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DIgSILENT PowerFactory

Technical Reference Documentation

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase)


ElmTr2,TypTr2

DIgSILENT GmbH
Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9
72810 - Gomaringen
Germany
T: +49 7072 9168 0
F: +49 7072 9168 88
http://www.digsilent.de
info@digsilent.de
Version: 15.2
Edition: 1

Copyright 2014, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.
No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means
electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Contents

Contents
1 General Description
1.1 Model diagrams

4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1 Positive and negative sequence models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2 Zero sequence model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Tap changer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 YN-YN transformer with internal delta winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.1 Dependent parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.4 Short-circuit impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.4.1 Positive sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.4.2 Zero sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

2 Load Flow Analysis

17

2.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.1.1 Measurement report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.1.2 Automatic tap changer control

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

2.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.2.1 Tap changer with two taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3 Short-Circuit Analysis

25

3.1 IEC calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

3.1.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

3.1.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

4 RMS-Simulation

26

5 EMT-Simulation

26

5.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

5.1.1 Stray capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

5.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

5.2.1 Saturation characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

5.2.2 Zero sequence magnetising reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Contents

5.3 Residual flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6 Harmonics/Power Quality

32
33

6.1 K-Factor, Factor-K and FHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.1.1 K-Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.2 Factor-K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.3 FHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.4 Input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

6.2 Frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

7 Modelling Details and Application Tips

37

7.1 Reference values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2 Zero sequence models for common vector groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.1 Yd-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.2 YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.3 Model of YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer with closed tertiary delta winding . .

38

7.2.4 Model of YNzn/YNz/Zyn-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.3 Auto transformer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

8 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models

42

9 Input Parameter Definitions

43

9.1 2-winding transformer type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

9.2 2-winding transformer element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

10 References

53

List of Figures

54

List of Tables

55

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

General Description

General Description

The two-winding transformer model is a highly-detailed model for various kinds of three-phase,
two-winding transformers in power systems. It can be used to represent network transformers,
block transformers, phase-shifters, auto transformers or MV-voltage regulators.
The 2-winding transformer model in PowerFactory is comprised of the 2-winding transformer
element (ElmTr2), and the 2-winding transformer type (TypTr2). The transformer element allows
input of data relating to the control of the transformer under steady-state conditions, and the
transformer type allows input of the physical properties of the transformer. For simplicity, these
will simply be referred to hereafter as the element and the type, respectively.
The first section of this document describes the general model which is valid for all PowerFactory
calculation functions. Other aspects such as saturation or capacitive effects, which are only
relevant to specific calculation functions are described in later sections. Section 7 provides
useful tips for special applications of the 2-winding transformer model.

1.1

Model diagrams

1.1.1

Positive and negative sequence models

The positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the transformer is shown in Figure 1.1.
The leakage reactances and winding resistances are included on the HV and LV sides, and the
magnetising branch accounts for core losses. These losses are represented by the magnetising
reactance and a parallel resistance. The ideal transformer has a complex winding ratio with a
magnitude of 1:1 and models the phase shift representing the vector groups of the two windings.

Figure 1.1: Positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the 2-winding transformer

The relation between the mathematical parameters in the model and the parameters in the
transformer type and element dialogs are described below, and the corresponding nomenclature
is provided in Table 1.1.
The nominal impedance is given by:
Zr,HV =

Urh 2
Sr

()

(1)

Zr,LV =

Url 2
Sr

()

(2)

The short-circuit impedance (zsc ), short-circuit resistance (rsc ), and short-circuit reactance (xsc )
are calculated as follows:
usc
zsc =
(p.u.)
(3)
100
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

General Description

PCu /1000
(p.u.)
Sr
p
= zsc 2 rsc 2 (p.u.)

(4)

rsc =
xsc

(5)

The leakage impedance (HV and LV sides, respectively) is:


zshv = (rsc R,HV,1 ) + (xsc X,HV,1 )

(p.u.)

zslv = (rsc (1 R,LV,1 )) + (xsc (1 X,LV,1 ))

(p.u.)

(6)
(7)

The resistive losses in the windings (HV and LV sides, respectively) are represented by:
rCu,HV = rsc R,HV,1

(p.u.)

rCu,LV = rsc (1 R,LV,1 )

(p.u.)

(8)
(9)

The leakage reactance (HV and LV sides, respectively) is calculated as follows:


x,HV = xsc X,HV,1

(p.u.)

x,LV = xsc (1 X,LV,1 )

(p.u.)

(10)
(11)

The magnetising impedance is dependent on the no-load current, I0 , and is given by:
zM =

1
I0 /100

(p.u.)

(12)

The resistive iron losses in the core are calculated as:


rF e =

Sr
PF e /1000

(p.u.)

(13)

and the magnetising reactance is calculated as follows:


xM = r

1
1
zM 2

(p.u.)

(14)

rF e 2

Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive list of the input- and calculation parameters described
above, and their associated symbols and descriptions.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

General Description

Table 1.1: Input- and calculation parameters


Name
Zr,HV
Zr,LV
utrnh
utrnl
strn
pcutr
uktr
zs
rs
xs
itrdl

Symbol

Urh
Url
Sr
PCu
usc
zsc
rsc
xsc
X,HV,1

Unit

kV
kV
MVA
kW
%
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

itrdl lv

X,LV,1

p.u.

itrdr

R,HV,1

p.u.

itrdr lv

R,LV,1

p.u.

rCu,HV
rCu,LV
zshv
zshl
x,HV
x,LV
curmg
pf e
zM
xM
rF e
1.1.2

I0
PF e

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
%
kW
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

Description
Nominal impedance, HV side
Nominal impedance, LV side
Rated voltage on HV side
Rated voltage on LV side
Rated power
Copper losses
Relative short-circuit voltage
Short-circuit impedance
Short-circuit resistance
Short-circuit reactance
Proportion of transformer short-circuit reactance on HV
side in the positive sequence system
Proportion of transformer short-circuit reactance on LV
side in the positive sequence system
Proportion of transformer short-circuit resistance on HV
side in the positive sequence system
Proportion of transformer short-circuit resistance on LV
side in the positive sequence system
Resistance on HV side
Resistance on LV side
Leakage impedance on HV side
Leakage impedance on LV side
Leakage reactance on HV side
Leakage reactance on LV side
No-load current
No-load losses
Magnetising impedance
Magnetising reactance
Shunt resistance

Zero sequence model

The zero sequence equivalent model of a Yd-transformer including a tap changer at the HV
side is shown in Figure 1.2. Transformer models for a variety of configurations are provided in
Section 7.2.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

General Description

(a)

(b)

Figure 1.2: Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a Yd-transformer with HV side tap changer (a)
detailed representation (b) simplified representation

1.2

Tap changer

The tap changer is represented by an additional, ideal transformer connected to either the HV
or LV side (see Figure 1.3 and Figure 1.4). For most applications, the winding ratio of this
transformer is real and is defined by the actual tap position (in number of steps) multiplied by
the additional voltage per step.

Figure 1.3: Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the HV side
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

General Description

Figure 1.4: Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the LV side

Phase-shifting transformers are modelled by a complex ratio using a complex value, du, which
is expressed as:
du = dutap (cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
(15)
This is illustrated for the asymmetrical tap changer model in Figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5: Complex tap changer model (asymmetrical) in PowerFactory

For the symmetrical phase shifter, as illustrated in Figure 1.6, du1 and du2 are expressed as:
du1 = j

dutap
2

du2 = j

dutap
2

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(16)
(17)

General Description

Figure 1.6: Complex tap changer model (symmetrical) in PowerFactory

PowerFactory provides two ways of defining a phase-shifting transformer:


1. In the type (Basic Data page): by entering the magnitude (dutap ) and angle (phitr) of the
additional voltage per tap step; or
2. In the element (Load Flow page; option According to Measurement Report and associated
table): by defining the magnitude (U + dutap ) and angle (U ) at each individual tap step.
Refer to Section 2.1 for further details.

1.3

YN-YN transformer with internal delta winding

The transformer type provides the option Internal Delta Winding for transformers defined as
YN-YN. The internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer is depicted in Figure 1.7.

Figure 1.7: Internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer

From the transformer type data, the quantities z0H , z0L and z0T are calculated. When the
Internal Delta Winding option is ticked, uk0 and ur0 between the HV and LV windings are:
uk0 = |z0H + z0L |

(p.u.)

(18)

and
ur0 = | Re(z0H ) + Re(z0L )|

(p.u.)

(19)

The quantities uk0 and ur0 will be overwritten by the defined Measurement Report. The zero
sequence impedance of the delta (tertiary) winding will be kept constant. The zero sequence
contribution factor will also be kept constant and is calculated from the corresponding type data,
Distribution factor for the zero sequence reactance:
x0dist =

Im(z0H )
Im(z0H ) + Im(z0L )

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(p.u.)

(20)

General Description

and the distribution factor for the zero sequence resistance:


r0dist =

Re(z0H )
Re(z0H ) + Re(z0L )

(p.u.)

(21)

If the sum of the real parts equals zero, r0dist will be set to x0dist. If the sum of the imaginary
parts also equals zero, the distribution factor, x0dist, will be set to 0.5. The zero sequence
impedance for the HV and LV winding (dependent on the tap position) is then calculated as
follows:
x0hv = x0(tap) x0dist (p.u.)
(22)
x0lv = x0(tap) (1 x0dist)

(p.u.)

(23)

and
r0hv = r0(tap) r0dist
r0lv = r0(tap) (1 r0dist)
with:

(24)

(p.u.)
(p.u.)

(25)

uk0(tap)2 ur0(tap)2
100
ur0(tap)
r0(tap) =
(p.u.)
100

x0(tap) =

(p.u.)

(26)
(27)

To determine the complex impedances in Figure 1.7, three measurements are required:
1. The zero sequence current injected at the HV terminal with the LV terminal short-circuited:
q
(28)
z0HLs = ur0hls + j uk02hls ur02hls (p.u.)
where uk0hls is the HV impedance (in p.u.) and ur0hls is the HV resistance (in p.u.), with the LV
terminal short-circuited in both cases.
2. The zero sequence current injected at the HV terminal with the LV terminal open-circuited:
q
z0HLo = ur0hlo + j uk02hlo ur02hlo (p.u.)
(29)
where uk0hlo is the HV impedance (in p.u.) and ur0hlo is the HV resistance (in p.u.), with the LV
terminal open-circuited in both cases.
3. The zero sequence current injected at the LV terminal with the HV terminal open-circuited:
q
z0LHo = ur0lho + j uk02lho ur02lho (p.u.)
(30)
where uk0lho is the LV impedance (in p.u.) and ur0lho is the LV resistance (in p.u.), with the HV
terminal open-circuited in both cases.
For the first measurement:
z0HLs = z0H +

z0L z0T
z0L + z0T

(p.u.)

(31)

the second measurement:


z0HLo = z0H + z0T

(p.u.)

(32)

z0LHo = z0L + z0T

(p.u.)

(33)

and the third measurement:

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

10

General Description

Therefore, from (32) and (33):


z0H = z0HLo z0T

(p.u.)

(34)

z0L = z0LHo z0T

(p.u.)

(35)

Substituting (34) and (35) into (31), the tertiary impedances are obtained:
p
z0T = z0LHo (z0HLo z0HLs ) (p.u.)
Equation (36) leads to two solutions:
p
z0T (1) = + z0LHo (z0HLo z0HLs )
p
z0T (2) = z0LHo (z0HLo z0HLs )

(36)

(p.u.)

(37)

(p.u.)

(38)

The HV and LV zero sequence impedances are calculated for both solutions (37) and (38).
z0H (1) = z0HLo z0T (1)

(p.u.)

(39)

z0L (1) = z0LHo z0T (1)

(p.u.)

(40)

z0H (2) = z0HLo z0T (2)

(p.u.)

(41)

z0L (2) = z0LHo z0T (2)

(p.u.)

(42)

For the first (1) and second (2) solutions, the following series reactances are calculated:
x0HL (1; 2) = x0H (1; 2) + x0L (1; 2)

(p.u.)

(HV LV )

(43)

x0HT (1; 2) = x0H (1; 2) + x0T (1; 2)

(p.u.)

(HV T )

(44)

x0LT (1; 2) = x0L (1; 2) + x0T (1; 2)

(p.u.)

(LV T )

(45)

The criteria used to determine the solution are as follows:


If all reactances in solution (1) and solution (2) are positive, then the solution with the
smallest HV-LV reactance is used;
If all reactances in solution (1) are positive (but not in solution (2)), then solution (1) is
used;
If all reactances in solution (2) are positive (but not in solution (1)), then solution (2) is
used;
If all reactances in solution (1) and solution (2) are negative, the solution with the smallest
HV-LV reactance (absolute value) is used.

1.3.1

Dependent parameters

When the Internal Delta Winding option in the transformer type is ticked, the six measured parameters are calculated from existing parameters:
The HV zero sequence impedance is:
Im(z0H ) = zx0hlh

uk0tr2 ur0tr2

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(p.u.)

(46)
11

General Description

Re(z0H ) = zx0hlh ur0tr

(47)

(p.u.)

The LV zero sequence impedance is:


Im(z0L ) = (1 zx0hlh )

uk0tr2 ur0tr2

Re(z0L ) = (1 zx0hlh ) ur0tr

(p.u.)

(48)

(p.u.)

(49)

(p.u.)

(50)

The tertiary zero sequence impedance is:


Im(z0T ) = zx0hln

uk0tr
1 + rtox0n 2

Re(z0T ) = Im(z0T ) rtox0n

(p.u.)

(51)

The HV impedance (LV side short-circuited) is:


z0HLs = z0H +

z0L z0T
z0L + z0T

uk0hls = |z0HLs |

(p.u.)

(p.u.)

ur0hls = Re(z0HLs )

(52)
(53)

(p.u.)

(54)

(p.u.)

(55)

The HV impedance (LV side open-circuited) is:


z0HLo = z0H + z0T
uk0hlo = |z0HLo |

(p.u.)

ur0hlo = Re(z0HLo )

(56)

(p.u.)

(57)

(p.u.)

(58)

The LV impedance (HV side open-circuited) is:


z0LHo = z0L + z0T
uk0lho = |z0LHo |

(p.u.)

ur0lho = Re(z0LHo )

(p.u.)

(59)
(60)

If the Internal Delta Winding option is ticked and one of the six impedances is changed, z0H ,
z0L and z0T are calculated according to Section 1.3.1, and the parameters below are calculated
as follows:
Zero sequence impedance:
uk0tr = |z0H + z0L |
ur0tr = Re(z0H + z0L )

(p.u.)

(61)

(p.u.)

(62)

(p.u.)

(63)

The zero sequence magnetising impedance is:


zx0hln =

|z0T |
|z0H + z0L |

Re(z0T )
(p.u.)
Im(z0T )
It should be noted that rtox0n is only set when rtox0n 0.
rtox0n =

(64)

The distribution of zero sequence leakage impedances is given by:


zx0hlh =

|z0H |
|z0H + z0L |

(p.u.)

(65)

It should be noted that zx0hlh is only set when 0 zx0hlh 1.


Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

12

General Description

1.4

Short-circuit impedance

The short-circuit impedance can be entered on the Basic Data page of the type, depending on
the user-selected Input option. These Input options are described in Table 1.2, Table 1.3 and
Table 1.4.
Table 1.2: Type Basic Data: Positive sequence impedance
Positive sequence impedance
Short-Circuit Voltage uk and Copper Losses

Short-Circuit Voltage uk and SHC-Voltage Re(uk)

Short-Circuit Voltage uk and X/R Ratio

Reactance in p.u. and Resistance in p.u.

Input
Short-Circuit Voltage
uk
Copper Losses
Short-Circuit Voltage
uk
SHC-Voltage Re(uk)
ukr
Short-Circuit Voltage
uk
Ratio X/R
Reactance x1
Resistance r1

Param. Unit
uktr
%
pcutr
uktr

kW
%

uktrr

uktr

xtor
x1pu
r1pu

p.u.
p.u.

Table 1.3: Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance (no internal delta winding)
Zero sequence impedance
Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and SHC-Voltage Re(uk0)

Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio

Reactance in p.u. and Resistance in p.u.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Input
Short-Circuit Voltage
uk0
SHC-Voltage Re(uk0)
ukr0
Short-Circuit Voltage
uk0
Ratio X0/R0
Reactance x0
Resistance r0

Param. Unit
uk0tr
%
ur0tr

uk0tr

x0tor0
x0pu
r0pu

p.u.
p.u.

13

General Description

Table 1.4: Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance: YN-YN; with internal delta winding
Input

Param. Unit

HV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(LV short-circuit)
HV-SHC-Voltage
Re(uk0)
(LV short-circuit)
HV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(LV open)
HV-SHC-Voltage
Re(uk0)
(LV open)
LV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(HV open)
LV-SHC-Voltage
Re(uk0)
(HV open)
HV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(LV short-circuit)
HV-Ratio X0/R0
(LV short-circuit)
HV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(LV open)
HV-Ratio X0/R0
(LV open)
LV-SHC-Voltage uk0
(HV open)
LV-Ratio X0/R0
(HV open)
HV-Reactance x0
(LV short-circuit)
HV-Resistance r0
(LV short-circuit)
HV-Reactance x0
(LV open)
HV-Resistance r0
(LV open)
LV-Reactance x0
(HV open)
LV-Resistance r0
(HV open)

uk0hls

ur0hls

uk0hlo

ur0hlo

uk0lho

ur0lho

uk0hls

xtr0hls

uk0hlo

xtr0hlo

uk0lho

xtr0lho

Zero sequence impedance

Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and SHC-Voltage Re(uk0)

Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio

Reactance in p.u. and Resistance in p.u.

1.4.1

x0puhls p.u.
r0puhls p.u.
x0puhlo p.u.
r0puhlo p.u.
x0pulho p.u.
r0pulho p.u.

Positive sequence impedance

If r1pu and x1pu are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type:
p
uktr = r1pu2 + x1pu2 100 (%)
pcutr = r1pu 1000 strn
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(66)
(67)
14

General Description

Accordingly, if tap dependent, r1putmn, r1putmx and x1putmn, x1putmx are available as inputs
on the Load Flow page, Tap Changer tab of the type.
For the minimum tap:
uktmn =

r1putmn2 + x1putmn2 100

(%)

pcutmn = r1putmn 1000 strn

(68)
(69)

For the maximum tap:


uktmx =

p
r1putmx2 + x1putmx2 100

(%)

pcutmx = r1putmx 1000 strn

1.4.2

(70)
(71)

Zero sequence impedance

The two additional input options for zero sequence impedance are available via the options page
in the type: Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio and Reactance in p.u. and Resistance
in p.u. Based on the combination of selections of Internal Delta Winding and vector groups for
the HV and LV sides, there are two situations:
1. If Internal Delta Winding is not ticked or vector group is not YN-YN:
If uk0tr and x0tor0 are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type:
p
r0pu = ur0tr/100/ 1 + x0tor02 (p.u.)
(72)
s
2
uk0tr
x0pu =
r0pu2 (p.u.)
(73)
100
Accordingly, if tap dependent, uk0tmn, uk0tmx and x0tor0tmn, x0tor0tmx are available as
inputs on the Load Flow page, Tap Changer tab of the type.
For minimum tap:
p
r0putmn = uk0tmn/100/ 1 + x0tor0tmn2 (p.u.)
s
2
uk0tmn
x0putmn =
r0putmn2 (p.u.)
100

(74)

p
r0putmx = uk0tmx/100/ 1 + x0tor0tmx2 (p.u.)
s
2
uk0tmx
x0putmx =
r0putmx2 (p.u.)
100

(76)

(75)

For maximum tap:

(77)

If r0pu and x0pu are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type:
p
uk0tr = r0pu2 + x0pu2 100 (%)

(78)

ur0tr = r0pu 100

(79)

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(%)

15

General Description

x0tor0 =

x0pu
r0pu

(80)

(p.u.)

Accordingly, if tap dependent, r0putmn, r0putmx and x0putmn, x0putmx are available as inputs
on the Load Flow page, Tap Changer tab of the type.
For minimum tap:
uk0tmn =

r0putmn2 + x0putmn2 100

uk0rtmn = r0putmn 100


x0putmn
x0tor0tmn =
r0putmn

(%)

(81)

(%)

(82)

(p.u.)

(83)

For maximum tap:


uk0tmx =

r0putmx2 + x0putmx2 100

uk0rtmx = r0putmx 100


x0tor0tmx =

x0putmx
r0putmx

(%)

(84)

(%)

(85)

(p.u.)

(86)

2. If Internal Delta Winding is ticked and vector group is YN-YN:


If uk0(hls,hlo,lho) and xtr0(hls,hlo,lho) are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type:
q
1 + xtr02hls
q
r0puhlo = ur0hlo /100/ 1 + xtr02hlo
q
r0pulho = ur0lho /100/ 1 + xtr02lho
p
x0puhls = (uk0hls /100)2 (r0puhls )2
p
x0puhlo = (uk0hlo /100)2 (r0puhlo )2
p
x0pulho = (uk0lho /100)2 (r0pulho )2
q
uk0hls = r0pu2hls + x0pu2hls 100
q
uk0hlo = r0pu2hlo + x0pu2hlo 100
q
uk0lho = r0pu2lho + x0pu2lho 100
r0puhls = ur0hls /100/

(p.u.)

(87)

(p.u.)

(88)

(p.u.)

(89)

(p.u.)

(90)

(p.u.)

(91)

(p.u.)

(92)

(%)

(93)

(%)

(94)

(%)

(95)

uk0hls = r0puhls 100

(%)

(96)

uk0hlo = r0puhlo 100

(%)

(97)

uk0lho = r0pulho 100

(%)

(98)

xtr0hls =

x0puhls
r0puhls

(p.u.)

(99)

xtr0hlo =

x0puhlo
r0puhlo

(p.u.)

(100)

xtr0lho =

x0pulho
r0pulho

(p.u.)

(101)

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

16

Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow Analysis

The Load Flow Calculation in PowerFactory uses the detailed model of the transformer; i.e. all
shunt and branch impedances are considered appropriately in the positive- and zero sequence
systems.
As the tap changer is of particular interest in load flow calculations, data relating to the tap
changer is input as follows:
On the Load Flow page of the transformer element: control data and measurement report);
On the Load Flow page of the transformer type: tap changer positions and tap-dependent
impedance).

2.1

Element data

2.1.1

Measurement report

This can be used for the precise definition of a tap changer. It allows all tap-dependent parameters to be entered per tap step. If the option According to measurement report is ticked, the
corresponding type parameters are overwritten by their respective element parameters. The
input parameters are described in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Measurement report data (transformer element)
Parameter

Description

Unit

Voltage
Angle

Voltage at tap position i.


Absolute tap angle (parameter U in Figure 1.5)
Short-circuit voltage of the transformer
Copper losses
Rating factor for consideration of tapdependent transformer rating. The additional rating factor is multiplied by the general rating factor (Rating Factor on the Basic
Data page).
Short-circuit voltage of the transformer,
zero sequence (Only available if button Include Zero-Sequence Impedance has been
pressed).
Short-circuit voltage of the transformer, zero
sequence (real part) (Only available if button Include Zero-Sequence Impedance has
been pressed).

kV
Degrees ( )

uk
PCu
Add. rating Factor

uk0

ur0

%
kW
p.u.

The following points should be noted regarding the zero sequence impedance, uk0 and ur0, in
the Measurement report:

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

17

Load Flow Analysis

1. If the transformer type options Internal Delta Winding and Tap dependent impedance are
disabled:
The column uk0 is set to the value of uk0tr (absolute uk0) from the transformer type;
The column ur0 is set to the value of ur0tr (resistive part ukr0) from the transformer
type.
2. If the transformer type option Internal Delta Winding is disabled and Tap dependent impedance
is enabled:
The column uk0 is set to the corresponding spline-interpolated value of uk0 (at tap)
from the transformer type;
The column ur0 is set to the corresponding spline-interpolated value of ur0 (at tap)
from the transformer type.
3. If the transformer type option Internal Delta Winding is enabled and the option Tap dependent impedance is disabled:
The column uk0 is set to the value of the calculated uk0 (absolute uk0) from the
transformer type;
The column uk0r is set to the value of the calculated ur0 (resistive part ukr0) from
the transformer type.

2.1.2

Automatic tap changer control

This is activated by setting the corresponding option on the Load Flow page of the transformer
element. Additionally, automatic tap adjustment can be globally enabled or disabled via the
Load Flow Calculation command (ComLdf ). The inputs required for the definition of tap changer
control are described in Table 2.2.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

18

Load Flow Analysis

Table 2.2: Automatic tap changer control


Parameter

Description

According to
Measurement
Report
Tap Position

Instead of the type data for the tap-dependent transformer


values, the Measurement report defined in the element is used.

Automatic Tap
Changing
Tap
Changer

Controlled
Node
is at

Control
Mode

Setpoint

Remote Control

Voltage Setpoint
Lower/Upper
bound

Tap position used during the load flow calculation. If Automatic


Tap Changing is ticked, this value corresponds to the initial tap
position.
Activates automatic tap adjustment in load flow analysis.
continuous: An ideal, continuous tap changer is assumed. As a
result, the tap controller can ideally comply with the specified
control condition. This option is useful for voltage regulators in
distribution systems having a very large number of tap steps or
for thyristor-controlled tap changers.
discrete: Standard option. Only integer tap positions are
considered.
HV: Tap controls the HV side
LV: Tap controls the LV side
EXT: Slave mode. The tap changer follows the tap position of
the selected Master transformer.
V: Voltage control. For unbalanced load flow analysis, the
controlled phase needs to be additionally defined.
Q: Reactive power control
P: Active power control (only applicable to phase-shifters)
Only for V control mode:
local: The voltage setpoint and voltage range settings
(max./min. voltage) must be entered in the transformer dialog
bus target voltage: The voltage setpoint and voltage range
settings (max./min. voltage) are taken from the controlled
busbar (topological search).
Allows for the selection of a busbar different to that at the
transformer terminals (V-control). In the case of P- or Q-control,
the flow through any cubicle can be controlled.
V-/Q-/P- reference (depending on selected control mode)
Lower and upper bound of the controlled variable. In the case of
discrete tap changers, the tap control can drive the controlled
variable into a permitted band. In the case of continuous tap
changers, the tap controller ideally regulates to the reference
point.

Voltage control includes optional line drop compensation (LDC). This function controls the voltage at a remote busbar without measuring the voltage at that busbar. Instead, the value is
estimated by measuring the voltage at the HV or LV side of the transformer and simulating the
voltage drop across the line.
The principle of line drop compensation is shown in Figure 2.1 and the corresponding transformer element input parameters are provided in Table 2.3.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

19

Load Flow Analysis

Figure 2.1: Line drop compensation

Table 2.3: Line drop compensation (for voltage control)


Parameter

Description

Unit

Current
transformer rating
Voltage
transformer ratio
RSet, XSet

Primary CT current rating

Ratio of the voltage transformer

LDC impedance, defined as the


voltage drop at rated current. It
corresponds to the LDC impedance (in
) multiplied by the secondary CT
current rating.

There is usually more than one possible solution to a load flow problem considering automatic
tap changer control. In meshed networks in particular, several transformers can control the
voltage in certain areas. In the case of parallel transformers, the problem can usually be solved
by operating the two parallel transformers in master-slave mode.
In a general configuration however, especially when parallel transformers have different shortcircuit impedances or different tap steps, the steady-state network solution cannot be easily
obtained. PowerFactory addresses this problem by allowing the user to enter a controller time
constant, specifying the speed of control actions and hence the participation of several transformers regulating the voltage at the same busbar.
The approach is based on controller block diagrams according to Figure 2.2. In the case of
flow controllers (P-/Q-control), the controller sensitivity translating a power mismatch into an
equivalent turns-ratio percentage can be entered additionally.
In the load flow algorithm, which only considers steady-state conditions, controller time constants and sensitivities are translated into equivalent participation factors.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

20

Load Flow Analysis

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.2: Principle of simulated dynamic control for V and P/Q

The controller input parameters for the transformer element are described in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4: Dynamic and static control parameters

2.2

Parameter

Description

Unit

Controller time
constant
Controller
sensitivity dv/dP
Controller
sensitivity dv/dQ

Time constant of the controller

Estimated sensitivity of active power


flow towards tap changer variations
Estimated sensitivity of reactive power
flow towards tap changer variations

%/MW
%/Mvar

Type data

The type data inputs available for the tap changer are listed in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5: Load Flow tap changer data
Parameter

Description

Unit

Type
At side

Type of phase shifter


Side at which the tap changer is modelled
(not necessarily the side at which the tap
changer is physically connected)
Additional voltage per tap

Constant phase between fixed voltage and


additional voltage of the winding (parameter
phitr in Figure 1.5)
Range of possible positions for the tap
changer. At the neutral position, the winding ratio corresponds to the ratio of the rated
voltages.

Degrees ( )

Additional voltage
per tap
Phase of du

Neutral/min./max.
position

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

21

Load Flow Analysis

2.2.1

Tap changer with two taps

The transformer tap model supports the definition of two taps, which may have differing types:
Ratio/Asym. Phase Shifter
Ideal Phase Shifter
Symmetrical Phase Shifter

Ideal phase shifter If this option is selected for the tap changer type, the magnitude of the
voltage will not be changed, only the angle. The parameter dphitap or/and dphitap2 should not
be set to 0 , 180 or 180 . This model is illustrated in Figure 2.3.
If the tap is on the HV side, the complex transformer ratio is calculated as follows:
thv = cos(nntapint dphitap) + j sin(nntapint dphitap)

(102)

If the tap is on the LV side:


tlv = cos(nntapint dphitap) + j sin(nntapint dphitap)

(103)

Figure 2.3: Ideal phase shifter

Symmetrical phase shifter If this option is selected for the tap changer type, the parameter
dphitap will be automatically set to 90 . A second tap definition is not available. The complex
transformer ratio is calculated as shown for the following cases:
1. If tap changer 1 is modelled at the HV side:
thv = 1 + nntapint

du
(cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
2

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(104)

22

Load Flow Analysis

with phitr = 90
and for the opposite tap at the LV side:
tlv = 1 nntapint

du
(cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
2

(105)

2. If tap changer 1 is modelled at the LV side:


tlv = 1 + nntapint

du
(cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
2

(106)

with phitr = 90
and for the opposite tap at the HV side:
thv = 1 nntapint

du
(cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
2

(107)

This model is illustrated in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4: Symmetrical phase shifter

Example: symmetrical phase shifter


Tap changer 1 modelled at HV side
Type set to Sym. Phase Shifter
dutap > 0 and tap position > neutral position
The absolute angle change between the HV and LV sides is calculated as follows:


nntapint dutap
phi(ulv ) phi(uhv ) = 2 arctan
2

(108)

A positive tap position (tap > neutral) leads to a negative voltage angle at the LV side.

Transformer with two tap changers


ratios are calculated as follows:

If two tap changers are defined, the complex transformer

du
(cos(phitr) + j sin(phitr))
2
du2
= 1 + nntap2int
(cos(phitr2) + j sin(phitr2))
2

ttap1 = 1 + nntapint
ttap2

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(109)

23

Load Flow Analysis

If the second tap changer is an ideal phase shifter, the corresponding tap (ttap2 ) is calculated
according to:
ttap2 = cos(nntap2int dphitap2) + j sin(nntap2int dphitap2)

(110)

and with the relative tap positions:


nntapint = nntap0 nntap

(111)

nntap2int = nntap02 nntap2


The transformer ratios for the HV and LV sides are calculated as follows:
1. If both tap changers are modelled at the HV side:
thv = ttap1 ttap2

(112)

tlv = 1
2. If both tap changers are modelled at the LV side:
thv = 1

(113)

tlv = ttap1 ttap2


3. If tap changer 1 is at the HV side and tap changer 2 is at the LV side:
thv = ttap1

(114)

tlv = ttap2
4. If tap changer 1 is at the LV side and tap changer 2 is at the HV side:
thv = ttap2

(115)

tlv = ttap1
The internal voltages and currents are transferred accordingly:
uhv
thv
= ihv thv

u0 hv =
i0 hv

(116)

and for the LV-side voltage:


ulv
tlv
= ilv tlv

u0 lv =
i0 lv

(117)

Tap dependent impedance Data relating to the tap dependent impedance can be entered
when the Tap dependent impedance option in the type has been selected. Parameters that
can be considered to be tap dependent are the short-circuit impedances and copper losses
(short-circuit resistance) in the positive- and zero sequence systems. For tap positions between
minimum and neutral, and between neutral and maximum, tap dependent parameters are interpolated using splines.
Transformer type Load Flow tap dependent impedance data is shown in Table 2.6.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

24

Short-Circuit Analysis

Table 2.6: Load Flow Tap dependent impedance data


Parameter

Description

Unit

Reactance x1

Positive sequence reactance (at min. and


max. tap positions)
Positive sequence resistance (at min. and
max. tap positions)
Zero sequence reactance (at min. and max.
tap positions)
Zero sequence resistance (at min. and max.
tap positions)
Ratio X0/R0 (at min. and max. tap positions)

p.u.

Resistance r1
Reactance x0
Resistance r0
Ratio X0/R0

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

Zero sequence magnetising admittance calculation The zero sequence magnetising admittance is always calculated from uk0 at the neutral position of the transformer type (independent of the Measurement Report or whether the option Tap dependent impedance is enabled).
For a transformer with the option Internal Delta Winding ticked, the zero sequence magnetising
admittance is ignored. In such cases, the calculated zero sequence impedance for the internal
delta winding (tertiary winding) is used instead.

Short-Circuit Analysis

3.1
3.1.1

IEC calculations
Element data

The VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element provides inputs which are used to
calculate the impedance correction factor of the transformer. The first option, Unit Transformer,
defines whether the transformer is a unit transformer or a network transformer. In the case
of unit transformers, one common correction factor is applied to transformers and generators,
independent of the actual operating conditions of a selected transformer. Network transformers
are considered individually.
The second option, Long-term operating conditions before short-circuit are known, is more specific (requiring additional input data) and may lead to more precise calculation results.
If the following combination of options have been ticked:
Unit Transformer (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element); and
Long-term operating conditions before short-circuit are known (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit
page of the transformer element); and
On-load Tap Changer (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer type),
then the parameter Minimum Operating Voltage can be entered on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit
page of the transformer element.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

25

EMT-Simulation

3.1.2

Type data

Short-circuit calculations according to IEC assume that the shunt impedances (i.e. magnetising
reactances and iron losses) in the positive- and negative sequence are neglected. The shunt
impedances in the zero sequence however, must be considered. These input parameters are
available on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the type dialog.
The short-circuit calculation according to IEC distinguishes between no-load and on-load tap
changers. Different impedance correction factors apply for each group. On-load variation of the
tap changer can be ticked on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the type dialog.

RMS-Simulation

The model used by the RMS simulation is identical to the load flow model. However, tap controller definitions are not considered. For the simulation of tap controllers, a separate dynamic
model must be defined that can be interfaced with the transformer using the input variable
nntapin (tap-input).

EMT-Simulation

For simulating non-linear, electromagnetic transients such as transformer inrush currents or


ferro-resonance, core saturation needs to be included in the model of the transformer. The
saturation can be defined in the transformer type, as described in Section 5.2.1. In addition,
depending on the frequencies involved in the transient simulation, the transformer model has
to account for the stray capacitances between windings and winding to ground. These can be
defined in the transformer element, as described in Section 5.1.1

5.1
5.1.1

Element data
Stray capacitances

In high frequency EMT applications, e.g. switching or lightning studies, transformer capacitances should be considered.
The stray capacitances of a transformer do not only depend on the physical characteristics of
the transformer (i.e. the length of the windings, insulating material, core dimensions, etc) but
also on the installation environment as well (indoor or outdoor transformer; proximity to other
grounded components, walls, etc).
The following capacitances can be defined after ticking the Consider Capacitances option on
the EMT-Simulation page of the transformer element:
Capacitance HV to ground : applies to the positive- and zero sequence
Capacitance LV to ground : applies to the positive- and zero sequence
Capacitance HV-LV, positive sequence
Capacitance HV-LV, zero sequence
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

26

EMT-Simulation

For typical values please refer to [4].

5.2

Type data

5.2.1

Saturation characteristic

Figure 5.1 shows the equivalent model of a 2-winding, 3-phase transformer for the positive sequence. For simplicity, the tap changer is not illustrated in the Figure, however it is considered in
the model according to Figure 1.3, Figure 1.4 and Figure 1.5 as described in previous sections.
The excitation current of a transformer (no-load test) consists of an imaginary part, which is the
magnetising current flowing through the non-linear reactance XM 1 in Figure 5.1, and a smaller
real part flowing through the resistance RF e , which accounts for the excitation losses.
The non-linear magnetising reactance XM represents the saturation characteristic of the transformer and is defined in the transformer type (EMT-Simulation page). The model supports the
following options, which are explained in detail in the following sections:
Linear : no saturation considered.
Two slope : the saturation curve is approximated by two linear slopes.
Polynomial : the saturation curve is approximated by a polynomial of user-defined order. The
polynomial fits asymptotically into the piecewise-linear definition.
Current/Flux values : the user inputs current-flux values as a sequence of points and selects
either piecewise-linear or spline interpolation.

Figure 5.1: Positive sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer

The position of the magnetising branch in the equivalent model of Figure 5.1 is defined in terms
of the distribution of the leakage reactance and resistance (in the type, on the EMT Simulation
page). The default value is 0.5, which means that the total leakage impedance of the transformer
(short-circuit impedance) is equally distributed between the HV and LV windings. The user can
change the position of the magnetising branch in the transformer model by modifying these
factors accordingly.

Two slope and polynomial characteristic Figure 5.2 shows the magnetising current-flux
plots for the two slope and polynomial characteristics. The input parameters of both plots are
the same except for the saturation exponent, which only applies to the polynomial characteristic.
The input parameters are listed in Table 5.1.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

27

EMT-Simulation

Figure 5.2: Two slope and polynomial saturation curves

Table 5.1: Two-slope and polynomial saturation characteristic input parameters


Parameter

Description

Unit

Knee Flux

Knee-point of asymptotic piece-wise


linear characteristic. Typical value
around 1.1 to 1.2 times the rated flux.
Magnetising reactance for unsaturated
conditions Lunsat .
In p.u. values, the linear reactance is
equal to the reciprocal of the
magnetising current (reactive part of
the exciting current).
Magnetising reactance for saturated
conditions Lsat .
Exponent of polynomial representation
(ksat ). Typical values are 9, 13, 15.
The higher the exponent the sharper
the saturation curve.

p.u.

Linear
(unsaturated)
reactance

Saturated
reactance
Saturation
exponent

p.u.

p.u.
-

The reciprocal of the p.u. unsaturated reactance is equal to the p.u. magnetising current (i.e.
the imaginary part of the exciting current). Therefore, PowerFactory automatically adjusts the
unsaturated reactance based on the no-load current and no-load losses entered on the Load
Flow page of the type, and vice-versa:
s
2 
2
IM
1
Pexc
=

(118)
XM
IR
SR
where:
IM : magnitude of the exciting current in the no-load test. This can be entered on the Load
Flow page of the transformer type, under Magnetising Impedance; No Load Current (in
%);
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

28

EMT-Simulation

Pexc : excitation losses in the no-load test;


IR , SR : rated current and apparent power of the transformer, respectively.
The saturated reactance is also referred as the air-core reactance; it is fairly low compared to
the unsaturated reactance. Typical values for two-winding transformers are 1 to 2 times the
short-circuit inductance and 3 to 4 times for auto transformers [1].
The polynomial characteristic uses (119) to fit the curve asymptotically into the piecewise-linear
definition. The higher the exponent, the sharper the saturation curve:
!


M ksat
M


(p.u.)
(119)
1+
iM X =
lM
0
where:
iM X : Current (p.u.) through the magnetising reactance (as shown in Figure 5.3). This is
the current (in p.u.) entered by the user in the transformer type; EMT-Simulation page,
Saturation tab, Saturation Table (EMT);
M : Magnetising flux (p.u.);
lM : Linear reactance (p.u.);
0 : This parameter is automatically calculated so that the polynomial characteristic fits the
saturated reactance in full saturation and transits steadily into the piecewise-linear characteristic at the knee flux point. (p.u.);
ksat : Saturation exponent, i.e. polynomial degree.
This polynomial characteristic always lies underneath the corresponding linear representation.
At full saturation the polynomial characteristic is extended linearly. Compared to the two-slope
curve, it does not contain a singular point at the knee flux and therefore its derivative (magnetising voltage) is continuously defined.

Figure 5.3: Equivalent (per-unit) circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer (magnetising current)

The per-unit values used for the definition of the saturation characteristic of the positive sequence model are referred to the following base quantities:
Ubase [kV ]: nominal voltage of the (energising) winding, i.e. the winding used for the noload test;
Sbase [M V A]: nominal power of the (energising) winding;

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

29

EMT-Simulation

Sbase [M V A]
Ibase [A] =
1000
3 Ubase [kV ]

Ubase [kV ]/ 3
base [V s] =
1000
2f [kHz]


2
Ubase
[kV ]
1
Lbase [H] =

Sbase [M V A]
2f [Hz]



bmsat
1

bm

log
(ksat + 1)
0 = M knee e

iknee

(p.u.)

(120)

(p.u.)

(121)

ksat


k
M knee sat
bm
=
M knee 1 +
0
0

For (a, b, c) > M knee :


iM X (a, b, c) = iknee +

bmsat
((a, b, c) M knee )
0

(p.u.)

(122)

For (a, b, c) < M knee :


iM X (a, b, c) = iknee +

bmsat
((a, b, c) + M knee )
0

(p.u.)

(123)

otherwise:
bmsat
iM X (a, b, c) =
(a, b, c)
0


!
(a, b, c) ksat


1+



0

(p.u.)

(124)

and:
iM (a, b, c) = uM (a, b, c) gm(a, b, c) + iM X (a, b, c)

(p.u.)

(125)

where gm(a, b, c) are available as input signals for EMT simulations and are initialised using gm,
which is defined as:
gm = pf e/1000/strn (p.u.)
(126)
and:
ymag =

bm =

curmg
100

(p.u.)

ymag 2 gm2 0

or
bm =

0
xmlin

(p.u.)

(p.u.)

0 = 2 fnom

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(rad/s)

(127)

(128)
(129)

(130)

30

EMT-Simulation

bmsat =

M knee =

1
0
xmair
ksat + 1
0
ksat

(p.u.)

(p.u.)

(131)

(132)

and xmair is the saturated reactance (p.u.), 0 is the knee flux (p.u.), and ksat is the saturation
exponent.

Current-flux values The saturation curve can also be defined in terms of measured currentflux values, and a choice of either piecewise linear or spline interpolation is available.
The current-flux values in the table are peak values in p.u. In a power transformer with impressed voltage, the magnetising flux in p.u. is equal to the magnetising voltage in p.u., thus
flux and voltage are interchangeable and the p.u. current-flux curve also represents a p.u.
current-voltage curve. Furthermore, it can be assumed that the applied voltage remains fairly

linear during no-load tests, hence the ratio of RMS to peak values of the voltage is given by 2.
The magnetising current, on the other hand, is distorted (i.e. non-sinusoidal) because of the
saturation
curve. Consequently, the ratio of RMS to peak value of the magnetising current is no
longer 2 and the user is required to enter true peak values in the table.
The base quantities of the p.u. values in the current-flux table are also referred to the peak
values of the corresponding nominal variables:
Ibase [A] =

base [V s] =

5.2.2

Sbase [M V A]
2
1000
3 Ubase [kV ]

Ubase [kV ]/ 3
1000
2f [kHz]

Zero sequence magnetising reactance

The zero sequence magnetising current depends largely on the physical characteristics of the
transformer core (three-legged, five-legged, shell-type, etc.) and its vector group. Figure 5.4
shows the zero sequence equivalent circuit.

Figure 5.4: Zero sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer

Transformer with delta-connected windings If the transformer has delta-connected windings, then any zero sequence excitation approximates a zero sequence short-circuit, as the
delta-connected winding short-circuits the zero sequence current. In such cases there is no
need to represent zero sequence saturation.
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

31

EMT-Simulation

Transformer without delta-connected windings If the transformer does not have deltaconnected windings, then the zero sequence excitation current is generally higher than the
positive sequence excitation current and largely depends on the core type.
To account for the higher zero sequence linear exciting current when no delta-connected winding is available, PowerFactory allows for the definition of a linear (unsaturated) zero sequence
magnetising impedance. This zero sequence magnetising impedance and its R/X ratio are defined in the type, on the Load Flow page. The input parameters are displayed in the dialog
depending on the vector group (and are therefore hidden in cases where a delta-connected
winding has been selected).
To account for the core type dependency of the zero sequence saturation characteristic, the
transformer model supports the following two options on the EMT-Simulation page of the type:
3-Limb core: this option should be used for three-legged core designs. In this core type, the
fluxes are roughly equal in the three legs and must therefore return outside the core
through the air-gap and the tank. Because of the fact that the air-gap and the tanks are
non-magnetic, the zero sequence magnetising current is almost linear and therefore the
model uses the linear zero sequence magnetising impedance defined on the Load Flow
page. In other words, zero sequence saturation effects are not considered.
5-Limb core: this option should be used for five-legged and shell-type cores. As the zero
sequence fluxes return inside the core, the model uses the saturation characteristic (of
the positive sequence) in the zero sequence magnetising reactance as well.

5.3

Residual flux

The residual flux is the magnetising flux that remains in the core after the transformer has
been switched off. A residual flux, as opposed to a remnant flux1 , implies the circulation of a
magnetising current (M = LM IM ).
Once the transformer has been switched off, this magnetising current circulates through the
no-load losses resistance, Rm , and de-magnetises the core. The flux then decays exponentially
with a time constant, Lm /Rm , where Lm is the linear magnetising inductance. To simulate the
decaying magnetising current, and hence the decaying residual flux, it is necessary to define
the no-load losses. Otherwise, if Rm = 0, the magnetising current cannot circulate and PowerFactory will automatically set the residual flux to zero as soon as the transformer has been
switched off.
The user can also define the residual flux in the EMT simulation via a parameter event. The
residual flux is entered in -components using the following signals:
psimd: residual flux ( ), -component in p.u.
psimq: residual flux ( ), -component in p.u.
psim0: residual flux ( ), -component in p.u.
1 The

remnant flux is the flux at i=0 in the hysteresis curve

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

32

Harmonics/Power Quality

The -fluxes are transformed to abc-fluxes (phase or natural components) as follows:

2
1
1

3
3
3
a

1
1

3
3
1

1
1
3
3
3
The inverse transformation is given by:

1
b =
2

c
1

3
2

The calculation parameters c:psim c, c:psim b and c:psim c give the resulting flux (as a result
of the simulation) in natural components for the phases a, b and c, respectively.
Generally speaking, it is difficult to reliably predict the residual flux of a transformer. However, as
the residual flux strongly influences the amplitude of inrush currents, it should be considered in
the model. If it is not known, typical maximum values between 0.8 and 0.9 p.u. can be assumed
for worst-case conditions.

Harmonics/Power Quality

In order to accurately model the high frequency effects of transformers, additional capacitances
need to be considered, as shown in Figure 6.1. These capacitances are equivalent capacitances of the model and do not represent the actual winding capacitances. In order to obtain
equivalent capacitances from winding capacitances, the winding connection (D/Y) must be additionally considered. The high frequency model according to Figure 6.1 provides an accurate
frequency response with respect to voltages and currents at the transformer terminals. However, internal effects such as internal voltage stress cannot be simulated.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

33

Harmonics/Power Quality

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.1: HF model for (a) external capacitances in the positive sequence system; and (b)
zero sequence system

6.1

K-Factor, Factor-K and FHL

Transformers experience increased losses in the presence of power system harmonic currents.
In the worst-case, excessive losses can lead to transformer overheating and subsequent failure.
To assist in the selection of an appropriate transformer, various factors are available:
K-factor (UL 1562); mainly used in the US
Factor-K (BS 7821); mainly used in Europe
Harmonic Loss Factor (FHL) (IEEE C.57.110-1998)
These factors are indicators of the ability of a transformer to handle harmonic loads. Non-linear
loads in the power system produce harmonic currents which are capable of causing unwanted
side-effects, including increased transformer losses. Transformer losses are comprised of:
Stray magnetic losses in the transformer core; and
Eddy current and resistive losses in the transformer windings.
In the presence of harmonic currents, eddy current losses can become large because they
increase with the square of the frequency. The eddy current loss at harmonic order h is given
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

34

Harmonics/Power Quality

by:
Ph = Pf Ih 2 h2

(133)

where Pf is the eddy current loss at the fundamental frequency f ; Ph is the eddy current loss at
harmonic order h; and Ih is the fraction of total rms load current at harmonic order h. The total
eddy current loss is given by the following summation:
Pt = Pf

hX
max

Ih 2 h2

(134)

h=1

6.1.1

K-Factor

The K-Factor accounts for the increased eddy current losses due to harmonic currents. Mathematically, it is the ratio of eddy current losses in the presence of non-linear and linear loads
[3]:
hX
max
Pt
=
Ih 2 h2
(135)
K=
Pf
h=1

Following the calculation of the K-Factor, an appropriate K-transformer can then be selected
which has a higher K-rating.

6.1.2

Factor-K

The factor-K was introduced in [2] and is described mathematically by:


"

e
K = 1+
1+e

I1
I

2

hX
max

hq

h=2

Ih
I1

2 !#0.5
(136)

where e is the eddy current loss at the fundamental frequency divided by the loss due to a dc
current equal to the rms values of the sinusoidal current, both at reference temperature. The
harmonic order is represented by h, and the exponential constant, q, depends on the type of
winding and the frequency. Typical values are 1.7 for transformers utilising round/rectangular
cross-section conductors in both windings, and 1.5 for transformers which use foil-type low
voltage windings. This value should be available from the transformer manufacturer. I is the
rms value of the sinusoidal current including all harmonics, and is given by:
I=

hX
max

!0.5
2

(Ih )

= I1

"h
2 #0.5
max 
X
Ih

h=1

6.1.3

h=1

I1

(137)

FHL

The FHL is described mathematically by [3]:


 
Phmax Ih 2 2
h
h=1
I1
F HL =
 2
Phmax Ih
h=1
I1

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

(138)

35

Harmonics/Power Quality

6.1.4

Input data

For the calculation of any of these factors, the ratio of eddy current losses to copper losses
should be entered in the transformer type (Harmonics/Power Quality page) using input parameter Ratio: eddy current-/copper losses. By default, this value is set to 0.1 (i.e. 10%).
Additionally, for the calculation of Factor-K, the exponent q (from (136)) must be entered in
the Harmonic Load Flow command (ComHldf ) via input parameter Calculation of Factor-K for
Transformers (Exponent).

6.2

Frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance

On the Harmonics page of the transformer type, a frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance
can be defined. If the zero sequence impedance is included in the Measurement Report, the
characteristic should be defined as relative otherwise the value in the Measurement Report will
be overwritten. The distribution factor for the zero sequence impedance will be kept constant
and is obtained as follows:
From the transformer type, Distribution of Zero Sequ. Leakage-Impedances (zx0hl h) for
a transformer with no Internal Delta Winding;
For a transformer with an Internal Delta Winding, the distribution factors are calculated as
in Section 1.3.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

36

Modelling Details and Application Tips

7
7.1

Modelling Details and Application Tips


Reference values

All transformer parameters entered in p.u. or % are referred to the transformer ratings. Transformer rated voltages different from nominal busbar voltages are correctly considered.

7.2
7.2.1

Zero sequence models for common vector groups


Yd-transformer

This model is described in detail in Section 1.1.2 as a general example for zero sequence
system modelling.
If no accurate data is available from the manufacturer, the following estimations can be used for
the zero sequence impedance voltages as seen from the grounded side:
Core-type transformer (3-limb) : usc,0 = 0.85 Usc,1 ;
Shell-type transformer (4/5-limb) : usc,0 = 1.0 Usc,1 ;

uRr,0 = 0
uRr,0 = 0

where usc,0 is the positive sequence impedance voltage.


It should be taken into account that when modelling magnetic flux saturation characteristics,
transformer types with 3 or 4/5 limbs behave differently. In the 3-limb design, the zero sequence
flux defined by (139) is not guided via the transformer limbs but uses parallel paths (e.g. through
the transformer vessel, oil, ...) and can therefore be modelled linearly without saturation effects.

0 =

7.2.2

1
(A + B + C )
3

(139)

YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer

The zero sequence equivalent circuit diagram of the YNyn transformers is depicted in Figure 7.1.
The equivalent circuit diagram of star connected transformers with isolated star point can be
derived from this equivalent circuit by assuming infinite grounding impedances at the respective
side.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

37

Modelling Details and Application Tips

Figure 7.1: YNyn-transformer (zero sequence system)

Short-circuit impedance, HV-side zsc,0,HV = rCu,0,HV + x,0,HV


Short-circuit impedance, LV-side zsc,0,LV = rCu,0,LV + x,0,LV
Short-circuit impedance, both sides zsc,0 = zsc,0,HV + zsc,0,LV
The zero sequence magnetising impedance ratio heavily depends on the construction of the
magnetic circuit of the transformer. Typical ranges are:
Core-type transformer (3-limb) :

zM 0
zsc,0

Shell-type transformer (4/5-limb) :

7.2.3

= 3 . . . 10

zM 0
zsc,0

= 10 . . . 100 (or bank of 3 single-phase units)

Model of YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer with closed tertiary delta winding

An internal tertiary delta winding can be considered by either using the PowerFactory threewinding model or, in a simplified way, by taking into account that the short-circuit impedance of
the internal delta winding can be modelled by an impedance parallel to the zero sequence magnetising impedance as shown in Figure 7.2. Hence, an internal delta winding can be modelled
by simply assuming a very low zero sequence magnetising reactance.
Typical values are:
zM 0
= 1, . . . , 2.4
zsc,0
The short-circuit resistance of the delta-tertiary winding can be entered as R/X ratio in the Mag.
R/X field available on the Load Flow page of the transformer type.
Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

38

Modelling Details and Application Tips

Figure 7.2: Zero sequence model of YNYnd-transformer

7.2.4

Model of YNzn/YNz/Zyn-transformer

A zig-zag winding completely decouples the primary and secondary sides of the zero sequence
system, as shown in Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.3: YNzn-transformer (zero sequence system) with HV side tap changer (detailed representation)

7.3

Auto transformer model

The PowerFactory model for the auto transformer is a special case of the 2-winding star/star
(Yy)-transformer. The option Auto Transformer can be ticked on the Basic Data page of the
element, however this option is only visible when the transformer has no assigned type, or

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

39

Modelling Details and Application Tips

when the assigned type has its vector group set to YY.
The effect of this connection can be seen in Figure 7.4. Besides the additional connection
between the star points, only one grounding impedance can be entered.

Figure 7.4: Yy-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration (incl. tap
changer on the HV side)

For the Yy auto transformer the currents on the HV side and the LV side both flow through the
same grounding impedance ZE = RE + jXE . The voltage over this grounding impedance, ZE ,
therefore affects the zero sequence system voltages on both sides. This makes it necessary to
consider the absolute values of the impedances, currents and voltages and not the p.u. values.
An additional delta tertiary winding is often used to reduce the zero sequence impedance of
auto transformers. The approach for modelling this is equivalent to the internal delta tertiary
winding modelling of Yy transformers.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

40

Modelling Details and Application Tips

Figure 7.5: YYd-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

41

Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models

Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models

Figure 8.1: Input/output definition of 2-winding transformer model for RMS- and EMT-simulation

Table 8.1: Input variables of RMS and EMT transformer model


Parameter

Description

Unit

nntapin

Tap position (input)

Table 8.2: State variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation


Parameter

Description

Unit

psimd
psimq
psim0

Magnetising flux, d-component


Magnetising flux, q-component
Magnetising flux, 0-component

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

Table 8.3: Additional parameters and signals for EMT transformer model (calculation parameters)
Parameter

Description

Unit

psim a
psim b
psim c
im a
im b
im c

Magnetising flux, phase A


Magnetising flux, phase B
Magnetising flux, phase C
Magnetising current, phase A
Magnetising current, phase B
Magnetising current, phase C

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

42

Input Parameter Definitions

9
9.1

Input Parameter Definitions


2-winding transformer type
Parameter

Description

loc name
nt2ph
strn
frnom
utrn h
utrn l
uktr

Name
Technology
Rated Power
Nominal Frequency
Rated Voltage: HV-Side
Rated Voltage: LV-Side
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Short-Circuit Voltage uk
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Copper Losses
Positive Sequence Impedance:
SHC-Voltage (Re(uk)) ukr
Positive Sequence Impedance: Ratio
X/R
Vector Group: HV-Side
Vector Group: LV-Side
Vector Group: Internal Delta Winding
Vector Group: Phase Shift
Vector Group: Name
Zero Sequ. Impedance, Short-Circuit
Voltage: Absolute uk0
Zero Sequ. Impedance, Short-Circuit
Voltage: Resistive Part ukr0
Tap Changer: at Side
Tap Changer: Additional Voltage per
Tap
Tap Changer: Phase of du
Tap Changer: Neutral Position
Tap Changer: Minimum Position
Tap Changer: Maximum Position
Magnetising Impedance: No Load
Current
Magnetising Impedance: No Load
Losses
Zero Sequence Magnetising
Impedance:
Mag. Impedance / uk0
Zero Sequence Magnetising R/X ratio:
Mag. R/X
Distribution of Zero Sequ.
Leakage-Impedances: z, Zero Sequ.
HV-Side

pcutr
uktrr
xtor
tr2cn h
tr2cn l
iIntDelta
nt2ag
vecgrp
uk0tr
ur0tr
tap side
dutap
phitr
nntap0
ntpmn
ntpmx
curmg
pfe
zx0hl n

rtox0 n
zx0hl h

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit

MVA
Hz
kV
kV
%
kW
%

*30deg
%
%

%
deg

%
kW

43

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

zx0hl l

Distribution of Zero Sequ.


Leakage-Impedances: z, Zero Sequ.
LV-Side
Zero Sequence Impedance: Ratio
X0/R0
Zero Sequence Impedance:
Reactance x0
Zero Sequence Impedance:
Resistance r0
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV short-circuit)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV
short-circuit)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
LV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (HV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
LV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (HV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-Reactance x0 (LV short-circuit)
Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Ratio
X0/R0 (LV short-circuit)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-Resistance r0 (LV short-circuit)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-Reactance x0 (LV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Ratio
X0/R0 (LV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
HV-Resistance r0 (LV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
LV-Reactance x0 (HV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-Ratio
X0/R0 (HV open)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
LV-Resistance r0 (HV open)
Delta Winding, uk0
Delta Winding, Re(uk0)
Delta Winding, X0/R0
Delta Winding, x0
Delta Winding, r0
Tap Changer 1
Tap Changer 1: Type

x0tor0
x0pu
r0pu
uk0 hls
ur0 hls

uk0 hlo
ur0 hlo
uk0 lho
ur0 lho
x0pu hls
xtr0 hls
r0pu hls
x0pu hlo
xtr0 hlo
r0pu hlo
x0pu lho
xtr0 lho
r0pu lho
uk0delta
ur0delta
x0tor0delta
x0delta
r0delta
itapch
tapchtype

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit

p.u.
p.u.
%
%

%
%
%
%
p.u.

p.u.
p.u.

p.u.
p.u.

p.u.
%
%
p.u.
p.u.

44

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

tap side
dutap

Tap Changer 1: at Side


Tap Changer 1: Additional Voltage per
Tap
Tap Changer 1: Additional Angle per
Tap
Tap Changer 2
Tap Changer 2: Type
Tap Changer 2: at Side
Tap Changer 2: Additional Voltage per
Tap
Tap Changer 2: Additional Angle per
Tap
Tap Changer 2: Phase of du
Tap Changer 2: Neutral Position
Tap Changer 2: Minimum Position
Tap Changer 2: Maximum Position
Tap dependent impedance
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Short-Circuit Voltage uk
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Reactance x1
Tap dependent impedance: x1 (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: x1 (max.
tap)
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Copper Losses
Positive Sequence Impedance:
SHC-Voltage (Re(uk)) ukr
Positive Sequence Impedance: Ratio
X/R
Positive Sequence Impedance:
Resistance r1
Tap dependent impedance: r1 (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: r1 (max.
tap)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
Short-Circuit Voltage uk0
Zero Sequence Impedance:
Reactance x0
Tap dependent impedance: x0 (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: x0 (max.
tap)
Zero Sequence Impedance:
SHC-Voltage (Re(uk0)) uk0r

dphitap
itapch2
tapchtype2
tap side2
dutap2
dphitap2
phitr2
nntap02
ntpmn2
ntpmx2
itapzdep
uktr
x1pu
x1putmn
x1putmx
pcutr
uktrr
xtor
r1pu
r1putmn
r1putmx
uk0tr
x0pu
x0putmn
x0putmx
ur0tr

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit
%
deg

%
deg
deg

%
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
kW
%

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
%
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
%

45

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

x0tor0

Zero Sequence Impedance: Ratio


X0/R0
Zero Sequence Impedance:
Resistance r0
Tap dependent impedance: X0/R0
(min. tap)
Tap dependent impedance: r0 (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: X0/R0
(max. tap)
Tap dependent impedance: r0 (max.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance
Tap dependent impedance: uk (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: uk (max.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Pcu (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk)
(min. tap)
Tap dependent impedance: X/R (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Pcu (max.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk)
(max. tap)
Tap dependent impedance: X/R (max.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: uk0 (min.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: uk0 (max.
tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk0)
(min. tap)
Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk0)
(max. tap)
Distribution of Leakage Reactances
(p.u.): x,Pos.Seq. HV-Side
Distribution of Leakage Reactances
(p.u.): x,Pos.Seq. LV-Side
Distribution of Leakage Resistances
(p.u.): r,Pos.Seq. HV-Side
Distribution of Leakage Resistances
(p.u.): r,Pos.Seq. LV-Side
Magnetising Reactance: Type
Magnetising Reactance: Current
Magnetising Reactance: Voltage

r0pu
x0tor0tmn
r0putmn
x0tor0tmx
r0putmx
itapzdep
uktmn
uktmx
pcutmn
ukrtmn
xtortmn
pcutmx
ukrtmx
xtortmx
uk0tmn
uk0tmx
uk0rtmn
uk0rtmx
itrdl
itrdl lv
itrdr
itrdr lv
itrldf
satcue
satvol

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit

p.u.

p.u.

p.u.

%
%
kW
%

kW
%

%
%
%
%

%
p.u.

46

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

Unit

satflux
iInterPol
smoothfac

Magnetising Reactance: Flux (peak)


Magnetising Reactance: Interpolation
Magnetising Reactance: Smoothing
Factor
Magnetising Reactance: Core
Transformer Ratio Adaptation
Tap Changer: Voltage Range
Class
Inrush Peak Current: Ratio Ip/In (1)
Inrush Peak Current: Max. Time (1)
Transformer Type
Inrush Peak Current: Ratio Ip/In
Inrush Peak Current: Max. Time
Magnetising Reactance: Type
Magnetising Reactance: Knee Flux
Magnetising Reactance: Linear
Reactance
Magnetising Reactance: Saturated
Reactance
Saturation Exponent
Zero Sequence Magnetising
Reactance: Type Zero Sequence
Stochastic model
Ratio: eddy current-/copper losses
Frequency Dependencies of
Pos.-Sequence Impedance: r1(f)
Frequency Dependencies of
Pos.-Sequence Impedance: l1(f)
Frequency Dependencies of
Zero-Sequence Impedance: r0(f)
Frequency Dependencies of
Zero-Sequence Impedance: l0(f)
Rated Power (forced cooling)
On-load Tap Changer
Object modified
Object modified by
Manufacturer
Characteristic Name
Data source
Foreign Key
Additional Data ()
Description
Approval Information: Status
Approval Information: Modified
Approval Information: Modified by

p.u.

iLimb
itratioadpt
pT
ansiclass
pict1
pitt1
itrtype
pict2
pitt2
itrmt
psi0
xmlin
xmair
ksat
it0mt
pStoch
eddypc
fcharr1
fcharl1
fcharr0
fcharl0
strnfc
oltc
gnrl modif
gnrl modby
manuf
chr name
dat src
for name
doc id
desc
appr status
appr modif
appr modby

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

%
p.u.
s
p.u.
s
p.u.
p.u.
p.u.

StoTyptrf

MVA

47

Input Parameter Definitions

9.2

2-winding transformer element


Parameter

Description

loc name
typ id
bushv
bushv bar
buslv
buslv bar
iZoneBus
outserv
ntnum
ratfac
Snom
i auto

Name
Type (TypTr2)
HV-Side (StaCubic)
HV-Side
LV-Side (StaCubic)
LV-Side
Zone
Out of Service
Number of: parallel Transformers
Rating Factor
Rated Power
Connected Star Points (Auto
Transformer)
HV-side, phase 2 internally grounded
Grounding Impedance, HV Side:
Neutral Point
Grounding Impedance, HV Side: Re
Grounding Impedance, HV Side: Xe
LV-side, phase 2 internally grounded
Grounding Impedance, LV Side:
Neutral Point
Grounding Impedance, LV Side: Re
Grounding Impedance, LV Side: Xe
r (Sbase)
x (Sbase)
r0 (Sbase)
x0 (Sbase)
Zone
Area
Area
Thermal Rating (IntThrating)
Rated Power (act. )
Neutral Conductor: N-Connection
Neutral Conductor: HV-Neutral
(StaCubic)
Neutral Conductor: HV-Neutral
Neutral Conductor: LV-Neutral
(StaCubic)
Neutral Conductor: LV-Neutral
Neutral Connection
HV-side, phase 2 connected
Internal Grounding Impedance, HV
Side: Star Point

i eahv
ignd h
re0tr h
xe0tr h
i ealv
ignd l
re0tr l
xe0tr l
rSbasepu
xSbasepu
r0Sbasepu
x0Sbasepu
cpZone
iAreaBus
cpArea
pRating
Snom a
cneutcon
bushvn
bushvn bar
buslvn
buslvn bar
iintgnd
i hvcon
cgnd h

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit

MVA

Ohm
Ohm

Ohm
Ohm
p.u./Sbase
p.u./Sbase
p.u./Sbase
p.u./Sbase

MVA

48

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

Internal Grounding Impedance, HV


Side: Petersen Coil
i lvcon
LV-side, phase 2 connected
cgnd l
Internal Grounding Impedance, LV
Side: Star
cpeter l
Internal Grounding Impedance, LV
Side: Petersen Coil
bSbasepu
b (Sbase)
cpCtrlNode
Controller, Tap Changer 1: Target
Node
cpGrid
Grid
cpOwner
Owner
cpOperator
Operator
cpBranch
Branch
cpSubstat
Substation
cpSite
Site
cpMeteostat
Meteo Station
cpHeadFold
Head Folder
fold id
In Folder ()
ciOutaged
Planned Outage
ciEnergized
Energized
ciEarthed
Earthed
cDisplayName
Display Name
cpSupplyTransformer Supplying Transformer
cpSupplyTrfStation Supplying Secondary Substation
cpSupplySubstation Supplying Substation
Inom h
HV-Side, Rated Current
Inom l
LV-Side, Rated Current
iTaps
According to Measurement Report
nntap
Tap: Tap Position
ntrcn
Tap: Automatic Tap Changing
i cont
Tap: Tap Changer
t2ldc
Tap: Controlled Node
ilcph
Tap: Phase
imldc
Tap: Control Mode
uset mode
Controller, Tap Changer 1: Setpoint
dutap
Additional Voltage per Tap
dphitap
Additional Angle per Tap
phitr
Phase of du
nntap
Tap Changer 1: Tap Position
iTaps
Tap Changer 1: According to
Measurement Report
dutap2
Additional Voltage per Tap
dphitap2
Additional Angle per Tap

Unit

cpeter h

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

p.u.

kA
kA

%
deg
deg

%
deg

49

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

Unit

phitr2
nntap2
c ptapc

Phase of du
Tap Changer 2: Tap Position
Controller, Tap Changer 1: External
Tap Controller
Controller, Tap Changer 1: External
Station Controller
Tap: Remote Control
Tap: Controlled Node
(StaBar,ElmTerm)
Tap: Controlled Branch (Cubicle)
(StaCubic)
Tap: Voltage Setpoint
Tap: Lower Voltage Bound
Tap: Upper Voltage Bound
Tap: Active Power Setpoint
Tap: Lower Active Power Bound
Tap: Upper Active Power Bound
Tap: Reactive Power Setpoint
Tap: Lower Reactive Power Bound
Tap: Upper Reactive Power Bound
Tap: Controller Time Constant
Controller, Tap Changer 1: Controller
Sensitivity dv/dQ
Controller, Tap Changer 1: Controller
Sensitivity dv/dP
Tap: Line Drop Compensation
Tap: Current Transformer Rating
Tap: Voltage Transformer Ratio
Tap: Rset V
Tap: Xset V
Tap Controller (ElmTr2)
Measured at
Measurement Report
Unit Transformer
Long-term operating condition before
short-circuit are known
Values for LV-Side: Highest Operating
Voltage
Values for LV-Side: Highest Operating
Current
Values for LV-Side: Power factor
Values for HV-Side (only for Unit
Transformer): Minimum Operating
Voltage
Frequent Fault ( >10(5)/lifetime,
Category II(III) )

deg

c pstac
i rem
p rem
p cub
usetp
usp low
usp up
psetp
psp low
psp up
qsetp
qsp low
qsp up
Tctrl
Kqctrl
Kpctrl
ildc
ldcct
ldcpt
ldcrs
ldcxs
tapctrl
iMeasLoc
mTaps
iblock
ilt op
Ub lv
Ib lv
cosphib lv
Ubqmin hv

ifrqft

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

p.u.
p.u.
p.u.
MW
MW
MW
Mvar
Mvar
Mvar
s
%/Mvar
%/MW

kV
kA

kV

50

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

iopt hf
Cg h

Consider HF-Parameter
HF-Parameter: Capacitance
HV-Ground
HF-Parameter: Capacitance
LV-Ground
HF-Parameter: Capacitance HV-LV,
1-Sequence
HF-Parameter: Capacitance HV-LV,
0-Sequence
Optimal Power Flow Constraints: Max.
Loading
Optimal Power Flow Controls: Tap
Position
Optimal Power Flow Controls:
Optimise
Optimal Power Flow Controls: Control
Mode
Feeder
Distance from infeed in number of
buses
Lateral Index
Distance from first infeed in number of
buses
Distance from infeed in number of
buses including switches
Distance from first infeed in number of
buses including switches
Forced Outage Rate
Forced Outage Expectancy
Forced Outage Duration
Ideal component
Type model
Element model
Failures Double Earth Fault:
Frequency of single earth faults
Failures Double Earth Fault:
Conditional probability of a second
earth fault
Failures Double Earth Fault: Repair
duration
Time-Overcurrent Plot: Frequent Fault
( >10(5)/lifetime, Category II(III) )
Time-Overcurrent Plot: ANSI Curve
Shift
Time-Overcurrent Plot: Draw Inrush
Current

Cg l
Cc1 hl
Cc0 hl
iOPFCload
i uopt
ionlyPre
i uoptCont
cpFeed
ciDist
ciLater
ciDistRoot
ciDistAll
ciDistAllRoot
FOR1
FOE
FOD
iperfect
pTypStoch
pStoch
CCEarFr
CCEarProb

CCEarRepMu
ifrqft
iansish
drawInr

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit
uF
uF
uF
uF

1/a
h/a
h

StoTyptrf
1/a
%

51

Input Parameter Definitions

Parameter

Description

fr coldload

Time-Overcurrent Plot: Cold load


curve
Values
OPF-Controls: Tap Position
OPF-Constraints: Max. Loading
Object modified
Object modified by
Serial Number
Year of Construction
Commissioning Date
Characteristic Name
Data source
Foreign Key
Additional Data ()
Owner (ElmOwner)
Operator (ElmOperator)
Description
Approval Information: Status
Approval Information: Modified
Approval Information: Modified by
Forced Cooling Enabled
Operator Comment
RDF ID
dpl1
dpl2
dpl3
dpl4
dpl5

coldloadtab2
i uopt
maxload
gnrl modif
gnrl modby
sernum
constr
iComDate
chr name
dat src
for name
doc id
pOwner
pOperator
desc
appr status
appr modif
appr modby
ifc
sOpComment
cimRdfId
dpl1
dpl2
dpl3
dpl4
dpl5

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

Unit

52

10

10

References

References

[1] Guidelines for representation of network elements when calculating transients. Technical
report, Cigre Working Group 33.02, 1990.
[2] Three phase oil-immersed distribution transformers, 50 hz, from 50 to 2500 kva with highest
voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kv. Determination of the power rating of a transformer loaded with non-sinusoidal currents, 1995.
[3] IEEE Std c57.110-1998 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability,
1999.
[4] Allan Greenwood. Electrical Transients in Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 1991.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

53

List of Figures

List of Figures
1.1 Positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the 2-winding transformer

. . .

1.2 Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a Yd-transformer with HV side tap changer
(a) detailed representation (b) simplified representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the HV side . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the LV side

. . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Complex tap changer model (asymmetrical) in PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Complex tap changer model (symmetrical) in PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7 Internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1 Line drop compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.2 Principle of simulated dynamic control for V and P/Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.3 Ideal phase shifter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.4 Symmetrical phase shifter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

5.1 Positive sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer . . . .

27

5.2 Two slope and polynomial saturation curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

5.3 Equivalent (per-unit) circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer (magnetising


current) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

5.4 Zero sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding, 3-phase transformer . . . . .

31

6.1 HF model for (a) external capacitances in the positive sequence system; and (b)
zero sequence system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

7.1 YNyn-transformer (zero sequence system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

7.2 Zero sequence model of YNYnd-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.3 YNzn-transformer (zero sequence system) with HV side tap changer (detailed
representation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.4 Yy-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration (incl.


tap changer on the HV side) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

7.5 YYd-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration . . .

41

8.1 Input/output definition of 2-winding transformer model for RMS- and EMT-simulation 42

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

54

List of Tables

List of Tables
1.1 Input- and calculation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Type Basic Data: Positive sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.3 Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance (no internal delta winding) . . . . .

13

1.4 Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance: YN-YN; with internal delta winding

14

2.1 Measurement report data (transformer element) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.2 Automatic tap changer control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

2.3 Line drop compensation (for voltage control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.4 Dynamic and static control parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.5 Load Flow tap changer data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.6 Load Flow Tap dependent impedance data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

5.1 Two-slope and polynomial saturation characteristic input parameters . . . . . . .

28

8.1 Input variables of RMS and EMT transformer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

8.2 State variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

8.3 Additional parameters and signals for EMT transformer model (calculation parameters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

55

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