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WILEY
TOPPAN
PRINCIPLES
OF
REFRIGERATION
ROY
J.
W
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
NEW YORK and LONDON
TOPPAN COMPANY,
TOKYO, JAPAN
LTD.
Wiley
&
Sons, Inc.,
Copyright
1961
by John Wiley
No
ft
part of this
Sons, Inc.
book may
which
it
is
is
Toppan
Number:
6115396
Preface
This textbook has been written especially for use in programs where a full
curriculum in refrigeration is offered. However, the material covered and the
method of presentation are such that the text is also suitable for adult evening
classes
and
material
is
and
selfinstruction.
is
Furthermore, the
readily adaptable
of the calculus
motors and control circuits as they apply to refrigeraThis material is presented from the viewpoint
of practical application, the more mathematical approach being left to companion
Chapter 21
tion
and
treats electric
electrical courses.
Throughout
this
refrigeration system,
to the whole.
textbook emphasis
is
Too, care
is
is
carefully
examined
in relation
through the use of manufacturer's catalog data and many sample problems.
this end, certain pertinent catalog data are included.
Roy
July, 1961
J.
Dossat
To
Acknowledgments
is
IngersollRand Company
Kennard Division, American Air Filter
Company, Inc.
publications of the
American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers and of the following equipment manufacturers
Carrier Corporation
Controls Company of America
Dean Products, Inc.
Detroit Controls Division, American
Radiator & Standard Sanitary
Corporation
Detroit Ice Machine Company
Dole Refrigerating Company
DunhamBush,
Association, Inc.
Inc.
vi
Contents
1.
Pressure,
2.
3.
Thermodynamic Processes
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
24
43
57
71
89
107
121
144
10.
11.
Evaporators
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Refrigerants
17.
164
203
225
244
284
298
vii
viii
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
18.
19.
20.
334
365
Installations
21. Electric
Index 535
407
where P
Measurement of Pressure. As
indi
Pressure,
Work,
Power, Energy
ll.
Force.
pull.
It is
force
may
body. That
is,
the body
may be
It may be described as a
measure of the intensity of a force at any given
is
(a)
2x3
= 6sqft
= 432 lb
on the contact
Applying Equation
11,
432
^
=
(b)
surface
is
Applymg Equation
72psf
24 x 36
= 864 sq in.
= 432 lb
11).
point
Solution
twisted, bent,
Example ll.
rectangular tank, measuring 2 ft by 3 ft at the base, is filled with water.
If the total weight of the water is 432 lb, determine the pressure exerted by the water on the
bottom of the tank in
(a) pounds per square foot
(b) pounds per square inch
11,
432
864
= 0.5 psi
The problem described
in
Example
11
is
foot
is
equivalent
to
the
downward force
column of water
having a cross section of one square foot, whereas the pressure in pounds per square inch
equivalent to the
downward
force exerted
is
by a
sq
ft,
the
the
force
This relationship
expressed by the following equation
is
applied.
'h
is
(11)
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
cross section will be less
altitude of
when taken
taken at sea
level
Therefore,
level.
it
at
an
than when
follows that
Barometers.
Spring scale
Pointer 
closed end.
the atmosphere
column
in the tube
is
is read in inches
of mercury column (abbreviated in. Hg). The
normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level
(14.696 psi) pressing down on the dish of mercury
Weight
will
lb.
The pressure
known as atmos
is
pheric pressure.
cross
atmosphere.
Actually,
the
pressure
of the
and
Fig. 12.
Of the
total
the pressure
in
pressure
in
in
the
ft
area
is
PRESSURE,
mercury 29.921
in.
high
column of
then, a measure of a
is,
By
dividing
psi
Example
in.
(12)
atmosphere in psi
in.
Hg x
What
12.
if
0.491
(13)
Solution.
Applying Equation
P=
Example
13.
In Fig.
13,
13,
how
high will
the atmos
when
is
raised
by an equal amount
Applying Equation
12,
0.491
30.2 x 0.491
14.83 psi
is
Hg?
16.
tube.
psi
Hg =
0.491
and
29.53 in.
Pressure Gages.
Hg
is
in.
Pressure gages
commonly used
and
17.
(2)
bourdon
two types:
a closed
vessel.
in the refriger(1)
manometer
tube.
Manometers.
utilizes
column indicating
The liquid used
Scale (inches)
when water
is
manometer or water
gage.
is
is
a water
instrument.
A simple
column.
is cali
Dish of mercury
Fig. 13.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
Atmospheric
/pressure \
as the measuring
measuring very
small pressures. Because of the difference in the
density of mercury
slight that they will
not visibly
mercury column
of a
will
produce easily
Atmospheric
pressure
30
in.
Hg

Vessel
pressure
26
in.
Hg
Atmospheric
pressure
30
in.
Hg
Fig.
l4c
pressure
is
Manometer
4
pressure of 30
Fig.
manometer
4b. Simple
indicates
that
in.
in.
Hg
indicates
less
that the
vessel
Hg.
the
by 4
in.
Hg.
in.
Hg
(1.96
psi).
in.
is
in.
Hg
(1.96 psi)
below
(less
"vacuum"
pressures
and may
PRESSURE,
pressure of only 0.036 psi
a column of water
of water column
Table
to support
Hence, 1 in.
is sufficient
high.
in.
single gages,
is
11 gives
Because of the
measurement of
(a)
relatively small
Vacuum
gage,
(c)
Compound
pheric pressure.
is
Any change
pressures
atmospheric
will
above or below
Those designed to
either
pressure.
usually calibrated in
gage. (Courtesy
decreases.
cases,
gages, are
is
tube
many
(c)
In
"compound"
(b)
<)
limited to the
as
known
When
is
greater
to
pressure
is less
and,
when the
fluid
Example
14.
pressure
gage
on
What
a
is
condenser?
Solution.
given,
it
is
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
Gage
Absolute
pressure
pressure
45
59.7
40
54.7
35
49.7
30
44.7
25
39.7
Initial pressure
Pressures above
atmospheric in psi
34.7
15
29.7
10
24.7
5
19.7
29.92
29.92
in.
Pressures below
15
 atmospheric in
20
25
(14.7 psi)
in.
Hg
(14.7 psi)
5
in.
Hg
Work. Work
W=Fx
between absolute and gage
F=
where
=120
Gage
pressure in psi
Atmospheric pressure in psi
14.696
Absolute pressure of
refrigerant
134.696 psi
compound gage on
the
suction side of a vapor compressor reads
5 in. Hg, whereas a barometer nearby reads
29.6 in. Hg. Determine the absolute pressure
of the vapor entering the compressor.
15.
pheric pressure.
Atmospheric pressure in
Hg
pressure in
in.
Hg
acts in
force
=
=
29.6
Hg
24.6 in. Hg
24.6 x 0.491
12.08 psi
Absolute pressure
linear unit
and
linear
measure
Example
315 lb
work
is
is
done?
Solution.
Equation
By
applying
weight of
14, the
the fan
Distance through
the fan is hoisted
5.0
I
I I.
Power.
Power
315 lb
200 ft
315 x 200
63,000
which
Work done
Absolute pressure in
in.
any
Gage
(14)
in.
psi
acting
pressures.
Example
4.91 psi
=125
Hg~~
0.491
= 129.91 psi
Total increase in pressure
Absolute pressure in psi is abbreviated psia,
whereas gage pressure in psi is abbreviated psig.
110.
10
Hg
atmospheric
Atmospheric pressure
in.
atmospheric
20
10
Initial
is
the
rate
ftlb
of doing
PRESSURE,
is
the horsepower.
Example
tions:
3500 lb
(1 " 5)
^TSMTT,
where
may be found by
where JT
Hp = the horsepower
W = the work done in footpounds
t
is its
is
An
19.
moving
automobile
at the rate of 30
5280 ft/mi x 30 mi
Solution. Velocity
in fps
3600sec/hr
= 44 fps
3500 lb x (44 fps)*
2 x 32.174 ft/sec2
Applying Equa
Hp =
t
550 x
weighing
mph. What
kinetic energy?
or
where
energy AT
105,302 ftlb
114.
Potential Energy.
Potential energy is
work done
Time required to do the
work
condition
Example
18.
=63,000
Solution. Total
ftlb
min
63,000
33,000 x 5
0.382 hp
when it has
Hence, energy is
described as the ability to do work. The
amount of energy required to do a given amount
of work is always equal to the amount of work
done and the amount of energy a body possesses
is equal to the amount of work a body can do
body
is
in passing
its
energy.
J
Horsepower required
position or configuration.
raised to
piling.
some
when
piling.
A compressed steel
band possesses
Both the
steel spring and the rubber band have the
ability to do work because of their tendency to
return to their normal condition.
The potential energy of a body may be evaluated by the following equation:
spring or a stretched rubber
P
where P
= the
=M xZ
(18)
another.
Z = the
vertical
datum or
distance above
some
reference
potential.
113. Kinetic Energy.
Kinetic energy is the
energy a body possesses as a result of its motion
or velocity. For instance, a hammer swinging
through an arc, a bullet speeding toward a
Mx
The
weight of the
water in pounds
Applying
Equation 18,
the potential
energy
83,300 lb x 250
20,825,000 ftlb
ft
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
devices.
is
is
readily converted
and
from one form to another.
Electrical
energy
mechanical energy in
is
electric
converted
into
motors, solenoids,
and other
position, or configuration.
1200
116.
ftlb
of work on the
Total
do
external energy of a
kinetic
and
potential energies.
Example
ll I.
2 x 32.174 ft/sec*
30,086,436 ftlb
3.
10,000 lb x 6000
60,000,000 ftlb
ft
90,086,436 ftlb
Law of Conservation
First
Law
of Energy.
However, energy
appear in any one of a number of different
forms, such as mechanical energy, electrical
may
What is
A
A
The
classified as
inch?
4.
117.
that the
2. If the
Adding, the
total external
energy
level
Applying
Equation 18, the
potential energy P
PROBLEMS
piling.
PRESSURE,
(a)
(b)
9.
sea level?
11.
What
is
a mean
ground?
distance
of
(6)
Compute
so that
Matter, Internal
Energy, Heat,
atoms
is
Heat.
Heat
is
a form of energy.
This
Because of
is almost unavoidable at times.
On the other hand, from a strictly thermodynamic point of view, heat is denned as energy
in transition from one body to another as a
result of a difference in temperature between the
this, referring
accepted.
internal energy
two
bodies.
Under
this
concept,
all
other
not be atoms of
salt,
the original
is
certain
in
assumed to be in a
state of
they possess.
23. Internal
smaller particles
Energy.
will
molecule of oxygen.
hereafter in this
neutrons, etc.
is
Temperature
21.
it
is
been
pre
required to do
work
It
is
has
behavior.
10
of
solid, liquid,
its
position, or configuration in
velocity,
relation to
some
reference condition,
internal energy as
it
also has
U =K +P
where
(21)
is
in molecular velocity is
is,
in a sense,
a measure of the
is
their
movement
is
the
di
will
be
decreased.
is
or a vapor or gas.
which
a vapor or gas.
exist as ice,
is
26.
The
For example,
liquid,
is
Effect of
Aggregation.
of matter.
that the
energy
The increase
water
24.
increased.
25.
is
the inter
When
its
gether, internal
in order to
the
amount of
internal
energy.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
12
has no
effect
on molecular
velocity (internal
kinetic energy);
is
erty of matter.
It is
affected.
28.
Temperature.
The Solid
State.
potential energy.
amount of
internal
is
said to be hot.
indicates
pressure
212.
solid
is
The Liquid
its
temperature
is
Because
shape.
M.
to expand or contract as
of alcohol.
that
is
The molecules of a
material in the liquid state have more energy
than those of a material in the solid state and
they are not so closely bound together. Their
greater energy allows them to overcome each
other's attractive forces to some extent and to
have more freedom to move about. They are
free to move over and about one another in
such a way that the material is said to "flow."
Although a liquid is noncompressible and will
However, mercury thermometers have the disadvantage of being more expensive and more
difficult to read. Alcohol is cheaper and can be
vessel.
is
retain
210.
State.
its size,
The
State.
by the force of
fly
about at high
gravity.
bound
Consequently, they
Two
visibility.
The Fahrenheit
today.
speaking countries,
scale
is
whereas
common
use
used in English
the
Centigrade
European countries as
Centigrade Scale.
The point
at
which
grade
scale,
designated as 100.
Fahrenheit Scale.
Although there
is
section.
On
the
container.
described
neither
its size
pressible
regardless of size.
Further,
if
it
the gas
is
will escape
not
from
ing
air.
freezes
is
in
marked
as 32,
212*
13
100*
ammonium
Temperature
on one
ature readings
scale
32*
0*
17.8*
Scales coincide
40"
F =
C =
It
C + 32
5/9( F  32)
9/5
0*
40*
(22)
(23)
Fahrenheit scale
is
on the
is
degrees
degrees.
that 1
5/9
This
Since 0
in Fig. 21.
on
is
shown
graphically
Absolute zero
460*
273'
is
Fig. 21.
temperature
scales.
wise,
grade.
Example
21.
ing of 50 C
temperature.
equivalent
Fahrenheit
Applying
Solution.
Equation
to
22,
=
Example
22.
9/5(50
122 F
Q + 32
Solution.
in
room
Applying Formula
room temperature
Example
23.
thermometer
desired to
know
23, the
it is
been shown,
5/9(8632)
30
indicates
mately 460
or 273
Centigrade degrees.
the
grade degrees.
C (Fig.
21).
Temperature readings in reference to Absolute Zero are designated as absolute temperatures and may be in either Fahrenheit or
Fahrenheit
A temperature reading on
scale
can be converted to
Temperature
Temperature
rise in
rise in
F
= 45F
C 5/9(45 F)
= 25C
Absolute Temperature.
Temperature readings taken from either the Fahrenheit
216.
in degrees
Rankine
R).
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
14
In converting to and from absolute temperatures, the following equations will apply:
T=
t+460
= r460
T / + 273
/
where
T=
(25)
(27)
temperature
degrees
in
Rankine or Kelvin
t
temperature
Example
24.
of an air compressor indicates that the temperature of the air in the tank is 95 F. Determine
the absolute temperature in degrees Rankine.
Solution.
Equation
Applying
T=
24,
Example
25.
95 F
555
460
The temperature of
the
Equation
Applying
T = 20 F +
= 440R
24,
Example 24.
100 C, what
460
If the temperature
is its
of a gas
temperature in degrees
Kelvin?
Applying
T=
=
26,
Example
27.
100
373
C+
273
leaving a boiler is 610 R. What is the temperature of the steam on the Fahrenheit scale?
Solution.
Equation
Applying
25,
=
=
610
150
R  460
F
Since heat
is
heat
to
if
is
The
218.
fer of heat
in three ways:
and
The trans
(3) radiation.
219.
duction occurs
direct contact
similar to that
balls
on a
billiard table,
wherein
all
moment
or some
is
trans
rod
heated over a
the heated
end of the rod will flow by conduction from
molecule to molecule through the rod to the
is
Solution.
Equation
no
flame,
is
is
scale
mitted at the
Solution.
being cooled.
in degrees Fahrenheit
or Centigrade
Equations 24 and 25 apply to the Rankine and
Fahrenheit scales, whereas Equations 26 and
Hereafter in this
is
 T  273
absolute
two bodies
transfer of heat.
(24)
ture of the
jacent to them.
IS
the air
gas^fgje^* ^^
The energy
communicate
molecules.
previously stated,
is
and
When any
pands and
increases.
portion of a fluid
fluid.
to conduct heat
is
known
as
its
conductivity.
which are poor conductors have a low conductivity and are used as heat insulators.
In general, solids are better conductors of
heat than liquids, and liquids are better conductors than gases. This is accounted for by
the difference in the molecular structure. Since
the molecules of a gas are widely separated, the
transfer of heat
by conduction, that
molecule to molecule,
is,
from
is difficult.
220.
Convection.
Heat
transfer
heated,
it
ex
is
cork, offer considerable resistance to the conduction of heat. Therefore, for any given tem
Heat is conducted
from flame to
water through
bottom of vessel
Flame
water
is
top and
is
replaced by cooler,
more
heat
is
221. Radiation.
Heat
transfer
by radiation
PRINCIPLES
16
OF REFRIGERATION
the energy exchange is in equilibrium and
body neither gains nor loses energy.
Heat transfer through a vacuum is impossible
by either conduction or convection, since these
processes by their very nature require that
exists,
the
Room
Fig. 23.
coils'
is
intervening matter.
the
When
its
internal
molecular energy.
the
air.
tively
The
substantial.
visible heat
than
its
it
it
absorbs.
Therefore,
surroundings and
its
it
by radiation
loses energy to
body is below
that of its surroundings, it absorbs more radiant
energy than it loses and its internal energy
increases.
When no temperature difference
* Ether
the
name
is
waves
(light).
When
may
pass through
it
absorbed by
to
it,
or they
beyond.
is either
aluminum
is, its
mirror, reflect a
maximum
of radiant energy,
whereas materials having rough, dull, dark
maximum amount
of
material 1 F.
brass
Btu
17
pound of
specific
the
heat of
is
is
pound of aluminum
radiant energy.
Btu
pound of brass 1 F. Note that by the definiBtu the specific heat of water is 1
Btu per pound per degree Fahrenheit.
The specific heat of any material, like that of
water, varies somewhat throughout the temperature scale. Here again, the variation is so
222. British
size, etc.
Likewise, if
lb of water,
1F.
The
temperature of
stant amount.
It varies slightly
lb of water 1
is not a conwith the temperature range at which the change occurs. For
is
tion of the
slight that
it
is identified
as the
following equation:
Q,
where Q,
If the
t0
(28)
in
pounds
 MC(tt 
M = the
"mean Btu"
be
is
this reason,
freezing
is sufficiently
Example
28.
Twenty pounds of water at
temperature of 76 F are heated until
the temperature is increased to 180 F. How
much heat must be supplied?
an
initial
all practical
purposes
Solution.
it is
sufficiently
of water is changed
removal of 1 Btu.
223. Specific
material
is
Heat.
lb
Applying
Equation
Q,
28,
20 lb x 1 x (180
2080 Btu
76)
by the addition or
The
specific heat
of a
Example 29.
how much
gallon,
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
18
Solution.
Weight of
water in
pounds
Applying
Equation
Q,
28,
=
=
=
=
heat of a material is
given in terms of Btu/lb/ F, the weight of the
material must be determined before Equation
specific
this particular
less
Example 210.
Solution.
By
Q,
iron,
By rearranging and
applying Equation 28
to determine the final
temperature of the
water after absorbing
the heat given up by
the cast iron,
Heat Divided
Categories.
thermometer.
227.
Latent Heat.
by a
to or rejected
15 lb
378.75 Btu
x 0.101
x 250
MC +
name
is
known
is
as latent heat.
The
latent,
is
on the temperature of
Many
the material.
materials progressing
the liquid
is
first,
liquid phase
228. Sensible
When
the
Heat of a
Solid.
To
obtain a
378.75
25 x
'i
+ 78F
= 15.15 +78
= 93F
into
Two
(Absolute Zero).
Kinds or
state of a material
its
categories,
it
added
no
rest.
solid becomes.
city
its
it.
heat, either
vaporization.
effects
When
It
temperature. Heat
applied to
is
known
applying Equation
28 to compute the
total quantity of heat
given up by the cast
225.
sensible
perature
identified as
The term
Where
is
sensible heat.
The
The
total
temperature of the solid from the original condition of Absolute Zero to the melting or fusion
temperature
is
known as
Upon
the
It is
19
which the
is,
the temperature
same as
phase
the
that at
of the solid
state.
It is
is
exactly
first
attraction
fusion temperature.
On
or rejected during
on molecular
is
the
same
perature.*
that
is
absorbed by a
normal
The
For
pressure.
instance, at
32 F.
QL =
where
230.
is
overcome
another.
and becomes
fluid.
It
can no longer
is
considerable
is
and a
relatively
required to overcome
that attraction.
to
Ql =
M=
h it =
Mxh
it
(29)
pound
Apply
of
ice
12 lb x 144 Btu/lb
1728 Btu
have
indefinite fusion
is
assumed to remain
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
20
Solution.
29,
Sensible
231.
Heat of the
material passes
= _G
rearranging
from the
_
~

is
When a
The temperature of
perature.
144 Btu/lb
41.66 lb
the liquid
may
Any
up
in the liquid as
an increase in the
Molecular velocity
increases and the temperature of the liquid rises.
internal
kinetic
energy.
cannot be further
it
in
temperature above
its
vaporizing temperature
vaporizing temperature,
if
is
The total
as
its
temperature
is
no change
therefore,
in
Hence,
at
is
As
energy to overcome
sufficient
all
restraining
The
amount of energy required to do the internal
work necessary to overcome these restraining
forces is very great. For this reason, the capacity
including the force of gravity.
forces,
The
lb of
a liquid
to
Any
h if
6000 Btu
Liquid.
233.
called
the
known
is
The
each material. It
both the latent heat
value and the saturation temperature of any
particular liquid vary with the pressure over the
liquid.
any
value decreases.
is
28,
232.
Saturation Temperature.
The tem
temperature,
will
different for
is
be shown
When
later that
and the
latent heat
to vaporize
any
perature
The
is,
QL
where
the tern'
is
few of these
are ammonia, oxygen, and helium, which boil
at temperatures of 28 F, 295 F, and
452 F, respectively.
(210)
fa
at
=M xh
in
Btu/lb
Example
213.
zation of water
*
is
amount of
effect
When
on
the
work
pressure
is
done
is
External
constant, the
work
is
external
3 gal of water
at the saturation temperature of 212 F?
weight of water
3 gal
QL
8.33 lb/gal
25 lb
25 lb x 970 Btu/lb
24,250 Btu
Applying Equation
210,
water at
1200 Btu.
it
Example
content of
460
Applying Equation
216.
Compute the
lb of steam at 212 F.
F to
200
(6)
some portion of
x
x
12
(c)
100 Btu
1.135 lb or
0.136 gal
(e)
into water?
5000 Btu
M = 970
Btu/lb
the
Superheat
Vapor. Once a
Sensible
liquid has
1 x 144
144 Btu
32
(212
32)
x 180
180 Btu
To
vaporize 1 lb of water,
applying Equation 210,
QL =
=
1 x 970
970 Btu
Summation:
=
=
=
=
246 Btu
144 Btu
180 Btu
970 Btu
1540 Btu
5.15 lb
Heat of a
been vaporized,
QL =
=
210,
into water at
from
234.
970
lb of ice at 32
=
=
1100
If
applying Equation
(d)
215.
melt
0.5
to 212 F,
1200  100
1100 Btu
the
(460)]
1 x 0.5 x 492
246 Btu
28,
water
Example
To
[32
heat
total
32 F,
=
=
=
8.33 lb
to
initial
32 F,
28,
28,
water from
212 F, 0,
from an
to that condition
Solution.
sum
applying Equation
Weight of
the
to bring
Solution. Total
is
21
236. Mechanical
Energy
Equivalent.
Normally the external energy of a body is ex
pressed in mechanical
as
"enthalpy,"
than from
22
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
.8
J'S E
m
=Ss"
8.
#I~
3~
C/5
300
r
Constant temperature
212
200
100
Constant temperature
32
A
400
460
F
J
100
200
300
400
500
600
L
700
800
900
_L
1000 1100
1200
J_
1600 1700
analysis of the
relationship
of heat content to
the temperature
and state of a
material.
in transition
is
when
blow
hammer
make up
stored in the
the nail head are jarred and agiby the blow of the hammer, their motion
or velocity is increased and the temperature of
the nail head increases. If a wire is bent rapidly
back and forth, the bent portion of the wire
becomes hot because of the agitation of the
instances,
molecules.
in another section.
is brought about
of two surfaces rubbing together.
Often the external energy of a body is converted to internal energy and vice versa. For
example, a bullet speeding toward a target has
that
tated
Also, everyone
is
by the
friction
At
its
mass and
velocity.
loses
is
each
is
increased.
in
is
PROBLEMS
1.
is
useful.
23
What
It
become
where
W
 7
W = Q xJ
and
Q =
Ans. 440
Rankine?
5. Thirty gallons
to
180 F.
required?
of
36,000
Q = 778
= 46.3 Btu
ice at 32 F.
Solution. Applying
Equation 212,
cooling.
tion2ll,
Ans. 500
(212)
of heat
Solution.
F
is
3.
(211)
pounds
Ans. 194
heit.
is
relationships
2.
x 778
= 9336 ftlb
W= 12
10.
ftlb
that,
of water are
mean
distance
ice.
32.
Thermodynamic
ture
Processes
solid or a liquid
is
increased,
is
it
will
many
earlier,
rise.
As
stated
The
Effects of
expansion
The
of expansion.
coefficient
31.
is
coefficient
of
and
confined so that
when heat
this is
which
is
likely to
restraining bodies,
to
vessel
rupture,
Volume.
33. Specific
or other restraining
material itself
taining
restrained or
sometimes
with
explosive force.
vessels.
However,
is
Space must
be allowed for the normal expansion. Otherwise the tremendous expansive forces generated
by a temperature increase will cause the con
be
will
a solid or a liquid
accompanied by still
further expansion. In fact, 1 cu ft of water will
freeze into approximately 1.085 cu ft of ice.
This accounts for the tremendous expansive
force created during solidification which is
solidification
pressible, if
of a material
is
mass of the
material.
The
specific
volume
lb
The unusual
0.01608 cu
24
ft.
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
34.
The
Density.
density of a material
weight in pounds of
cu
ft
the
is
of the material.
the specific
35.
25
PressureTemperatureVolume Rela
tionships of Gases.
tables.
absolute
For example,
direction.
of water
at 40 F, the density
volume are
and
as
is
density
and
specific
(31)
~v
V=M
(32)
= the
x v
(33)
(34)
(lb/cu ft)
Solution.
Applying
TemperatureVolume Relationship at
a Constant Pressure.
its
at 32
basin?
its
heated
is
pressure
is
for each 1
Likewise,
if
a gas
kept
of
its
increase in
its
is
cooled at a
temperature.
ft
volume
a gas
If
fined in
26.80
0.0373 lb/cu
Example 32.
ft
initial
temperature.
31 .
measuring 5
it
a gas always
volume
Equation
series
constant,
Rankine.
stant.
(cu ft/lb)
density in
degrees
dition in such
in
from some
M= V x P
where v
temperatures
easily
1
liquid.
p=
solid or
piston
frictionless
(Fig.
perfectly
3la).
The
is
is
that
free to
move up
or
down
in the
The
total
volume
ft
x 4 ft
x 1ft
= 20 cu ft
Applying Equation
total weight of water
34, the
20 X 26.8
536 lb
As
the gas
is
cooled,
its
temperature
and volume decrease and the piston moves downward in the cylinder. In either case, the pressure
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
26
[tttl
I
Pistoh
Hi
Perfectly fitting
ft?
frictionless
'.
'Of/^'"""""^
?<
1
Volume
Volu
change
chai
piston
Piston
JL
P = 100 psia
fr = 500*R
if
P = 100 psia $
$v;T=1000*R
J&
4.
&V=Icuft
fTTT
(a)
Heat
Heat
added
removed
(b)
(c)
temperature.
Process.
when
the pressure
volume
is
kept constant,
its
illustrated
in
Figs.
35.
perature
is
33.
520
Rankine.
Solution. By rearranging and
applying Equation 35, the final
temperature of the gas T2
520 x 10
is
as follows:
When
the
kept constant,
TrVt =
T^
316 and
3lc.
pressure
Equation
will also
relationship
is
1040
Example 34.
gas, having an initial
temperature of 80 F, is cooled at a constant
pressure until its temperature is 40 F. If the
initial volume of the gas is 8 cu ft, what is its
final
volume?
(35)
degrees Rankine
Equation
degrees Rankine
Solution.
where
T =
r2 =
Vx
the
the
initial
initial
in
cubic feet
volume
35.
V2
^i^i
500 x 8
Tt
540
7.4074 cu
ft
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
PressureVolume Relationship at a
Constant Temperature. When the volume
of a gas
a given
38.
is
27
is
the
pressure.
unchanged,
remains
perature
absolute
its
expanded
when a gas
Similarly,
a constant temperature,
at
its
is
abso
is
upon
increase in volume.
The
This
is
a statement of
and
is illustrated
and
32c.
has been previously stated that the molecules of a gas are flying about at random and at
high velocities and that the molecules of the
It
by the gas
collisions.
cules,
is
second. It is this incessant molecular bombardment which produces the pressure that a gas
exerts upon the walls of its container. The
magnitude of the pressure exerted depends upon
the force and frequency of the molecular impacts upon a given area. The greater the force
Fig. 32.
(a) Initial
When
a gas
is
compressed at a constant
The
when
is
process.
L
mi: piston: mi
volume
change is
inversely proportional to the
change in absolute pressure.
1
i
!!
,
1
I'
'::
"^:'l
ture constant,
(c)
Constant
temperature compression
volume change is inversely
proportional to the change
absolute pressure.
be
condi
Constant temperature
expansion
The higher
Constant tempera
ture process,
tion, (b)
greater the
is
removed
in
'
'
;'.:.
l:'v
V=lcuft
P * 50
.
psi
V2cuft
HIliPiston:i
iP m 200
psi<2
IV = 0.5cuft1
com!
__lL_
miipiswiiu
<p=ibopsi 
Heat must
during
II
T=70*F
T=70*F
!J>.70*F
constant.
ft 'If
Heat idded
(c>>
(1
H'l ii
Heat
re
moved
U)
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
28
Volume
Pressure
cu
Volume =
ft
cu
@>
ft
= 200
Pressure
100 psia
Volume
Pressure
psia
cu
50
Temperature
Temperature= 1000 R
Temperatures 500 R,
ft
psia
250'
TTT
TT
Heat added
Heat removed
(b)
(c)
(a)
Constant volume process, (a) Initial condition, (b) The absolute pressure increases in direct
proportion to the increase in absolute temperature, (c) The absolute pressure decreases in direct proportion
to the decrease in absolute temperature.
Fig. 33.
is
the temperature
is
PiVi
=
Pa =
Vx =
K2 =
where Px
the
if
constant,
initial
= P*r*
(36)
Solution.
absolute pressure
the
36,
Pt
3000 x 10
initial
the final
PiVi
By rearranging
4
7500 psfa
7500
Dividing by 144
144
Example
pressure
P2
20 x 5
10
10 psia
=
=
=
52.08 psia
14.7
52.08
37.38 psig
Relationship
PressureTemperature
at a Constant Volume. Assume that a gas
is confined in a closed cylinder so that its
volume cannot change as it is heated or cooled
(Fig. 33a). When the temperature of a gas is
39.
Example
Four cubic
of gas are
allowed to expand at a constant temperature
from an initial pressure of 1500 psfa to a final
Determine the final
pressure of 900 psfa.
volume of the gas.
36.
feet
applying
final
By rearranging and
Equation
volume
Vz
36,
_ PiVi
molecules) of a gas
P*
the
Example 37.
1500 x 4
6.67 cu
is
volume
(velocity of the
900
initial
is
cular impacts
Likewise,
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
diminish and the pressure of the gas will be
less
is
used, then
v,
and Equation
for
38
may be
equation:
when
the volume
is
the same,
Tx =
the
initial
the final
where
R=
(37)
temperature in degrees
PMv = MRT
but since
then
PV = MRT
where
pounds per
Example
38.
80
F and an
an
initial
initial
Fahrenheit?
Solution. By rearranging and applying Equa
T,
T, xi.
Pi
(80
tion 37,
460)
R

322
compreswith air
at a temperature of 100 F. If a gage on the
tank reads 151.1 psi, what is the weight of the
air in the tank?
Example
460
Combining
equation:
is
782
Equation 38
is
is
782
sor has a
08)
39.
The tank of an
volume of 5 cu
Solution.
Table
P= P
Equation 310
and
x(50
(30
+ 14.7)
+ 14.7)
Converting Rankine to
Fahrenheit
(310)
temperature of
311.
produces
pounds per
Mv = V
temperature in degrees
P2 =
tables.
Rankine
Px =
(39)
Rankine
r2 =
written:
Vi = Vi
where
may be
Pv
velocity.
Charles' law
29
31,
and
air
is filled
From
for air
By rearranging
and applying Equation 310, the weight
of air
53.3
(151.1
_
=
ft
14.7)
x 144x5
x (100 + 460)
165.8 x 144 x 5
53.3 x 560
4 lb
53.3
PRINCIPLES
30
From
Solution.
Table
31,
OF REFRIGERATION
for air
rearranging
and applying Equation 310, the temperature of the air
MR
2 x 53.3
150 x 144 x 3
2 x 53.3
Fahrenheit,
607.9
607.9
 460
147.9
by the material.
work
If the
is
As
the gas
upward
it
distance(Fig. 31A).*
its
expands, moving
Work
is
in the
all
some combination of
and
(3) as external
energy equation
this
a mathematical statement of
concept and may be written:
is
done
is
AQ = AK + AP + AW
in
where
3lZ>,
AQ =
is
required
(311)
AK =
AP =
That
is,
AW =
amount equal to
amount of energy required to do the work.
When a gas is compressed (its volume decreased), a certain amount of work must be done
on the gas in order to compress it. And, an
amount of energy equal to the amount of work
done will be imparted to the molecules of the
(temperature) decreases in an
the
of the transferred
that fraction
energy which
as the gas
in
It is
is
and
with a
filled
compressor,
to
air
material in Btu
own
being
moved through a
its
tire
etc.
expense of
compressed is a
be noted by
is
heated,
is
stem of a
14.7)
x 144x3
R,
Converting to
is
(135.3
=
=
=
T PV
By
in
53.3
external
The Greek
letter,
term in an equation
condition.
For
is
utilized
to
do
work
(delta),
used in front of a
a change of
identifies
instance,
where
AK
represents
represents the
When
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
the increase in volume and the external work
done is so slight that the portion of the transferred energy
work
which
is
utilized to
do
external
For
is negligible.
all
practical purposes,
it
can
the material as
is
None leaves
set
up
an
as
In
both
AP
and
AW
of Equation
equal to
AQ
is
AK
When
effects
The
set
up
as
potential energy.
an increase
Therefore,
AQ
is
by the melting
in the internal
AK
AW are
and
equal to AP.
The
vapor as
an increase in the internal potential energy. In
only
AK is
AQ is equal to AP plus
315.
is set
up
in the
AW.
diminishes,
is
heated and
its
many
nitrogen,
which may
result
no consequence
for
all
practical
purposes.
"perfect"
that
ideal are of
The various
same as
forces are
the
is
is
is
solid
Many
energy.
31
Although
it is
refrigeration understand
*
vapor is sometimes defined as a gas at a
condition close enough to the saturation curve so
that it does not follow the ideal gas laws even
approximately.
PRINCIPLES
32
OF REFRIGERATION
and therefore the use of the gas laws to determine the pressurevolumetemperature relationships of such vapors will result in considerable
inaccuracy. In working with vapors, it is usually
necessary to use values which have been determined experimentally and are tabulated in
saturated and superheated vapor tables. These
tables are included as a part of this textbook
None
of the energy
When
that
should be noted
It
AQ represents heat
AK represents an in
Equation 312,
in
heat
is
Likewise,
work done by
given up by the
if
decreases,
the gas.
gas,
AQ
and
AW
Therefore,
is
negative.
Hence,
in
(1)
and
(5) polytropic
processes.
energy.
by an
any
effect
on the internal
potential
heat absorbed
is
cooled, both
law
(Fig.
31).
increased.
same time
that
work
its
is
done by
internal energy
will
it
will
AQ = AK + AW
gas
is
it
is
When
so confined that
1I
may be written
+AW
(314)
lb of a gas 1
its
AW
Mv
AQP =AK
For a
by the
*Qv 
identified
(312)
(313)
at
a constant volume.
The reason
for this
is
easily explained.
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
increases the internal kinetic energy.
However,
and a
rise
work
is
done.
amount of
certain
work
Therefore, during a
0.169
is
Btu per pound. For the constant pressure process, the additional 0.068S Btu per pound
(0.2375 0.169) is the energy required to do
the work resulting from the volume increase
accompanying the temperature rise.
The specific heat of a gas may take any value
depending upon the
amount of work that the gas does as it expands.
320. The Change in
Internal Kinetic
Energy. During any process in which the
temperature of the gas changes, there will be a
change in the internal kinetic energy of the gas.
Regardless of the process, when the temperature of a given weight of gas is increased or
either positive or negative,
Solution.
Apply
where
AK =
fj
(315)
Cv =
tt =
fx =
Note.
AQV = AKV
then
will
Example
313.
If, in Example 311, the gas
heated while its volume is kept constant,
what is the quantity of heat transferred to the
gas during the process ?
Solution.
AQV =
Apply
=
=
to the gas,
Solution. Applying
Equation 315, the in
energy
AK
=5
=
=
x 0.169
x (140  75)
x 0.169 x 65
5
54.9 Btu
x 0.169
x (140  75)
5 x 0.169 x 65
54.9 Btu
5
Alternate Solution.
From Example
AKV =
54.9 Btu
AQV =
54.9 Btu
Since
AQ V = AKV
air is
314.
cooled while
If,
its
Example
Since
From
AKV =
AQV
312,
AQ = AKV
46.67 Btu
46.67 Btu
Example
of air
(316)
is
Solution.
in either
46.64 Btu
process, since
air
temperature
x (72  95)
x 0.169 x (23)
what
initial
12
321.
=
=
pounds
constant volume specific heat
in
12 x 0.169
Example
energy in Btu
M = the weight
AK
312,
AK = MCv(tt 
33
kinetic energy,
negative,
AQV
indicating
AKV
is
heat
is
transferred
W'PiVtVJ
(317)
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
34
where
Assume
area of
an
Then, the
P pounds
is
PA
R =
70
530
to
=
T2
"
_
596"
done. Hence,
W = P xA
70
to
Applying
is
Con
Solution.
verting
Equation
and work
AW
Charles' law,
AKP
degrees Rankine,
F = P xA
the distance
of
per square
on the top of
pounds, or
sum
and
9 the heat energy equivalent of
the work of expansion.
the
energy,
35,
Applying Equa
AA:
A x
315
W = P(V VJ
and
316,
Applying Equa
315.
tion 314,
One pound of
air
having
an
Solution. Applying
Equation 317, the work in
footpounds
In Equation 312,
By
energy units.
= 2117 x
(15  13.34)
= 2117 x 1.66
= 3514 ftlb
Example
316.
Example 315
Solution.
in foot
W in Btu.
also the
AQ P  MCp (t 2 
tj)
(320)
AQ V =
Applying Equation
320,
324.
(319)
3514
4.52 Btu
778
rise
Applying Equation
in Btu
work
is
1 x 0.2375
x (596  530)
1 x 0.2375
x 66
15.67 Btu
(318)
work
AQ
pound but
The
323.
314,
is
W
AW =
W = AW xJ
318, the
CP
vx
530 x 15
From Example
= (Vs  VJ
then
Example
*1 X ^1
x 0.169
x (596  530)
1 x 0.169 x 66
11.154 Btu
=
=
kinetic energy,
but since
460
13.34
is
equal to
PressureVolume
(PV)
Diagram.
Equation 38 is a statement that the thermodynamic state of a gas is adequately described
by any two properties of the gas. Hence, using
any two properties of the gas as mathematical
coordinates, the thermodynamic state of a gas
at any given instant may be shown as a point
on a chart. Furthermore, when the conditions
under which a gas passes from some initial state
to
some
process follows
on the
chart.
may be made
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
The
35
4000
cycle
called
is
in the analysis
work
volume, when
Since
which
cycle
is
Final
condition
When
volume.
To
13
12
diagram.
illustrate the
use of the
PV
Example
3 IS is
Fig.
shown
in Fig. 34.
v2
Volume (cubic
16
14
*i
diagram, a
Pressurevolume
34.
pressure
feet)
diagram
Crosshatched
process.
of
area
constant
between
process.
feet is
gas
is
origin
two dimensions. In
12Kg^
rectangle,
(crosshatched),
P(Vt VJ
Draw a
through
chart.
Next,
The
inter
is
the external
its
base
(Kg
is
the
Fj).
is
evident then
and
establishes
is
is
PV
diagram of a constant
Assume
volume
volume
volume
increases to
fall
line
on
of constant
The
exact point
is
process.
4 cu
The
is
that
the
initial
is
ft.
4000
psfa.
gas
The process
takes place
initial
show
state
is
2 the
initial state 1
air passes
to the final
through a number of
all of which
that
no work
volume process.
is
That
is,
is
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
36
shown
4500
^~
P*
in Fig. 36.
4000
3500
pounds
3000
The
32500
is
area,
of the process,
Px
 2000
condition
Initial
tion
fF
1500
where
500
II
4
Pressurevolume
35.
volume
to a
of
constant
= P1 K1 xln^
318.
certain
volume
volume of 4 cu
Determine:
of the gas in psfa
the work done in heat energy units.
ft.
(b)
Solution
By applying Boyle's
law, Equation 36,
the final pressure Pa
PiVx
(a)
expanded.
Since the gas will do work as it expands, if
the temperature is to remain constant, energy
with which to do the work must be absorbed
from an external source (Fig. 326). However,
since
temperature
the
is
of the
gas remains
of the energy absorbed by the gas
during the process leaves the gas as work;
constant,
none
is
ail
When
a gas
is
(b)
1250 psfa
=
=
=
=
2500 x 2 x lnf
2500 x 2 x In 2
2500 x 2 x 0.693
3465 ftIb
3465
By applying Equa
tion
322,
ternal
the ex
work of the
process in foot
pounds
compressed, work
Vi
2500 x 2
internal energy.
weight of gas
initial
is
(322)
initial
process.
Example
feet)
diagram
In
having an
Volume (cubic
Fig.
In a constant temperature
Final condition
~ 778
= 4.45
Btu
done on
not cooled during ihe
is
if the gas is
compression, the internal energy of the gas will
be increased by an amount equal to the work of
compression. Therefore,
the gas
is
if
the temperature of
must
reject to
comsome external
the amount of
Final
condition
(Fig. 32c).
There
is
no change
AQ =
f
326.
PV
Work
AW
(321)
of an Isothermal Process.
Fig. 36.
Pressurevolume diagram of constant
temperature process. Crosshatched area represents
is
the
work
of the process.
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
Example
having an
319.
initial
37
From Example
Solution.
AW = 4.45 Btu
318,
AW
process,
equals
AQ
AQ =
t,
4.45 Btu
work done by
Solution
By applying
Boyle's law,
PiVi
Equation
1250 x 4
(a)
Example
2500 psfa
process
= 2500 x 2 x
= 2500 x 2 x
= 2500 x 2 x
= 3465 ftlb
foot
in
pounds
is
In
work in heat
AW
energy units
0.693
318.
Notice
4.45 Btu
AQ =
4.45 Btu
up by
is
the
Where
also
that
the gas
is
changes
reversed.
AW =
actually given
is
778
4.45 Btu
the process in
conditions
amount
3465
Example
t,
AQ
In 0.5
By applying
the
equals
this
cess
Equation 318,
By Applying Equa
319,
Since A
^2
(b)
From
Solution.
36,
its
from or to an external
body during the process. Furthermore, the
pressure, volume, and temperature of the gas all
vary during an adiabatic process, none of them
remaining constant.
When a
work and
do the work. In the
energy
is
required to
source.
own
Since, during
energy.
An
adiabatic expansion
is
always
its
own
internal
change
327.
process,
there
kinetic energy
an isothermal
is
no change
in
and
AK equals
zero.
the internal
According
work done
in Btu.
is
gas,
exactly
transferred to the
done by the
is
During an
work
that
is
compression heat
is
transferred
that the internal energy of the gas is not increased by the performance of work on the gas.
Example
320.
gas
is
compressed adiabatically,
is
transferred to or
When a
37).
is
AKa
written as follows:
+AW =0
a
(323)
Therefore,
AW. = AK.
and
AKa  AWa
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
38
Example 323.
gas having an initial
pressure of 945 psfa and an initial volume of
4 cu
Solution.
Example
From
k for
322,
Final
1.406
air
condition
the
work done
pounds
(945 x 4)
(2500 x 2)
in foot
1.406
3780
5000
0.406
1220
Fig.
Pressurevolume
37.
An
process.
isothermal
diagram
curve
is
of
adiabatic
drawn
0.406
for
in
comparison.
Work
329.
of an Adiabatic Process.
The
where k
P1 V1 P2 V2
k  1
(324)
gas in question,
Example
322.
CJCV
gas having an
and an
initial
volume of
expanded adiabatically to a volume
initial
2 cu ft is
of 4 cu ft. If the final pressure is 945 psfa,
determine the external work done in heat
energy units.
=
=
The
heats,
air
ratio
of the
specific
On
c,
expansion there
is
no
0.169
1.406
amount equal
(2500 x 2)
5000
(945
1406
0.406
=
Applying Equation 318,
in heat energy
3005
ftlb
3005
~
=
778
3.86 Btu
to the
3780
0.406
1220
A Wa
work
778
3.86 Btu
process.
units
heat energy
0.2375 Btu/lb
0.169 Btu/lb
0.2375
the
in
A(C.
ftlb
Solution
C for
work
units
3005
3005
pressing
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
39
On
Therefore, an
Polytropic
N>
and
<K
amount of energy
increases
accordingly.
334.
The Polytropic
Process.
way of denning a
simplest
Perhaps the
polytropic process
is
in
itself will
fall
known
as a polytropic process.
If during
polytropic' expansion
the
Fig. 38.
drawn
comparison.
and volume
Charles'
The
relationship
Tt = Tx
H'
F(*l)
This
(325)
(326)
When
temperature constant, the compression is polytropic. The greater the loss of heat, the closer
the polytropic process
thermal.'
The
approaches the
p*=Pi
iso
P
becomes
(327)
'*W
(328)
adiabatic.
(329)
compression. This
pression
is
Water
to the surroundings.
jacketing of the cylinder will usually increase the
cylinder walls
Example
cally
v, .
(3>r
(330)
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
40
4 cu
ft.
what
psfa,
From
Solution.
Table
31,
is
for air
1.406
24,000 x
=
=
=
,1.406
Applying Equation
327, the final pressure
Usually, the
value of must be determined by actual test of
the machine in which the expansion or compression occurs. In some instances average
'
lated.
Example
batically
325.
of 4 cu ft. If the
is 600 R, what
is
Table
31,
Example
=
=
for air
(2) .4061)
(4)(1.406
T2
ture
1.406
600x
= 600x
(2)0.406
(4)0.408
= 600x
= 600 x
= 453"
Example
1.325
1.756
0.755
Solution.
Table
326.
from an
31,
initial
From
k
Applying
Equation 326,
the final tempera
=
=
=
=
(331)
logC^/^)
having
an
initial
Solution
(a)
From Table
31,
R for air
Rearranging and
applying Equation
310, the weight of
53.3
RT
_ 24,000
53.3
x 2
x 600
1.5 lb
1.406
1.4061
T9
ture
(Pj/Pj,)
327." Air,
for
log
^
determine:
(a) The weight of the air in pounds
(6) The final pressure in psfa
(c) The final temperature in degrees Rankine
(d) The work done by the gas in Btu
(e) The increase in internal energy
(/) The heat transferred to the gas.
air
air
Air
is
expanded adiapressure of 24,000 psfa
to a final pressure of 9072 psfa. If the initial
temperature is 600 R, what is the final temperature?
batically
and
calcu
pressure of 24,000 psfa and an initial temperature of 600 R, is expanded polytropically from
From
Applying Equation
initial
may be
degrees Rankine?
Solution.
The
of n
the relationship:
initial
is
If the values of
600 x
io
\ **
/ 9072 \
124 000/
\24,000/
600 x (0.378)< 0M
600 x 0.755
453
and
A:.
Broadly defined,
is
substituted for k.
The exponent n
somewhere between
will
1
particular
a path
adiabatic processes.
THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES
(b)
Applying Equation
pressure
Pa
 24,000 xg)"
= 24,000 x (0.SY*
 24,000 x 0.435
= 10,440 psfa
Applying Equation
ture
Tt
(2)U.i)
600 *
x
"""
(4)<i.i)
0x3K
(4)
o.
1.149
,
= 600
x
1.32
= 522R
(d)
Applying Equation
324, the
done
(24,000
work
(4
2)
x 10,440)
1
 41,760
1.2
_ 48,000
tainer is cooled
150
is
5.
work
in
BtuAW
ftlb
31,200
Applying Equation
318, the
31,200
Am.
(c)
778
40.10 Btu
(e)
From Table
C for
31,
= 0.169 Btu/lb
air
Applying Equation
1.5
1.5
in internal energy
x 0.169 x
(522
AK
=
 600)
x 0.169 x
(78)
19.77 Btu
AJSr
(a)
The weight of
(c)
The volume of
(e)
Rankine.
PROBLEMS
air in degrees
Am.
Am.
0.843 Btu
Am. None
(/)
The energy
the compression.
Assume
Compute:
(a) The final temperature of the
air in degrees
Rankine.
1.
530
is
amount.
0.01 lb
(b)
40.10
this
initial
Am.
19 Btu
by the
energy by
an
psia, determine:
+ AfF
= 19.77 +
= 20.33 Btu
13.52 Btu
volume of 0.1334 cu ft and an initial temperature of 70 F is drawn into the suction side of
an air compressor. If the air enters the cylinder
at standard atmospheric pressure and is com
start
the
Am.
7.
is
Am. 60.6 lb
In Problem 4, determine:
(a) The work done by the air during the
heating.
Am. 4254.8 ftlb or 5.47 Btu
(b) The increase in the internal kinetic energy.
6.
0.2
ft.
0.2
6240
(c)
41
Am. 1038
the air at the end of the
compression stroke.
Am. 0.0256 cu ft
(c) The work of compression in Btu.
(b)
The volume of
Am.
0.86 Btu
PRINCIPLES
42
(d)
OF REFRIGERATION
(c)
(b)
0.86 Btu
transferred to or from
the gas during the compression.
Ans. None
Assuming that the air in Problem 7 is compressed polytropically rather than isothermally.
If n equals 1.2, compute:
() The final temperature of the air in degrees
Ans. 119 A"
Rankine.
(c)
(d)
9.
(e)
The volume of
10.
Compare
and 9.
the results
of Problems
7,
8,
For example,
vessel
is
saturated and
burner.
the water
is
is
supplied by the
condenser.
F as
vaporizing at 212
is
As
it
reaches the
up
it
Saturated and
Superheated
Vapors
steam,
43.
is
Superheated Vapor.
vapor at any
temperature
is
heated so that
its
is
vapor
is
said to
be superheated.
it is
necessary to
shown in Fig.
42.
it will be saturated.
because any heat added to a liquidvapor mixture will merely vaporize more liquid
42.
and no superheating
is
called the
and 232).
Saturated Vapor. The vapor ensuing
from a vaporizing liquid is called a saturated
vapor as long as the temperature and pressure
of the vapor are the same as those of the saturated liquid from which it came. A saturated
vapor
may be
It is
is
will occur.
temperature.
vapor to decrease
ture
is
reached.
removal of heat
At
will
this
point,
any further
condense.
important
44.
Subcooled Liquid.
tion,
liquid
This
liquid.
45.
The
Effect of Pressure
tion Temperature.
The
on the Satura
saturation tempera
pres
For
saturation temperature
tarily.
43
44
PRINCIPLES
212 F.
OF REFRIGERATION
the water at atmospheric pressure
creased from
from 212
point,
if
the heating
begin to vaporize.
is
Condenser
water out""^
is
212 F,
is
and condenses
into water
Cold water
in
Saturated steam
at212"F
*
.{
condenser212F
Heat added
Fig. 4VI.
graphical
representation
Saturated vapor.
of the relationship
in the vessel
and two
^j^~ 
r iOiA.t!j>.^.
:
^Ls
45
^Steam superheated
Jt.i^x4j^ ^.j
in
superheater
Saturated steam
/T7X
5
TfT"/
H
eat
Fig. 42.
Superheated vapor.
added
"
Superheated
steam
tint
Heat added
is
partially
from the
vessel is
Under
impeded somewhat.
liquid
that
is, its
ture
is
allowed to
and the
and raising
it is
is
at 212 F.
is
is,
is
is
DUU
500
.400
re
'3
o.
Is
a.
43.
Variation
in
the
300
Fig.
200
saturation temperature of
water with changes in pressure.
100
14.7
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
212
Saturation temperature (*F)
400
450
500
PRINCIPLES
46
OF REFRIGERATION
Valve
xtt v'
/S^
wit,e
Steam
P en
<'>
Density0.0373 Ib/cu
^i''i
psia
Steam
Density0.0498 Ib/cu
ft
20
ft
212'F
>228'F
Zz_Water_ H>:
>^^
(a)
<b)
Fig. 44.
Fig. 446.
By comparing
it
will
is
and saturation
temperature. Furthermore,
pressure
it is
the rate
the liquid.
vessel
is
sufficient to
allow
and
an increase
in the
be lower.
Assume now
container
density
is
vapor
is
will decrease
again equal to
its
changed.
and
result
in
temperature.
an increase
The reason
in
the saturation
any increase
in the rate of vaporization will necessitate the
is
that
fixed
by the
result
and
(2)
by
ebullition or "boiling."
47
S" of liquid
and become
vapor molecules
The
by evaporation occurs
only at the free surface of the liquid and may
take place at any temperature below the satura
vaporization of a liquid
tion temperature.
Water
Fig. 45. Evaporation
from surface of a
liquid.
considered.
47.
Evaporation.
place
continually
Evaporation
and the
fact
is
taking
that
water
to the
temperature, will
atmosphere, regardless of
gradually evaporate and be diffused into the
its
air.
rate.
factors.
increases
velocities being
the liquid.
The
molecules.
(Fig.
45).
become vapor
The molecules so
air to
49.
The Cooling
Effect of Evaporation.
it is
is thereby
reduced and the temperature of the mass
lowered. Whenever any portion of a liquid
vaporizes,
latent
mass
is
reduced to a point
slightly
below that of
liquid.
The energy
lost
vaporization
is
48
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
by
is
air
Molecules cannot
away
escapefall back
so that evaporation
continuous
those leaving
Vapor pressure
Water temperature
slightly
below
air
0.74
>.
in.
Hg
Saturated vapor
Absolute density
>
temperature
0.001148 Ib/cu
ft
70 F
Saturated liquid
(a)
(b)
Vapor pressure1.13
in.
Vapor pressure
Hg
0.52
Absolute density
0.001570 Ib/cu
in.
Hg
Absolute density
ft
60' F
Saturated vapor
/ 0.000828
Saturated vapor
60 F
Saturated liquid
(c)
(d)
Fig. 46.
of the liquid
is
evaporated.
However,
if
saturated,
occur.
will cease.
If,
(Fig. 466).
when
and evaporation
Equilibrium will have again been
49
412. Condensation.
Condensation of a
vapor may be accomplished in several ways: (1)
by extracting heat from a saturated vapor, (2)
by compressing the vapor while its temperature
remains constant, or (3) by some combination
of these two methods.
413.
will cease.
established.
vapor
The
density
will
46c).
cooler surrounding
air.
As
the liquidvapor
At
this
new
be less than before, the saturation temperaand since a part of the vapor
condensed into liquid, there will be more liquid
and less vapor comprising the mixture than at
come
the vapor
is
saturation temperature.
If,
as in a vapor
condenser (Fig. 41), more vapor is entering
the vessel as the vapor condenses and drains
from the vessel as a liquid, the density, pressure,
and saturation temperature of the vapor will
remain constant and condensation will continue
will
as long as heat
the vapor.
411.
is
414.
The
satura
is
reached where
maximum
become vapor
molecules.
will
structure
of
the
liquid
state.
Thereafter,
condensation will continue as long as compression continues so that the density and
pressure of the remaining vapor cannot be
If the temperature of the
further increased.
PRINCIPLES
50
OF REFRIGERATION
is
temperature
A careful analysis
They must be
calculated
418.
same.
cally, the
follows.
Enthalpy.
Enthalpy
is
calculated
whereupon
ture corresponding to its
the continued removal of heat causes a part of
enthalpy.
enthalpy of
vapor
at
is
a constant pressure
pressure,
pressure
is
vapor.
415. Critical
ture of a gas
that
it
The tempera
Temperature.
may be
at
any
enthalpy
specified
Whereas the
h
is
total enthalpy
M pounds,
the enthalpy of
1 lb.
H represents the
Since
it is
usually the
Since
little is
lb.
the other properties of materials at low temperatures, it is not possible to determine absolute
values for the calculated properties.
reason,
For
this
temperature of any gas is the highest temperature the gas can have and still be condensible
by the application of pressure. The critical
temperature is different for every gas. Some
the
amount of pressure
critical
applied.
The
critical
temperature.
and
Pressure, temperature,
and entropy.
volume are called measurable properties be
is
defined as
Pv
(41)
51
Pressurevolume
diagram showing the external
work done by fluid expansion
as
lb of water is vaporized
s Final condition
Fig. 47.
atmospheric
at
pressur
approximately 59,000
S
a.
ftlb.
Specific
1 lb
26.8 cu
Volume cubic
=
=
P=
v =
J =
where h
this
the specific
some part or
all
cases,
419.
condition
from the
initial
Furthermore,
work energy
is
many
In
fluid as
the
in the
fluid passes
to
an increase
even
though
the
fluid,
condition.
of
(latent heat
F is 970.4 Btu. Of
It
all
ft/lb
feet
volume of
of steam at 212
F under atmos
Entropy.
is
A PV diagram of
shown
in Fig. 47.
is
The entropy S
condition
transferred to the material per degree of absolute temperature to bring the material to that
condition from
some
initial
condition taken as
Since
it
is
The zero
points of entropy
is
taken as water at 32 F.
it is
lb of
makes
this possible.
trans
PRINCIPLES
52
OF REFRIGERATION
672*R(212'F + 460)
Fig.
44
Specific entropy of
saturated steam at 212 F
g]/
1.7566 Btu/lb/R
Entropy (Btu/lb/'R)
is
equations:
AQ =
a
As x
(42)
(43)
itself
However, the
entropy of a fluid is not affected by external
work done either by or on the fluid. Thus in a
as a result of internal friction.
frictionless (occurring
A <2
*
T =
lm
Tm
may
or external
friction), adiabatic
AC
(44)
As
fluid will
where
AQ =
As
pound per
Tm =
molecular
inR
Similarly,
(temperature
plotted
against
the
entropy),
is
the product
represents
the heat
transferred
of
is
when
If there is
either to or
*
is
forces
exist
between
the
Therefore, internal
friction is present
saturated
treatment
not required in the study of refrigeration and is beyond the scope of this book, it is
important to note that according to Equation
entropy
which
heat
is
no
no change
in the
may
occur
transfer
it
421.
vapor tables
liquids
Saturated
(3)
(specific),
and
specific
(5)
(1)
temperature, (2)
(4) enthalpy
volume,
entropy
(specific).
Normally,
is listed
in the
is
and
list
fifth
columns, respectively.
Some
tables
Steam
Properties of Saturated
Absolute Pressure
Temp.,
"F,
t
Specific
Volume
In.
Hg,
liquid,
Entropy
Enthalpy
Sat.
Sat.
Psi,
53
Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Sat.
Vg
h,
hfg
(7)
(8)
A.
s,
St,
s.
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
200
202
204
206
208
11.526
23.467
0.01663
33.62
33.64
167.99 977.9
12.011
24.455
0.01665
32.35
32.37
170.00 976.6
12.512
25.475
0.01666
31.14
31.15
172.02 975.4
13.031
26.531
0.01667
29.97
29.99
174.03 974.2
13.568
27.625
0.01669
28.86
28.88
176.04 972.9
210
212
214
216
218
14.123
28.755
27.82
178.05 971.6
29.922
0.01670
0.01672
27.80
14.696
26.78
26.80
180.07 970.3
15.289
31.129
0.01673
25.81
25.83
182.08 969.0
15.901
32.375
0.01674
24.88
24.90
184.10 967.8
16.533
33.662
0.01676
23.99
24.01
186.11 966.5
220
222
224
226
228
17.186
34.992
0.01677
23.13
23.15
188.13 965.2
17.861
36.365
0.01679
22.31
22.33
190.15 963.9
18.557
37.782
0.01680
21.53
21.55
192.17 962.6
19.275
39.244
0.01682
20.78
20.79
194.18 961.3
C2O.O160
40.753
0.01683
20.06
20.07
196.20 960.1
20.780
42.308
0.01684
24.969
50.837
0.01692
29.825
60.725
0.01700
35.429
72.134
0.01709
41.858
85.225
0.01717
230
240
250
260
270
Fig. 49.
Properties of Steam
specific
volume.
and
(Section 34).
pressure
and the
volume
specific
of enthalpy to the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure of the liquid; (2) the
is
the
Two
and
s g , the
entropy
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
54
Dichlorodifluoromethane (Refrigerant12)
Properties of Superheated Vapor
Abs. Pressure 36
lb/in. s
Abs. Pressure 38
Abs. Pressure 40
lb/in.*
lb/in. 2
Abs. Pressure 42
lb/in. 2
Temp. Gage Pressure 21.3 lb/in. 8 Gage Pressure 23.3 lb/in. 8 Gage Pressure 25.3 lb/in. 8 Gage Pressure 27.3 lb/in. 8
F
(Sat. Temp. 23.2 F)
(Sat. Temp. 28.5 F)
(Sat. Temp. 20.4 F)
(Sat. Temp. 25.9 F)
(at
sat'n)
30
40
1.140
1.168
81.90
83.35
0.17227
0.17518
1.076
1.103
81.82
83.27
0.17126
0.17418
50
1.196
1.223
1.250
1.278
1.305
84.81
86.27
87.74
0.17806
0.18089
0.18369
0.18647
0.18921
1.129
1.156
1.182
1.208
1.234
84.72
86.19
87.67
89.16
90.66
0.17706
0.17991
0.18272
0.18551
0.18826
1.070
1.095
1.120
1.144
1.169
84.65
86.11
87.60
89.09
90.58
0.19096
0.19365
0.19631
0.19895
0.20157
1.194
1.218
1.242
1.267
1.291
60
70
80
90
100
89.22
90.71
0.967
0.991
81.65 0.16939
83.10 0.17231
0.17612
0.17896
0.18178
0.18455
0.18731
1.016
1.040
1.063
1.087
1.110
84.56 0.17521
86.03 0.17806
87.51 0.18086
89.00 0.18365
90.50 0.18640
92.09
93.62
95.15
96.70
98.26
0.19004
0.19272
0.19538
0.19803
0.20066
1.134
1.158
1.181
1.204
1.227
92.01
93.54
95.09
96.64
1.332
1.359
1.386
1.412
1.439
92.22
110
120
130
140
93.75
95.28
96.82
98.37
0.19193
0.19462
0.19729
0.19991
0.20254
1.260
1.285
1.310
1.336
1.361
92.17
93.69
95.22
96.76
98.32
ISO
160
170
180
190
1.465
1.492
1.518
1.545
1.571
99.93
101.51
103.11
104.72
106.34
0.20512
0.20770
0.21024
0.21278
0.21528
1.387
1.412
1.437
1.462
1.487
99.89
101.47
103.07
104.67
106.29
0.20416
0.20673
0.20929
0.21183
0.21433
1.315
1.340
1.364
1.388
1.412
99.83
101.42
103.02
104.63
106.25
0.20325
0.20583
0.20838
0.21092
0.21343
1.250
1.274
1.297
1.320
1.343
99.77
101.36
102.96
104.57
106.19
0.20237
0.20496
0.20751
0.21005
0.21256
200
210
220
230
240
1.597
1.623
1.650
1.676
1.702
107.97
109.61
111.27
112.94
114.62
0.21778
0.22024
0.22270
0.22513
0.22756
1.512
1.537
1.562
1.587
1.612
107.93
109.57
111.22
112.89
114.58
0.21681
0.21928
0.22176
0.22419
0.22662
1.435
1.459
1.482
1.506
0.21592
0.21840
0.22085
0.22329
0.22572
1.365
1.388
1.411
1.434
1.530
107.88
109.52
111.17
112.84
114.52
1.457
107.82
109.47
111.12
112.80
114.49
0.21505
0.21754
0.22000
0.22244
0.22486
250
260
270
280
290
1.728
1.754
1.780
1.807
1.833
116.31
118.02
119.74
121.47
123.22
0.22996
0.23235
0.23472
0.23708
0.23942
1.637
1.662
1.687
1.712
1.737
116.28
117.99
119.71
121.45
123.20
0.22903
0.23142
0.23379
0.23616
0.23850
1.554
1.577
1.601
1.625
1.649
116.21
117.92
119.65
121.40
123.15
0.22813
0.23052
0.23289
0.23526
0.23760
1.480
1.502
1.524
1.547
1.570
116.19 0.22728
117.90 0.22967
119.62 0.23204
121.36 0.23441
123.11 0.23675
1.762
124.95
0.24083
1.673
124.92
0.23994
1.592
124.87
300
Fig. 410.
Copyright by
It
E.
I.
0.18913
0.19184
0.19451
0.19714
98.20 0.19979
0.23909
Inc.
when any two of its properties are known. Howa saturated liquid or vapor at any one
is only one temperature that the
can have and still satisfy the conditions of
Reprinted by permission.
ever, for
obtained.
pressure, there
422.
fluid
A super
properties
table,
it
is
its
pressure.
The
temperature.
The change
(e)
vapor in
in
superheating
(/)
The change
heating
Solution
From
(a)
the head of
temperature
tion
to
corresponding
25.9
1.009 cu ft/lb
81.16 Btu/lb
0.16914 Btu/lb/
The enthalpy
The entropy
=
=
=
84.65 Btu/lb
0.17612 Btu/lb/
The superheated
temperature
50.0
25.9
40 psia
From
the
body of
the table
reading,
(first
itali
cized),thespecific
volume
of the
vapor at satura
of the properties
in the
Btu
specific
(d)
tion
is
tion
The entropy of
table.
the
vapor at satura
In addition to the properties of the superheated vapor at various temperatures above the
saturation temperature corresponding to the
pressure, superheated vapor tables usually list
some or all of the properties of the vapor at the
saturation temperature. For example, in Fig.
410, the absolute and gage pressures, along
The
first
table (italicized)
lists
tion
From
(b)
the
Example
41.
body
heavy
lines in Fig.
410)
the specific
(offset
by
volume
1.070 cu ft/lb
enthalpy,
(c)
55
(c)
The temperature at
saturation
vapor
= 24.1F
84.65 Btu/lb
81.16 Btu/lb
3.49 Btu/lb
The
amount
of
superheat in the
vapor in Btu
PRINCIPLES
56
OF REFRIGERATION
(e)
0.17612 Btu/lb/R
The
=
change
1.070 cu ft/lb
1.009 cu ft/lb
0.061 cu ft/lb
in
entropy during
the superheating
vapor at saturation
tion
The change
in vol
ume
0.00698 Btu/lb/
during the
superheating
air
of the air, and varies inversely with the barometric pressure and directly with the absolute
temperature. Air very nearly approaches the
condition of an ideal gas and will follow the gas
laws with sufficient accuracy for all practical
Psych rometric
Properties of Air
y_
Rearranging
Solution.
51.
Composition of Air.
=
Example
Solution. Applying
Equation 310,
V=
Example 53.
Example
air in
and with the weather conSince the water vapor in the air results
primarily from the evaporation of water from
particular locality
is
ditions.
certain
amount
is
V=
Nevertheless, the
is
where
quantities
x 144
K=
x 53.3 x
(100
+ 460)
14.7
x 144
14.10 cu
ft
arid regions.
460)
The
Hereafter in this
15.57 cu ft
53.3
100 F.
Solution. Applying
Equation 310,
all air in
x
(70
more
ft
the surface of various bodies of water, atmospheric humidity (water vapor content) is
in the
x 144
12.6
is less
14.7
13.34 cu
position
Since
+ 460)
12.6 psia.
water and
53.3
(70
52.
Example
air in
P
1
it
MxR
Mxv
(52)
M = the weight of
V=
(51)
V
=air in
the volume of
pounds
M pounds of
air in
cubic feet
v
= the
specific
volume of the
air in
Example
54.
Air at a temperature of
circulated over a cooling coil at the
rate of 2000 cu ft/min (cfm). If the specific
95
is
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
58
volume of the
2000
M _ 14.38
Solution. Applying
Equation 52, the weight
of air passing over the
cooling coil
M
Multiplying by 60 min
139.2 lb/min
partial
x 60
8346 lb/hr
exerted
by
the
individual
and the
139.1
pressures
gases or vapors.
Since psychrometry
partial
exerted by
Standard Air. Because of the difference the individual
dry
gases are unimportant and, for all practical
in the volume of any given weight of air at
purposes, the total barometric pressure may be
various temperatures and pressures, an air
the
pressures
53.
Example 51).
Vs =
where
Va =
given condition
v a =* the specific
volume of the
air at the
given condition
v,
Example
Example 54,
determine the equivalent volume of standard
55.
For the
air in
considered to be the
sum
and
vapor.
55.
Dew
Point Temperature.
It
is
im
the air
this
is the saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure. Since all of the components in a gaseous mixture are at the same
temperature, it follows that when air is at any
temperature above the saturation temperature
temperature
dew
is
saturated
dew
is
known
air.
Ob
air.
always the saturation temperature corresponding to the partial pressure exerted by the
water vapor. Hence, when the partial pressure
exerted by the water vapor is known, the dew
point temperature of the air can be determined
air is
Solution.
Equation
alent
Applying
airK,
54.
2000 x 14.38
2155 cfm
volume of standard
Dalton's
Law
of
13.34
Partial
Pressure.
tables.
Likewise,
when
the
dew
if it
occupied
gaseous mixture
is
equal to the
sum of
the
Example
56.
Assume that a certain quanhas a temperature of 80 F and that
the partial pressure exerted by the water vapor
in the air is 0.17811 psia. Determine the dew
point temperature of the air.
tity
of
air
Example 57.
certain quantity of air has
a temperature of 80 F and a dew point temperature of 40 F. Determine the partial pressure exerted by the water vapor in the air.
Solution.
From Table 41, the saturation
pressure corresponding to 40 F is 0.12170 psia
and therefore 0.12170 psia is the partial pressure
will
be saturated.
It is
59
greater
the
is
maximum
content.
57.
Absolute Humidity.
in the air
is
called humidity.
humidity of the
lib).
The Psychrometric
Tables.
was
pressure
58.
shown
Content.
that can
maximum
Since
the
is
corresponding to
contain the
its
maximum
is
is
computed.
The absolute humidity of
readily
air.
At
this condition
dew point
temperature will be one and the same and the air
the temperature of the air and the
is listed
dew
in Tables 51
52.
column (3).
Relative Humidity. Relative humidity
(RH), expressed in percent, is the ratio of the
actual weight of water vapor per cubic foot of
air relative to the weight of water vapor contained in a cubic foot of saturated air at the
59.
air at various
and
The dew point temperatures are listed in
column (1) of the tables, and the absolute
humidity corresponding to each of the dew
point temperatures is given in columns (4) and
The values given in column (4) are in
(5).
point temperatures
when
It
Relative humidity
J
= ...
z
Weight of water
vapor in 1 cu ft of
saturated air at the
same temperature
100
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
60
For
instance, if air at
a certain temperature
water vapor per
much
temperature
if it
relative
Air at a temperature of
80 F has a dew point temperature of 50 F.
Determine the relative humidity.
58.
From
4.106 grains/cu
ft
4.106
ft
x 1/MV
100
37.1
Determine the
relative
From Table
humidity
corresponding to dew
point of 50 F
and vapor
vapor
humidity,
is
relative
with
and
is,
is
usually stated in
is
a function of
air.
From Table
Solution.
pound corresponding to
a 50 F dew point temperature (Column 7)
saturated
(Column
53.38 grains/lb
humidity of
Specific
air
at
80
F
155.50 grains/lb
7)
Percentage humidity
53.38
x 100
155.50
34.3%
dew
same
5.795 grains/cu ft
air.
saturate completely
4.106
Percentage
is
air to the
=
_
= 70.8%
Humidity.
Percentage
For
ity is
air.
it
4.106 grains/cu ft
5.795
the air
volume
dry
has been
Absolute humidity of
is listed
It
hu
52, absolute
tuies
and
increases.
humidity
51
511.
11,04
510. Specific
easily explained.
saturated air at 60
is
shown (Examples
Solution.
Applying Equation
54, the relative humidity of the air
59.
any given
as the total
air at
Example
at
Absolute humidity
80
Example
Solution.
Note. Compare
this value
61
tures.
the
Swivel
connection
effects
of direct radiation.
The wet bulb (WB) temperature of the air is
the temperature as measured by a wet bulb ther
is
.Dry bulb
"thermometer
Wet bulb
thermometer
Wetted wick
whirled rapidly in
depression.
Whereas a dry bulb thermometer, being unby humidity, measures only the actual
is easily
explained.
affected
air.
by the moisture
PRINCIPLES
62
bulb temperature
OF REFRIGERATION
is
known.
Too,
it
will
be
and the
sum
any
condition
tion.
wick
is
of the
water
air,
is
the water
itself.
temperatures
is
is
taken
in
Example
Therefore, as water
air.
51
Using Table
1.
52,
determine
progressively so that
vaporization heat
less is
When
is
the
is
reduced to
temperature difference
Through
it
is
is
the
of
of
air at 80
lb
The quantity of
removed
in
sensible
=
=
=
19.19 Btu/lb
10 x 19.19
191 .9 Btu
heat
added or
specific heat
is
0.24
Equation
10 x 0.24
x (80  0)
192 Btu
Applying
28,
Qs
Alternate Solution.
From
For
lb of air,
amount of heat
From Table
Solution.
differential is established
air,
ture of the
and
the
is
For 10
Qa
lb of air,
19.19 Btu/lb
lb of
Q,
=
=
=
=
=
Btu/lb
19.19
0
19.19 Btu/lb
10 x 19.19
191.9 Btu
Air.
of
Since all the components of dry air are noncondensable at normal temperatures and pressures, for all practical purposes the only latent
heat in the air is the latent heat of the water
vapor in the air. Therefore, the amount of
latent heat in
upon
upon
pound of dry
50
air at
F DP
dew
the
is
a function of
As long as the
dew
63
= 0.007626 x
= 8.25 Btu/lb
= 10 x 8.25
= 82.5 Btu
and
total heat
is
the
of the
in
the
sum of the
sum of the
computed
is
1081.7
air in
Example
512,
and the
latent heat
computed
in
Example
air,
as
513, viz:
remains unchanged.
The total heat content of water vapor at
various temperatures as computed from 32 F is
given in Btu per pound in Column 1 1 of Tables
and
51
52.
Column
is
water vapor
The
common
From
F DP (Column 6)
(Column
11)
0.007626 lb
1081.7 Btu/lb
Although the
dition
is
the
sum
from Example
512
191.9 Btu
82.5
+ 82.5
274.4 Btu
514.
Btu
191.9
of Total Heat. It has been shown in preceding sections that the sensible heat of the air
(the heat content of the dry air) is a function of
the dry bulb temperature and that the latent heat
of the air (the heat content of the water vapor
mixed with the dry air) is a function of the dew
point temperature. Since, for any given combination of dry bulb and dew point temperatures,
the wet bulb temperature of the air can have only
one value, it is evident that the wet bulb temperature is an index of the total heat content of the
air. However, it is important to recognize that
although there is only one wet bulb temperature
that will satisfy any given combination of dry
bulb and dew point temperatures, there are
many combinations of dry bulb and dew point
temperatures which will have the same wet bulb
temperature (see Fig. 52). This means in effect
that different samples of air having the same wet
*
The
is
the
same
assuming
is not included in the total heat. Howboth of these values are very small, the
error incurred by neglecting them has no practical
heat
significance.
paratively small,
is
70 F) which
ever, since
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
64
Temperature,
Dry
Dew
Wet
Bulb
Point
Bulb
Sensible
Latent
Total
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
14.39
15.59
16.79
17.99
19.19
11.98
10.78
9.58
8.38
7.18
5.98
4.78
26.37
26.37
26.37
26.37
26.37
26.37
26.37
60
60
57
65
70
75
80
85
53.5
50
45.5
40.5
34.5
90
20.39
21.59
where va
The
Column
ture shown.
vd
vs
8)
samples of
air,
same wet
of
lb of
WB (Column 12)
Specific
For 1001b of
the
air,
removed,
515. Specific
(Column
= 63.05  26.37
= 36.68 Btu/lb
 100 x 36.68
= 366.8 Btu
=
=
13.97
14.38 cu ft/lb
3.97
cu
ft/lb
9)
Applying Equation
55, va
14.79 cu ft/lb
+ [(14.79
 13.97) x 0.5]
upon the
shows the
relationship between four fundamental properties of air: (1) dry bulb temperature,
(2) dew
point temperature, (3) wet bulb temperature, and
(4) relative humidity. When any two of these
four properties are known, the other two can be
It
Volume of Air.
vol
volume of
has already
been shown that the volume occupied by a given
weight of air depends upon the temperature of
the air and
partially
matical calculation.
= 26.37 Btu/lb
12)
total heat
volume of
(55)
volume of
F (Column
saturated air at 95
WB
Q
%RH]
63.05 Btu/lb
pound of air,
specific
vd )
If
From Table
From Table
However, since
values given in
Solution.
Solution.
52, specific
dry air at 95
all
Example
the
temperatures in
v*
saturated air
Fig. 52
volume of
perties.
temperatures in
Column
9.
When
the relative
Notice that the lines of dry bulb temperature are vertical while the lines of dew point
as
do
The curved
the line of
(b)
Values of specific
humidity are given along
volume and
relative
ity, respectively.
illustrate the
Example 516.
vapor pressure,
heat,
and
(4) specific
volume,
(5) total
Solution.
Dew
70
55, viz:
Specific humidity
=110
Vapor pressure
Specific volume
= 0.37 psia
= 14.33 cu ft/lb
= 40.5 Btu/lb
= 45 %
Total heat
Relative humidity
Example 517.
determine:
air
and
grains/lb
Solution,
(a)
From Table
thalpy of
at 95 F
52,
en
lb of dry air
DB, Q,
per
Example 518.
If the air in
Example 516 is
cooled to 75 F, determine:
(a) The final dew point temperature
(b) The final wet bulb temperature
(c) The final relative humidity
(d) The final total heat per pound
below the
point temperature, no moisture is
removed from the air. Therefore, the specific
humidity, dew point temperature, and latent
heat of the air remain unchanged. Hence, the
initial dew point temperature and the new dry
bulb temperature can be used as coordinates to
locate the new condition of the air on the
psychrometric chart (point
in Fig. 56). The
following properties of the air at the new condition are taken from the psychrometric chart
as indicated in Fig. 56:
(a) Wet bulb temperature
= 71.4 F
= 85
(b) Relative humidity
(c) Total heat per pound
= 35.69 Btu/lb
Solution. Since the air is not cooled
dew
initial
(a)
air.
= 40.50 Btu/lb
= Qt  Q,
= 40.50  22.80
= 17.7 Btu/lb
&
516,
pound of
that
air,
called
From Example
65
= 22.80 Btu/lb
Solution.
(a)
From Example
air total
heat at
516,
= 40.50 Btu/lb
The
pound
per
total heat
cooling
in
air
35.69 Btu/lb
removed
of
air
from
toB
= 40.50  35.69
= 4.81 Btu/lb
the
air,
per
pound of air.
Example
520.
Assume
that
the air in
66
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
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68
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
in
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69
PRINCIPLES
70
OF REFRIGERATION
dew
From
(a)
the psychromet
heat
of the air at the initial
condition (point A)
The
=15.19 Btu/lb
removed
40.50
the
heat
sensible
per
The
latent
removed
per
heat
5.
Compute
Compute the quantity of sensible heat required to raise the temperature of 10 lb of air
from a temperature of 35 F to a temperature of
100 F.
Ans. 156 Btu
6.
25.31 Btu/lb
= Q  Q,
= 25.31 13.20
re
pound
=12.11 Btu/lb
of air
15.19
x 0.24
x (95 40)
=13.2 Btu/lb
re
pound of
air
(c)
moved
(a")
9.
Assume that
75
PROBLEMS
if
3.
if
is
120 F.
Ans. 14.60 cu
is
58%
cooled to
F and
determine:
dew point temperature Ans. 72.3 F
Ans. 73 F
(b) the final wet bulb temperature
Ans. 92
(c) the final relative humidity
id) the final total heat per pound of air
Ans. 36.6 Btu/lb
10.
Assume
to 55
ft
Problem 8
is
cooled
F and
determine:
(a) the total heat removed per
pound of air
4.
2.
If the specific
ft/lb,
80 lb of air having an initial wet bulb temperature of 80 F are cooled to a final wet bulb
temperature of 65 F, determine the total heat
removed from the air during the cooling process.
Ans. 1085.6 Btu
40.50 Btu/lb
air
per pound
(b)
(cfm).
14.10 cu
7. If
min
is
sum of the
is
the
frigerated space
Refrigeration
and by motors,
lights,
and other
electrical
Methods of
Compression
System
64.
The
Refrigerating Agent.
is
called the
refrigerant.
may be
classified as
When
upon
the refrigerant.
In general, refrigeration
Refrigeration.
61.
process
is
surroundings.
To
roundings.
To
refrigerated region to
it is
its
some
lb of water at
ever, for
sur
practical
F (Fig. 61).
F space
temperature of the space will decrease. Howeach one Btu of heat that the water
absorbs from the space, the temperature of the
water will increase 1 F, so that as the tempera
warmer
70
assume that
is
the 70
distin
Need
illustrate,
32
minimum,
from
below the
material.
63. The Heat Load.
The rate at which heat
must be removed from the refrigerated space or
71
PRINCIPLES
72
OF REFRIGERATION
by heat conducted to
Insulation
As the
warmed
it
from these
materials.
it
ice acts as
To
decreases.
be located near
with ice
be continuous
until all
tions.
it is
Ordinarily, 32
is
the
minimum
tem
refrigerants
and
solid
from
all
the
by convection currents
set
up
refrigerated space.
The
air in contact
with the
is
heated
Heat leaking
through insulation
Fig. 62. Heat flows from warm space to cold ice.
Temperature of space decreases as ice melts. Temperature of ice remains at 32 F. Heat absorbed by
ice leaves space in water going out the drain.
REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM
73
66.
which the
absorbs heat
Liquid
Refrigerants.
liquids to absorb
enormous
The
of
ability
quantities of heat as
As refrigerants,
vapor
izing liquids
is
directly propor
more
and to the
effect
Heat taken
ice
is
temperature difference between the space temperature and the melting temperature of the ice,
the rate of heat absorption by the ice diminishes
as the surface area of the ice is diminished by the
when
the refriger
is
sources,
the temperature
its
disadvantages, ice
is
preferable to
in
the space
is
the refrigerating
given up to the
ice.
of
Despite
and
by the water
increase.
etc.,
in
is,
fluids, water,
been used in
its
because of
its familiarity,
has
tain economically.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
74
v;;;;;;;m//m;//;;;;;;m/m/;;//.
I? 
Baffle
53
fs^i\
/
,1
40*
Ti
an
lists,
among
list
other
refrigerants.
These
44'
by merely allowing
refrigerator.
Heat
is
carried
from
Air circulation
is
by
gravity.
shown in
Fig.
is
vaporized.
Any container,
for
R12 to vaporize in a
liquid
WW///////MWA
warm
and
vapor tables previously discussed and are employed in the same manner.
An in67. Vaporizing the Refrigerant.
Drain
Refrigerant vapor
js^v,
at atmospheric
pressure
conditions.
properties
Of all
of the fluids
now
in use as refrigerants,
all
the
frigerant is a fluorinated
hydrocarbon of the
methane
series
To
compound
is
now referred
to as Refrigerant12.
in
the vapor
REFRIGERATION
which a refrigerant
is
one of the
essential
75
an evaporator and
parts of any mechanical
SYSTEM
refrigerant vapor
below atmospheric
refrigerating system.
Refrigerant12 liquid
'boiling at 100"F
evaporator to
rise
of refrigerant in evaporator
reduced below atmospheric by action of a vapor
pump.
no vapor is allowed to
no temperature
differential
are required,
it
is
some pressure
Refrigerant
vapor above
atmospheric
pressure
Refrigerant12
liquid boiling at
and no heat
refrigerant.
30*F
replenished
evaporator
if
is
the
amount of
liquid in the
to be maintained constant.
One
liquid in
the evaporator
level
The
boiling
temperature
of the
liquid
evaporator is controlled by
controlling the pressure of the vapor over the liquid
with the throttling valve in the vent.
refrigerant
in
the
from the
same rate
is
Any increase in
PRINCIPLES
76
OF REFRIGERATION
in Fig. 68, used to regulate the flow of liquid
High pressure
liquid
refrigerant
refrigerant
the
into
evaporator
The
control
is
an
called
is
refrigerant flow
mechanical
refrigerating system.
There are
Needle valve
~ assembly
flow controls,
extent
_ Low pressure
at
of refrigerant
all
the present
Each of
time.
liquid refrigerant
17.
The
68 has
float type
some
which tend to
applications.
refrigerant
these
Chapter
flow control
KaSSsiSfc''
expansion valve.
is
the
thermostatic
is
shown
in Fig. 69.
610.
Fig. 68. Float
liquid
level
refrigerant
valve
is
evaporator.
in
reduced
as
the
refrigerant
passes
wise,
To
liquid
When
is
and
mixture
the evaporator.
410).
the cylinder
Any
REFRIGERATION
Lowpressure,
lowtemperature
(Fig. 610).
77
lowpressure,
SYSTEM
lowtemperature
liquidvapor mixture
Refrigerant control s
/
hightemperature
ator because
from the
it
required
is
medium
is
usually supplied
medium
condensing
is
from the
The
city
main
used as a
ordinary outdoor air at
air
normal temperatures.
For heat to flow out of the refrigerant vapor
into the condensing
medium
the temperature
Highpressure,
hightempenhii
medium
as the condensing
Highpressure,
hightemperature'
liquidvapor mixture
Highpressure,
Mghtemperitun! liquid
vapor.
shown
is
at
is
low, the
vapor
is
also
the condenser
At
employed.
cal
it
work
is
the vapor
is
temperature vapor
is
denser where
it
gives
it
condenser.
to the condensing
medium
in the
78
PRINCIPLES
611. Typical
OF REFRIGERATION
VaporCompression System.
system
is
shown
in Fig. 611.
The
Service Valves.
412.
The
suction
and
dis
principal
an evaporator,
whose function it is to provide a heat transfer
surface through which heat can pass from the
manual
refrigerant;
(2)
a suction
(1)
line,
operations.
which conveys
tively.
ly
613. Division of
outlet.
ating system
two
consists
parts.
refriger
The low
from the
line.
The pressure
(5)
known
is
the
refrigerant is
This pressure
is
During
service
usually measured
by installing a compound
gage on the gage port of the suction service
at the compressor
valve.
temperature.
This pressure
Refrigerant
flow control"!
Evaporator]
<8K
j
Liquid
,ine
dj~
Suction
line
ine~V.
"SB",
valve
Suction _
service valve
Compressor
rDischargeline
Receiver
(g)
(Condenser
is
the System.
is
J/tank
valve
VJteceiver
tank
is
REFRIGERATION
79
Receiver
tank
Compressor
Compressor
motor
shaft
to circulate
air
over condenser.
driver
the "condensing pressure," the "discharge pressure," or, more often, the "head
ing to condensing
pressure."
the condensing
called
medium used
medium
6IS.
is
pressure vapor
It
is
the compressor,
in
is
The change
in pressure, of course,
Condensing Units.
hot gas
line,
The compressor,
is
in Fig. 612.
Such an
is
liquid state.
classified
accord
an
ant
to condense the
refrigerant.
medium
is
a water
blies.
many
will
be shown
is
It
is
The
The
refrigerant starts at
some
initial state
or
PRINCIPLES
80
OF REFRIGERATION
condition.
cycle.
ation
is
called a
processes:
To
cycle
(1)
understand
it is
complete
cycle.
Any change
A typical
Fig. 615.
temperature,
highpressure
flows
from the
line
to
the
liquid
refrigerant
flow control.
The
pressure of the liquid is reduced to the evaporator pressure as the liquid passes through the
refrigerant flow control so that the saturation
refrigerant
It will
be shown
later that
REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM
81
o
u
I
r
I
5
8
E
II
!i
L
C V
I*
9
f
2<5
i
PRINCIPLES
82
OF REFRIGERATION
Liquidvapor mixture
30'F28.46 psig
Subcooled
liquid
86F120.6 psig
Liquidvapor mixture"
30T28.46
psig
Saturated vapor
30F28.46 psig
Superheated vapor
Saturated vapor
132*^120.6
psig"
102"F120.6 psig
Superheated vapo r
70F28.46
>>
psig~Xil(
Liquidvapor mixture
"
102F120.6 psig
Saturated liquid
102F120.6 psig
Fig. 615. Typical refrigeration system
is
In
compressor,
the
by compression
and the hightemperature, highpressure vapor
is discharged from the compressor into the
pressure of the vapor are raised
hotgas
The vapor
line.
up
being drawn
it
and
temperature
the
differential
gives
either to or
pression
is
is
from the
refrigerant during
usually negligible.
com
Therefore, com
com
work
its
temperature
is
temperature corresponding to
its
new
pressure
liquid
is
increased by an
amount
the
removed.
By
condenser,
all
of the vapor
is
recirculated.
is
short
resulting
from the
flow.
ture
in
direct
compression,
The
greater
the greater
is
the
work of
the increase in
is
REFRIGERATION
usually an electric motor.
It will be shown
horsepower required
to drive the compressor can be calculated from
the heat of compression.
Discharge Temperature.
SYSTEM
83
Care should
619.
its
pressure.
pressure
Conse
no heat
transfer
the condenser
container,
620.
pumped into
vapor
is
point
sufficiently
in the evaporator
is
and suction
line,
and
in the
condense as
fast
is
as
is
pumped
the
into
compressor as a result of the work of compression. Obviously, any increase in the rate of
The
rate at
which heat
will
from the
is
refrigerant
the function
(3) the
temperature
differ
The quantity of
from the
refrigerated space
is
known
as the
refrigerating effect.
less
Likewise,
as
it
when a
lb of ice
is
144 Btu.
it
will
absorb
of liquid refrigerant
vaporize
it;
potentially equal to
lb
its
If the temperature
PRINCIPLES
84
OF REFRIGERATION
from the
pound of
be equal to the
heat of vaporization. However, in
of refrigerant circulated
will
Since the
control
is
subcooled 16
(102
86) below
its
saturation temperature.
is
total latent
the
refrigerant
control
liquid
always
is
be
liquid at
produces useful cooling. Therefore, the refrigerating effect per pound of liquid circulated is
always less than the total latent heat of vapori
to cool itself
first
temperature of 30
psig, the
that
from 86
pressure
From Table
With reference
of
120
psig
is
(satur
corre
may be
and
air,
its
is
likely to
be
fairly
is
to 30
28.46
at the instant
of hquid at
is
not
from the
pound of hquid
latent heat of
is
F and
the refrigerant
is
discharged from
is
the same as
is
of 86 F, whereas
is still
pressure
refrigerating effect.
pressure
its
the liquid line. In Fig. 61 5, the liquid approaches the refrigerant control at a temperature
its
F when
zation.
The
evaporator.
the
REFRIGERATION
less the
part of
From Table
is
is
12.97 Btu
refrigerant
is
(12.97/66.85
pound
x 100)
and pro
53.88
Btu/lb).
it
85
Example 62. If, in Example 61, the temperature of the liquid entering the refrigerant
control is 60 F rather than 86 F, determine the
refrigerating effect.
vaporizing temperature.
tion of 'R12 at 30
SYSTEM
Solution.
From
enthalpy
163,
Table
R12
of
saturated vapor at 30
=81.61 Btu/lb
=
=
at 60
Refrigerating effect
21.57 Btu/lb
60.04 Btu/lb
the
163,
From
saturation
Table
tem
80.49 Btu/lb
cir
Refrigerating effect
comparison of Examples
= 27.73 Btu/lb
= 52.77 Btu/lb
61
and 62
in
and the
pound can
Example
effect
per pound
if
27.73 Btu/lb
53.88 Btu/lb
pound
circulated depends
upon two
factors:
com
(1)
the
frigerant control.
which it will
remove heat from the refrigerated space and is
usually stated in Btu per hour or in terms of its
icemelting equivalent.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
86
one ton of
24 hr and
ice in
is
is,
Solution
(a)
From
pound
liquid at 100
circulated.
86 F.
If
R12
is
circulated
tons.
Solution
(a)
From Example
61,
refrigerating effect
53.88 Btu/lb
Weight of refrigerant
circulated per minute
5 lb
Refrigerating capacity
in Btu per minute
=
=
269.40 x 60
16,164 Btu/hr
269.40
1.347 tons
200
624.
Example
65.
200
49.33
4.05 lb
(c)
Example 66.
If,
in
10 x 4.05
40.5 lb
Example
F before it
reaches the refrigerant control, calculate:
(a) the refrigerating effect
(b) the weight of refrigerant circulated per
minute per ton
subcooled from 100
is
(a)
to
80
From
Table 163,
enthalpy of R12
= 5 x 53.88
= 269.40 Btu/min
in tons
Solution
Refrigerating capacity
in
31.16 Btu/lb
49.33 Btu/lb
ton
80.49 Btu/lb
Refrigerating effect
Example 64.
mechanical refrigerating
system is operating under conditions such that
the vaporizing temperature is 30 F while the
temperature of the liquid approaching the reis
Enthalpy of R12
(b)
frigerant control
said to have a
system, that
The weight of
The
An R12 system is
operating
at conditions such that the vaporizing temperature is 20 F and the condensing temperature is
100 F. If it is assumed that no subcooling of
saturated vapor at
20 F
80.49 Btu/lb
Refrigerating effect
(b)
= 26J8
= 54.21
Btu/lb
Btu/lb
200
54.21
3.69 lb
it
is
effect
pound
results
REFRIGERATION
depends upon the vaporizing temperature. The
lower the vaporizing temperature and pressure,
the greater is the volume of the vapor which is
produced. When the vaporizing temperature is
known, the specific volume of the saturated
vapor which results from the vaporization can
SYSTEM
87
and the
be unsatis
factory.
is
equal to
the volume occupied by the weight of refrigerant which must be vaporized during the same
Solution.
From
From Example
1.121 cu ft/lb
65,
weight of refrigerant
circulated per minute
per ton
4.05 lb/min/ton
=
=
4.05
per ton
626.
1.121
4.55 cu ft/min/ton
refrigerant.
which in turn
On the other
hand,
if
refrigerating capacity.
cu
Volume of vapor
displaced per minute
remain constant,
ft
PROBLEMS
1.
The temperature of
refrigerant control
is
liquid
86
temperature 30 F. Determine:
per pound of
Ans. 53.89 Btu/lb
(6) The loss of refrigerating effect per pound.
Ans. 12.96 Btu/lb
(c) The weight of refrigerant circulated per
Ans. 3.71 lb/min/ton
minute per ton.
(d)The volume of vapor displaced per
(a)
The
refrigerating
effect
refrigerant circulated.
R12 liquid reaches the refrigerant control at a pressure of 136 psig and the
vaporizing pressure in the evaporator is 30.07
psig, determine:
(a) The refrigerating effect per pound.
Ans. 48.18 Btu/lb
2. If saturated
PRINCIPLES
88
(*)
(c)
OF REFRIGERATION
liquid
determine:
(a)
(b)
Arts. 3.45
cu ft/min/ton
4.
70
to be displaced per
Arts. 3.13
cuft/min/ton
(c)
(c)
4.42 lb/min/ton
displaced per
Arts. 6.44 cu ft/min/ton
Arts.
vapor
The condition of
Fig. 71.*
the refrigerant in
Cycle Diagrams
and the Simple
Saturated Cycle
on the
curve
chart to the
is
left
At any
its pressure.
Cycle Diagrams.
is
is
in the
form of a superheated
good knowledge of
the vaporcompression cycle requires an inten
vapor.
71.
that
make up
constant pressure
may be shown
graphically.
scale at the
Graphical
pressure.
at
that
is
nearly
all
shown
liquid,
is
is
refrigerant
The
of the
parallel to each
other because the latent heat of vaporization
of the refrigerant varies with the pressure at
72.
At any
tions.
states.
line, as
of vaporization
cycle
charts
The center
is different,
in
particular refrigerant.
89
90
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
1
2
3
o.
(eisd) ajnsssjd
<
91
Subcooled region
(Refrigerant
is in
the form of a
subcooled liquid)
(Refrigerant
is
a liquid
vapor mixture)
liquid
>
>
Superheated region
(Refrigerant is in
the form of a
superheated vapor)
Fig. 72. Skeleton Mi chart Illustrating the three regions of the chart and the direction of phase changing.
superheated
and almost
liquidvapor mixture
10%
is
is
vapor.
lines
constant enthalpy.
At the
lines
may be
is
To
entropy
interest
Ph
chart
is
based on a
lb
mass of
absolute
is
in
temperature.
PRINCIPLES
92
OF REFRIGERATION
lines, respectively.
and
zero point of 40 F.
The magnitude of the pressure in psia
left side
can be
readily determined.
is
of the
on a Ph
The system
is
chart. Temperature values in degrees Fahrenheit are found adjacent to the constant tempera
and superheated
Cycle.
refrigerant
the
condensing
Although the
temperature
and
At point A,
in
liquid
the refrigerant
condenser
the
at
is
the
its
a saturated
condensing
properties, as
p =
pressure).
131.6 psia
31.16 Btu/lb
an actual
is
35.75 psia
(at
a saturated liquid
refrigerating cycle of
=
=
100
0.06316 Btu/lb/
= 0.0127 cu ft/lb
refrigerating
worthwhile. In such a cycle, the fundamental processes which are the basis of every
actual vapor compression refrigerating cycle are
easily identified and understood. Furthermore,
less
t,
or h
is
25
hx
ha
he
93
h e hd
temperature of 20 F
Fig. 74. Pressureenthalpy diagram of a simple saturated cycle operating at a vaporizing
and a condensing temperature of 100
t,
F.
(Refrigerant 1 2.)
or both will be
measurable.
74.
The Expansion
is
liquid as
frigerant control
the control.*
When
the liquid
is
expanded into
condensing temperature to the evaporating temperature by the flashing into vapor of a small
portion of the liquid.
Process
AB is
* Process
AB
an
and terminates at
state point B.
work.f
Since the enthalpy of the refrigerant does not
must be known.
amount of work
itself
is
through the
done by
orifice
of
process
is
not in error.
PRINCIPLES
94
OF REFRIGERATION
refrigerant at point
B is
a liquidvapor mixture
p =
t
35.75 psia
20 F
The change
Note.
AB
results
from a
transfer of heat
energy which takes place within the refrigerant
itself because of internal friction.
transfer of
energy which occurs entirely within the working
fluid
If the values
of s
fluid,
from point
B to
At point C the
completely vaporized and is a
is
from the Ph
is
and
pressure.
The
approximately
=
=
chart, are:
27%.
Since the refrigerant at point B is a liquidvapor mixture, only the values of p and t can be
v = 1.121 cu ft/lb
read
from
Table 163.
However,
because the enthalpy of the refrigerant at points
A and B is the same, the enthalpy at point B
may be read from Table 163 as the enthalpy
at the conditions of point A. The quality of the
vapor at point B can be determined as in Section
622, using enthalpy values taken either from
Table 163 or from the Ph chart directly.
directly
80.49 Btu/lb
0.16949 Btu/lb/F
BC
refrigerant
increases
is
Refrigerant after
passing through
refrigerant control
In the
Point at which
vaporization
isv~~
complete
simple saturated
line
^>
to the refrigerant
control without a
change
Point at which
Discharge vapor
condensation
'from compressor
begins
in
condition
/S
Z)
l
Point at which
condensation is'
complete
condition
without a
change
in
AND THE
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
enthalpies of the refrigerant at points A,B,C,D,
E,
and X,
respectively, then
source)
(72)
ft
On
the
= 80.49  31.16
= 49.33 Btu/lb
the distance between
Ph diagram,
is
is
p =
h
v
Process
CD
takes
place
in
comthe
For the
is
com
131.6 psia
= 112 F (approximate)
= 90.6 Btu/lb (approximate)
= 0.330 cu ft/lb (approximate)
= 0.16949 Btu/lb/ F (same as at point C)
condition of point
chart.
h,
t,
Ph
and v require
The
Work
is
done on the vapor during the comCD, and the enthalpy of the
is increased by an amount equal to
pression process,
refrigerant
equivalent of the
pression
is
pound of refrigerant
qt
compare process
adiabatic, but
entropy line intersects the hne of constant pressure corresponding to the condensing pressure.
At point D, the refrigerant is a superheated
no
effect.
The Compression
76.
Ag
refrigerant at point
XC
If
(isentropic) compression.
point
^ = A.  K
as such,
(71)
95
itself)
qi=hc  K
When we
pression process
is
SATURATED CYCLE
SIMPLE
q2
circulated,
=ha  h
in question,
=
=
90.60
80.49
10.11 Btu/lb
(73)
PRINCIPLES
96
OF REFRIGERATION
w = ft x /
w = J(ha  hj
when we
As a
(74)
10.11
comfrom the
its
pressure.
processes
The heat
medium during
ftlb
77.
point A.
saturation
x 778
7865.58
ture to the condensing temperature is the difference between the enthalpy of the refrigerant at
point
and the enthalpy at point
(ha ht).
Process EA is the condensation of the vapor
in the condenser.
(75)
w =
or
The
the condenser
is
It
sum
is
the difference
DE
up by the
refrigerant at the
where ft
Hence,
=h ~K
(76)
= the
In this instance,
ft
the
ture
EA
Usually, both
place in the
process
= 90.60  31.16
 59.44 Btu/lb
at the
heat rejected by the refrigerant to the condensing medium in the condenser must be exactly
process
vapor curve.
0.319 cu ft/lb
point
it left
(ft).
Therefore,
ft
 ft + ft
In this instance,
ft
=49.33 +10.11
= 59.44 Btu/lb
(77)
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
Where
is
SIMPLE
by combining Equations
(78)
hp
= 4.05 lb/min/ton
total quantity
of heat
Qa
or
ft
For the
= <fc)
= mUhi ~ A)
(79)
(710)
cycle in question,
ft
= 4.05 x 59.44
= 240.93 Btu/min/ton
Q%
is
or
ea
=/w(?8)
ft
m(fid
(711)
produced
Aj)
(717)
is
is
an expression of the
is
(712)
10.11
Coefficient of
40.95 Btu/min/ton
the
W=
(713)
rriiw)
performance
When we
substitute in
=
=
may
(714)
c.o.p.
r
Refrigerating effect
Heat of compression
(715)
(716)
(A,
(Ad
(718)
 kg)
 A)
Equation 715,
80.49)
31,856 ftlb/min/ton
(ft)
78.
49.33
c.o.p.
cal
31,856
this
be written as
A),
W = JmUqd
W = Jm(hd  h
W = /(ft)
or
and
or
cycle efficiency
ft =4.05 x
Where
79. Coefficient
A,)
Substituting,
is
715:
discussed later.
Where
or, since
and
42.42
200
Qa is the
15
m(hd
in question,
Then, where
97
1x
SATURATED CYCLE
200 Btu/min
AND THE
~ 33,000 x 1
= 0.965 hp/ton
10.11
4.88
of Suction Temperature on
Cycle Efficiency. The efficiency of the vapor
710. Effect
compression refrigerating cycle varies considerably with both the vaporizing and condensing
PRINCIPLES
98
OF REFRIGERATION
h c h c h e hd hd
ha
'
Fig. 74.
distorted).
above
(Refrigerant 12.)
PA
(a)
chart:
For the 10
cycle,
qi
qa
fl
For the 40
F cycle,
<
The
refrigerat
F vaporizWhen the
(he
 K)  {hc  h a)
h c ha
51.55  48.20
x 100
x 100
48.20
=
The
6.95%
pound of
vaporizing temperature
48.20 Btu/lb.
Btu/lb.
similar cycle
is
the
 40 F)
is
fact that there is a smaller temperature differential between the vaporizing temperature and the
temperature
refrigerant
of the
control.
liquid
Hence,
approaching the
at
the
higher
pound
is
which must be
capacity
is less
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
the weight of refrigerant circulated per minute
per ton for the 10 F cycle is
200
Ac
SATURATED CYCLE
SIMPLE
99
f>a
200
AND THE
48.20
= 4.151b/min
The weight of refrigerant
per ton for the 40
circulated per
F cycle is
42.42
minute
4.15
only
x (90.90
79.36)
42.42
200
For the 40
F cycle,
200
51.55
3.88 lb/min
"Kb*
is
hf)
42.42
3.88
1.13
(90.20
82.71)
42.42
0.683
3.88
x 100
4.15
6.5%
1.13
X 10
ing temperature.
for the 10
Later,
is
when
11.54
7.49
11.54
x 100
35.1%
Because both the work of compression per
pound and the weight of refrigerant circulated
39.5%
it
will
be shown that
(A
0.683
1.13
be determined by comparing
two
their
coefficients
hc
ha
= 48.20
11.54
= 4.17
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
100
is
hd
>
51.55
7.49
6.88
To a
ture.
of perform
 4.17
 65%
x 100
4.17
refrigerant
and
efficiency
of a
The
difference in the
volume of vapor to be
is
5.6cuft
is
ntv)
3.88
x 0.792
3.075 cu
ft
is
be further
refrigerant circulated
both
ton
is
Mha h = 4.15
)
tt
x 59.74
247.92
A)
3.88
x 59.04
229.08 Btu
whereas, at the 40
of
ton
per
suction temperatures
minute
6.88
weight
smaller
per
circulated
ha
 h(f
hf
the
then,
Obviously,
refrigerant
pound (refrigerating
and the heat of compression per pound.
effect)
heat
per minute per ton at the higher suction temperature is only 6.5%, the decrease in the volume
of vapor handled by the compressor per minute
per ton
is
general, this
is
~^
5.6
3.075
x 100
=45%
is
usually accompanied
by an
ing
effect.
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
AND THE
SATURATED CYCLE
SIMPLE
x/**
171.8
131.6
D'
E'J
a/\iw
Z)/^137.5'F
Eh
/X
//l
B B
/lO*
29.35
'
//
101
'
fc
l!
]!
/i
IS
Si
/ >
/
Sfi'
above
iir>
Is
II
hc
'
S?
i
cyl
id.
/mi
Aa h a
Fig. 77.
/tol
CO
distorted).
o
'
'cm
l<T>
h e h e hi hi'
'
 40 F)
(Refrigerant 1 2.)
of Condensing Temperature on
Cycle Efficiency. Although the variations in
temperature
71 1. Effect
if
In general,
the
condensing temperature.
120 F. This
is
One
cycle,
for cycle
determined in
From
9!
qi
?s
=
=
In
the
Ph diagram,
is
48.20
simple
saturated
cycle
the
liquid
is
In this
reduced from
X 10
10.37%
200
4T20=
refriger
 43.20
and the
reduced.
48.20
two
A, B, C, D, and E, has a
condensing temperature of 100 F, whereas the
Fig. 77.
is
a reduction of
pound
on
as
increased, the
ture
Therefore,
is
This
is
4 631b

an increase of
4.63
 4.15
4.15
x 100
11.57%
102
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
is
greater at the
it
follows that
temperature is only
temperature
cal
the
cycle
is
is
As
x 13.84
42.42
temperature.
F condensing
4.63
volume of the
specific
1.13
at the 100
This
is
=L52hP
Note
temperature
is
1.351
=6.25cuft
This
is
pound, there
The
6.25
5.6
coefficient of
at the 100
x 100 = 11.57%
43.20
when
the vaporizing
temperature
is
power
13.84
11.54
Xl0= 20%
Whereas the
3.12
x 100
= 33.7%
the exact
Whereas
power
pound and
work of compression so that the
capacity per unit of power de
ture increases.
an
is
increases the
iL54
in this instance
4.17
is
3.12
varied.
13.84
volume
5.6
occurs
higher condensing
ton.
4.63
Note
the
at
theoretical horse
effect
per pound,
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
AND THE
SATURATED CYCLE
SIMPLE
103
Td
Fig.
Temperatureentropy
78.
diagram
of
on
cycle
simple
skeleton
(figure distorted).
saturated
M T*
J
I
chart
Ts
(Refrigerant
12.)
*F)
712.
It
was shown
in Section 77
is
to
Q3
Q2
many who
prefer
To
to
acquaint
is drawn
on Ts coordinates in Fig. 78. The state points
A, B, C, D, and E represent the points in the
cycle as shown by the flow diagram in Fig. 75.
The state point X represents saturated liquid
increases.
then
with
the heat of
it
Q3
cycles in
at the 100
Btu.
The
x (43.20
13.84)
310.40
218.75
It is interesting to
310.4 Btu
100
refrigerant control.*
baric
and
evaporator.
Process
condensing
BC
is
vaporization
CD
is
the
the isoin
the
reversible
sa , sb, se , sd , st ,
higher
Process
isothermal
temperature,
=418%
of sensible heat rejected at the condenser increases considerably at the higher condensing
temperature, whereas the amount of latent heat
the
AB is
pressor
is
><
Process
percent increase
lii
at
and
The
shown on the
The
line
AB
is
chart represent
104
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
50
40
61.39
51.68
20
10
Psia
15.28
9.32
12.02
pound
52.62 51.55
43.54 42.34
Weight of refrigerant
circulated per minute per
ton
Specific
4.05
4.15
4.25
4.36
4.48
4.59
4.73
1.121
1.351
1.637 2.00
2.47
3.09
3.91
2.56
3.08
3.77
4.55
5.60
6.96
8.72
11.10
14.20
18.50
6.01
7.49
8.79
10.11
11.54
13.29
14.85
16.73
18.50 20.40
1.13
1.35
1.54
1.78
2.00
2.26
8.76
4.17
3.54
3.09
2.67
2.36
2.07
3.80
3.88
3.97
volume of suction
vapor
pound
Theoretical horsepower per
ton
Coefficient of performance
6.88
5.74
4.88
Fig. 79
20
18
16
3.5
14
12
3.0
a
E
2.5
20
10
20
30
40
10
1Q.
1.5
1.0
0.5

*
50
Suction temperature
Fig. 7IOa. For Refrigerant 1 2, the refrigerating effect per pound, the weight of refrigerant circulated per
minute per ton, the specific volume of the suction vapor, and the volume of vapor compressed per minute
per ton are each plotted against suction temperature. Condensing temperature
is
constant at 100
F.
CYCLE DIAGRAMS
2.6
\V
2.2
AND THE
against
suction
I
o.
tem
ture
is
constant at 100
105
8 g
1.6
copP"*
Q)
SATURATED CYCLE
SIMPLE
1.2
5 S
0.8
4$
F.
i
^Horserjower
0.4
per ton
1
40  302010
20
10
30
40
50
Suction temperature
AXCDEA
represents
the
heat
energy
equivalent of the
effect
per pound.
DEA and
As
Ph diagram,
it
can be
cycle,
it is
shown
Fig. 711.
effect
chart,
vs X v *r1
\
intensive study.
To
this,
the
^ *
sjfcfc?
fc^l
^"s;
>o
^_
^jT
expenses.
of the
discharge
effect
size
10
20
 ~.
30
40
50
Suction temperature
PRINCIPLES
106
OF REFRIGERATION
(3)
compiled for a variety of vaporizing and condensing temperatures and are given in Table 71
to aid the student in arriving at
end of the
(2)
chapter.
PROBLEMS
(2)
The weight of
(4)
44.56 Btu/lb
refrigerant circulated
(3)
(5)
Arts.
4.49 lb/min/ton
more accurate
C. (1)
On
Ph diagram
the
is
is
may
Actual
it
Refrigerating
Cycles
the
Ph
pressure
from point
constant temperature
line.
81.
for this
is
made
for
following sections
all
effect
on the cycle
is
At point
p =
v
C",
35.75 psia
1
.260 cu ft/lb
=
=
88.6 Btu/lb
*&
20*F
35.75 psia
D
J
20* F
35.75 psia
30"F
'
70
= 0.1840 Btu/lb/ R
35.75 psia 4
C
\
studied
20* F
Saturated vapor
in detail.*
82.
50* F
Superheated vapor
70*F ^
35.75
XT
r^i
164* F_
131.6
psi'a
100
psia
100* F
131.6 psia
refrigerant
evaporator,
in
effect that
Chapter
it
/^\
")
100*
131.6 psia
and the
condition.
12.
(Refrigerant 1 2.)
107
PRINCIPLES
108
OF REFRIGERATION
131.16
35.75
Superheat
Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
(Refrigerant 1 2).
Fig. 82. Ph diagram comparing simple saturated cycle to the superheated cycle.
At point/)',
/>
= 131.6 psia
f = 164F
 0.380 cu ft/lb
h = 99.2 Btu/lb
j = 0.1840 Btu/lb/ R
represents the
vapor
superheated cycle
is slightly
hx
of compression
= 99.2 
h&
88.6
is
In
F for the
cycle,
greater
hand
condenser per
is
K  99.2
31.16
68.04 Btu/lb
pound
is
is
pound
68.0459.44
10.11 Btu/lb
x tnn
100
ijjd ,
14.4%
Note
dissipated per
10.11
x 100
4.84%
10.11
2.
3.
hd
12
The
saturated cycle.
10.6 Btu/lb
hd
pound
is
consider
pound
must be
superheated cycle
200
109
~K
fie
200
49.33
suction
with the temperature approximately in accordance with Charles' law.* Therefore, a pound
of superheated vapor will always occupy a
greater
the compressor, the weight of refrigerant circulated by a compressor of any given displace
ment
will
always be
less
than
when
the suction
= 4.05 lb/min/ton
Since the weight of refrigerant circulated is the
cycles
and saturated
and since the specific volume of the vapor
at the
compressor
same
= 1.121 cu ft/lb
=m xv
= 4.05 x 1.121
= 4.55 cu ft/min/ton
vapor v e
The volume of
vapor compressed per
minute per ton V
= 1.260 cu ft/lb
=m xv
= 4.05 x 1.260
= 5.02 cu ft/min/ton
of the
Assume
first
that
the
When
superheating
same vaporizing
and condensing temperatures, and therefore the
saturated cycle operating at the
saturated cycle.
the vapor
do
Again, since the weight of refrigerant circuminute per ton is the same for both
cycles and since the heat of compression per
pound is greater for the superheated cycle than
lated per
is
it is
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
110
m(h d
cycle,
he)
42.42
4.05
200
10.11
h
42.42
=
The
coefficient
of per
formance
=
For the superheated
cycle, the
0.965 hp/ton
he
hd
K
4.88

4.05
h C ')
10.6
42.42
1.01
hc
formance
hd
'
hp/ton
~ha

K
49.33
10.60
=
In summary,
42.42
3.48 lb/min/ton
10.11
m(h d
of per
57.44
49.33
horsepower per
coefficient
200
hn
ha
ton
The
= m x vc
=3.48 x
The volume of
vapor compressed per
minute per ton V
m{h a
all
3.48
This means that the compressor, the compressor driver, and the conden
ser
84.
cooling.
cycle
is
h^
equal to
h a =
88.60
31.16
57.44 Btu/lb
heated
is less
>
A c .)
x 10.60
42.42
1.260
42.42
saturated cycle.
4.38 cu ft/min/ton
ton
4.65
ft
0.870 hp/ton
For the superheated cycle, both the refrigerating effect per pound and the heat of compression per pound are greater than for the
saturated cycle. However, since the increase in
the refrigerating effect
is
greater proportionally
is
For the saturated cycle, the coefficient of performance is 4.69, whereas for the superheated
cycle
The
coefficient
(h c
of performance
(4r
h a)
57.44
hc
10.60
5.42
ing superheated
erated
space
is
and produces
useful
refrig
cooling,
and the
effect
upon
whenever
is
practical.
most part
Whether or not
in any particular
line.
When
Such a
high (35
reverse
vapor
is
called a
vapor
any appreciable amount of un
perature
pumps,
vaporized liquid
is
damage
to the compressor
may
result.
Since
relatively
will usually
is
Too,
is
at
efficiency
low.
is
of the cycle
is
degree of superheat will cause a greater reduction in cycle efficiency percentagewise than when
the suction temperature
is
high.
It
becomes
will seriously
compressor
inlet,
1.
2.
a "drier
loop")
3. In the suction piping located outside of the
refrigerated space
4. In a liquidsuction heat exchanger.
and
is
that,
even at the higher suction temperatures, insulating of the suction line is often required to prevent
frosting or sweating of the suction line. In
flowing through the suction piping, the cold
suction vapor will usually lower the temperature
desirable
the piping.
86.
112
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
great to a vapor as to a liquid, the capacity of the
evaporator
vapor
is
Flow diagram showing drier loop for superheating suction vapor inside refrigerated space.
Fig. 83.
amount of
suction piping,
is
To assure the proper operation of the refrigerant control and to prevent liquid refrigerant
from overflowing the evaporator and being
carried back to the compressor, when certain
sor. This not only provides a means of superheating the suction vapor inside the refrigerated
space so that the efficiency of the cycle is
increased without the sacrifice of expensive evaporator surface, but it actually makes possible
is
more
effective
surface.
Also, in
some
instances, particularly
is
reasonably
low, superheating of the suction vapor inside the
refrigerated space will raise the temperature of
the suction piping and prevent the formation of
the superheating.
line insulation.
the vapor
is
It
However, in spite of the increase in cycle efficiency, it must be emphasized that superheating
the suction vapor in the evaporator is not
economical and should always be limited to only
that amount which is necessary to the proper
operation of the refrigerant control. Since the
transfer of heat through the walls of the evaporator per degree of temperature difference is not as
a refrigerant,
it
vapor
may
approximately 35 F.
The Effects of Subcooling the Liquid.
On the PA diagram in Fig. 84, a simple saturated
87.
cycle is
* Although this
air is
compared to one
F to 80 F before it reaches
and
cooled cycle.
cycle,
will also
It
pound
is
be
the subcooling
is
cycle,
pound, qx
pound, qt
KK
= 80.49 31.16
= 49.33 Btu/lb
= he h
= 80.49  26.28
= 54.21 Btu/lb
>
tt
200
~
=
49.33
4.05 lb
200
54.21
3.69 lb
and subcooled
same
is less
cycle,
the subcooled
simple
saturated
1.121
3.69
:
cu ft/lb
x ve
1.121
4.15 cu ft/min
Any change
which increases the
quantity of heat absorbed in the refrigerated
space without causing an increase in the energy
input to the compressor will increase the c.o.p.
of the cycle and reduce the horsepower required
the energy input to the compressor.
in the refrigerating cycle
per ton.
(Refrigerant 1 2.)
:
1.121
to
cycle.
ft/lb
4.55 cu ft/min
comparcycle
cu
x ve
4.05 x
131.16
1.121
subcooling
the
ing
113
35.75
Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
PRINCIPLES
114
OF REFRIGERATION
Liquidvapor mixture
35.75 psia20F
m<
Subcooled liquid
131.16
Liquid subcooled
psiaSCF
20*
illus
surrounding
passing through
Saturated vapor
131.16
Superheated vapor
131.16
air while
psialOOV
in
the liquid
line.
(Refrigerant
paa112'F
Saturated liquid
o
Saturated vapor
12.)
131.16 psia100 F
3575psia20*F
cycle,
KK
hd
mance
80.49
~
=
The horsepower per ton
90.60
subcooling
hc
31.16
80.49
m(h d
hc)
4.05
sufficient to
of the subcooler,
liquid subcooler
may be
piped either in
When
is
42A2
=
=
The
the subcooler
more than
particularly for
series
4.88
very often
is
offset
subcooler
first
10.51
0.965 hp/ton
h'
K
hc
hd
mance
80.49  26.28
90.60  80.49
in the subcooler,
is
it
54.21
=
The horsepower per ton
5.16
m{h d
is offset
he)
When
10.51
0.914 hp/ton
4.88
~^M~ X
10
to
some
the subcooler
is
42.42
increased
densing temperature.
42.42
3.69
is
the subcooler.
is
not affected by
series or
condenser water
pump must
by
7%
subcooled
In
far,
to the system.
88.
other
115
cooled
is
given
up
to
some medium
external to
When
is
subcooled is
remains in the system.
the
Ph diagram
is
liquidsuction
heat
89,
exchanger
in
hC
employed.
is
exchanger.
'
'
in
the
effect
refrigerating
effect,
the
refrigerating
hc
ha
80.49
25.45
is
55.04
for the heat
exchanger cycle is
in the
ha
heat exchanger is
.
which a
and points
in which the heat exchanger is used. In the cycle
latter cycle, it is assumed that the suction vapor
is superheated from 20 F to 60 F in the heat
hc
to subcooler
a simple
Points A, B, C, Z),and
cycle
Saturated liquid
compared to one
saturated cycle
from^/
condenser
used,
On
Water
h =
c
86.20
80.49
5.71 Btu/lb
 hd =
97.60
K  hn
The
55.04
coefficient of
ated cycle
is
4.88.
11.40
is
4.91
11.40
S3
86.20
h,.h,
75'
4.88
x 100
tower
4.88
or city main
is
by only
=0.5%
Watercooled
condenser
(10O*F condensing)
"^
100*
Liquid to
'subcooler
Fig. 84.
in series
case,
the
t/80
116
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
20* vaporizing
temperature
Saturated
suctio n
vapor
f
v
20'
Saturated
liquidlOOT
Subcooled
liquid75"F~
100* condensing
temperature
always become superheated before the compression process begins because nothing can be
done to prevent it. This is true even if no
superheating takes place either in the evaporator or in the suction line and the vapor reaches
Since the superheating in the compressor cylinder will occur before the compression process
131.16
&
35.75
Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
Hg. 8. Ph diagrams comparing simple saturated cycle to cycle employing a liquidsuction heat exchanger.
The amount of subcooling is equal to the amount of superheating. (Refrigerant 2.)
1
on
cycle
if
117
specific heat of
R12 liquid
is
approximately
suction to
suction vapor
24
89.
vapor absorbs
5.71
heating from 20
F to
up by the liquid is
5.71
other.
The
greater
is
and external
(surface),
A Ph
diagram of an actual
is
cycle, illustrating
period of contact. Thus, the lower the vaporizing temperature and the higher the condensing
temperature, the greater is the possible heat
cooling
exchange.
Theoretically,
if
the
two
fluids
sufficient length
of
same temperature. In
is
not possible.
drawn
is
saturated cycle
is
in for comparison.
psi.
Whereas
is
33.08 psia, corresponding to a saturation temperature of 16 F. The average vaporizing temperature in the evaporator is 20 F, the same as
that of the saturated cycle.
* It will be
shown
later that
some advantages
perature
process.
As a
result of the
if
no drop in
pressure occurred.
118
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
38.58 psia
24* F (sat. temp.)
Average evaporating
temperature and
pressure
35.75 psia, 20 F
90 F
L
,
33.08 psia//
16* F (sat. temp.)
(sat.
temp.)
158.9 psia
(sat. temp.)
1 114"F
TTlOF
*^\
131.6 psia
(sat. temp.)
100F
Average condensing
temperature and pressure
139 psia, 104 F
Fig. 810. Flow diagram illustrating the effect of pressure drop
are exaggerated for clarity. (Refrigerant 2.)
in
is greater for the cycle experiencing the pressure drop. Too, because of the
lower pressure of the vapor leaving the evapora
pressure.
both increased.
is
also
eration
various
parts
simple
drawn
saturated
in
(Refrigerant
Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
Pressure drop
1.
2.
3. Liquid line
4. Evaporator
5.
Suction line
6.
for
1
the
of the system.
2.)
cycle
is
comparison.
This applies
good evaporator
the pressure drop across the
limits
Ordinarily,
evaporator to 2 or 3
psi. Ideally,
between
and 2
is
119
line.
psi.
of subcooling, super
effects
simple saturated
drawn
in
for
cycle
I.
is
comparison.
(Refrigerant 1 2).
Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
Pressure drop
1.
2.
3. Liquid line
Line
4. Evaporator
5. Suction line
6.
be the same.
if
effect
CD
Notice that the vapor in the cylinder is compressed to a pressure considerably above the
average condensing pressure. It is shown later
that this is necessary in order to force the vapor
raising
discharge
the
increasing the
result
erant at A'
is
and
liquid line.
as
its
pressure
line in order to
provide the
in
A"
lies
is
a vapor at
this point.
120
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
to 70
is
The fact
it
that
drop in pressure in
not excessive. Flashing of the liquid
the line
is
in the lines
is
and
discussed
in
more
is
compared
PROBLEMS
1.
(a)
The
pound.
The
(A)
Ans. 138.5
Ans. 9 Btu/lb
(0 The heat of compression per minute per
ton.
Ans. 33.3 Btu/min/ton
The
work of compression per minute per
(J)
ton.
Ans. 25.907 lb/min/ton
(At) The theoretical horsepower per ton.
Ans. 0.755 hp/ton
(/)The heat rejected at the condenser per
pound.
Arts. 67 .4 Btu/lb
(m) The heat rejected at the condenser per ton.
Ans. 249.38 Btu/min/ton
() The coefficient of performance.
Ans. 6
Note: Some of the properties of the refrigerant at various points in the cycle must be
determined from the Ph chart in Fig. 71.
with
if
mechanical
refrigerating
equipment.
Survey
known
applications
of Refrigeration
Applications
tation,
91.
not too
made possible
rubber, and
rials
efficient.
it is
more
it
became
unit which
cannot
boast
It
has
made
and products.
refrigeration, bakers
Because of mechanical
can get more loaves of
is
trained technical
manpower.
six
general categories:
(1)
domestic refrigeration, (2) commercial refrigeration, (3) industrial refrigeration, (4) marine and
transportation refrigeration, (5) comfort air conditioning,
part that refrigeration has played in the development of the highly technical society that
will
air conditioning. It
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
122
precisely defined
is
considerable
93.
number of
units
in
service
is
quite large,
these
are of the hermetically sealed type. Since
applications are familiar to everyone, they will
be described further here. However, the
not
problems encountered in the design and maintenance of these units are discussed in appropriate places in the chapters
which
follow.
Com.nercial Refrigeration.
94.
Commer
cial refrigeration
is
taurants, hotels,
and
refrigeration fixtures
are described
in
more
Industrial
Refrigeration.
refrigeration is often confused with commercial
refrigeration because the division between these
Industrial
two areas
is
As a
general
size
rule, industrial applications are larger in
disthe
have
and
applications
commercial
than
etc.),
breweries, creameries,
and
Section 91.
96.
tion.
could be
listed partly
under commercial
refrig
have grown
mention.
Marine
refrigeration,
refrigeration
all
kinds.
Transportation
refrigeration
is
concerned
shown
in Fig.
118.
97.
implies,
condition
air conditioning is concerned with the
of the air in some designated area or space. This
usually involves control not only of the space
air.
schools,
offices,
as well
for vessels transporting perishable cargo
vessels of
as refrigeration for the ship's stores on
of course, refers to
includes,
boats
for example, refrigeration for fishing
and
and in
are almost without limit both in number
of
variety. Generally speaking, the functions
control
industrial air conditioning are to; (1)
the moisture content of hydroscopic materials;
chemical and biochemical
(2) govern the rate of
reactions; (3) limit the variations in the size of
precision manufactured articles because of ther
quality products.
98.
preservation of
refrigeration.
and
vegetables, are
must be stored
and preserved
made
if
they are to be
available
seasons of scarcity. It
is
man
still
These
widely used
no
123
The invention of the microscope and the subsequent discovery of microorganisms as a major
cause of food spoilage led to the development of
canning in France during the time of Napoleon.
With the invention of canning, man found a way
to preserve food of all kinds in large quantities
results.
are
they are not universally adaptable for the preservation of all types of food products. Furthermore, the keeping qualities of food preserved by
often
it is
preservation of food
and that
all
perish
pass
PRINCIPLES
124
OF REFRIGERATION
either eliminated or effectively controlled if the
preservation of food
is
foodstuff
910.
its
Although their
edibility is little impaired, an undesirable change
in their appearance has been brought about
which usually requires that they be disposed of
at a reduced price. Too, since they are well on
way
fruit.
so
lactase, is
known because
cesses,
by a
series of
the foodstuff.
capable of bringing about the total destruction
of a food product, both agents are involved in
spoilage. In any event, the
activity of both of these spoilage agents must be
acts to convert
called ferments.
total loss.
it
and
yet fully
lactose (milk sugar) to lactic acid. This particular process is called lactic acid fermentation
Not
their
original fresh
state.
vegetables or overripe
Enzymes
to be adequately preserved.
is
Enzymes.
all living
pro
all
and decomposition of
all
organic
vegetables.
dition.
the conditions of the surrounding media, particularly with regard to the temperature and the
degree of acidity or alkalinity, which provides a
practical
125
for consumption.
ing, disease,
On
many
action of microorganisms
is
greatly reduced at
low
by
stroyed
action of
known
dom
its
alkalinity
own
occurs.
More
enzymes
destructive action by enzymes
often, the natural
by microorganisms.
Microorganisms. The
secreted
911.
and appearance of
allowed to continue for
any length of time, will render the food unfit
alterations in the taste, odor,
if
useful
matter of
fact, if
is
indispensable to the
life cycle.
Through a process
called photo
necessity feed
on green plants
and growth.
should the supply of
life
126
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
duction
of vinegar
Bacterial action
is
from various
alcohols.
The
rate at
linen,
are of immeasurable
Despite their
many
useful
and necessary
Hence,
enzymes,
if deterioration and
Most pathogenic
somewhat
wise,
when
living cell.
division.
On
bacterium can grow into maturity and reproduce in as little as 20 to 30 min. At this rate a
single bacterium is capable of producing as
many as 34,000,000,000,000 descendants in a
24hr period. Fortunately, however, the life
cycle of bacteria is relatively short, being a
matter of minutes or hours, so that even under
ideal conditions they cannot multiply at any
where near
this rate.
bacteria (those
causing infection and disease) are of the parasitic type. In the absence of a living host, some
parasitic bacteria can live as saprophytes. Likelive as parasites
The
by bacteria growth is a
Milk
in
96
168
2,400
2,100
1,850
1,400
2,500
3,600
218,000
4,200,000
1,480,000
3,100
12,000
11,600
540,000
180,000
28,000,000
127
Various Periods
Time, hours
48
24
32
39
46
50
60
86
in
1,400,000,000
Fig. 91. From ASRE Data Book, Applications Volume, 195657. Reproduced by
permission of the American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and AirConditioning Engineers.
drought almost
dormant
indefinitely,
and
(2) those
gen.
Some
which can
exist without free oxyalthough having a preference for one condition or the other, can live
in the presence of free oxygen or in the absence
of it. Those bacteria living without free oxygen
species,
compound while
carcasses.
grow
there
is
maximum and
on
For each
mum
siderably reduced
require either neutral or slightly alkaline surroundings, although some species prefer slightly
or
slightly
alkaline
surroundings,
nonacid
somewhat
yeasts reproduce
attack.
reproduction
all
bacteria.
Whereas
visible
light
only
otherwise, have
no power of
penetration, they
are effective only in controlling surface bacteria.
However,
direct sunlight),
provides
an
excellent
bacteria growth.
means of
from
drying,
controlling
larger
cells.
by fission
and
Under
is
enlarges
finally separates
cell.
ideal conditions,
formed.
Like bacteria, yeasts are agents of fermentaThey secrete enzymes that bring
about chemical changes in the food upon which
they grow. Yeasts are noted for their ability
tion and decay.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
128
and carbon
Although destructive to fresh foods,
particularly fruits
and
berries
and
their juices,
making
industries.
affinity.
In general, yeasts are not as resistant to unfavorable conditions as are bacteria, although they
come
in the air.
below.
Molds
flourish in dark,
oxygen.
still air.
fruits
others,
called
aerial
surroundings,
damp
An
abundant supply of
oxygen is essential to mold growth, although a
very few species can grow in the absence of
particularly in
to
freely at
in contact.
common
vats,
and
cause of spoilage in
fruits.
must
on
or dormant.
All types of spoilage agents are destroyed when
subjected to high temperatures over a period of
aerial
hyphae, and
time.
This principle
is
in sterilized,
recontamination.
to
prevent
level.
may
spores
processing
long
require
periods
continued
activity.
is
is
accomplished either
Pickling
is
essentially
a fermentation process,
the exhaustion of the
is
by
smoke and
129
partially
which are
products preserved in this manner are sugarcured hams, salt pork, spiced fruits, certain
beverages,
jellies,
storage
of perishables
at
low temperatures
means of preserving
tical
perishables in their
required for
and
bial
fish, are much more susceptible to microcontamination and spoilage than are living
from
all
and the
one of keeping
the food substance alive while at the same time
retarding natural enzymic activity in order to
preservation problem
fermentation
is
is chiefly
plant,
or
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
130
some of which
is
After harvesting,
fruit.
from
its
period.
life
of animal products, in
fat,
the storage
life
of beef
is
considerably
whose
much
fatty
its
and storage
F and 10 F,
10
with
retail
usually
is
where
establishments
is
normally ex
pected.
some
products, such as
meats.
When
and
and up
more durable
onions and some smoked
months
to six or eight
such as
sensitive products,
broccoli,
for the
Some
and
fresh foods,
When
fully frozen.
less stable.
at
method
918.
reduced.
The
rate of oxidation
is
products in
tightfitting,
which prevent
air (oxygen)
and vegetables
in
not practical.
packaging in gasis
Storage
mate storage
is
the storage
life
of the
product.
917. Refrigerated
storage
gories:
(2)
For
may be
Storage.
(1) shortterm or
temporary storage,
(3)
frozen storage.
short
chilled
Refrigerated
those
Recommended
quickly.
than
flexible
optimum
As a
The
Conditions.
closely,
particularly
is
for
longterm
to be maintained
919.
131
the rate of
Although the
effect
peratures generally
is
tional
sures
some
life,
and vege
fruits
tables are particularly sensitive to storage temperature and are susceptible to socalled cold
storage diseases
when
stored at temperatures
critical
when
storage temperafrequently
fruits
citrus
stored at relatively
when
become sweet
at storage
pits
on
their surface
when
some
below 35 F.
and the
minimum
Conversely,
the product.
Humidity
storage of
all
venting dehydration
Unfortunately, these conditions are also conducive to rapid mold growth and the formation
of slime
(bacterial)
on meats.
Too,
is
somewhat
must be
less
than
sufficient
100% and
air velocities
to
circulation.
velocities
vegetables,
The
fish, fruit,
fruit
and vege
separate storage
this is
fore, except
demand
accompanied by shriveling
and the product undergoes a
considerable loss in both weight and vitamin
In meats, cheese,
etc.,
desiccation
when
involved,
are
and
wilting
facilities
for
tables, desiccation is
content.
1010
Motion.
Air
is
good
through 1013.
When the product is stored in vaporproof
containers, space humidity and air velocity are
not critical. Some products, such as dried
fruits, tend to be hydroscopic and therefore
require storage at low relative humidities.
921. Mixed Storage. Although the main
and
from
moisture
40 F.
920.
stored at or near 32 F.
to 32 F,
relative
low air
and stagnant
30
surface.
is
soft scald
vapor pres
storage space
is
to
suffer
Bananas
below
air,
that a
be placed in
most products,
feasible.
There
practical
considerations
often
common
storage.
Naturally, the
by
and heavy
causes
discoloration,
trim losses.
shrinkage)
It also increases
132
PRINCIPLES
mixed
storage.
OF REFRIGERATION
The higher
storage tempera
and
and vegetables
temperature.
only
problem when
short
for
not ordinarily a
the products are stored
periods
is
as
in
temporary
storage.
common
Another
storage
is
storage.
Some
flavors
and
from other products held in mixed
excessive losses.
Since" a food product begins to deteriorate
very quickly after harvesting or killing, it is
imperative that preservation measures be taken
immediately.
assure
maximum
storage
life
by refrigerated transport.
923.
chilling is
distinguished
in that the
is
whereupon
it
is
chilling
1013.
is
loaded into
room temperature
922.
age.
One
the storage
To
storage.
or nuts.
is
or retards
the natural
processes
of
it
make a high
out of one of initial poor
quality. Hence, only vegetables and fruit in
good condition should be accepted for storage.
Those that have been bruised or otherwise
deteriorated.
Neither can
quality product
It
is
very
important
equipment have
The temperatures
that
the
sufficient capacity
and are
in
tended for use in selecting the refrigerating equipment. Actual temperatures in the chilling room
during the peak chilling period are usually 3 F to
4
F higher than
those
listed.
mineral
when
dehydration.
the product
is
vaporproof
chilled in
relatively
unimportant.
initial
room humidity
However, during
stages of chilling,
will
room
been evaporated.
Products chilled in their natural state (unpackaged) lose moisture very rapidly, often
producing fog in the chilling room during the
early stages of chilling when the product temperature and vapor pressure are high.
and high
chilling
air
velocity
are
Rapid
desirable
oil
poultry, fish,
product
below.
The
frozen
includes
foods,
it
and
results in
not
only
those
commonly
which are
many
The
rate
of food products
and storage
product,
list
dinners.
is
Too,
packed in ice
products packed in
133
full
to be frozen
2.
The
4.
The
The
freezing
method
storage conditions.
and
However, during
when
the final
the temperature
ing
room is
air velocity
chilling.
vegetables are
As a
134
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
Fig. 92.
Walkin
installation.
Suspended
blast
in
Carrier Corporation.)
Fig. 93.
Suspended
blast free
air
through
(Courtesy
Carrier
blast
Corporation.)
and
storage
in
one room
another
is
mounted
blast freezers.
(Cour
greatly
increases
the
The time
required for blanching varies with the type and
variety of the vegetable and ranges from 1 to l
min for green beans to 1 1 min for large ears of
storage life of frozen vegetables.
corn. Although
tion
is
much
many
bacteria survive.
To
it
still air.
135
The tem
usually
upon
927.
and high
fruit is
to
of the
flesh.
To
be
frozen
is
However, because of consumer demand, specially prepared meats and meat products are being
frozen in increasing amounts. This is true also
of poultry and sea foods.
Because of the relative instability of their
fatty tissue, pork and fish are usually frozen as
soon
hand, beef
is
On
the other
by enzymic
activity.
With
poultry,
experiments
indicate
if
the
that
However,
24 hr tends to reduce storage
after killing.
life
without
utilizes the
air velocity to
accomplished by
is
Blast
insulated
is
tunnels,
frequently
out in
carried
particularly
where
large
be frozen (Figs.
95 and 96). In some instances, the product
and
is carried through the freezing tunnel
frozen on slowmoving, mesh conveyor belts.
quantities of product are to
is
The
dollies are
is
used to freeze
it is
particularly
nonuniform
nearly
all
types of products,
freezing
is
Contact Freezing.
Indirect
PRINCIPLES
136
OF REFRIGERATION
velocity,
15 F air
is
blasted
freezing
larger
flat,
multiplate
freezer.
The
multiplate
freezer
When
quickly frozen.
is
from
tamination
and
solution.
when
fruit is
is
entirely beneficial.
frequently
frozen by
and shrimp. Immersion is
particularly suitable for freezing fish and
shrimp at sea, since the immersion freezer is
relatively compact and space aboard ship is at
a premium. In addition, immersion freezing
produces a "glaze" (thin coating of ice) on the
surface of the product which helps to prevent
dehydration of unpackaged products during
immersion are
fish
Quick
Quick Freezing
frozen
products
vs.
Sharp Freezing.
are
nearly always
superior to those which are sharp (slow) frozen.
D. K.
freezing:
929.
is
The
principal
is
disadvantage of immersion
1
The ice crystals formed are much smaller,
and therefore cause much less damage to cells.
2. The freezing period being much shorter,
I
e
V
L.
&
137
138
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
contact freezing.
(Courtesy Dole
Refrigerating Company.)
The
number,
formed in the
maximum
icecrystal formation,
formed which
tissue of
is
in the size,
ice crystals
down.
breakdown
is
greatly reduced.
Upon
thawing,
cellular
rate
is
not as
and
in fruits
of meats
and vege
if
any, cellular
damage
This does not mean, however, that quick frozen meats are not superior
to those which are slow frozen, but only that,
when slow
frozen.
freezing
is
meats as
is
in fruits
is
and
vegetables.
For
amount
packaging.
subject
fish
139
month by dipping
spraying.
932.
is
provided that it is
does not fluxuate.
sufficiently
Although
not
0F
is
critical,
it
usually
When
(wholesale) storage.
realize the
burn
period.
accompanied by oxidation,
flavor changes, and loss of vitamin content.
With few exceptions, all products are packaged before being placed in frozen storage.
Although most products are packaged before
freezing, some, such as loose frozen peas and lima
beans, are packaged after the freezing process.
To
usually
is
provide
adequate
products having
should be held at 10
maximum
or below in order to
storage
life.
When
F in either
against
freezing costs.
(85
protection
dehydration
The
freezing.
Since
many packaging
Proper
essential.
stacking
of
the
product
is
also
it
product. It
offer
When
is
do not
the product
materials
From a
relatively inexpensive
it
that
processing costs.
Some packaging
aluminum
impregnated paperboard cartons, paperboard cartons overwrapped with vaporproof wrappers, wax paper,
foil,
cellophane,
tin cans,
polyethylene,
and
other
sheet
plastics.
Frozen
an
ice glaze (a
"commercial refrigerator"
is
usually applied to
restaurants,
retail
and
stores
and markets,
institutions
for
the
and dispensing
of perishable commodities. The term is some
refrigerated fixtures
protective covering.
purposes.
air,
the
PRINCIPLES
140
OF REFRIGERATION
tor.
Corporation.)
and
design
934.
all retail
of refrigerated display
consideration
product. In
is
first
many
cases, this is
not necessarily
life
of a product in a display
from
etc.
and
910.
of
fixtures,
all types.
such items.
936. Display Cases. The principal function of
any kind of display fixture is to display the
shown in
Figs. 99
With the advent of the supermarket, the trend has been increasingly toward
popularity.
type
obsolete.
selfservice
Several of the
cases
more popular
types of
141
The design
space, others
the refrigerated fixtures discussed in the preceding sections are available in a variety of designs
in order to satisfy the specific requirements of
individual products
and
applications,
a number
more common
Some
of
As a
or
facilities
all
and/or
services:
1.
killed
meats.
2.
to freezing.
displaying
meats.
(Courtesy Tyler
Refrigeration
Corporation.)
is
to
storage
sales
Fig. 911. High multishelf produce
(Courtesy Tyler Refrigeration Corporation.)
PRINCIPLES
142
OF REFRIGERATION
Fig. 912.
4.
food
5.
freezing
is
room
storage lockers.
sausage making,
6.
7.
An
aging
room where
etc.,
some
plants.
in Fig. 913.
The average
size
of the
M^
v//>y////Y//////^/Y//w//y/^///,/yy/s/y/>,
143
Room
Refrigerant
temperature
temperature
Insulation
thickness, inches.
34 to 36
35
None
None
Atmospheric
room
20 to 25
Design for
below room
3 to 8
10 to 15
circulation;
room tempera
below
culation
Aging room
34 to 36
35
Curing room
Design for
Same
as chill
room
3 to 8
Design for
Same
as chill
room
3 to 8
38 to 40
40F
Freezing
room
20 F
20
to
30 F
6 to 12
Not important
15
to
20 F
Depends on type of
10
to
15 F
6 to 12
15
to
20 F
6 to 12
10
(gravity
to
air circulation)
or 2
room)
Blast freezer
system used
OF
individual locker
is
6 cu
Minimum
same
refrigeration
was
Commerical
room
and
turnover
ft
is
freezer capacities
is
product
to base chilling
on the handling of 2 to 4
this area
areas.
this chapter
chiefly
939.
commercial
with
refrigeration,
the
equipment selection
applied to
all
applications.
Although no attempt
is
made
in this
book
it
most commercial
particularly
those
concerned
applications,
with
product
and equipment
selection
are practically
the
ture, humidity,
application,
given to
all
it is
all
be
the
102.
refrigerating
10
is
usually calculated
Cooling Load
Calculations
is,
in
RequiredBtu/hr
2
= Totalcoolingload)Btu/24hr
equipment
Desired running time
capacity
:
'.
(101)
101.
most
Heat
that
is
of the
late
is
motors,
lights,
electronic equipment,
Not
all
them
will
be factors in
refrigerated space.
steam
coil,
electric
the tem
materials.
3.
When
is
out of the air drains off the coil into the condensate pan and leaves the space through the con
direct
warm
coil.
insulated walls.
chilled to
2.
amount of
which the refrigerating effect of the
system must be stopped.
the defrosting requires a certain
time, during
144
sufficient length
of
coil.
called
is
loads
for
air
conditioning
145
and cooling
applications
are
come from
"offcycle" defrosting.
is
and a consider
process.
cycle defrosting
is
used, the
when
off
maximum allowable
is
divided into a
number of
individual loads
is
(3) the
in
The variation
space temperature which would be required
defrosting
not practical.
is
in
would be detrimental
there
Some exceptions
maintained below 34 F,
automatic defrosting is
ordinarily used. In such cases the surface of the
coil is heated artificially, either with electric
heating elements, with water, or with hot gas
neglected.
space temperature
method
some
Chapter
is
of
defrosting
the
is
accom
used.
less for
required
is
is
maximum
is
question.
time
is
is
load that
its effect is
On
negligible
and
it is
usually
20).
(see
As a
105.
the door
used.
of interest to note that since the temperature of the cooling coil in comfort air conditioning applications is normally around 40 F, no
It is
frost accumulates
fore,
no
For
there
systems are
air
PRINCIPLES
146
OF REFRIGERATION
The importance of the product load in relation
On
is
by door
openings, there
is
is
purposely introduced
some
in
all
others, varies
nonexistent
it is
applications, in others
Where
cooler
refrigerated
designed
is
is
represents
it
the
product
for
is
temperature.
outside
is
quite large
is
often a
The term
ventilating load
is
when
storage
When
temperature.
temperature,
air
storage space as
temperature and
amount of
infiltration
doors.
made up of
level.
is
usually
it
will
it
warms up
to the storage
it
its
own.
In
a negative product load which could theoretibe subtracted from the total cooling load.
This is never done, however, since the refrigercally
ating
effect
produced
is
small
and
is
not
continuous in nature.
The cooling load on the refrigerating equipment resulting from product cooling may be
either intermittent
or continuous, depending
application.
temperature.
Once the product is
cooled to the storage temperature, it is no
longer a source of heat and the product load
ceases to be a part of the load on the equipment.
storage
An
and
is
product enters
below the space
absorb heat from the
such
refrigerating effect of
other words,
10
or
temperature
at
Every
0F
to
temperature
storage fixture at
106.
its
must be considered
load on the cooling
applications.
infiltration load.
exception to this
is
though there
is
no
There
tion
are,
applications
moved
out of the chilling room into a storage room and
the chilling room is then reloaded with warm
to the storage temperature,
it is
usually
is
ship
is
load
is
ment
where
Q=
A
is
no
air
(102)
since there is
greater
Btu/hr
on the
The flow of the liquid
D = the
the
Q=A
supplies
usually
on the equipment.
Liquid chilling
147
the wall
The
ft/
F)
F)
coefficient of transmission or
"U" factor
laneous load.
is
is
no
often
air
on one
1
each
is relatively
small,
by
wall.
on the other
side for
much
it is
desirable to prevent as
good thermal
is
insulators
kept as low as
is
practical.
applications.
On
air conditioning
as separate loads
the contrary,
people and
For example, in those air conditioning applications where large numbers of people occupy the
conditioned space, such as churches, theaters,
restaurants, etc., the cooling load resulting from
Fahrenheit, that
is,
by application of Equation
102.
Example
101.
Determine the total quanof heat in Btu per hour which will pass
through a wall 10 ft by 20 ft, if the U factor
tity
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
148
ft/
and the
is
is
40 F
95 F.
from
Read
insulation.
Solution
10
=
Temperature
x 20
ft
200 sq
Btu/hr/sq
95
the
F.
ft
ft
Should
differ
ft/
be necessary, the
it
U factor for
any
type of wall construction can be readily calculated provided that either the conductivity or the
 40
>55F
Applying Equation
200 x 0.16 x 55
wall construction
1760 Btu/hr
U in
Equation 102 is in
obtained from Equation
is
multiplied
by 24
hr.
Equation 102
is
plication, viz:
(103)
construction
tabular form.
available in
list
Example
102.
the
tile
with 4
in.
clay
of corkboard insulation.
Solution.
Turn to Table 101 and select the
appropriate type of wall construction (third
Air
spaces
from the
is
Q=AxUxDx24
109.
is
in.
sq
ft
F of temperature
is
factor
by the thickness in
homogeneous material,
factor
inches.
C=\x
Concrete
aggregate
where x
Hence, for a
(104)
Example
103.
conductance for a 5
Determine
in.
the thermal
thickness of corkboard.
Solution
From
k
Table 104,
factor of cork
board
Applying
Equation 104,
=_
Q
C factor from
nonhomogeneous materials must be determined
by experiment.
The resistance that a wall or a material offers
several parts of the material, the
is
inversely proportional to
Example
104.
a wall constructed of 8
cement
149
plaster.
Solution
C=0.60
k = 0.30
Corkboard
Cement plaster
k =8.00
From Table
or conductance, viz:
105,4,
inside
surface
~U
ance
Thermal resistance of
an individual material
conductance
or
l
or
ft
165
4.00
outside
surface
conductance
Applying
Equation 105,
I+L+L
4
the overall
into
thermal
resist
T + L65
on
Therefore,
0.3
0.5
ance, 1/17
one side to the air on the other side, the resistance of the air on both sides of the wall should
be considered. Air film coefficients or surface
conductances for average wind velocities are
0.6
.
part,
it is
on the value of
little
so large
materials.
sufficiently accurate to
fi
**1
*2
kn
Jo
1
*
ft
rr
'
kx
kt
kn
difference
The
or ceiling
floor,
Note.
or roof
are
is
differential
temperatures.
is
used, 1/C
across Cold
'
is
factor.
where
it
Therefore
is
that which
PRINCIPLES
150
The
OF REFRIGERATION
on
For cold storage
taken
When
energy
is
(Table 106)
perature.
is
The outdoor
design temperatures
given in Table 106 are average outdoor temperatures and include an allowance for normal
temperature
differential
variations
air
1
in
the
conditioning loads.
01
ings
cooler
is
located
cooler
is
Likewise,
treated the
when
the temperature
must be corrected
Correction
effect.
inside of
air
temperature
the
increase
will
same
an inside
as
is
is
wall.
exposed
treated as
an
at angles to
through
ceiling,
all
When
outdoor
except
slab
computed
average
107,
factors, the
parts
is
in the value of
U is
slight
U factor
involved
example of
this
phenomenon
is
the excessive
the sun.
surface
is
The temperature of
much
the metal
105.
A walkin cooler, 16 ft x
x 10 ft high is located in the southwest
corner of a store building in Dallas, Texas (Fig.
102). The south and west walls of the cooler
are adjacent to and a part of the south and west
walls of the store building. The store has a 14 ft
ceiling so that there is a 4 ft clearance between
the top of the cooler and the ceiling of the store.
The store is air conditioned and the temperature
Example
20
is
ft
is maintained at approximately
80 F. The inside design temperature for the
cooler is 35 F. Determine the wall gain load
for the cooler if the walls of the cooler are of the
following construction:
6
6
in.
clay
tile
corkboard
0.S cement plaster
in.
on
inside
finish
151
east
(inside walls)
1 in.
Ceiling
of 2 x 4 studs
3f in. granulated cork
Same as north and east
Floor
16
M
6
in.
walls
with 3
and
South wall
East wall
16 x 20
16 x 20
Ceiling
Floor
in.
10
 6
in.
clay
tile
^mm
ft ceiling
of concrete
20'
Partitions
10 x 16
10 x 20
MM MIM
finished
= 160 sq ft
= 200 sq ft
= 160sqft
= 200 sq ft
= 320 sq ft
= 320 sq ft
x 16
x 20
Outside design
temperature, 92* F
Cooler 35 F
5 in. slab
Solution
Wall surface area
North wall
10
West wall
10
corkboard'
corkboard laid on
in.
'
3
in.
on each side
Inside temperature
80'
Ceiling 14
ft
0.045
0.079
0.066
Ceiling
Floor
From Table
106,
From
Outside
Inside
Normal
Design
Design
Temp.
Temp.
Wall
T.D.
F
F
35* F
35 F
35 F
35 F
92
Ceiling
Floor
Applying Equation
East wall
70
80
East wall
North wall
West wall
South wall
F
F
92 F
80 F
80 F
70 F
North wall
South wall
West wall
Floor
Table
106A, design
ground temperature
for Dallas
Ceiling
Fig. 102
92
x
x
x
x
x
x
45
63
61
45
45
35
=
=
=
=
=
=
45
57
569Btu/hr
567
439
7ll
1,137
739
4 162 Btu/hr
.
99,890 Btu/24 hr
Table 107
F
F
57= p
45 F
45 F
35 F
35
35
102,
160 x 0.079
200 x 0.045
160 x 0.045
200 x 0.079
320 x 0.079
320 x 0.066
Correction
Factor from
Design
Wall
T.D.
F
F
63 F
45 F
45 F
35 F
45
4F
6F
61
PRINCIPLES
152
OF REFRIGERATION
Solution
To
from Table
cfm x 60 x 24
300 x 60 x 24
per24hr
column of
the table, move right to the column headed by
the design wall temperature difference, and read
the wall gain factor in Btu/24 hr/sq ft. For
example, assume that the walls of a cooler are
insulation in the extreme lefthand
432,000 cu ft/24 hr
From Table
108.A
heat gain per cubic
feet
change) load
Example
1014.
1018).
to determine
When
24hr period
resulting
is
from
air
where
W(h
 hi)
(106)
is listed
in
Example
106.
air
Btu/24 hr.
air is pur
and
is difficult
curacy,
is
it
that, as
a general
rule, the
The
sizes.
defines average
Average
usage
includes
installations
to extreme temperatures
subject
not
and where
ate factor
cu ft/24 hr
x Btu/cu ft
432,000 x 1.86
803,520 Btu/24 hr
(lb/24 hr)
h,
1.86Btu/cuft
=
=
(see
Ventilating (air
change load in
on the
of
refrigerator,
warm
and where
large quantities
it.*
1949,
New
York, p. 327.
Example
107.
walkin cooler 8
ft
Example
x 10 ft high is constructed of 4 in. of corkboard with 1 in. of wood on each side. The
outside temperature is 95 F and the humidity
is 50%. The cooler is maintained at 35 F and
the usage is average. Determine the air change
loadinBtu/24hr.
IS
ft
108.
153
a cooler at 55
24
of
and are
in
hr.
Solution
0.75 Btu/lb/
Applying Equation
107, the product load,
Btu/24 hr
1000 x 0.75
=
=
1000 x 0.75 x 20
15,000 Btu/24 hr
specific
therefore,
Inside volume
From Table
=
=
7 ft x 14 ft x 9
882 cu ft
x (55
ft
109A,
by interpolation, num
=19
Inside
=
=
x air changes
882 x 19
16,758 cu ft/24 hr
Total
quantity of
air change per 24 hr
volume
From
= 2.49 Btu/cu ft
= cu ft/24 hr
x Btu/cu
ft
= 16,758 x 2.49
= 41,727 Btu/24 hr
When
Equation 107
When
is
the
maintained
F)
aav
Solution.
Applying
Equation 108, product
load, Btu/24 hr
08)
desired to
1000 x 0.75
x (55
35)
x 24
=
Compare
WxCx(r,r )x24hr
J (hr)
desired cooling time n*s
Example
written:
(107)
Q = W x C x(Ta Tj
where Q = the quantity of heat in Btu
W = weight of the product (pounds)
C = the specific heat above freezing
(Btu/lb/ F)
is
chill the
Tx =
Ta =
is
Table 108A,
heat gain per cubic
feet
35)
900cuft
this
108.
When a
its
result
60,000 Btu/24 hr
product
is
chilled
is
temperature.
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
154
2.
To cool from
3.
off
by the product
in cool
For parts
and
3,
Equation 107
is
The heat
part 2
is
Tx
1,
in
Wxh
where
x[27(5)]
5920 Btu
Total heat given up
by product (summation of 1,2, and 3)
= 64,000 Btu
product
Equivalent
load for 24hrperiod
Btu/24 hr
64,000 x 24 hr
12 hr
quantity for
Q =
500 x 0.37
107
used to
freezing
temperature to final
storage temperature,
applying Equation
fying or freezing.
1016. Chilling
128,000 Btu/24 hr
(109)
h it
the
latent
if
of the product
heat
When
summation of
24
hr.
When
less
and
freezing
of the
and
is
period,
load.
load during
when
the product
Example
1010.
enter a chiller at 40
is
the
initial stages
load
is
at a peak.
From Table
Specific
1012,
heat
above
0.79 Btu/lb/
=
=
0.37 Btu/lb/
Latent heat
Freezing
temperature
= 27F
heat
below
freezing
106 Btu/lb
The
Tables
1010 through
1013.
and on
calculations
and
will
on
The
actual
500 x 0.79
x (40
27)
5135 Btu
As an example,
test results
show
that in typical
applying
Equation 109
to make the average hourly cooling rate approximately equal to the hourly load at the peak
condition.
This results in the selection of
larger equipment, having sufficient capacity to
carry the load during the initial stages of chilling.
listed
To
freeze,
intro
To
is
effect
freezing
Specific
distribution of
of chilling
500 x 106
53,000 Btu
The
show the
it
in reciprocal
shown
in the table
is
0.67
0/1.5).
is
Equation
written
Q~
W xC
xjTiTJ
(1 " 10)
rooms
for
this
condition.
1017.
are
still
and continue to
Respiration heat
and vegetables
is
listed in
and vegetables
and
in baskets
crates, fruit
materials in cooling
respiration heat
107
is
by
electric
space
is
The heat
given off
made
Electric motors
common
this value as
practice to
a safety
add
factor.
5%
to
10%
is
is
total weight
x24hr
(1011)
to
The percentage
used depends upon the reliability of the information used in calculating the cooling load. As a
general rule
10% is
used.
equipment
is
selection.
Table 1014.
pound
1019.
fore,
1018.
Where a
107
155
ever,
when
Howft)
are
somewhat from day to day so that it is not poscompute the product load with any real
accuracy. In such cases, a short method of load
calculation can be employed which involves the
sible to
by experience.
When
the short
method of
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
156
interior
of
vegetables
1011)
(Table
= 0.9 Btu/lb/ F
Average respiration
heat of vegetables
(Table 1014)
0.09 Btu/lb/hr
=
Notice that the usage factors
listed in
Table
No
safety factor is
1.69 Btu/cuft
= Mxcx(r,r1)
= 35001b x0.9Btu/lb/F
= 31,500 Btu/24 hr
x 10 F
Respiration heat
=
x reaction heat x 24 hr
= 3500 x 0.09 Btu/lb/hr
x24hr
7,560
ft
is
in.).
temperature
is
Summation:
(10%)
Total cooling
load
=1 2,370 Btu
=
cooling
capacity
(Btu/hr)
40 F.
= 2 x 18 ft
 360 sq ft
= 4 x 10 ft
= 400 sq ft
760 sq
x 10 ft
136,100 Btu/24 hr
x 10 ft
16 hr
8,500 Btu/hr
ft
than
17ft
x9ft x9ft
1377 cu ft
1018) (45 F
and 4 in. insulation)
(Table
81 Btu/hr/sq
ft
tion)
24 hr
of air (Table
108A)(50%RH)
TD
sions are
136,100 Btu/24 hr
Required
Solution
Btu/24 hr
123,720 Btu/24 hr
Safety factor
The tempera
23,100 Btu/24 hr
Product load:
Temperature reduction
Example
10
ft/24 hr
61,560 Btu/24 hr
foot
1.69 Btu/cuft
to the sun.
The tempera
(Btu/hr)
= 704 sq ft
= 1676sqft
volume
Inside
(21 ft
31
x 8
ft
ft)
5208 cu
ft
=
Example
=*89F
106)
U factor
= 0.079Btu/hr/sqft/F
(Table 102)
lation)
7/24hr
.4
Btu/cu
ft
(interpolated)
Specific heat of
bananas (Table
= 0.9Btu/lb/F
1010)
Reaction heat of
bananas (Table
= 0.5 Btu/lb/hr
1014)
room 35 ft x
equipment.
Solution
TD
x 24 hr
Ceiling
Ceiling
704 x 0.079 x 53 x 24
(35 ft
70,740 Btu/24 hr
(35 ft
104,860 Btu/24 hr
51,000 Btu/24 hr
Product load:
Temperature reduction
C xjTjTj) x24hr
Chilling time (hr)
0.9
x 14 x 24
12
= 756,000 Btu/24 hr
Respiration heat
=
x reaction heat x 24 hr
= 30,000 x 0.5 x 24 = 360,000 Btu/24 hr
Summation:
x50ft)
1,750 sq ft
1,800 sq
(except
east)
ft)
ft
volume
x 49 ft x
1,342,600 Btu/24 hr
(34
ft
 22,491 cu ft
13.5 ft)
Air changes
(Table 109A) (by
interpolation)
34,260 Btu
1,476,860 Btu/24 hr
3.2 per
24 hr
(Table
108A)(50%RH)
Specific heat
= 2.17 Btu/cu ft
of
= 0.75 Btu/lb/ F
= 0.67
Occupancy heat
gain (Table 1016)
ft
Inside
1,750 sq
(120 ft x 15
Inside volume
30,000
Walls
x50ft)
Floor
chilling
space, is
change(Table 108A)
_M
and
1013.
61,530 Btu/hr
= 20F
roofing)
1,476,860 Btu/24 hr
24 hr
Outside design
temperature for
New Orleans (Table
Wall
157
Ceiling
900 Btu/hr/person
U factor
(Table 103)
= 0.069 Btu/hr/sqft/F
PRINCIPLES
158
OF REFRIGERATION
Floor U factor
(Table 103)
Wall
U factor
= 0.065 Btu/hr/sq ft/F
(Table 101)
x24hr
468,700 Btu/24 hr
air
M x C x (T
0.75
 Tx)
x 24
x 65 x 24
x 0.67
= 4,850,700 Btu/24 hr
Miscellaneous:
Occupancy
= No. of people x factor x 24 hr
= 4 x900 x24
=
Lighting load
= watts x 3.4
86,400 Btu/24 hr
122,400 Btu/24 hr
5,684,200 Btu/24 hr
568,420 Btu
6,252,620 Btu/24 hr
18 hr
390,800 Btu/hr
Since there
no temperature
no gain
wall and the wall
is
and
ceiling
in.
Solution
Outside surface
area
Inside
(49
ft
5800 sq
ft
volume
x 39 ft x 9 ft)
17,200 cu
0.072 Btu/hr/sq
3.7 per
1.86 Btu/cu ft
ft
U factor
ft/
Air changes
(Table 109A) (by
interpolation)
is
The
(Table 102)
x 24 hr
Summation:
(1)
period.
Wall
1500 x 3.4 x 24
Note:
lugs per
2x4
changes x Btu/cu ft
18
are constructed of
50,000
24 hr
= 0.89 Btu/lb/ F
Respiration heat
of apples (Table
1014) (by interpo
lation)
0.025 Btu/lb/hr
A x U
x TD x 24 hr
5800 x 0.072 x 50 x 24
501,100 Btu/24 hr
volume x
x Btu/cu
17,000 x
air
changes
ft
3.7
1.86
11 7,000
Btu/24 hr
Product load:
Temperature reduction
_M
x (Tt
 Tx)
Apples
(200 x 59 lb) x 0.89 x 55
0.67
862,100 Btu/24 hr
Fig.
103
Lug boxes
and
= 44,300 Btu/24 hr
Respiration
=
x reaction heat x 24 hr
= (3000 x 59 lb) x 0.025 x 24
selection
Load
occurs
is
on
106,200 Btu/24 hr
1,630,700 Btu/24 hr
to the sun. The equipment room is well ventilated so that the temperature inside is approximately the outdoor design temperature for the
region. The storage room is maintained at 0 F,
10 F.
whereas the temperature in the freezer is
The
Summation
Note:
= 163,100 Btu
= 1,793,800 Btu/24 hr
_
= Total cooling load
is
Solution
Roof
(9 ft
Running time
14 ft)
=126sqft
x 14 ft)
=126sqft
Floor
1,793,800 Btu/24 hr
16 hr
112,100 Btu/24 hr
and equipment
based on maximum loading which
(9 ft
N and E partitions
(23 ft
S and
calculation
x 10 ft)
1015.
Twentytwo
thousand
is
=230sqft
partitions
(23 ft x 10 ft)
Inside volume
=230sqft
x9ft x 13ft)
Summer outdoor
(8ft
Example
159
936 cu
92
design temperature
ft
U factors
Roof
(Table 103)
Floor
(Table 103)
N and E partitions
(Table 102)
S and
partitions
(Table 102)
=0.12
Btu/hr/sq
Roof sun
factor
(Table 107)
= 20F
Air changes
(Table 109B)
13.5 per
24 hr
3.56 Btu/cu ft
ft/
160
PRINCIPLES
OF REFRIGERATION
N
32.5*
Lochtrs
18'
O'F
Cold
storage
Lockers
38*F
Lockers
>
Freezer
N
Lockers
Conditioned
space, 80* F
Cold storage
x latent heat
Freezing =
Poultry = 22,000 x 106
= 2,332,000 Btu/24 hr
Miscellaneous:
Lighting: 200 watts x 3.4
Btu/watt/hr x 24 hr
= 16,300 Btu/24 hr
Summation:
3,014,100 Btu/24 hr
38"F
Safety factor
(10%)
Total cooling
load
Average hourly
load
301,400 Btu
3,315,500 Btu/24 hr
Above
3,315,500 Btu/24 hr
20 hr (running time)
(Table 1012)
freezing
165,775 Btu/hr
= 0.79 Btu/lb/ F
Below
freezing
= 0.37 Btu/lb/ F
Latent heat of poultry
(Table 1012)
= 106 Btu/lb
Freezing temperature
27 F
Wall gain load:
^xt7xri)x24hrs
Floor
126 x 0.035 x 102 x 24
= 10,800 Btu/24 hr
Roof
126 x 0.036 x (102
20) x 24
13,300 Btu/24 hr
19,700 Btu/24 hr
= 6,600 Btu/24 hr
Air change load:
volume x
x Btu/cu ft
 936 x 13.5 x
Inside
with 3
3.56
Roof
(18
Floor
(18
C x(rs TJ
Poultry
_ 22,000
ft)
ft
x 32.5
ft
585 sq
ft)
ft
0.79
(45
 27)
partition
(50 .5
302,700 Btu/24 hr
0.25
(92
West wall
(32 .5
0)
Inside
(16
48,000 Btu/24 hr
ft
x 10
ft
ft
ft)
ft
x 10
325 sq
0.67
.
x 10 ft)
180 sq
Trucks
ft
505 sq
1,400
x 32.5
ft
585 sq
Product Load:
Temperature reduction
clay
changes
air
= 45,000 Btu/24 hr
=M
Example 1016.
frozen food locker plant
18 ft x 32.5 ft x 10 ft, containing 353 individual lockers and an 8 ft freezing cabinet, is
located in Tulsa, Oklahoma (see Fig. 104).
The north and west wall are constructed of 8 in.
ft)
ft
volume
ft
30.5 ft
ft)
3904 cu
ft
Product load:
Temperature reduction
= 92F
(Table 106)
=M
(Table 106A)
Roof sun
65
 TJ
 28)
= 5600 Btu/24 hr
(28  0)
x (Tt
700 x 0.4 x
= 20F
7840 Btu/24 hr
Freezing
= M x latent heat
= 700 x 100
factor
(Table 107)
U factors
Roof (Table
factor
(Table 107)
103)
(Table 101)
0.034 Btu/hr/sq
ft/
70,000 Btu/24 hr
Miscellaneous:
Lights
= 500 watts x 3.4 Btu/hr
= 40,800 Btu/24 hr
x 24 hr
Occupancy
= 3 x 1300 x 24
=
=
F
Summation:
(Table 101)
12.6(6.3
2)
per 24 hr
Total cooling
load
Average hourly
load
(Table 108B)
Above
freezing
Below
freezing
meat)
Load on
100 Btu/lb
28
1300 Btu/hr/person
10%
A x U x TD x
24
Roof
585 x 0.036
+ 20)
56,600 Btu/24 hr
585 x 0.046 x 65 x 24
= 42,000 Btu/24 hr
505 x 0.066 x 38 x 24
= 30,400 Btu/24 hr
=
West wall
11,750 Btu/24 hr
325 x 0.034
x (92 + 6) x 24
26,000 Btu/24 hr
volume x
x Btu/cu ft
Load on locker
room only
(total
load
29,240 Btu/hr
 4,590 Btu/hr
less
24,650 Btu/hr
tion.
safety factor)
Example
x 24
91,780 Btu/24 hr
freezer
freezer load)
584,710 Btu/24 hr
= 4,590 Btu/hr
Occupancy factor
Floor
20 hr
Freezing tempera
x (92
584,710 Btu/24 hr
(product load
only, including
Latent heat
ture (average)
= 29,240 Btu/hr
= 0.8 Btu/lb/ F
= 0.4 Btu/lb/ F
(average)
53,150 Btu
20 hr
3.0 Btu/cu ft
93,600 Btu/24 hr
531,560 Btu/24 hr
Safety factor
(10%)
Air changes
(see
161
air
changes
147,570 Btu/24 hr
OF REFRIGERATION
PRINCIPLES
162
Solution
Solution
Outside surface
area
Inside volume
(8 ft x 13 ft
750 cu
ft
x 7
(9
ft)
728 cu
792 cu
ft
81 Btu/sq ft/24 hr
(Table 1018)
99 Btu/sq ft/24 hr
Usage factor
Air changes
(Table 109B)
50 Btu/cu ft/24 hr
(Table 1017)
(interpolated)
16.7 per 24 hr
=3.88 Btu/cu
ft
Usage load:
Inside volume x
ft
(Table 1018)
636 sq
ft)
ft
area
volume
ft x lift x 8
Inside
usage factor
= 792 x 50
750 x 99
74,250 Btu/24 hr
x
x Btu/cu ft
= 728 x 16.7 x
Inside volume
/ 91,100
Btu/24 hr
3.88
39,600 Btu/24 hr
91,100 Btu/24 hr
changes
air
=
=
16 hr
47,170 Btu/24 hr
Product load:
Temperature reduction
M x C(T
PROBLEMS
x 24 hr
7\)
Chilling time
(500 x
5)
0.5
x (25
20) x 24
10
135,000 Btu/24 hr
Freezing
Mx
latent heat
x 24
(500 x 5)
x 100 x 24
600,000 Btu/24 hr
Miscellaneous load:
Lighting:
300 watts x 3.4 x 24
24,480 Btu/24 hr
880,900 Btu/24 hr
88,090 Btu
968,990 Btu/24 hr
Example
1018.
53,800 Btu/hr
A cooler 10 ft
x 12
ft
x 9
ft
is
=
Summation:
(10%)
The north
60 ft and
10
Safety factor
Freezing time
4.
5.
of 2000 cu
ft
and
is
maintained at a temperature
6.
The beef
is
163
reduced to 0
load.
8. Fiftyfive
hundred
valve or
111).
action
by the
II
rator
that
is
it is
usually bulky
and requires a
Evaporators
Liquid refrigerant
is
For
112).
1 1
Types of Evaporators. As
stated pre
liquid
many
different requirements
of the various
sizes,
classified in
and
a number
application.
Flooded and DryExpansion Evaporators. Evaporators fall into two general categories, flooded and dry expansion, according to
their operating condition. The flooded type is
1
12.
always completely
filled
which the
upon
viously,
is
the
rate
liquid, the amount of liquid present in the dryexpansion evaporator will vary with the load on
When
the load on the evapoamount of liquid in the evaporator is small. As the load on the evaporator
increases, the amount of liquid in the evaporator
increases to accommodate the greater load.
the evaporator.
rator
is light,
the
Types of Construction.
The
three
and
(3) finned.
control.
of the
through the coil
is by gravity. The vapor accumulated from the boiling action
Circulation
refrigerant
Float control
of
compressor.
164
EVAPORATORS
Borelube and
platesurface
evaporators
l*S
are
tube are
air
and conduct
it
to the refrigerantcarrying
tubes.
does not
affect the
'c
<
(a)
it
and can be
readily defrosted
manually by either
d6a
quality
(ML
Bare lube
(o>
113.
Common dmgm
fin cignf
eo+l.
{&} C*l
far
b*rttub*
trwnewi*
H.
coil.
Steel pipe is
used for
utilized in the
Liquid
*nm
ntctiw
Fig.
115.
Drywpvtslun aviporuer.
rata of
Mb
now
vapor.
through tha
It
Liquid
r#
flown through
orrflca at tha
shown
3>
Mr
zigzag
fiat
flow control.
in Fig. I!),
frlftrtftl
Common
application.
Rtfnetrtnt
j^Ro* contra*
Some
are
constructed
refrigerators
it
is
easily cleaned,
(M
Flf.
PRINCIPLES
MM.
OF REFRIGERATION
Truuer Manufacturing,
^^
Rg.
115.
Soma
Heavy,
olnctrkally
(E) Fitting
refrlg
(F)
p.
whir* vacuum
ll
Inc.)
ontlv (tiled.
eratit passei.
all
mmm
Inc.)
Vacuum ip
K(
In
dry pit to
maintenance required
Spice
due. CO i!urdy,
holdover
No
limp In con
struct Jon.
in
EVAPORATORS
Another type of plalcsurfacc evaporator
consuls of formed tubing installed between two
metal plates which arc welded together at the
eutectic solution.
edges (Fig.
in
It 6).
good
welded plated tnd
In order to provide
live
space
plates
is
may
Platetype evaporators
banks.
may be manifolded
mounted
let
from
1 17) and
Fig.
how
the plates
tubing inside.
be used singly or
1*7
the refrigerant
(Fig.
etc.
119)
Platesurface evaporators
or
they
may be
provide excellent
shelves in freezer
1110).
(Fig.
cream cabinets,
evaporators
are
Plate
especially
useful
for
liquid
By
bank on the surface of the
plain during periods of light loads, a holdover
refrigerating capacity is established which will
help be refrigerating equipment carry the load
through the heavy or peak conditions Fig, 1111),
building
The
refrigerating
Pig,
1*1.
is
In
whottHlt
Fc*
in
The
up an
ice
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION
IfiS
employed
in
ow
ftcfrtenuifl
Company.)
flni
16.
have been
insialled
(Fig,
1315),
The
of the
tubing
its
fins arc
imo
It is
In
When
assured.
in
fins,
is
the
some
instances, the
fins
efficiency.
the tubing
is
After the
is
and the
fin is installed,
fin is
the flare
straightened
in
part
on the
designed,
size
of the
As
the size
fin
may
The
fin.
fVAfORATOAS
Fl
ien
Fig.
1*.
tlow.
tl10.
implayid
P1* fnpQjiwn
frtenr indvti.
r*
imngtdi
Mhti ndrtftnni
flow.
Trwwr Minuhcturinf
Jnc)
Plat**
may
ttto b
Kmnt*d
16?
for
PRINCIPLES OF AEFAKJEAATTON
170
by
li*h*d
l on
of
up
buii^.ftf
aipenun,
plite
(Court**)* Dol*
etnbtank
Rafrlfarilinf
Cwnptflf.)
on
accumulation
Frost
operating
aircooling
low temperatures
at
colls
un