asda

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 55

asda

© All Rights Reserved

- The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH 11)
- PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT/PVT
- Experiment 2 (Free and Forced Vortex)
- PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT/PVT
- Solid Liquid Gas (3rd Grade Science)
- Lab CSTR in Series
- Properties Measurement/PVT Lab Report Uitm
- LAB SOLAHmembrane Separation
- study of growth microorganism in shake flask
- Membrane Separation
- Filmwise and Dropwise Experiment
- Free Force Vortex
- Plasma Torch Design
- Gas Laws
- filmdropwise lab .docx
- Report Biorec Lab 1
- Flow Over Weirs
- chapter17 Physics
- José J. C. Teixeira-Dias (auth.)-Molecular Physical Chemistry_ A Computer-based Approach using Mathematica® and Gaussian-Springer International Publishing (2017)-1.pdf
- victorio oriel - ideal gas law and molar mass equation

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

NO TOPICS PAGES

1 Abstract 2

2 Introduction 3

3 Objectives 4

4 Theory 5

5 Apparatus 11

6 Procedures 12

7 Results 15

8 Sample calculations 18

9 Discussion 23

10 Conclusions 24

11 Recommendations 24

12 References 25

13 Appendices 27

1

1.0 ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to determine the properties of measurement. In this experiment,

the equipment that we used is Perfect Gas Expansion. Overall, there are 5 experiment were

conducted. The first experiment is Boyle’s law experiment where it is carried out in 3 condition

which is from atmosphere to pressurize, vacuum to atmosphere and pressurize to vacuum. The

second experiment is Gay-Lussac law experiment. For this experiment, the relationship of pressure

and temperature obtained by plotting the graph of pressurize and depressurize, this experiment

being conducted for three times to get the average value of the temperature at pressurize and

depressurize vessels. The third experiment is isentropic expansion process which is to

determination value of k. Next experiment is about ratio of volume using Boyle’s law equation to

get the V2/V1 which is ratio of volume. Last but not least, experiment to find out about ratio of

heat capacity where the Cv and Cp was determined in the experiment. The objectives of this

experiment were successfully achieved. Boyle’s and Gay-Lussac’s law was proven in this

experiment when the ideal gas obey the law. The volume ratio and heat capacity were also

determined. The experiment was successful. All the data is tabulated and plotted

2

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The ideal gas uses in this experiment is air. Ideal gas is a chosen one by chemists and

students because it would be much easier to handle because it’s particles have no forces acting

among them and do not take up any space meaning that their atomic volume is completely ignored

and the calculation will be a simple (1). The equation that related with boyle’s law, gay-lussac law

an other is ideal equation low. It can be express as :

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

Boyle’s law state that at constant temperature the relationship between pressure and

volume is inversely proportional. From the Boyle’s law the ratio volume can be determined. The

equation express as:

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

Gay- lussac law state that at constant volume the relationship between pressure and

temperatu is directionally. The equation can be express as:

𝑃1 𝑃2

=

𝑇1 𝑇2

Isentropic also can be called adiabatic process that mean compression or expansion of a

gas takes place with no flow of heat energy either into or out of the gas in other word the energy

flow equal to zero (9). It can be express a

P1v1k P2 v2k s:

By log both side of isentropic equation and the ratio of the heat capacity can be determine.

Ratio of heat capacity= heat capacity at constant pressure/ heat capacity at constant volume.

3

3.0 OBJECTIVE

Experiment 1:

The objective of the experiment is to prove the relationship between pressure and volume of an

ideal gas. It is obey to Boyle’s law. The second objective of the experiment is to compare the

experimental result with theoretical result.

Experiment 2:

The objective of the experiment is to prove the relationship between pressure and temperature of

an ideal gas. It is obeyed to Gay-Lussac Law.

Experiment 3:

Experiment 6:

The objective of this experiment is to calculate the ratio of the volume and compare the theoretical

value.

Experiment 7:

4

4.0 THEORY

An ideal gas is a chosen one by chemists and students because it would be much easier to

handle because it’s particles have no forces acting among them and do not take up any space

meaning that their atomic volume is completely ignored to complicate the simple Ideal Gas Law

(1). Before we look at the Ideal Gas Equation, there are four variable of the equation which are

pressure (P), volume (V), number of mole of gas (n), and temperature (T). Lastly, the constant in

the equation shown below is R, known as the the gas constant, which will be discussed in depth

further later. To describe an ideal gas in mathematically. Consider the following equation:is :

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

An ideal gas will always equal 1 when plugged into this equation if the value is greater it

from the number 1, the more it will behave like a real gas rather than an ideal (1). On the other

hand, the ideal gas equation is related with Boyle’s law, Gay-Lussac law, Charles' Law and

Avogadro's Law. The all gas laws above can always be derived from the Ideal Gas equation. before

know deeper about it, the information needed to be know is the gasess is the particles that move

freely.

Boyle’ Law

Robert Boyle is the first person that discovered the Boyle’s law. It is his second edition of

work that was published in 1662 and stated that Boyle’s law is relationship betwen pressure and

volume (2). The assumtion needed to help better understanding about the behavior of the gases

are it is in ideal state where it is unaffected by real world conditions (1). So that, the Boyle’s law

can be derive as:

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑃=

𝑉

As Boyle’s law state the for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure

and volumeare inversely proportional (3). The inversely proportional is mean the presure is

increase if the volume is deacrease and vice versa. Boyle’s Law states that, at constant number of

5

moles and temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Constant number of moles

is that the number of gas particles remains the same constant temperature is that the average speed

of the particles remains the same. If volume increases, the distance each particle travels before it

hits the wall increases. If the same number of particles is traveling the same speed and they have

to travel farther to hit the wall of the container, they must not hit the wall as often. Then the

frequency with which particles collide with the wall is the same as the gas pressure, if the collision

rate drops, so the pressure also deacrease (8).

For example if the higher pressure apply on the 40 ml of gas in the closed tank, the gas will

undergoes the compaction and the volume of the gas will deacrease. So from the example the

particle inside the tank in a compact condition and the particles is not proper free moving. From

the graph in figure 1 and figure 2 by plotting the recorded values of pressure (p) against volume

(V) a curve is produced. So that it can see from the values that when the pressure is doubled the

volume is halved. If the pressure was to increase by 3 the volume would decrease to a third. Thus,

the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure. By plotting pressure (p) against the reciprocal

of the volume (1/V) a straight line is obtained the gradient of which is the constant in Boyle’s Law

(4). The constant value is nRT. So that it can be PV=constant. if at the first condition known of

pressure an volume, so at condition place also can be calculated by :

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

6

Figure 1: P against V Figure 2: P against 1/V

Gay-Lussac Law

Gay- Lussac Law was conclude by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac with first major program of

research in 1801–1802, he stated that the volume is remain constant of all gas if the tempertaure

increase and it have a same concept with Charles's law (5). Gay- Lussac Law states that at constant

volume, the pressure of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as

its temperature in Kelvin (7). It also can be derive from ideal gases equation and the stated

mathematically, this relationship is:

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑃=

𝑉

From the equation above temperature and pressure are directly proportional (6). This is because

the pressure increase due to temperature increase. This equation is achieved if the temperature unit

in Kelvin and the assummtion is ideal gases.This is because the Kelvin scale is an absolute scale

meaning that it doesn't go negative(7). Constant number of moles means that the number of gas

particles remains the same and constant volume mean the distance each particle travels before it

hits the wall remains the same. If presure and temperature are directly proportional, an increase in

temperature will lead to an increase in pressure. If temperature increases, the average speed of the

gas particles increases. If the same number of particles is colliding at the same rate even though

they are moving faster, they must be traveling farther. the rate at which the particles collide with

the wall of the container same as the presure, if the the rate increases, the pressure increases.

Therefore, pressure and temperature are directly proportional (8).

By plotting pressure (P) against the reciprocal of the temperature(T) a straight line is

obtained the gradient of which is the constant in Gay- Lussac Law as figure 3. The constant value

is nRT. So that it can be PV=constant. if at the first condition known of pressure an volume, so at

condition place also can be calculated by :

7

𝑃1 𝑃2

=

𝑇1 𝑇2

Isentropic also can be called adiabatic process that mean compression or expansion of a

gas takes place with no flow of heat energy either into or out of the gas in other word the energy

flow equal to zero (9). Beside that the differential of entrophy is zero, that mean the entrophy at

condition 1 is same at condition 2. Now use the equation to derived for the entropy of a gas (10):

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 𝑙𝑛(𝑇2 / 𝑇1) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛(𝑝2 / 𝑝1)

P

s 2 s1 s 2o s1o R ln 2 0

P1

s 2o s1o P

ln 2

R P1

P2 s 2o s1o exp( s 2o / R )

exp o

P1 R exp( s1 / R )

Define relative pressure Pr exp s o / R

P2 P

r2

P1 s const Pr 1

8

For ideal gas v2 T2 P1 T2 Pr1 T2 / Pr 2

v1 T1 P2 T1 Pr 2 T1 / Pr1

Define vr T / Pr , so v2 v

r2

v1 s const vr 1

Isentropic Process for ideal gas with constant cv and cP

T v

s 2 s1 cV ln 2 R ln 2 0

T1 v1

note cV R /( k 1)

1 T v

0 R ln 2 ln 2

k 1 T1 v1

1

T k 1 v

0 ln 2 ln 2

T1 v1

1

T k 1 v

2

0 ln

2

T1 v1

Take exponentia l of both sides

1

T k 1 v

exp( 0) 1 2 2

T1 v1

k 1

T2 v

1

T1 cs const

p

const

v2

T2 P2 v2 substituting P2 v2 v1 k 1

but

T1 P1v1 P1v1 v2

k

this yields P2 v or P1v1k P2 v2k

1

P1 cs const

p

const

v2

9

P1v1k P2 v2k

Where v= volume, p= pressure, T= temperature, k is the ratio of specific heat or cP/cv

From the derivation above the ration of volume and the ratio of the heat capacity can be determine.

Ratio of heat capacity= heat capacity at constant pressure/ heat capacity at constant volume.

Ratio of volume can be determined by boyle law. It can be define as :

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

𝑃1 𝑉2

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = =

𝑃2 𝑉1

10

5.0 APPARATUS

Pressure transmitter

Temperature sensor

Vacuum chamber

Pressure chamber

Vacuum pump

Electrode

11

6.0 PROCEDURES

GENERAL START-UP

1. The equipment is connected to a single phase power supply and the unit is switched on.

2. Then, all valves and the pressure reading panel is opened. After that, all the valves is closed.

3. Next, the pipe from compressive port of the pump to pressure chamber is connected or the

pipe from vacuum port of the pump to vacuum chamber is connected. Now, the unit is

ready to use.

EXPERIMENT 1

1. The general start up procedure is performed. All valve is being make sure that is fully

closed.

2. Compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is allowed to

increase up to about 150kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from

the chamber.

3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is being monitored until the reading stabilizes.

4. The pressure reading for both chambers is recorded before expansion.

5. V02 is fully opened and the pressurized air is allowed to flow into the atmospheric

chamber.

6. The pressure reading for both chambers after expansion is recorded.

7. The experiment is repeated under difference condition:

a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.

b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.

8. Then, the PV value is calculated and the Boyles’ Law is being proven.

12

EXPERIMENT 2

1. The general start up is being performed. All valves is being make sure to fully closed.

2. The hose from the compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.

3. The compressive pump is switched on and the temperature for every increment of 10kPa I

the chamber is recorded. The pump stop went the pressure PT1 reaches about 160kPa.

4. Then, valve V 01 is opened and the pressurized air is allowed to flow out. The temperature

reading for every decrement of 10kPa is being recorded.

5. The experiment is stopped when the pressure reaches atmospheric pressure.

6. The experiment is repeated for 3 times to get the average value.

7. The graph of the pressure versus temperature is plotted.

EXPERIMENT 3

1. The general start up is performed and all valve is being make sure to fully closed.

2. The hose form compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.

3. The compressive pump is switched on and allowed the pressure inside the chamber to

increase until about 160kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from

the chamber.

4. The pressure reading inside is monitored until it is stabilizes. The pressure reading PT1 and

temperature reading TT1 are recorded.

5. Then, the valve V 01 slightly opened and the air is allowed to flow out slowly until it reach

atmospheric pressure.

6. The pressure of the reading and the temperature reading after the expansion process are

recorded.

7. The isentropic expansion process is discussed.

13

EXPERIMENT 4

1. The general start up procedure is performed. Make sure all valve is close

2. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is allowed

increase up to 150kPa. Then, switched off the pump and the hose is removed from the

chamber.

3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until it stabilizes.

4. The pressure reading for both chambers before the expansion is recorded.

5. The V 02 is opened and the pressure air is allowed flow into the atmospheric chamber

slowly.

6. The pressure reading for both chambers after the expansion is recorded.

7. The experiment procedure is repeated for difference condition

a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.

b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.

8. Then, the ratio of the volume is calculated and compare with the theoretical value.

EXPERIMENT 5

1. The general start up is performed. Make sure all valve is fully close.

2. The compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.

3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber allowed to

increase until about 160kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the

chamber.

4. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until is stabilized. The pressure

reading PT1 and temperature TT1 is recorded.

5. The valve V 01 is fully opened and bring it to close until after a few seconds. The reading

PT1 and temperature TT1 is monitored and recorded until it become stable.

6. The ratio of the heat capacity is determined and then it being compared with the theoretical

value.

14

7.0 RESULTS

163.9 30.3

15

EXPERIMENT 6 – Determination of ratio of volume from pressurized chamber to vacuum

chamber

16

Increasing pressure versus temperature

180

160

140

120

pressure, kPa

100

80

60

40

20

0

26.5 26.7 27.1 28 29.1 29.8 30.3

temperature, 0C

140

120

100

pressure, kPa

80

60

40

20

0

26.4 26 29.7 25.4 25 23

temperature, 0C

17

8.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION

Experiment 1 :

1. P1V1 = nRT

Assume n = 1 mol

P1 = 154.8 kPa

R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1

Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑉1 =

𝑃1

𝑉1 =

154.8 𝑘𝑃𝑎

V1 = 16.12 L

2. P2V2 = nRT

Assume n = 1 mol

P2 = 119.1 kPa

R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1

Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑉2 =

𝑃2

𝑉2 =

119.1 𝑘𝑃𝑎

V2 = 20.95 L

18

3. From Boyle’s Law,

P1V1 = P2V2

V1 = 16.12 L , V2 = 20.95 L

2495.376 kPa.L = 2495.145 kPa.L

The difference is only 0.231, therefore the Boyle’s Law is verified.

Experiment 3 :

1. 𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 0

𝑇2 𝑃2

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 𝑇1 ) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 ( 𝑃1 )

300.55 𝐾 105.8 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 302.55 𝐾 ) − 8.314 L kPa K −1 mol−1 𝑙𝑛 ( 155.7 𝑘𝑃𝑎 )

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = − 3.2124 – (−3.2124) = 0

Therefore, the differential of entrophy is zero.

19

Experiment 6 :

1. P1V1 = nRT

Assume n = 1 mol

P1 = 154.7 kPa

R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1

Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑉1 =

𝑃1

𝑉1 =

154.7 𝑘𝑃𝑎

V1 = 16.13 L

2. P2V2 = nRT

Assume n = 1 mol

P2 = 123.4 kPa

R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1

Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇

𝑉2 =

𝑃2

𝑉2 =

123.4 𝑘𝑃𝑎

V2 = 20.22 L

20

3. P1 = 154.7 kPa , P2 = 123.4 kPa

V1 = 16.12 L , V2 = 20.95 L

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒,

𝑉2 20.95 L

=

𝑉1 16.12 L

𝑉2

= 1.29

𝑉1

𝑃 𝑉2

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝑃1 = ,

2 𝑉1

𝑉2 154.7 kPa

=

𝑉1 123.4 kPa

𝑉2

= 1.25

𝑉1

The difference between theoretical values with Boyle’s Law value is 0.04.

Experiment 7 :

s1 = s2

𝑇2 𝑃2

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 𝑇1 ) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 ( 𝑃1 )

297.65 𝐾 152.2 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 289.55 𝐾 ) − 8.314 L kPa K −1 mol−1 𝑙𝑛 ( 103.5 𝑘𝑃𝑎 )

21

𝑐𝑣 = 𝑐𝑝 − 𝑅

𝐶𝑝 114.5 L kPa K−1 mol−1

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝐶 = 106.186 L kPa K−1 mol−1

𝑉

= 1.078

2. P1v1k P2 v2k

𝑃1 𝑉 k

= ( 2)

𝑃2 𝑉1

𝑃 𝑉

Log 𝑃1 = k Log (𝑉2 )

2 1

Log 103.5 𝑘𝑃𝑎 = k Log (16.4 𝐿)

k = 0.96

22

9.0 DISCUSSION

Boyle’s law stated that the pressure of gas inversely proportional to the volume of a

container (3). From the results recorded, some calculation have been made in order to know the

difference value between before and after of the expansion. For experiment 1, the value of V1 and

V2 are 16.12 L and 20.95 L respectively. After substituting in Boyle’s Law equation, these

difference values are very small and close with the theoretical value, therefore the Boyles’s Law

is verified. According to the results, it can been said that the pressure and volume inversely

proportional. When the pressure increase, the volume start to decrease. This is happen because if

the gas of the same pressure with constant temperature injected into small and big container which

means have different volume. The gas molecule in small container have less spacious room and

will collide to the wall and with each other more often which exert less pressure(8).

Gay-Lussac’s Law stated that pressure is directly proportional to the temperature which

means if the pressure increase, the temperature also increase with constant volume (6). Experiment

2 has been conducted in order to know the relationship between pressure and temperature.

Therefore, from the data tabulated and graph plotted, it can be said that the Gay-Lussac’s Law is

verified. The same concept applied here, if the temperature of a gas in a container increase, the

heat energy of the system transfer its energy into the molecule of gas which actually increase the

frequency of collision in that container which exert more pressure.

Isentropic expansion process occur when the system are reversible and adiabatic where no

heat will be transferred in or out and no energy transformation occurs. Based on the calculation, a

specific heat capacity at constant pressure, 𝑐𝑝 is 484.348 L kPa K −1 mol−1 now known which can

be used in calculating the differential in entropy. The process is said to be isentropic since there

was no change in the entropy throughout the process (9). It was obtained that both temperature and

pressure of the gas before expansion were higher compared to after the expansion.

Ratio volume can be determine by manipulating the equation of Boyle’s law. Boyle’s law

proposed an equation P1V1 = P2V2 (4) and after manipulate the equation ratio volume can be

determine by V2/V1 = P1/P2. The theoretical value is 1.25, where from Boyle’s Law it shows that

the ratio volume is 1.29. In the experiment it will give a slightly different where the error or

percentage difference are between 10 and -10. There must be environmental factors that affect the

23

stability of pressure and temperature or random mistake during experiment. Hence, the difference

between theoretical values with Boyle’s Law value is 0.04 which equal to 4%. Since the percentage

error is less than 10%, it can be said that the experiment is successful.

Determination of ratio of heat capacity using the expression of the heat capacity ratio and

it gives the 0.96. The theoretical value of this experiment is 1.078, therefore the differential values

is 0.118. The actual value is 10.9% from the theoretical value based on deviation calculation. The

actual intermediate pressure is lower than the measured one. It can be concluded the experiment

was successfully.

10.0 CONCLUSION

according to the Boyle’s law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, isentropic expansion, and heat capacity equation.

We have proven the Boyle’s law and Gay-Lussac’s law based on their law. Although there are

some parallax errors in conducting the experiment, we managed to finish all the experiments

according to the objectives given. As a result, the experiment is successfully done and the objective

of the experiment is achieved.

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The apparatus must be handled carefully to avoid any accidents in the lab such as explosion

due to excessive pressure within the chambers.

2. The unit must all be adjusted and connected to the right ports between the chamber and

hose. The valves had to be watched and opened carefully in accordance to the procedures

or manuals given to avoid any mistakes.

3. Always keep eyes on the sensor while monitoring the board because the temperature or

pressure could increase or decrease really fast.

4. Repeat the experiment to get the average value

5. The place where the experiment is conducted also must be at stable and no vibration.

6. Each of the experiment must do the start-up and shut-down step in order to make sure

there is no gas left in the chamber.

24

12.0 REFERENCES

(1) Robert Boyle | Chemical Heritage Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-

history/themes/early-chemistry-and-gases/boyle.aspx

(2) The Ideal Gas Law - Chemwiki. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Phases

_of_Matter/Gases/Gas_Laws/The_Ideal_Gas_Law

(3) Boyle's law - New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Boyle's_law

(4) Pressure and volume relationship of a gas – Boyle's law - Pass My Exams: Easy exam

revision notes for GSCE Physics. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/physics/pressure-volume-relationship-of-gas-

Boyles-law.html

(5) Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac | Chemical Heritage Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16,

history/themes/early-chemistry-and-gases/gay-lussac.aspx

(6) Gay Lussac's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.molecularsoft.com/help/Gas_Laws-Gay_Lussac.htm

(7) Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship - Video & Lesson

http://study.com/academy/lesson/gay-lussacs-law-gas-pressure-and-temperature-

relationship.html

25

(8) Kinetic Molecular Theory. (2005). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.chemprofessor.com/kmt.htm

(9) Compression and Expansion of Gases. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/compression-expansion-gases-d_605.html

(10) Isentropic Compression or Expansion. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/K-12/airplane/compexp.html

26

13.0 APPENDICES

27

Vacuum and pressure chamber

28

- The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH 11)Загружено:Muhammad Haidharul Irfan
- PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT/PVTЗагружено:amirahabidin
- Experiment 2 (Free and Forced Vortex)Загружено:paan
- PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT/PVTЗагружено:Nurwani Hussin
- Solid Liquid Gas (3rd Grade Science)Загружено:OfficialVoki
- Lab CSTR in SeriesЗагружено:Khairul Zakirin
- Properties Measurement/PVT Lab Report UitmЗагружено:MXR-3
- LAB SOLAHmembrane SeparationЗагружено:So Lah Musa
- study of growth microorganism in shake flaskЗагружено:I-hana D'yana
- Membrane SeparationЗагружено:Sharing Caring
- Filmwise and Dropwise ExperimentЗагружено:ValentinoDullSatin
- Free Force VortexЗагружено:amirul
- Plasma Torch DesignЗагружено:Phiciato Sirait
- Gas LawsЗагружено:Sherna Tesara
- filmdropwise lab .docxЗагружено:aizaqsyazwan
- Report Biorec Lab 1Загружено:Muhammad Arshad
- Flow Over WeirsЗагружено:Akmalhakim Zakaria
- chapter17 PhysicsЗагружено:nallilatha
- José J. C. Teixeira-Dias (auth.)-Molecular Physical Chemistry_ A Computer-based Approach using Mathematica® and Gaussian-Springer International Publishing (2017)-1.pdfЗагружено:trocLas
- victorio oriel - ideal gas law and molar mass equationЗагружено:api-233267698
- Thermodynamic PropertiesЗагружено:Shlok Baruaole
- Boris Khasainov, Allen Kuhl and Sergey Victorov- Equilibrium-Chemistry Model for Multiphase Reactive Premixed and Nonpremixed FlowsЗагружено:Alarmak
- Classification of Matter and changes.pptЗагружено:ainulavida
- IDEAL GAS EQUAT-WPS Office.pptxЗагружено:Dianalyn Marquez
- New Text DocumentЗагружено:ercillo
- Font 40Загружено:Mark German Padua
- gay lussacs lawЗагружено:Melanie Mijares Elias
- E-45-ThermoЗагружено:Ian Dulu Palen
- Task 3 RaporЗагружено:erenpaksoy
- lesson plan templateЗагружено:api-390078112

- CHAPTER 6Загружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Bujiboo FinalЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- 15768_FULLTEXT(1)Загружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Subsea Production System - Overview.pptЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Ebenezer Parker's ThesisЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Evaluation of Sugarcane Bagasse as Lost Circulation MaterialsЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Banana Trunk as a Lost Circulation Material in Hydrocarbon Drilling FluidЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- The Effect of Using Different Weights of Caustic SodaЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Evaluating_the_Effects_of_Additives_on_D(1).pdfЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Composition and Method of Controlling Lost Circulation From WellboresЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Material for Recovering Lost Circulation in WellsЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Study on Rice Husk as Lost Circulation MaterialЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Subsea Production System - Overview.pptЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- 6. Sizing and Wall ThicknessЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- PumpsЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- CompressorЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Subsea Production System - OverviewЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Chapter 3 - Inflation and Escalation 10102016Загружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Tutorial 5Загружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- SynopsisЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- well testЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Hybrid Input Shaping and Non-collocated PID Control of a Gantry Crane System.comparative AssessmentЗагружено:Muhammad Nursalam
- Hominid EvolutionЗагружено:rachelmacleod
- Sample WordЗагружено:Ethan Jones
- Tech Note Multi Phase Flow ModelsЗагружено:Aristides H Garcia Reyes
- Taylor Series and PolynomialsЗагружено:Benni Wewok

- Testing Precious Metals C.M HokeЗагружено:z987456321
- Entropy Generation Lost Work 03Загружено:Ferdous Shamaun
- Physics Text Book Fourth Edition.Загружено:jess
- HPAC Primary Secondary Loop vs. Primary Loop Only SystemsЗагружено:Antonio Lebrun
- 65173 Evolution Tendencies of Physico-Chemical EOR Methods.pdfЗагружено:Henry A. Norza
- F252_User_Manual_Issue_1p3_2__2_(2)Загружено:Christian Flores Lozano
- Thermodynamics by Ryogo Kubo, North-Holland (1968)Загружено:Saurav Parmar
- Grade 11 Physics ExamЗагружено:DanaEHorochowski
- 8. Mech - Ijmperd - Latent Heat Storage Material - Sanjay KumarЗагружено:TJPRC Publications
- Bed Agglomeration Characteristics in Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass Fuels Using Olivine as Bed MaterialЗагружено:taokan81
- Preventing Houston Water Heater RepairsЗагружено:Phil Luther
- AtheismЗагружено:Fuzail Ahmad
- Problem Set 2Загружено:alfa_macasaet
- Problems in ThermodynamicsЗагружено:Ram Varadhan
- Chapter 7-tdЗагружено:Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui
- 0625_w12_qp_63.pdfЗагружено:shaamini_devi_5
- Perbandingan r134a Dan r600aЗагружено:Reddy Juliardi
- (01)Heat Revision MC Test with AnswersЗагружено:Gordon Liang
- AIRCOND - IntroductionЗагружено:technicalpurchase
- Offshore Turbine ApplicationsЗагружено:dk4monjure
- The effect of temperature on the desorption of goldЗагружено:cuberbill1980
- Boiler Efficiency - Google SearchЗагружено:zoksi
- Landmark RTU Guidespec (1)Загружено:John Chirinos
- Heat 4e Chap01 LectureЗагружено:Cesar Lopez
- Smart Zone BrochureЗагружено:SmartTemp.com.au
- Ch19 Sample ExerciseЗагружено:Wardah Faizah
- 4. ElectricalЗагружено:Caza George
- EthyleneЗагружено:2065001779207
- 156-SUPP-100_Rev0.1125651602Загружено:Attila Marton
- Student Member PricelistЗагружено:librospiratas