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.. , .. , ..




( -

,

)

-

2012

532+533

:
- , . .
, . .
.. :
/ .. , .. , .. : - . , 2012. 88 .

,
. :
- (RANS),
(LES), RANS-LES .
.
,
(DES),
.
,

.
: ,
, , ,
.
- -
.

.., .., .., 2012


-
ISBN

, 2012


.
................................................................................................................................... 5
I.

................................................................................ 7
1.1. ................................................... 7
1.2. ........................................................... 15
1.3. (DES)
(DDES IDDES) ..................................................................................... 26

1.3.1. DES .................................................26


1.3.2. DES ,
...........................................................................33
1.3.2.1.

............................................................................................33
1.3.2.2. DES LES- ,
,
. ...........................................................37
1.3.2.3.
...........................39
II.

.............................................................................................. 42
2.1. .................................................................................................... 42
2.1.1. ........................................................42
2.1.2 - (SA ) .............................................................46
2.1.2.1. ..........................................................................46
2.1.2.2. SA
(SARC ) .....................................................................................................50
2.1.2.3. SA (SACC) ..............................52
3

2.1.3 (SST ) ................................................................................54


2.2. LES ........................................................................................................................ 57
2.2.1. ................................................................................................57
2.2.2. .....................................................................58
2.3. DES ....................................................................................................................... 62
2.3.1. DES RANS
......................................................................................................................62
2.3.2. DES SA RANS ...........................................................................64
2.3.2.1. SA ......................................................................64
2.3.2.2. SA RANS SA LES . ..................................................65
2.3.3. SA DES .................................................65
2.3.4. DES SST .....................................................................................69
2.4. DDES .................................................................................................................... 71
2.5. IDDES ................................................................................................................... 76
2.5.1. IDDES SA SST RANS ................................77
2.5.2. IDDES .................................................................................80
2.5.2.1. ..................................................80
2.5.2.2.
....................................................................................................................82
....................................................................................................... 84



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1.1


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3D Steady RANS



107

3D Unsteady RANS

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DES
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1995

2000
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80- (., , [2]).

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1.2.
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10

1.2.

LES f -

~
f f f , .

~
f
~
f ( x, t ) G ( x x, ) f ( x, t )dx3 ,

(1.1)

G ( x x, ) - , x ,
(
1.3).
1 / if x x / 2
G ( x, x )
0 if x x / 2

G ( x, x )

6
exp[6( x0 x ) 2 / 2 ]

1.3. , LES

LES RANS (.
2.1.1 2.2.1). . ,
( ) RANS
11

,
LES ( )
( )
. , LES
, , 2,
. ,
, LES .

k , ()
, , k I k k d (. 1.4),
(
) . ,
LES

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1.4. , LES

LES RANS ,

, - .

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( , , ).
12

LES
RANS. , LES
, k I k k d ,
,

, ,
( RANS . 2.2.2).
LES ,
. ,


,
(., , [3], [4]).
LES Monotonically Integrated LES (MILES) Implicit LES (ILES)3.
LES ,
, RANS.
, DNS,
,
. ,
( , )
, LES, ,
DNS. , ,
LES,
, DNS: Re0.4, Re2.25. ,
,
LES DNS:
, LES Re1.8.
. 1.5 ,

LES [5]. , , Re=106

, ,
LES,
, .
13

~108.5, 99%
.

1.5.
, LES ,

, LES

, (. 1.1),
RANS-LES ,
DES. ,
, ,
1.1, 2000 . [6] (. 1.3.1,
. 1.23),
, .
,

,

RANS

, DES,
.
.

14

1.2.

,
, ,
( , ,
, , ),
70-80- ,
.

20 [7].

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

1.6. :
; b
; ; d , e
; f

,
,
( -
),

() , . 1.6.

,
.
15


, , ,
5.
,
70- - 80- ,
,
,
,
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.
,
,
.
,
, NASA
, (6- 7-
) ,
(ERCOFTAC). ,
1968, 1980 1990 .,
.

.
,
,

, ( )
LES DNS. ,
ECARP [8] FLOMANIA [9].


, (
),
.
16

,
, ( )

.
, ,
,
: (SA
) [10], ( k - Shear Stress Transport SST ) [11], [12].
(
~ - . 2.1.2)
( k
- . 2.1.3). ,
,

. , SA
, , ,
. ,
,
, 6
, ,
(,
). ,
, ,
.
, , ,7
(,
, [13]).
,
SA SST .

,
.
7
SA (.
2.1.2.2).
17

1.7.
, SA SST
,

, 1.7, NASA
[14], ,

.

1.8.
NACA0012 =15, CFD
SA SST , (. [14])


NACA0012 ()
(. 1.8) .
.
18

, 1.9, SA SST

( Obi), , SA ,
[15],
SST . , SST , SA
, () .
, , 1.10

8.
a)

b)

1.9. [15] (a)


[15]
, SA SST (b)

, SA SST

1.11
RAE2822

, . 1.9 (
), NTS (Numerical
Turbulence Simulation) [16, 17].
19

( 10 M=0.75, =3.19 [18]).


,
, .
, , SA ,
, STT . ,
SST
(
. .1.11), SA
. SST
.

1.10. ( )
( )
SA SST

1.11.
RAEA2822 ( 10), SA
SST , [18]

20

1.12, 1.13 ,
[19]. , SA, SST
,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
, SST , ,
SA .

1.12. ,
, SA SST
, [19]

1.13. , SA SST
, [19]

21

1.14-1.18 ,

.
)

b)

SA

c)

1.14. NACA0012 (a),


(b)
(c)


NACA 0012 (.1.14).

. ,
, (.
2.1.1), . 1.14:
, SA SST
22

, ,
.
9.
(Ahmed car body
[20] . 1.15)
(., ,
[9]).

b)

c)

25

d)

e)

1.15. ,
SA SST , [20]

1.15 ,
SA SST ,

SA 2.1.2.2.
23

25. , SA
, SST
. ,
,
,
.
, SA
SST , 1.16.
,
ONERA (A-airfoil)
, [21].
( )
13. ,
,
.

SA

SST

1.16.
ONERA (A-airfoil), 13
( ), ( )

,
SA SST , ,
,

.
,
, RANS

24

,
SA SST 10.
,
(
NACA0012 ),
1.1811.

1.17.
NACA0012 Re=105, SA SST RANS ,
[22] (
15 )

,
,
RANS . , 1997.
(DES) [23],
RANS-LES ,
.

10


(. . 1.6).
11
,
,
,
(Unsteady RANS URANS).
25

1.3. (DES)
(DDES IDDES)

,
DES, ,
, ,
DES
. ,
(DDES IDDES), .
DES
II .
1.3.1. DES

, DES RANS
LES ,
RANS , LES
,
.
, LES
,
(. 1.1 1.5),

RANS

(. ). DES
RANS-LES ,
, , RANS
,
LES .
RANS LES, 1997.,
(Detached-Eddy Simulation).
DES LES. , DES
,
, ,
, RANS .

26

DES , RANS LES


,
RANS
(Sub - Grid Scale SGS) .
DES [23] SA ,
DES, RANS
, , SST [24].

a)

b)

d)

c)

e)

1.18. 2 (
) ,
: a)
, SA ; b) - , SA
; ) - , SA ; d) - SA DES
; e) - SA DES

1.18 , DES

Re 1.4 10 5 ,
(
). , ,

27

(2D RANS),
.12
(2D URANS)
,
(3D RANS) . ,
,


. , DES
(
- ),
(DES DNS).
1.19 1.20,
DES
2D URANS,
( ),
[25], [26].

1.19. ,
SA DES SA URANS ,
[25] (
)

12

, , ,
.
28

a)

b)

PIV

DES
1.20. DES c c PIV [26]:
; b

DES


,
, , CFD . ,
, DES
,
(FLOMANIA [9], DESider [27] ATAAC [28]),
, ,
.

DES [23, 24], SA SST RANS .

DES

,
(,
, . .).
, DES
.
, 1.21 ,
DES, ,
NACA0012.
SA SST RANS .

29

b)

a)

1.21. NACA0012
45 DES () [22]
Re=105,
SA SST RANS
DES (b)

DES RANS.
, , ( 30 o ),
RANS DES ,
. ,
, RANS
, DES

. , DES
30 , URANS,
400,000,
(
).
DES
1.22.

[29] (. 1.22). ,
, 20000,
Ro L / U b , ( U b , L ,
) 0.18 0.67.
, DES ,
LES, , 3.4 (1.53) .
,
30

,
5 , LES.
Ro = 0.18

Ro = 0.35

Ro = 0.67

. [30]

1.22. , DES
( )
[29] (Nu0
[30])

, , DES,
,
,
,
.

31

1.23. Q - ( Q 2 0.5 2 S2 ) SA DES


F-15 65 ( )
, SA RANS SA
DES [6]

1.23 F-15
65, SA DES [6]
CFD COBALT . ,
( 6 )
( ,
) 6%,
SA RANS 10%.

DES

1.24, 1.25.
[31] (
CFD STAR-CD) ,
,
, , ,
.

1.24.
SA DES [31]
32

(
[32]), DES
, ,
.

1.25.
DES ,
[32]

1.3.2. DES ,

,
DES RANS ,
DES
. .
1.3.2.1.

DES,
RANS , ,
, SA-DES (. 2.3.2)13, .
/
() LES- DES ,
LES. ,
, 10 ,

13

, SST RANS
33

SA ,
. ,
,
, DNS , ,
.
, SA-DES.

1.26. , DIHT
643 SA (. 2.2.2 2.3.2)

[33] -5/3


(Decay of Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence DIHT)
,
. 1.26,

(. 2.2.2 2.3.2.1) SA
, 643 .
( t / 1 ),
5. SA
( . 1.26), ,

),

. , 323,
( 4 ) ,
SA :
, ,

.
34

, DES,
[34], DES,

k- [35] ,
(. 1.27).

1.27.
k- DES [34]
)

b)

c)

1.28.
, SA DES () (b) [34],
[36] (c)

35

1.28
,
(cg) (fg) ,
[36].
,
20 ( 20 1),
. ,

( x=8)
.

b)

c)

1.29. , 1.28, y=0.375h

36

,

. , 1.29,
.
, ,

.
[37] DES
(. 2.3.3 ).
1.3.2.2. DES LES- ,
, .
, , DES
, .
, DES ,
RANS DES. ,
DES (. 2.3) ,
||
|| ( - . 1.30).

c)

b)

1.30. : a
DES, b , c LES

RANS , ,
(
) . , ,
37


RANS || , ||
, 1.3014.

DES,

(. 2.3),
, DES RANS LES
. ||
LES ( LES
|| , 1.30). ,
,

,
( )
.
1.31, ,
SA RANS SA DES
, . ,
DES ,
RANS15, DES,
, ,
RANS DES.
(Grid Induced Separation)
[37] DES,
Delayed DES ( DES). ,
, 2.4.1 .

14

, , -
,
,
- -
.
15
Grid-Induced Separation GIS.
38

a)
DES

RANS

GIS
( )

b)

1.31. () (b)
SA-DES [38]

1.3.2.3.

,
DES
, DES LES (Wall Modeling
LES WMLES) DES .
SA DES, 2000. [39],
:
39


WMLES . , ,
DES
, ,
,
( x x w / / z z w / / ). ,
, ,
, () ,
.

1.32. ,
SA DES [39]

, . 1.32, ( 15%)
, ( 65%)
du / dy

y || , ,

, .

( Log-Layer Mismatch LLM) DES, WMLES ,
.
RANS , , RANS
, .
LES,
( ) ,
40

,
.
, .
LLM ,
WMLES
.
,
DES (DDES)
WMLES, LLM, .
DDES LES (DDES
with Improved wall-modeling capabilities IDDES [40]).
2.5.

41

II.


,
RANS, LES DES .
2.1. -

2.1.1.

(Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes RANS) -


,
[41]:
f t

1
2T

t T

f d ,

(2.1)

t T

f -

t ,

2 -


, ,

.
[41],
:
f g f g ; c c; cf cf ; f / s f / s ,

(2.2)

f g - ,

f f f g g g , c -

, s - .

( ), p
,

42

~ f
.
f

(2.3)

-
( ):

u 0,

u
u u p ( m t ),

E uH u ( ) ( q q ).
m
t
m
t
t

pm /( RT )

(2.4)

u - u, v w , m t

E CvT 0.5 u 2 v 2 w 2 - , H E p / C pT 0.5 u 2 v 2 w 2

, qm qt -

, T , Cv C p R m
, C p - ,
R =8.31434 /(K) , m .

(2.4)

m 2 (T ) S I u ,
3

1
u u t
2

qm (T )T ,

(2.5)

- , I ,

(T )

(T ) - .

(2.4)

qt ,
,
, .

43

,
(SA ) (SST ), ,

2

t 2 t S I u k I , qt t T ,
3

- ,

(2.6)

k 1 / 2(u 2 v 2 w2 )

16, t - .
,
t t k .
,

C P t
,
Prt

(2.7)

Prt ,
( Prt =0.9).
,

,
( ) .

u 0

(2.8)


T Tw ,

T
qw ,
n

(2.9)

n .

16

SA , k
(2.6) .
44

, , ,
.

[42]
p
0.
n

(2.10)

( )
,

[43],
. , u, v, w T
:
2a
,
1
2a
I 2 Vn
,
1
I 3 V 1 ,
I1 Vn

(2.11)

I 4 V 2 ,
I5

RT
.
m 1
a RT / m - , C p Cv , Vn , V 1

V 2 -
.

Vn ,
,
, M n Vn / a .
, ( Vn a ), ( Vn 0 )
I1, I3, I4 I5,
, I2
. ( Vn 0 )

45

, I1, I2, I3, I4 I5


.
( Vn a )

),
.
2.1.2 - (SA )

I, -
1992 . [10] ,
(. 1.2),
.
2.1.2.1.

D~
1
P D ~ ~ cb 2 ~ ~ f t1 U 2 .
Dt

(2.12)

~ ,
, t t / ,
(2.6), :

t f v1~,

(2.13)

f v1

3
3 cv31

~
,

(2.14)

- .
() (2.12), P
D , :
~
P cb1 1 f t 2 S ~ ,

(2.15)

2
cb1

~
D cw1 f w 2 f t 2 ,

d w

(2.16)

46

d w - , - ,
~
S f v2

,
, f v2 1
2 2
1 f v1
dw
1

(2.17)

1 c6 6
~
f w g 6 w63 , g r cw 2 r 6 r , r= ~ 2 2 ,
S d w
g cw3

(2.18)


( 2 ij ij )1 / 2 , ij

1 ui u j

,
2 x j xi

f t 2 ,


,
f t 2 Ct 3 exp Ct 4 2 .

(2.19)

, (2.12),
- ( )
( ) (tripterm)17, :

t2 2

f t1 Ct1 g t exp Ct 2
d w g t2 d t2
2
U

U
g t min 0.1,
l , W ,trip ,
t t t

d t2 z ztrip

(2.20)

(2.21)

2 y ytrip 2 x xtrip


2
, U u utrip .

trip ,
,
, lt ( x 2 z 2 )1 / 2

17

,
, SA
, .
47

, U

( U u ).
:

2 3 , 0.41, cb1 0.1355, cb 2 0.622,


cw1

cb1

1 cb2 , c

w2

0.3, c w3 2, cv1 7.1,

(2.22)

Ct1 1, Ct 2 2, Ct 3 1.2, Ct 4 0.5.


(2.12) .
, ,
~ 0 .
~
, - ~
.
~ ,
, .
()
( , ,
e n [44]), ~
( 10-3 ),
. , (2.12) trip
term,
() .
, () ,
,
,
(Fully Turbulent FT) .

~ (~ (1 5) ). (2.12) (
)
18.

18

FT trip term (2.12) .


48

, ,
,
19, ,
Trip-Less (TL) [45].
FT-, (
) (
~
) , trip term . ,
,
, ,
, ( ),
, .
, ,
,
1.
[10]
i

1 ~
,
u n

(2.23)

u w /
u ( -
).
SA , ,
,
:
, ,
.

[46], [47] [48].

19

, ,
49

2.1.2.2. SA (SARC )
[49],

, . , ,
,
.
. , -,
- [46], [47],
, , .
, Rotation-Curvature correction (RC),
SA . ( )
SARC .
SARC P SA (2.15)

f r1

2r * 1 C r1
1 Cr 3arctg Cr 2 ~r Cr1 ,
1 r*

(2.24)

, r * ~
r ,
. :
r*
~
r =

S
,

2 ik S jk DS Dt ij
D4

(2.25)
,

( DS / Dt ) ij (
) ,
D
D2

2
,
2

S ( 2 Sij Sij )1/ 2 , Sij

(2.26)
1 ui u j
1 u u j

.
, ( 2 ij ij )1 / 2 , ij i
2 x j xi
2 x j xi

SARC , (2.24),
C r1 1, C r 2 12, C r 3 1.

(2.27)
50

SARC

, , , (
, ). . 2.1
, SA SARC
DNS Re=5800 Ro (2H ) / U b 2 ( U b , H - , - ).

2.1. ()
, SA SARC ,
(DNS)

SARC ,
,
. 2.2,
U- , SA SARC ,
.

2.2. U-
, SA SARC ,
[50]

. 2.3

(. . 1.14)
51

NACA 0012 . ,
SA ,
, SARC

.
SA

SARC

2.3. ( ) ( )
( )
NACA0012 (. .1.14)

2.1.2.3. SA (SACC)
(. [51]),

,
. 5,

52

.
SA , , ,
, - ,
. ,
, , ,

( ) , ,
. , 2000 . SA
[48], .. t-92 [52].
(2.12)

Dcc C5

t2 S 2
a2

(2.28)

a , C5=3.5.

2.4.
(M=2.54) , SA SACC [54],
[53]

2.4,
(M=2.54)
. , ,

53

,
20.

2.1.3 (SST )
1993 SA ,
, 20 .
, , Shear Stress Transport
(SST) , , ,
RANS (.
1.1).
SST k- k- ,
. , k-
,
, [55],
k-
[35]. , [11]

F1 (. ), k-
k- .
[11] ,
k ( ) (
), :
D( k )
[ k T k ] Pk * k
Dt

(2.29)

D( )
[ T ]
Pk 2 1 F1 Dk
T
Dt

(2.30)

(2.29), (2.30)

Pk min t S 2 , 20 * k , S 2 2 Sij Sij ,

(2.32)

20

SACC
DES (. [54]).
54

(
cross-diffusion term)
Dk

2 2

k .

(2.33)

k SST
t k / , ,
[56]

a1k
,
max a1, F2

(2.34)

k- 21.
F2 , (2.34),

F2 tanh arg 22 ,

2 k
500
, 2
arg 2 max
0.09 d w d w

(2.35)

, d w , SA ,

.
,
k- k-
F1 :

k F1 k 1 1 F1 k 2 , F1 1 1 F1 2 , F11 1 F1 2 ,

(2.36)

500 4 2 k
k
, 2 ,
F1 tanh arg14 , arg1 min max
,
2

0
.
09
d

d
CD
d

w
w
k

(2.37)

CDk max{Dk , 10 20 } .
1 2 (2.35) k - k- :

21

(Shear Stress Transport SST-)


.
55

k1 0.85, 1 0.5, 1 = 0.075,


k 2 1.0, 2 0.856, 2 = 0.0828,

(2.38)

* 0.09, 0.41, a1 0.31, * 2

* .

(2.39)

SST (2.29), (2.30)


.
,

w 10

6
,
1y12

(2.40)

, 1 = 0.075, y1
.

U
,
L

(2.41)

U L ,
[11] C 1 10 .
,
k (
, - ),
( t ) ,
: k ( t ) .22
SA , SST -
, [12],

( t ) , , , SA (.
2.1.2.1) . , , , SST
- [57]. , SST
,

.
22

56

,
.
,
(2.32)
F1 (2.37):

Pk min t S 2 , 10 * k , CDk max{Dk , 10 10 } ,

(2.42)

(2.33),
S :

a1k
.
max a1, SF2

(2.43)

, , ,
- .

2.2. LES
2.2.1.
, LES, -
-

(1.1). ,
(., , [58], [59]),
LES :

u 0

u
.
u u p m SGS

E uH u m SGS ( qm qSGS )
t

(2.44)

(2.44)

(2.4)


- (LES)
(RANS): LES SGS (sub57

grid), RANS t (turbulent). ,


LES RANS
(. 1.1),
(2.44),

).
RANS, , ,

SGS 2 SGS S ( u ) I k SGS I , qSGS SGS T ,


3

(2.45)

, ,
,
.


[60].

2.2.2.

. (
) , v SGS
,
. ,

v SGS ~

4
3 3

(2.46)

.
, ,
(. . 1.1)
,
S 2 Sij Sij :

~ S 32

(2.47)
58

(2.47) (2.46):

SGS (C S ) 2 S ,

(2.48)

CS ( ).
(2.48) , ,
(
), . 1.1,

LES

, .

.
(
LES) ,
. ,
,
( ,
), . ,
LES (2.44) , LES
DNS.
LES RANS,
( ) .
LES
, (,
(2.48)) , ,

LES ,
, , . ,
.
, ,
, , , , .
, ,

.
59

DNS
5/3 . , . 2.5
,

C S .

2.5.
, LES
CS 0.215

, LES,

C S 0.215


, .

-

()

(
)

C S 0.215

).

60

a)

b)

2.6.
, LES : a)
323; b)

CS 0.2
.2.6 ,
C S NTS , LES
, .
,
C S 0.2 .
, (2.48)

.
[61],
RANS:

SGS (C S ) 2 {1.0 exp[ ( y / 25) 3 ]}S .

(2.49)

, ,
,
61

. . 2.7,

,
(2.49)

NTS C S 0.2 0.1. , ,


C S 0.2 ,
,
DNS [62], C S 0.1 .

2.7. LES
Re=400,
C S , DNS [62]

2.3. DES
2.3.1. DES RANS
1.3 DES
, RANS (2.4) LES (2.44) . ,
, RANS , DES,
LES

62

l RANS , RANS ,
l C . ,
l DES min{l RANS , C DES } ,

(2.50)

C DES - , ,
DES, ,
RANS LES, l RANS C DES , RANS ,
.
, ,
, C DES l RANS ,
DES RANS, ,
C DES l RANS , - LES.

DES ,

max{ x , y , z }.

(2.51)

2.8. , .

,
( x z y

- . . 2.8),

LES , ,
, 3 x y z .
, ,
, , ,
, lRANS CDES .
, DES
63

lRANS , DES RANS. ,


, ,
,
: l RANS C DES ,
DES C DES ,
LES.
, DES,
SA SST RANS .

2.3.2. DES SA RANS


2.3.2.1. SA
SA RANS

(2.12)

dw,
(2.16) . , ,
, , (2.12)
SA , dw C DES .
SA :

D~SGS
1
P D ~SGS ~ cb 2 ~SGS ~SGS f t1 U 2 ,
Dt

(2.52)

2
cb1

~SGS
,
D c w1 f w 2 f t 2

C DES

~
S f v2

(2.53)

~SGS
,
2 (C DES ) 2

(2.54)

~SGS
,
r= ~ 2
S (C DES ) 2

(2.55)

,
SA RANS ( 2.1.2).

64

, ( ) (2.52)
(.
2.3.3).23
2.3.2.2. SA RANS SA LES .
, SA , DES
. , ,
l RANS d w , DES (2.50)

l DES min{d w , C DES } ,

(2.56)

DES
(2.12) (2.52):

D~DES
1
P D ~DES ~ cb 2 ~DES ~DES f t1 U 2 ,
Dt

(2.57)

~
D c w1 f w b21 f t 2

l DES

~
S f v2

(2.58)

~
,
2
2 l DES

(2.59)

~
r= ~ 2 2 .
S l DES

(2.60)

2.3.3. SA DES

SA DES 1.3.2.1. ,
, .

23


SA .
65

SA DES,
.
SA RANS (2.12) ,
,
f v1 (2.14) f v 2 (2.17). ,
-

ft 2

(2.19)

, ( < ~15). DES



LES DES
.
,
, ,

(. . 1.28).
DES ,
(2.52) ( ).

SGS (C ) 2 S . ,
~
(2.48), C ,
~ ~
, C C ( ) , . 2.9.

~ ~

2.9. Cnorm C /(C )

, SA
DES LES- DES
66

C DES (. (2.50)), ,
Cnorm ( ) , .2.9,
.

C DES , mod C DES ( ) , ( ) 1 / Cnorm ( ) .

(2.61)

l DES (2.50)
l DES min{l RANS , C DES , mod } min{l RANS , C DES ( )} .

(2.62)

[37]:
1 cb1[ f t 2 (1 f t 2 ) f v 2 ] /(cw1 2 f w* )

(1 f t 2 ) f v1
2

(2.63)

( f w* 0.4241 - f w ),
.2.10.

2.10.

SA DES , C DES

[33] .24
. 2.11, 2.12. ,
NTS C DES 0.65.

24

1.3.2.1,
-
(. . 1.27).
67

2.11.
, NTS 323
SA DES (2.62), (2.63)
C DES 0.65

2.12.
, NTS 323 643
SA DES (2.62), (2.63) C DES 0.65

.2.13 ,
, , .
1.3.2.1 (. . 1.28b, 1.29b),
SA DES
. 2.13 ,
SA DES
.

68

(a)

(b)

2.13. y=0.375h
[34]: ()
DES; (b)- DES
(2.62), (2.63)

,
SA DES
, SA DES
,
.

2.3.4. DES SST


DES ,
DES
() RANS DES. ,
( ) DES
RANS , DES SA
DES . , ,
DES SA RANS, SST RANS
DES ( ,

k (2.29), (2.30) SST RANS


SST
l RANS
k 1 / 2 /( * ) ).

SST DES ,
, SST .
SST DES,
[24], [16].
(2.29)

69

Dk
[ k T k ] Pk k 3 / 2 / l RANS ,
Dt

(2.64)

SST
l RANS
k 1 / 2 /( * ) .

(2.64)

, RANS ,
2.3.1, SST RANS
SST
( (2.30)
lRANS (2.64) l LES C DES

Dk SGS
[ k SGS k ] Pk k 3 / 2 / l LES .
Dt

(2.65)

SST
C DES
, SST RANS (. (2.36)),

SST

k- k- F1 (2.37):
SST
k
k
C DES
F1C DES
(1 F1 )C DES

(2.66)

SST
, C DES

k
k
C DES
C DES
k- k- .

,
. ,
NTS (. . 2.14), :
k
k
C DES
0.78; C DES
0.61 .

(2.67)

, SST RANS ,
DES lRANS (2.64) 25
SST
SST
SST
l DES
min{l RANS
, C DES
} .

(2.68)

25

, SST ,
(2.68) ,
SA (. 2.3.3), .
70

2.14.
, NTS 643
k
k
( k )-DES C DES
0.78 , ( k )-DES C DES
0.61 SA-DES
SA
C DES
0.65

SST
DES SA DES. SST DES (2.68)
(2.64), RANS LES ,
, , SA DES,
. , (2.68)
SST
SST RANS l RANS
k , , SA

,
. , SST DES RANS LES
.

2.4. DDES
1.3.2.2, DES ,

, LES-
(. . 1.31), DES ,
, ,
RANS DES. , DES (. 2.3)
,
,

71

z ,

|| max{x, z} ( - .
1.31).
, [37]
DES, Delayed DES (DDES) .
DES ( l DES min{l RANS , C DES } ,
. (2.62)), DDES

l DDES l RANS f d max{0, l RANS C DES } .

(2.69)

, f d 0 , DDES, (

), RANS, f d 1 - DES,

l DDES l RANS max{0, l RANS C DES } min{l RANS , C DES ) l DES .

(2.70)

, f d (2.69)
, , ,
DDES RANS,
() DES.

fd ,

[37],
f d 1 tanh[(Cd 1rd ) Cd 2 ] ,

(2.71)

rd ,
rd

d w2

max{[0.5( S 2 2 )]1 / 2 , 10 10 }

(2.72)

(
1.0, 0 [10]).
, Cd1 Cd2
f d , 0
1.0 . SA
SST DDES,

72

2.1, , f d rd
. 2.15.

2.1

f d DDES SA SST

Cd1

Cd2

SA DDES
SST DDES

8
20

3
3

2.15. f d SA SST DDES

, , f d
(70-80% ) ,
, DDES RANS
|| .
DDES .2.16 SA DES
DDES ,
(10% ),
SA RANS. , DES RANS,
, , DES
:
. , DDES
( RANS).

73

2.16.
x=z=0.1, SA DES, SA DDES
SA RANS ( Cd1 Cd2 fd 8 3 )

,
DDES DES.
,
[19].
XY (. . 2.17), x
, ( 0.03h, h- )

z. , ,
, 0.3h,
SA DES RANS LES DES,
l DES min{d w , C DES } max{x, y , z} ,
.
, DDES f d
,
(. (1 f d ) . 2.17),
DDES RANS (.
).
, () ,
DDES SA RANS, ,
SA DES (DES97),
(. .2.18b). , DDES

,
74

DDES , DES97 (.
.2.18).

2.17. (1-fd),
[19], SA
DDES

2.18.
: (a) , (b) .
SA RANS, SA DES97 SA IDDES
[19]

,
DDES DES, A-airfoil
ONERA.
,

7% . ,
x z (
x z 0.005 ). SA
DES
( . . 2.19),
75

, SA RANS, ( ).
, DES (. 1.3.2.2
. 1.32). . 2.19, DDES DES (
).

2.19.
A-airfoil ONERA 13.3, SA DES SA DDES,
SA RANS [63]

, ,
DES ,
DES DDES.

2.5. IDDES
DDES,
DES ,
, IDDES (Improved DDES) DES
, LES (WMLES),
1.3.2.3.
IDDES DDES
RANS-LES , WMLES,
,
.
, IDDES, DDES ,
WMLES .
,
76

, ,
.

2.5.1. IDDES SA SST RANS


DES, IDDES

l RANS RANS ( d w SA ,
SST
l RANS
k 1 / 2 /( * ) SST . .), .


DES (2.62) DDES (2.69) [40]

~
~
l IDDES f d 1 f e l RANS 1 f d l LES

(2.73)

~
~
f d f e - ( f d [0, 1] , f e 0 ).

IDDES DES DDES ,

, LES ( l LES C DES ),


(. 2.51),
,

minmaxC w d w , C w hmax , hwn , hmax ,

(2.74)

hmax - , hwn -
, C w 0.15 - .
[40],
LES
, , , C S 0.2

(2.48). IDDES,
LES (WMLES
), (DDES ).
~
f d f e ,

RANS DDES/WMLES IDDES ,



.

77

1.
26, IDDES
LES (WMLES),
RANS LES
.
2. , IDDES DDES,
- RANS , -
RANS LES .
~
, f d

f e ,

, ,
, [40],
( , ,
IDDES, ).
.
~
f d
~
f d max{(1 f dt ), f B } ,

(2.75)

f dt 1 tanh[(Cd 1rdt ) C d 2 ] ,
rdt

d w2

max{[0.5( S 2 2 )]1/ 2 , 10 10 }

(2.76)
,

(2.77)

f B min{2 exp( 9 2 ), 1} , 0.25 d w / hmax

(2.78)

f dt rdt f d rd
(2.71), (2.72) DDES ,
.
~
f B ( f d f B ) IDDES
WMLES ( )

26


LES ,
.
78

, d w / hmax
(. .2.20).

2.20. f B f e1

IDDES (2.73)

l IDDES f B 1 f e l RANS 1 f B l LES

(2.79)

f e , , f B , IDDES WMLES,
RANS
LES . RANS
() . f e

f e max f e1 1, 0f e 2 ,

(2.80)

2 exp 11.09 2 , 0
f e1
2
2 exp 9.0 , 0

(2.81)

( .2.20),

f e 2 1 max f t , f l ,

(2.82)

f l tanh[( cl2 rdl )10 ,

(2.83)

f t tanh[( ct2 rdt ) 3 ] ,

(2.84)
79

rdl (2.83) rd
rdl

d w2

max{[0.5( S 2 2 )]1 / 2 , 10 10 }

(2.85)

, ct cl , (2.82), (2.83)
3.55 1.63 IDDES SA 5.0 1.87 IDDES
SST RANS .

2.5.2. IDDES
,
IDDES WMLES ( 1 ) (DDES
WMLES) . , IDDES WMLES-
,

.
2.5.2.1.
IDDES SA SST
RANS ,

Re 0.5H w / / ,

.2.21 - 2.23.

2.21. ,
( ), ,
( ). SA IDDES
80

, . 2.21, ,
, , IDDES
,
.
2.22, 2.23 ,
IDDES . ,
SA, SST RANS , IDDES ( RANS
LES )

.

2.22. SA
IDDES : a , b
, , d
, e, f

81

2.23. , . 2.21, SST IDDES

2.5.2.2.
2.5.2, IDDES
,
: RANS, LES WMLES. ,
,
. IDDES
~
.2.24. , f d ,
, ,

~
f d 1 f dt

(. (2.75)). , IDDES DDES,


, RANS
, f dt 0 , LES , ,
, f dt 1 .

82

,
,
~
, WMLES IDDES ( f d f B ).

~
f d 1 f dt

~
fd fB

2.24. , f d
SA IDDES [19]

2.25.
: (a) , (b) .
SA RANS, SA DDES SA IDDES c
[19]

()

IDDES


RANS, DDES,

, . 2.25.
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