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KEYS ES Weather Patterns and Severe Storms Chp 20

Teaching Background Meterology
Waverly Tornado EF1, 9 miles, 300 yds

How Tornados Form, Instant Egghead, Sci Am - best intro

for demo
Tornado Quiz 10 pts
Tornado Alley Weebly Page - excellent overview
FAQ Tornados NOAA

Noodle out why our area is at high risk for tornados.

How Tornados Form - Spann Ted ED, 4 min

Birth of a Tornado - National Geo 3 min
Tornado Crosses Kansas Highway -2 min
Surviving a Tornado in an Overpass 1991 - 7 min
Unedited footage, Tornado Chase in Hattiesburg 2013, 7 minutes
What are the hazards outside of the center of the funnel?

Read and outline Section 20:1
Read and outline Section 20:2, pages 564-567, through Occluded Fronts. Stop at
Middle-Latitude Cyclones. Be able to explain the first 5 Key Concepts listed under
Reading Focus on page 564.
Dr. Jerveys Assignment: Complete questions 1-24, 583

Chapter 20 Assessment Answer Key, page 583, 1-24.

1. If an area is experiencing consecutive days of constant
weather, this weather is called a) air mass weather
Explanation: An air mass is an immense body of air
characterized by similar temperatures and amounts
of moisture at any given altitude. As it moves, the
characteristics of an air mass change and the weather

in the area over which the air mass moves also


2. An air mass that forms over the Gulf of Mexico is a(n)d. mT

air mass
Explanation: see map on p. 560
3. Air masses that have the greatest influence on weather in
the Midwestern US are b. cP and mT air masses
Explanation: see map on p. 560
4. Lake Effect snow is associated with a(n) cP air mass
Explanation: see map on p. 560
5. Rain, long foretold, long last; short notice, soon past. The
first five words of this weather proverb refer to a(n)
warm front Explanation: Sec. 2 When warm air moves
into an area formerly covered by cooler air a warm
front forms. Warm fronts move slowly, producing light
to moderate precipitation.
6. Which front often produces hours of moderate-to-light
precipitation over a large area? D- warm front

Explanation: Warm and Cold fronts are comparative

and should be Warmer or Colder than the air
already there. When warm air moves into an area
formerly covered by cooler air, a warm front forms.
See visual on page 565. And compare to visual on p.

Weather Word: Cold Front


Weather Word: Warm Front 1:06

Weather Word: Stationary Front 1:13


Weather Word: Occluded Front

7. A thunderstorm is most intense during its c mature stage
8. When a hurricane reaches land, its intensity decreases as
the result of d) friction and lack of warm, moist air
9. The eye of a hurricane b) is warmer than the rest of the


How Hurricanes Form Nat. Geo - 3 min

10.What kinds of changes occur as an air mass moves over an

An air mass changes in its temperature and moisture
condition. Also the air mass changes the weather in the area
over which it moves.


11.Describe the effects of cP and mT air masses on much of the

weather in the United States.
In summer, cP air masses may bring a few days of relatively
cool weather. In winter, this air brings the clear skies and cold
temperatures associated with a cold wave. Continental air
masses can also cause lake-effect snow.
Maritime tropical air masses are warm, moisture-laden and
usually unstable and the sources of most of the precipitation in
the Eastern 2/3 of the USA. In summer, when an mT air mass
invades the central and eastern USA, it brings high
temperatures and high humidity.

Weather Word: Lake Effect Snow 1.5

12.Describe the weather associated with a warm front.
Rain or snow begins and often continues for a long time. A
gradual increase in temperature occurs with the passage of
a warm front as well as a wind shift from the east to the


What kind of weather is associated with a cold
front while it is over an area and once it passes?
Weather along a cold front consists of heavy rainfall and gusty
Once the cold front passes, temperatures drop and the wind
shifts and the area becomes dominated by a relatively cold
mass. The weather clears soon after a cold front passes.

What is a stationary front?
When a cold air mass and a warm air mass met and
the flow of air on either side of a front is neither
toward the cold air or the warm air.
Describe the steps that lead to the formation
of an occluded front.


A cold front wedges warm air upward and aloft. (See

diagram above on p. 11) The cold air merges with the
warm air. Cold air advances faster than warm air,
which may cause rotation and if so, the pressure at
the storms center falls, causing wind speed to
increase. A complicated weather pattern of heavy then
light rains result.
Describe the stages involved in the
development of a middle-latitude cyclone. Middlelatitude cyclones are the main weather producers in
the USA. First, a stationary front develops in which
two air masses with different temperatures move in
opposite directions. Eventually the front takes on a
wave shape. Warm air masses move towards the
Earths poles displacing the colder air. Meanwhile cold
air moves toward the equator. The change in air flow
causes a change in pressure resulting in a
counterclockwise airflow in the Northern Hemisphere.
How are cyclones and anti-cyclones related?
Cyclones are typically found next to each other. Both
systems depend on the flow of air high in the
atmosphere to maintain their circulations. Cyclones
are fueled by upward air movement and reduced
surface pressure. Anti-cyclones form as the result of
downward movement of air and increased surface
18. Describe the formation of a thunderstorm.
How an Anvil Cloud Forms Demonstration 1:22
How Thunderstorms Form 1:04

Strong updrafts supply the initial volume of moist air.

Each new surge of warm air causes the cloud to grow
Usually within an hour of the initial updraft, the
amount and size of the precipitation grows too heavy
to be supported in the updraft.
Gravity takes over and precipitation is released from
the cloud.


Gusty winds, lightning, heavy precipitation, and

sometimes hail are produced.

19. What is a mesocyclone and how does it form?

Note the roll cloud and gust front in the diagram

above. A mesocyclone is a vertical cylinder of
rotating air that develops in the updraft of a
Strong winds aloft cause winds lower in the
atmosphere to roll.
Strong thunderstorm updrafts cause this rolling air to
Once the air is completely vertical, the mesocyclone is




20. Describe the different parts of a hurricane.

Hurricane Formation 2:50 National Geographic
Youll be asked to share 3 facts you learned after
watching this clip.


Warm, moist air moves toward the center of a tropical

storm, turns upward, and rises in a ring of
cumulonimbus clouds.
The eyewall is a doughnut shaped wall of
cumulonimbus clouds that surrounds the center of the
- Greatest wind speeds


- Heaviest rainfall
The eye
-the very center of the storm
- warmest part of the hurricane
-precipitation ceases
-winds subside
NASA video of 2 hurricanes- no sound- clear formation



SoftSchools Hurricane Facts Quiz

Hurricane Hugo 25th Anniversary


Satellite image: Hurricane Hugo