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NO TOPICS PAGES

1 Abstract 2

2 Introduction 3

3 Objectives 4

4 Theory 5

5 Apparatus 11

6 Procedures 12

7 Results 15

8 Sample calculations 18

9 Discussion 23

10 Conclusions 24

11 Recommendations 24

12 References 25

13 Appendices 27

1
1.0 ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to determine the properties of measurement. In this experiment,
the equipment that we used is Perfect Gas Expansion. Overall, there are 5 experiment were
conducted. The first experiment is Boyle’s law experiment where it is carried out in 3 condition
which is from atmosphere to pressurize, vacuum to atmosphere and pressurize to vacuum. The
second experiment is Gay-Lussac law experiment. For this experiment, the relationship of pressure
and temperature obtained by plotting the graph of pressurize and depressurize, this experiment
being conducted for three times to get the average value of the temperature at pressurize and
depressurize vessels. The third experiment is isentropic expansion process which is to
determination value of k. Next experiment is about ratio of volume using Boyle’s law equation to
get the V2/V1 which is ratio of volume. Last but not least, experiment to find out about ratio of
heat capacity where the Cv and Cp was determined in the experiment. The objectives of this
experiment were successfully achieved. Boyle’s and Gay-Lussac’s law was proven in this
experiment when the ideal gas obey the law. The volume ratio and heat capacity were also
determined. The experiment was successful. All the data is tabulated and plotted

2
2.0 INTRODUCTION

The ideal gas uses in this experiment is air. Ideal gas is a chosen one by chemists and
students because it would be much easier to handle because it’s particles have no forces acting
among them and do not take up any space meaning that their atomic volume is completely ignored
and the calculation will be a simple (1). The equation that related with boyle’s law, gay-lussac law
an other is ideal equation low. It can be express as :

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

## Where P is presure, T is temperture, V is volume, r is constant, n is mole.

Boyle’s law state that at constant temperature the relationship between pressure and
volume is inversely proportional. From the Boyle’s law the ratio volume can be determined. The
equation express as:

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2
Gay- lussac law state that at constant volume the relationship between pressure and
temperatu is directionally. The equation can be express as:
𝑃1 𝑃2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2
Isentropic also can be called adiabatic process that mean compression or expansion of a
gas takes place with no flow of heat energy either into or out of the gas in other word the energy
flow equal to zero (9). It can be express a

P1v1k  P2 v2k s:

## Where k is the ratio of heat capacity.

By log both side of isentropic equation and the ratio of the heat capacity can be determine.
Ratio of heat capacity= heat capacity at constant pressure/ heat capacity at constant volume.

3
3.0 OBJECTIVE

Experiment 1:

The objective of the experiment is to prove the relationship between pressure and volume of an
ideal gas. It is obey to Boyle’s law. The second objective of the experiment is to compare the
experimental result with theoretical result.

Experiment 2:

The objective of the experiment is to prove the relationship between pressure and temperature of
an ideal gas. It is obeyed to Gay-Lussac Law.

Experiment 3:

## The objective of this experiment is to show the isentropic expansion process.

Experiment 6:

The objective of this experiment is to calculate the ratio of the volume and compare the theoretical
value.

Experiment 7:

4
4.0 THEORY

## Ideal Gas Law

An ideal gas is a chosen one by chemists and students because it would be much easier to
handle because it’s particles have no forces acting among them and do not take up any space
meaning that their atomic volume is completely ignored to complicate the simple Ideal Gas Law
(1). Before we look at the Ideal Gas Equation, there are four variable of the equation which are
pressure (P), volume (V), number of mole of gas (n), and temperature (T). Lastly, the constant in
the equation shown below is R, known as the the gas constant, which will be discussed in depth
further later. To describe an ideal gas in mathematically. Consider the following equation:is :

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

An ideal gas will always equal 1 when plugged into this equation if the value is greater it
from the number 1, the more it will behave like a real gas rather than an ideal (1). On the other
hand, the ideal gas equation is related with Boyle’s law, Gay-Lussac law, Charles' Law and
Avogadro's Law. The all gas laws above can always be derived from the Ideal Gas equation. before
know deeper about it, the information needed to be know is the gasess is the particles that move
freely.

Boyle’ Law

Robert Boyle is the first person that discovered the Boyle’s law. It is his second edition of
work that was published in 1662 and stated that Boyle’s law is relationship betwen pressure and
volume (2). The assumtion needed to help better understanding about the behavior of the gases
are it is in ideal state where it is unaffected by real world conditions (1). So that, the Boyle’s law
can be derive as:
𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑃=
𝑉

As Boyle’s law state the for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure
and volumeare inversely proportional (3). The inversely proportional is mean the presure is
increase if the volume is deacrease and vice versa. Boyle’s Law states that, at constant number of

5
moles and temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Constant number of moles
is that the number of gas particles remains the same constant temperature is that the average speed
of the particles remains the same. If volume increases, the distance each particle travels before it
hits the wall increases. If the same number of particles is traveling the same speed and they have
to travel farther to hit the wall of the container, they must not hit the wall as often. Then the
frequency with which particles collide with the wall is the same as the gas pressure, if the collision
rate drops, so the pressure also deacrease (8).

For example if the higher pressure apply on the 40 ml of gas in the closed tank, the gas will
undergoes the compaction and the volume of the gas will deacrease. So from the example the
particle inside the tank in a compact condition and the particles is not proper free moving. From
the graph in figure 1 and figure 2 by plotting the recorded values of pressure (p) against volume
(V) a curve is produced. So that it can see from the values that when the pressure is doubled the
volume is halved. If the pressure was to increase by 3 the volume would decrease to a third. Thus,
the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure. By plotting pressure (p) against the reciprocal
of the volume (1/V) a straight line is obtained the gradient of which is the constant in Boyle’s Law
(4). The constant value is nRT. So that it can be PV=constant. if at the first condition known of
pressure an volume, so at condition place also can be calculated by :

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

6
Figure 1: P against V Figure 2: P against 1/V

Gay-Lussac Law

Gay- Lussac Law was conclude by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac with first major program of
research in 1801–1802, he stated that the volume is remain constant of all gas if the tempertaure
increase and it have a same concept with Charles's law (5). Gay- Lussac Law states that at constant
volume, the pressure of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as
its temperature in Kelvin (7). It also can be derive from ideal gases equation and the stated
mathematically, this relationship is:

𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑃=
𝑉

From the equation above temperature and pressure are directly proportional (6). This is because
the pressure increase due to temperature increase. This equation is achieved if the temperature unit
in Kelvin and the assummtion is ideal gases.This is because the Kelvin scale is an absolute scale
meaning that it doesn't go negative(7). Constant number of moles means that the number of gas
particles remains the same and constant volume mean the distance each particle travels before it
hits the wall remains the same. If presure and temperature are directly proportional, an increase in
temperature will lead to an increase in pressure. If temperature increases, the average speed of the
gas particles increases. If the same number of particles is colliding at the same rate even though
they are moving faster, they must be traveling farther. the rate at which the particles collide with
the wall of the container same as the presure, if the the rate increases, the pressure increases.
Therefore, pressure and temperature are directly proportional (8).
By plotting pressure (P) against the reciprocal of the temperature(T) a straight line is
obtained the gradient of which is the constant in Gay- Lussac Law as figure 3. The constant value
is nRT. So that it can be PV=constant. if at the first condition known of pressure an volume, so at
condition place also can be calculated by :

7
𝑃1 𝑃2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2

## Isentropic Expension Process

Isentropic also can be called adiabatic process that mean compression or expansion of a
gas takes place with no flow of heat energy either into or out of the gas in other word the energy
flow equal to zero (9). Beside that the differential of entrophy is zero, that mean the entrophy at
condition 1 is same at condition 2. Now use the equation to derived for the entropy of a gas (10):
𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 𝑙𝑛(𝑇2 / 𝑇1) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛(𝑝2 / 𝑝1)

P 
s 2  s1  s 2o  s1o  R ln  2   0
 P1 
s 2o  s1o P 
 ln  2 
R  P1 
P2  s 2o  s1o  exp( s 2o / R )
 exp    o
P1  R  exp( s1 / R )

Define relative pressure Pr  exp s o / R 
 P2  P
   r2
 P1  s  const Pr 1

8
For ideal gas v2 T2  P1  T2  Pr1  T2 / Pr 2 
    
v1 T1  P2  T1  Pr 2  T1 / Pr1 

Define vr  T / Pr , so  v2  v
   r2
 v1  s  const vr 1
Isentropic Process for ideal gas with constant cv and cP

T  v 
s 2  s1  cV ln  2   R ln  2   0
 T1   v1 
note cV  R /( k  1)
 1 T   v 
0  R ln  2   ln  2 
 k  1  T1   v1 
1
 T  k 1 v 
0  ln  2   ln  2 
 T1   v1 
 1

 T  k 1  v 
2 
0  ln     
2
 T1   v1 
 
Take exponentia l of both sides
1
 T  k 1  v 
exp( 0)  1   2    2 
 T1   v1 

k 1
 T2  v 
    1 
 T1  cs const
p
const
 v2 

T2 P2 v2 substituting P2 v2  v1  k 1
but
  
T1 P1v1 P1v1  v2 
k
this yields  P2  v  or P1v1k  P2 v2k
    1 
 P1  cs const
p
const
 v2 

## The isentropic or adiabatic process can also be expressed a

9
P1v1k  P2 v2k
Where v= volume, p= pressure, T= temperature, k is the ratio of specific heat or cP/cv
From the derivation above the ration of volume and the ratio of the heat capacity can be determine.
Ratio of heat capacity= heat capacity at constant pressure/ heat capacity at constant volume.
Ratio of volume can be determined by boyle law. It can be define as :
𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2
𝑃1 𝑉2
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = =
𝑃2 𝑉1

10
5.0 APPARATUS

## Figure 1: Perfect gas expansion apparatus, model TH 11

 Pressure transmitter

##  Pressure relief valve

 Temperature sensor

 Vacuum chamber

 Pressure chamber

 Vacuum pump

 Electrode

11
6.0 PROCEDURES

GENERAL START-UP

1. The equipment is connected to a single phase power supply and the unit is switched on.
2. Then, all valves and the pressure reading panel is opened. After that, all the valves is closed.
3. Next, the pipe from compressive port of the pump to pressure chamber is connected or the
pipe from vacuum port of the pump to vacuum chamber is connected. Now, the unit is

EXPERIMENT 1

1. The general start up procedure is performed. All valve is being make sure that is fully
closed.
2. Compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is allowed to
increase up to about 150kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from
the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is being monitored until the reading stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers is recorded before expansion.
5. V02 is fully opened and the pressurized air is allowed to flow into the atmospheric
chamber.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers after expansion is recorded.
7. The experiment is repeated under difference condition:
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.
8. Then, the PV value is calculated and the Boyles’ Law is being proven.

12
EXPERIMENT 2

1. The general start up is being performed. All valves is being make sure to fully closed.
2. The hose from the compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switched on and the temperature for every increment of 10kPa I
the chamber is recorded. The pump stop went the pressure PT1 reaches about 160kPa.
4. Then, valve V 01 is opened and the pressurized air is allowed to flow out. The temperature
reading for every decrement of 10kPa is being recorded.
5. The experiment is stopped when the pressure reaches atmospheric pressure.
6. The experiment is repeated for 3 times to get the average value.
7. The graph of the pressure versus temperature is plotted.

EXPERIMENT 3

1. The general start up is performed and all valve is being make sure to fully closed.
2. The hose form compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switched on and allowed the pressure inside the chamber to
increase until about 160kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from
the chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside is monitored until it is stabilizes. The pressure reading PT1 and
5. Then, the valve V 01 slightly opened and the air is allowed to flow out slowly until it reach
atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure of the reading and the temperature reading after the expansion process are
recorded.
7. The isentropic expansion process is discussed.

13
EXPERIMENT 4

1. The general start up procedure is performed. Make sure all valve is close
2. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is allowed
increase up to 150kPa. Then, switched off the pump and the hose is removed from the
chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until it stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers before the expansion is recorded.
5. The V 02 is opened and the pressure air is allowed flow into the atmospheric chamber
slowly.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers after the expansion is recorded.
7. The experiment procedure is repeated for difference condition
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.
8. Then, the ratio of the volume is calculated and compare with the theoretical value.

EXPERIMENT 5

1. The general start up is performed. Make sure all valve is fully close.
2. The compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber allowed to
increase until about 160kPa. Then, switch off the pump and remove the hose from the
chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until is stabilized. The pressure
reading PT1 and temperature TT1 is recorded.
5. The valve V 01 is fully opened and bring it to close until after a few seconds. The reading
PT1 and temperature TT1 is monitored and recorded until it become stable.
6. The ratio of the heat capacity is determined and then it being compared with the theoretical
value.

14
7.0 RESULTS

163.9 30.3

## After expansion 103.5 24.9

15
EXPERIMENT 6 – Determination of ratio of volume from pressurized chamber to vacuum
chamber

## After expansion 105.8 27.4

16
Increasing pressure versus temperature
180

160

140

120
pressure, kPa

100

80

60

40

20

0
26.5 26.7 27.1 28 29.1 29.8 30.3
temperature, 0C

## Decreasing pressure versus temperature

140

120

100
pressure, kPa

80

60

40

20

0
26.4 26 29.7 25.4 25 23
temperature, 0C

## Graph 2 : Decreasing pressure versus temperature

17
8.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION

Experiment 1 :

1. P1V1 = nRT
Assume n = 1 mol
P1 = 154.8 kPa
R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1
Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑉1 =
𝑃1

## 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 (8.314 𝐿. 𝑘𝑃𝑎. 𝐾 −1 . 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 )(300.15 𝐾)

𝑉1 =
154.8 𝑘𝑃𝑎
V1 = 16.12 L

2. P2V2 = nRT
Assume n = 1 mol
P2 = 119.1 kPa
R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1
Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑉2 =
𝑃2

## 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 (8.314 𝐿. 𝑘𝑃𝑎. 𝐾 −1 . 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 )(300.15 𝐾)

𝑉2 =
119.1 𝑘𝑃𝑎
V2 = 20.95 L

18
3. From Boyle’s Law,
P1V1 = P2V2

## P1 = 154.8 kPa , P2 = 119.1 kPa

V1 = 16.12 L , V2 = 20.95 L

## 154.8 kPa (16.12 L) = 119.1 kPa (20.95 L)

2495.376 kPa.L = 2495.145 kPa.L
The difference is only 0.231, therefore the Boyle’s Law is verified.

Experiment 3 :

1. 𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 0
𝑇2 𝑃2
𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 𝑇1 ) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 ( 𝑃1 )
300.55 𝐾 105.8 𝑘𝑃𝑎
𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 302.55 𝐾 ) − 8.314 L kPa K −1 mol−1 𝑙𝑛 ( 155.7 𝑘𝑃𝑎 )

## 𝑐𝑝 = 484.348 L kPa K −1 mol−1

𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = − 3.2124 – (−3.2124) = 0
Therefore, the differential of entrophy is zero.

19
Experiment 6 :

1. P1V1 = nRT
Assume n = 1 mol
P1 = 154.7 kPa
R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1
Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑉1 =
𝑃1

## 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 (8.314 𝐿. 𝑘𝑃𝑎. 𝐾 −1 . 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 )(300.15 𝐾)

𝑉1 =
154.7 𝑘𝑃𝑎
V1 = 16.13 L

2. P2V2 = nRT
Assume n = 1 mol
P2 = 123.4 kPa
R = 8.314 L kPa K-1mol-1
Tconstant = 300.15 K @ 27°C

𝑛𝑅𝑇
𝑉2 =
𝑃2

## 1𝑚𝑜𝑙 (8.314 𝐿. 𝑘𝑃𝑎. 𝐾 −1 . 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 )(300.15 𝐾)

𝑉2 =
123.4 𝑘𝑃𝑎
V2 = 20.22 L

20
3. P1 = 154.7 kPa , P2 = 123.4 kPa
V1 = 16.12 L , V2 = 20.95 L

## - From Boyle’s Law,

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒,

𝑉2 20.95 L
=
𝑉1 16.12 L
𝑉2
= 1.29
𝑉1

## - From theoretical value,

𝑃 𝑉2
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝑃1 = ,
2 𝑉1

𝑉2 154.7 kPa
=
𝑉1 123.4 kPa
𝑉2
= 1.25
𝑉1

The difference between theoretical values with Boyle’s Law value is 0.04.

Experiment 7 :

## 1. From theoretical value,

s1 = s2
𝑇2 𝑃2
𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 𝑇1 ) − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 ( 𝑃1 )
297.65 𝐾 152.2 𝑘𝑃𝑎
𝑠2 − 𝑠1 = 𝑐𝑝 ln ( 289.55 𝐾 ) − 8.314 L kPa K −1 mol−1 𝑙𝑛 ( 103.5 𝑘𝑃𝑎 )

21
𝑐𝑣 = 𝑐𝑝 − 𝑅

## = 106.186 L kPa K-1mol-1

𝐶𝑝 114.5 L kPa K−1 mol−1
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝐶 = 106.186 L kPa K−1 mol−1
𝑉

= 1.078

2. P1v1k  P2 v2k
𝑃1 𝑉 k
= ( 2)
𝑃2 𝑉1

𝑃 𝑉
Log 𝑃1 = k Log (𝑉2 )
2 1

## 152.2 kPa 24.5 𝐿

Log 103.5 𝑘𝑃𝑎 = k Log (16.4 𝐿)

k = 0.96

## The differential values is 0.118. Therefore the deviation is 10.9%.

22
9.0 DISCUSSION

Boyle’s law stated that the pressure of gas inversely proportional to the volume of a
container (3). From the results recorded, some calculation have been made in order to know the
difference value between before and after of the expansion. For experiment 1, the value of V1 and
V2 are 16.12 L and 20.95 L respectively. After substituting in Boyle’s Law equation, these
difference values are very small and close with the theoretical value, therefore the Boyles’s Law
is verified. According to the results, it can been said that the pressure and volume inversely
proportional. When the pressure increase, the volume start to decrease. This is happen because if
the gas of the same pressure with constant temperature injected into small and big container which
means have different volume. The gas molecule in small container have less spacious room and
will collide to the wall and with each other more often which exert less pressure(8).

Gay-Lussac’s Law stated that pressure is directly proportional to the temperature which
means if the pressure increase, the temperature also increase with constant volume (6). Experiment
2 has been conducted in order to know the relationship between pressure and temperature.
Therefore, from the data tabulated and graph plotted, it can be said that the Gay-Lussac’s Law is
verified. The same concept applied here, if the temperature of a gas in a container increase, the
heat energy of the system transfer its energy into the molecule of gas which actually increase the
frequency of collision in that container which exert more pressure.

Isentropic expansion process occur when the system are reversible and adiabatic where no
heat will be transferred in or out and no energy transformation occurs. Based on the calculation, a
specific heat capacity at constant pressure, 𝑐𝑝 is 484.348 L kPa K −1 mol−1 now known which can
be used in calculating the differential in entropy. The process is said to be isentropic since there
was no change in the entropy throughout the process (9). It was obtained that both temperature and
pressure of the gas before expansion were higher compared to after the expansion.

Ratio volume can be determine by manipulating the equation of Boyle’s law. Boyle’s law
proposed an equation P1V1 = P2V2 (4) and after manipulate the equation ratio volume can be
determine by V2/V1 = P1/P2. The theoretical value is 1.25, where from Boyle’s Law it shows that
the ratio volume is 1.29. In the experiment it will give a slightly different where the error or
percentage difference are between 10 and -10. There must be environmental factors that affect the

23
stability of pressure and temperature or random mistake during experiment. Hence, the difference
between theoretical values with Boyle’s Law value is 0.04 which equal to 4%. Since the percentage
error is less than 10%, it can be said that the experiment is successful.

Determination of ratio of heat capacity using the expression of the heat capacity ratio and
it gives the 0.96. The theoretical value of this experiment is 1.078, therefore the differential values
is 0.118. The actual value is 10.9% from the theoretical value based on deviation calculation. The
actual intermediate pressure is lower than the measured one. It can be concluded the experiment
was successfully.

10.0 CONCLUSION

## Overall, Experiments was conducted to determine the properties of measurement /PVT

according to the Boyle’s law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, isentropic expansion, and heat capacity equation.
We have proven the Boyle’s law and Gay-Lussac’s law based on their law. Although there are
some parallax errors in conducting the experiment, we managed to finish all the experiments
according to the objectives given. As a result, the experiment is successfully done and the objective
of the experiment is achieved.

11.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The apparatus must be handled carefully to avoid any accidents in the lab such as explosion
due to excessive pressure within the chambers.
2. The unit must all be adjusted and connected to the right ports between the chamber and
hose. The valves had to be watched and opened carefully in accordance to the procedures
or manuals given to avoid any mistakes.
3. Always keep eyes on the sensor while monitoring the board because the temperature or
pressure could increase or decrease really fast.
4. Repeat the experiment to get the average value
5. The place where the experiment is conducted also must be at stable and no vibration.
6. Each of the experiment must do the start-up and shut-down step in order to make sure
there is no gas left in the chamber.

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12.0 REFERENCES

(1) Robert Boyle | Chemical Heritage Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-

history/themes/early-chemistry-and-gases/boyle.aspx

(2) The Ideal Gas Law - Chemwiki. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Phases

_of_Matter/Gases/Gas_Laws/The_Ideal_Gas_Law

(3) Boyle's law - New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Boyle's_law

(4) Pressure and volume relationship of a gas – Boyle's law - Pass My Exams: Easy exam

revision notes for GSCE Physics. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/physics/pressure-volume-relationship-of-gas-

Boyles-law.html

(5) Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac | Chemical Heritage Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16,

## 2015, from http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-

history/themes/early-chemistry-and-gases/gay-lussac.aspx

(6) Gay Lussac's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.molecularsoft.com/help/Gas_Laws-Gay_Lussac.htm

(7) Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship - Video & Lesson

## Transcript | Study.com. (2013). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

relationship.html

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(8) Kinetic Molecular Theory. (2005). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.chemprofessor.com/kmt.htm

(9) Compression and Expansion of Gases. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/compression-expansion-gases-d_605.html

(10) Isentropic Compression or Expansion. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2015, from

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/K-12/airplane/compexp.html

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13.0 APPENDICES

## Pressure and vacuum pump Temperature sensor

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Vacuum and pressure chamber

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