for 2nd grade. The students do not
obtain knowledge of the topic prior to or after completing 2nd grade in states that
practice the Common Core Standards.
C. STANDARDS - VA SOLs and/or CCSS
VA Math SOL
2.10 The student will
a) count and compare a collection of pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters whose total
value is \$2.00 or less;
Process Standards
Mathematical Problem Solving
Students will apply mathematical concepts and skills and the relationships among them to
solve problem situations of varying complexities. Students also will recognize and create
problems from real-life data and situations within and outside mathematics and then apply
appropriate strategies to find acceptable solutions. To accomplish this goal, students will
need to develop a repertoire of skills and strategies for solving a variety of problem types.
A major goal of the mathematics program is to help students become competent
mathematical problem solvers.
Mathematical Communication
Students will use the language of mathematics, including specialized vocabulary and
symbols, to express mathematical ideas precisely. Representing, discussing, reading,
writing, and listening to mathematics will help students to clarify their thinking and deepen
their understanding of the mathematics being studied.
Cross Curricular Standards
2.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of oral language structure.
b) Create and participate in oral dramatic activities.
c) Use correct verb tenses in oral communication.
2.2 The student will expand understanding and use of word meanings.
c) Clarify and explain words and ideas orally.
CCSS
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.C.8
Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using \$
and symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents
do you have?

D.
Understand what are the
the students should begin to
develop? (These are typically
difficult to assess in one
lesson.)
Each student will:
Understand that coins can
create one monetary
value.

## Know what are the tools,

vocabulary, symbols, etc. the
students will gain through
this lesson? (These knows
must be assessed in your
lesson.)
Each student will:
Know that a penny is
worth one cent.
Know that a nickel is
worth five cents.
Know that a dime is
worth ten cents.
Know that a quarter is
worth 25 cents.
Know the definitions of
greater than, less than,
and equal to.

## Do what are the specific

thinking behaviors/procedures
students will be able to do
through this lesson? (These
will also be assessed in your
lesson.)
Each student will:
Be able to determine the
value of a collection of
coins whose total value
is less than \$2.00.
Be able to compare the
values of two sets of
coins with each set
having a total value
less than \$2.00.
Be able to simulate
everyday opportunities
to count and compare
and collection of coins
whose total value is
less than \$2.00.

E. ASSESSING LEARNING
Objective

## Understand that coins can be

monetary value.
Know that a penny is worth
one cent.

## Know that a nickel is worth

five cents.

Assessment Tool
What documentation will you
have for each student?
Through the worksheet the
students complete during their
Trip to the Store, I will be able
to note whether students have
achieved this objective or not.
Through a section on the
worksheet the students complete
before their Trip to the Store, I
will be able to note whether
students have achieved this
objective.
Through a section on the
worksheet the students complete
before their Trip to the Store, I
will be able to note whether

Data Collected
and say, specifically, that
indicate each student has
prices of the two items
purchased and write this on
their worksheet.
Under the picture of the
penny, the students will
label it with the word,
penny and write 1 cent
or 1
Under the picture of the
nickel, the students will
label it with the word,
nickel and write 5 cents

ten cents.

25 cents.

## Know the definitions of

greater than, less than, and
equal to.

## Be able to determine the

value of a collection of coins
whose total value is less than
\$2.00.
Be able to compare the
values of two sets of coins
with each set having a total
value less than \$2.00.

## Be able to simulate everyday

opportunities to count and
compare and collection of
coins whose total value is
less than \$2.00.

## students have achieved this

objective.
Through a section on the
worksheet the students complete
before their Trip to the Store, I
will be able to note whether
students have achieved this
objective.
Through a section on the
worksheet the students complete
before their Trip to the Store, I
will be able to note whether
students have achieved this
objective.
Through the worksheet the
students complete during their
Trip to the Store, I will be able
to note whether students have
achieved this objective or not.
Through the introduction where
students are given their coins
and asked to count them, I will
be able to note whether the
students have achieved this
objective or not.
Through the worksheet the
students complete during their
Trip to the Store, I will be able
to note whether students have
achieved this objective or not.

or 5
Under the picture of the
dime, the students will label
it with the word, dime
and write 10 cents or 10
Under the picture of the
quarter, the students will
label it with the word,
quarter and write 25
cents or 25
They will be able use the
correct vocabulary when
comparing the two sets of
coins representing each
items price. They will also
explain how they got to this
The students will count the
amount of coins given
during the introduction and
write the value on their
worksheet.

## The students will draw the

prices of each of the two
items using coins, and will
two. The students will
draw the coins they used to
pay for the total amount of
the two items, and they will
also draw another way that
they couldve paid for their
items using their coins.
Through the simulated Trip to
The students will purchase
the Store Activity where the
two items using the correct
students have to buy items, I will amount of coins.
be able to note whether students
have achieved this objective or
not.

F. MATERIALS NEEDED
Coins for each student (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters) totaling between \$1.75 and \$2.00
Household items
Notecards
Trip to the Market Worksheet
Pre/Post Assessment Worksheets
G1 ANTICIPATION OF STUDENTS MATHEMATICAL RESPONSES TO THE TASK(S)
POSED IN THE PROCEDURE
PORTION OF THE LESSON
For day one, the students will take a Trip to the Store. Each student will have a set of coins
that has a value between \$1.75 to \$2.00 to buy two household items. The students will count the
value of the coins they have, so they will know how much they have to spend. The students will
then choose two items and pay for them using the coins they have. The students will have a
worksheet that goes along with the lesson that they will complete as they go through the activity.
Once the activity is completed, I will be able to use this as an assessment of their understanding
of the objectives.
For day two, a review will be presented where we discuss the name and value of each coin,
as well as the terms greater than, less than, and equal to. For the main activity, a 1970s
McDonalds menu will be posted on the SMART Board for the students to see. The students will
be given a set of coins between \$1.75 and \$2.00. The students will be able to choose three items
numbers together, they will be able to use their calculators to obtain the total price. After they
obtain the total price, they will place the coins that they would use to pay for those items on their
desk. The teacher will walk around and make sure that the students have the correct value of
coins for their total price. The students will write down their total price on a notecard. Next, the
students will arrange themselves in order from least to greatest monetary value based on their
total purchase price on the notecards. Greater than, less than, and equal to questions will be
asked to varying students. The ordering of the students will enable me to see if they have
understood the objectives.
The following strategies are applicable to the entirety of both lessons:
One anticipated strategy that the students will do is write the values of the coins they are
given on a scratch piece of paper and add all of those values together. If the students are able to
correctly identify the values of the pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters, and they correctly add
the values together, then they will get the right answer. One mistake that makes sense would be
to incorrectly identify the values the coins. For example, it is likely that some students will mix
up the values of a nickel and a dime because the coins look similar. Another mistake that makes
sense would be to make an error in adding up the values. If either of these two mistakes are
made it is likely that the students will incorrectly answer the questions on the worksheet
provided.

Another anticipated strategy would be the students counting their coins in their heads.
The students will obtain the correct answer if they correctly identify the values of the coins and
correctly add those values together. It is easiest to make mental adding mistakes by using this
method, and is expected that many students will make mental adding mistakes if they choose to
use this method. As mentioned previously, another understandable mistake would be mix up the
values of the nickels and dimes because they look similar. If either of the two mistakes are made
it is likely that the students will incorrectly answers the questions on the worksheet. This
strategy and the mistakes associated with it also apply when the students are asked to generate
the correct mount of coins in order to pay for their items.
G2

PROCEDURE
BEFORE:
In order to engage the students in the lesson content, we will use a whole class discussion.
To activate prior knowledge, we will ask the class what they know about money from their
previous knowledge, and what they have seen their parents use money for in the real world.
We will provide the students with a short introduction of our lesson in order to make sure
that they understand what they are going to be doing. The introduction of our lesson will
be done through modeling, where we simulate what the students will be doing by using
coins to purchase two items. We will also model our mathematical thinking out-loud that
we expect the students to replicate on the worksheet during the lesson. We will tell the
students the grouping for this lesson and clarify the directions for the worksheet to be
completed. This will allow the students to see the expectations of the lesson.

DAY 1

DURING:
We will review vocabulary and related values explicitly with the students who do not
understand them before allowing them to purchase items.
Throughout the entire lesson, a student assessment table will be used to make comments
about each students mathematical thinking (attached at the end of document). The
monitoring will be done through circulation of the classroom. We will allow the students
to work on their own with in groups unless a serious problem arises.
While circulating, we will ask the following questions in order to better understand each
students mathematical processes:
Explain to me what you are doing and the strategies you are using?
Why did you decide to use this strategy?
What is another strategy you can use?
How you represent this monetary value a different way?
In order to provide appropriate support to those students who need it, we will use probing
questions to allow them to think deeper about the problem. These questions include:
What is the problem asking you to do?

What are some activities and problems we have done that are similar to this?
What strategy have you tried so far?

For those who finish early, it is important to provide them with worthwhile extensions, so
they are able to grow in their mathematical skills. We could provide the students who
finish early with more coins, so they are able to purchase three items instead. This allows
those students to work on the addition of three two-digit numbers, as well as their money
counting skills.
AFTER:
In our classroom, we have established a community of learners. The students have had
practice interacting with each other in respectful ways. In order to remind the students to
be respectful, we will remind them that even if the strategies are all different, they can be
equally valid and should not be disrespected. We will chose four students to present their
ideas to the class. These students will each have varying strategies for completing the
activity. We will sequence these students in order from least efficient to most efficient
strategy (amount of time it takes). This sequencing will allow the students to see which
strategies would be more applicable and appropriate to real life situations.
We will listen actively during each students presentation of his or her strategies. We will
not evaluate or interrupt with comments during the explanation. After each student if
finished presenting his or her work, we will ask the following questions:
How is this method similar to the last method?
How is this method different to the last method?
Which do you think would be quicker to use in real life situations?
Next, we will have the students summarize the information that was presented through a
think-pair-share. The students will discuss what they learned, different strategies that were
presented, and how this can help them in the future.

H. DIFFERENTIATION
Content

Interest

Process
For the first day lesson,
the students will be able
to count the coins
throughout the lesson any
way that they chose.
They could chose to use
different strategies using
paper, or count the coins

Product

I. WHAT COULD GO WRONG WITH THESE LESSONS AND WHAT WILL YOU DO
There is a possibility that some of the students in the class will be unable to successfully
count the coins. These students will be those who are in the lower math groups. If this
occurs during the lesson, this group of students will work with the teacher to practice more
basic money counting skills. As much support will be given during the lesson, but the
practice will also be done after the lesson in class.
There is a possibility that some of the students could breeze through the lesson. These
students will be those who are in the higher math groups. In order to challenge these
students, the prices could be increased causing them to count coins with values higher than
\$2.00.
It is always possible that conflict among group members could arise when students are
working in small groups. If this happens, we will circulate the room more, paying closer
attention to those students who are having an issue. Another way we could help to solve this
would be by redirecting the students focus by probing with math questions to get them back
on the right track. If the issues continue, new groups can be made to help avoid these issues.

## Lesson Implementation Reflection & Assessment Analysis

1. What actually happened in your lessons? Cite examples of dialogue or student
work. How did your actual teaching of the lessons differ from your plans? Describe the
changes and explain why you made them.
Overall, my lesson went very similarly to how I planned. I completed the lesson with
two individuals. I instructed one to answer as if he were an elementary student and the other
to just answer how he normally would. Because I varied in how I told the students to
respond, Student A got all of the correct answers, while Student B almost missed them all. I
made this slight change in how I prompted the two individuals because I knew it would
provide me with a range of data that might be very similar to what I would see in any
elementary classroom. For example, Student A was able to label all of the coins, write their
values, and find multiple ways to pay for his items. In order to make \$1.34 to pay for a pencil

and a pack of crayons, he used four quarters, three dimes, and four pennies for his first
method, and three quarters, five dimes, one nickel, and four pennies for his second method.
Because he was able to do this, I pushed his thinking and encouraged him to buy three items.
This allowed him to be working on advancing his understanding of money counting, while
still using the same activity. On the other hand, Student B was only able to label the coins
correctly, but not pair the correct amounts with them. As a result, when asked to make \$1.52
to pay for his two items, he was not able to do so. If this were a real-classroom, I would have
made sure to explicitly review coin values with students who were of similar level as Student
B at this time.
Another change I made was allowing Student B to answer the questions on the handout
verbally instead of writing his responses down. He was very persistent that he did not feel
like writing responses, so I made an easy accommodation by prompting him verbally and
recording his responses myself. This still allowed me to receive all the data I needed without
forcing him to do something he did not want to do. This accommodation could very easily
be one I use in my classroom regularly. It is important to allow students the opportunity to
show their mathematical knowledge in different ways. Some students may not be strong at
writing, especially in the second grade. By allowing them to verbalize their thoughts, I am
making sure that their writing difficulties are not impacting how I perceive their
understanding of a mathematical topic.
It is very clear that the two students I completed my lesson on would fall on opposite
ends of the continuum of mastery for the concept of counting money up to \$2.00. If I were to
complete this activity with more students, I am sure that there would be individuals scattered
along the complete continuum in between Student A and Student B. I would say that Student
A, and those similar, have mastered the objectives. I would consider students of similar
understanding to Student B to need more direct instruction and practice. In order to assist
students in Student Bs group, the misconception of coin values paired with each coin would
have to be explicitly corrected. This step is crucial before any advancement in money
counting can be made. As for students falling between the performance of Student A and
Student B, I would have a middle group called, approaching mastery. These students seem
to have the basics of money counting, but make some calculation errors when counting coins.
These students need more opportunities to interact and practice their money counting skills
with similar lessons to this one. Overall, the assessment data I collected from each student is
vital for me to plan how to take him or her to the next level of understanding.
Following is a more specific breakdown of how I would divide my class based off the
three groups:
1. Mastered the Objectives
a. These would be students that breeze through the assignment and need an
increased challenge in their activity. Students in this group could include,
but are not limited to, the gifted population. Depending on students
backgrounds and prior instruction, anyone could fall into this category.
Students in this group would be able to give the correct answers in
multiple forms. A possible variation would be to increase the prices of the
items they must purchase, or require them to purchase more items. This

will create a new challenge while still being a similar task to the rest of the
class.
2. Approaching Mastery
a. This would probably be the largest group of students. These students
would be able to complete most of the task, but still have some errors to
correct. Increase opportunities to practice are a must for this group. They
have the foundation; they just need to have chances to interact with money
counting in multiple meaningful contexts.
3. More Direct Instruction
a. Depending on the prior grades instruction on money, this groups size
could vary greatly. It is important, regardless, to be prepared for several
students to need a lot of extra direct instruction with any mathematical
topic that is introduced. Answers from this group could include not
knowing any vocabulary or not being able to count the coins when
different valued coins must be used together.
Based off assessment data, I believe my lesson planning and teaching strategies were
helpful for students trying to learn to count money. I asked questions along the way that
allowed me to see all the students mathematical thinking, even if it was incorrect. This then
allowed me to scaffold them in the right direction if extra guidance was needed. Although
Student B had struggles throughout the lesson, this information that I collected allowed me to
guide him a little more closely and better plan for the next day lesson to help him progress.
As for Student A, I was able to help him progress as well. By increasing the difficulty of the
task at hand, he was able to advance is mathematical thinking related to money counting by
If I were to do this lesson again in a real classroom, I would obviously work closely with
the group of students in Student Bs group to review values and vocabulary before I sent
them to purchase items on their own. It would be crucial to make sure they understand the
terminology prior to the activity in order to ensure I was not wasting their time with a lesson
that was too difficult for their understanding at the given time.
4. Based on your analysis of assessment data and teaching strategies, write a lesson plan
for the next day using the ELED 533 lesson plan format. You may have the same,
similar, or different learning objectives.

DAY 2

BEFORE:
In order to engage the students in the lesson content, we will begin with a whole class
discussion to review what we did the day before. To activate prior knowledge, we will ask
them to reflect on the activity we did and come up with ways it could be useful in everyday
life, leading to talking about how we need to know how to use money to buy things at
restaurants. We will provide the students with a short introduction of our lesson in order to
make sure that they understand what they are going to be doing. The introduction of our

lesson will be done through modeling, where we simulate what the students will be doing
by using coins to purchase items off of a 1970s McDonalds menu. We will also model
our mathematical thinking out-loud that we expect the students to write on their piece of
paper. We will tell the students the grouping for this lesson and clarify the directions. This
will allow the students to understand what they are going to be expected to do.
DURING:
Throughout the entire lesson, a student assessment table will be used to make comments
about each students mathematical thinking (attached at the end of document). The
monitoring will be done through circulation of the classroom. We will allow the students
to work on their own with in groups unless a serious problem arises.
For the main activity, different McDonalds menus will be given to each group of students
depending on their grouping from the day before. Each menus prices will vary depending
on the needs of those groups of students (higher prices for group 1, lower prices for group
3, etc.) The students will be given a set of coins. The students will be able to choose three
two digit numbers together, they will be able to use their calculators to obtain the total
price. After they obtain the total price, they will place the coins that they would use to pay
for those items on their desk. The teacher will walk around and make sure that the students
have the correct value of coins for their total price. The students will write down their total
price on a notecard. Next, the students will arrange themselves in order from least to
greatest monetary value based on their total purchase price on the notecards. Greater than,
less than, and equal to questions will be asked to varying students. The ordering of the
students will enable me to see if they have understood the objectives.
While circulating, we will ask the following questions in order to better understand each
students mathematical processes:
Explain to me what you are doing and the strategies you are using?
Why did you decide to use this strategy?
What is another strategy you can use?
How you represent this monetary value a different way?
In order to provide appropriate support to those students who need it, we will use probing
questions to allow them to think deeper about the problem. These questions include:
What is the problem asking you to do?
What are some activities and problems we have done that are similar to this?
What strategy have you tried so far?
For those who finish early, it is important to provide them with worthwhile extensions, so
they are able to grow in their mathematical skills. We could provide the students who
finish early with more coins, so they are able to purchase an increased number of items.
This allows those students to work on the addition of more two-digit numbers, as well as
their money counting skills.

AFTER:
In our classroom, we have established a community of learners. The students have had
practice interacting with each other in respectful ways. In order to remind the students to
be respectful, we will remind them that even if the strategies are all different, they can be
equally valid and should not be disrespected. We will chose four students to present their
ideas to the class. These students will each have varying strategies for completing the
activity. We will sequence these students in order from least efficient to most efficient
strategy (amount of time it takes). This sequencing will allow the students to see which
strategies would be more applicable and appropriate to real life situations.
We will listen actively during each students presentation of his or her strategies. We will
not evaluate or interrupt with comments during the explanation. After each student if
finished presenting his or her work, we will ask the following questions:
How is this method similar to the last method?
How is this method different to the last method?
Which do you think would be quicker to use in real life situations?
Next, we will have the students summarize the information that was presented through an
exit slip. The students will write about what they learned, different strategies that were
presented, and how this can help them in the future.
5. As a result of planning, teaching, and analyzing this lesson, what have you learned or
As a result of implementing this lesson, I had several things confirmed about children as
learners of mathematics. The main thing is the idea that one lesson can produce such a range
of data and results. Even through I only had a class of two students in this case, I got
completely different results from each. It is so easy to forget that every child is so unique in
their abilities, strengths, and weaknesses. It is important to provide opportunities for all
students to grow in each lesson, no matter where they are starting. Students are all different,
so their instruction should be as well.
6. As a result of planning, teaching, and analyzing this lesson, what have you
teaching. With a classroom full of twenty students, it is crucial to know how to easily
differentiate a lesson to meet the needs present. It is important to plan ahead for what could
occur, but it is equally important to be able to think on the spot and go with the flow when
necessary. For example, when Student B did not want to write down his responses, I allowed
him to verbalize his thoughts and explanations instead. This is a form of differentiation that
allowed him to complete the same activity, while still producing data for me. It is important
to be flexible in order for students to be able to show you what they know.

7. As a result of planning, teaching, and analyzing this lesson, what have you
A big part of allowing students to grow is letting go of all the control in the classroom.
I learned that this is harder for me to do than I thought. It is so easy for me to want to jump
in and help the students who are struggling. Although scaffolding is important, it is also
crucial to allow students to work through their own thinking as well. I believe I did better
with this component than I did in the 433 class because I did not point Student B to the
correct answer right away. Instead, I prompted him to explain to me his thinking and why he
thought that was correct. In a real classroom, I believe this method would be more useful
than the alternative because the student would be discovering their own learning instead of
being told initially how to do the problems. This method would stick with them much longer
because they were doing math.

Student Name

Vocabulary

## Money Counting Skills

Strategies Used

Name: _________________
A Trip to Store
Label the coins and write their values.

______________

________________

________________

________________

## Count your coins and write down the value. ____________________________________

Write down the two items you purchased and their prices below. Then, draw each items price as
a set of coins.
Item 1

Item 2

Name
Price

Name
Price

Coin Representation

Coin Representation

The price of item 1 is __________________the price of item 2 (greater than, less than, equal to)
because
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________.
The total price for both of my objects is ________________________________________________.

## How do you know? ________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________.
Draw the coins you used to purchase your two items.

Draw another way you could pay for your two items.