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.. , ..

535. 338 (0765)


3673-5
261
:

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..
(),
,

..
261

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. : / .. , .. . : - . .
. -, 2009. 252 . 300 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0866-4.
,
.
, .
12 .

535.338(0765)
3673-5

ISBN 978-5-8265-0866-4


(), 2009

.. , ..

-


,


2009

..
..
30.11.2009.
60 84/16. 14,65 . . . 300 . 552.
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1. }kejpnq`hj`

}kejpnq`h)eqjne onke h ecn u`p`jephqhjh


1.1. }kejpnl`cmhmne onke # l`eph`k|m{i
mnqhek| }kejpnl`cmhmncn bg`hlndeiqbh
1. .
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1.2. }kejph)eqjhe g`pd{
1. , . , , .. .
, , , , .
, , , .
2. , ( . () XVIII .).
3. , 1,61019 . ( ) .
q :
q = eN,
e ; N (1, 2, 3).
, .
, . .
() XIX .
(. , ) (,
).
4. q , . , .
5. ( )
1909 1904 . .. () .. ().
, ..
, .
6. , .
.
, , , :
, .
. () . ().
7. . : , q, , .

8. , , , , , .
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10. .
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: () , .
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11. , , , .
, , , , , -

.
g`jnm jrknm`
1.3. g`jnm jrknm`
1. , ( ) .
. (1785)
.
, , ,
.
, -

, :
F0 = k

q1q2
,
r122

(1.3.1)

q1 q2 ; r12 ; k ,

q, F, r12 .
2.
:
F =k

q1q2
,
r122

(1.3.2)

, :
=

F0
.
F

3. , (1.3.2) r

r12
:
r12
r

F12 = k

q1q2 r12
;
r122 r12

(1.3.3)

F21 = k
r

q1q2 r12
,
r122 r12

(1.3.4)
r

F12 , ; F21 , r
; r12 , .
r
r
F12 F 21 . 1.1 (1.3.3) (1.3.4) .
F 12

q1

q2

r12
+

F 21

. 1.1

(1.3.3) (1.3.4), F 21 r12 ,


r
r
F12 r12 .
, , .
( ) ( )
. 1.2.
4. ,
.. , , .
.
r
r
5. : F12 = F21 .
6. . ,
, . , . : , , ; , .
7. . q1 q2 ,
, .
dq ,
, (1.3.4) . 1.2
, . 1.3
:
r
r
F21 = d Fki ;
(1.3.5)
r

dFki = k
r

dqi dqk rik


, i-
rik2 rik

k- (.

1.3), F21 , .
,
,
, .
(1.3.2), r12 (.
1.4, )

. 1.4

, (1.3.2) , , (. 1.4, )
1.4. qhqel` edhmh0 b }kejpnq`hje.
p`0hnm`khg`0h tnplrk
1. , .
, , (1.3.1) 1 (
, ).
, , , k
= 1 , ( q).
,
, 1 , 1 .
, , ,
, ( ).

F=

q1q2
.
r 2

(1.4.1)

2. , , ,
.
(, , , ).
q = It .
() , 1 , 1:
1 = 1 1 .
, 1 = 3,10 q.
3. ,
(1.3.2) k:
9

F =k

q1q2
.
r 2

(1.4.2)

, k , 1 , 1 , .. q1 = q2 = 1 , r = 1 , = 1, |k| = |F|.
k . F,
q1 q2 , r
( , ). ,
(, 1 : !), 1 .
, , , .
F ( ), q1 q2 ( ) r ( ) (1.4.2), k.
k :
2
2
k = 9 109 / .

,
(1.4.2),
2

k = 9 109 / .

4. , 4 , . , . () , k
k=

1 1
4 0

1
4

1
0

(1.4.3)

0 , .

F=

1 q1q2
4 0 r 2

(1.4.4)

5. k

1
4 0

: 4 ( ), ; , , , , , .
, , , .
, .
, .
, , .
: , , 0
,
4 0 , 0 , 4 0 .
6. 0 .
(1.4.3) 0 =

1
4k

, k = 9 109 2/2,
0 =

1
4 3,14 9 109

= 8,85 1012

2/2.

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12. ?

m`opfmmnq| }kejpnq`h)eqjncn onk


1.5. m`opfmmnq| }kejpnq`h)eqjncn onk
.
1. :
.
, .
, : .
,
.
2. .
, , . .
) .
. , ,
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) .
, , , ,
. , ,
.
) ; , +: q+ .
r
3. , F , q+ ,
, , .
, ( ,

F
), q+

, , .
( , ).
, ( , )

, , ,
. ,
:
r

E=

F
.
q+

(1.5.1)

4. : , .
5. ,
1 1 H:
1 =

1H
.
1

6. , r:
r
E1 = E2 = ...
(1.5.2)
7. , . ,
, , (
):
r

F =

r
1 q q+ r
4 0 r 2 r

r -, , q , , , q+ .
r
F , :
r

F 1
q r
E=
=
.
q+ 40 r 2 r
r

(1.5.3)

, (1.5.3) , :
E=

q
1
4 0 r 2

(1.5.4)

2
3

2
3
1

. 1.5

(1.5.3) , E , , , (. 1.5).
8.
(1.5.1) ,
r
E
r
r
F = qE .
(1.5.5)
r
r
r
q > 0,
F E ; q < 0, F r
E .
9. ,

,
r
D ( .1.19).
r
r
, D E
r
r
D = 0 E ,
(1.5.6)
0 ; .
10. . (1.5.6)
r
E (1.3.5).
r

D=

q r
.
4r 2 r

(1.5.7)


D=

q
.
4r 2

(1.5.8)

, (1.5.7) (1.5.8) , , .
1.6. ophm0ho qroepongh0hh onkei
1.
() () .
2. q1, q2 , ..., qn . ,
(.. ), q+
r
F1, F2 , ..., Fn . , F ,
, F1, F2 , ..., Fn
r

F = F1 + F2 + ... + Fn .

(1.6.1)
q+ ,

F
F F
F
= 1 + 2 + ... + n ,
q+ q+ q +
q+

.. E = E1 + E2 + ... + En ,
n

E = Ei ,

(1.6.2)

i =1

Ei , q i ,
, .. .
r
E , .. ,
.
, ,
, , .
(1.6.2)
() .
3. , . (1.6.2) :
r

E = dE ,

(1.6.3)

dE , dq, q , q.
4. (1.6.2) (1.6.3) , .
, ( ),
Ei =

qi
4 0ri

, Ei =

qi
4 0ri2

, , (

).
1.7. p`q) }kejpnq`h)eqjhu onkei m` nqmnbe
ophm0ho` qroepongh0hh
1. ,
(, , ..).
.
.
2. .
r
r
1) E1 ,..., Ei , :
r

r
qi
ri
r1
E1 =
,..., Ei =
,
2
2
4 0r1 r1
4 0ri ri

q1

(1.7.1)

r1 ,..., ri -, , q1 ,..., q i , , .
2) , , :
r

E = Ei

(1.7.2)

i =1

( . 1.6 ).
3. .
1) q dq ,

. 1.6

. dq , . () , ( ) ( ) . = lim

V 0

= lim

S 0

q dq
=
S dS

q dq
=
V dV

, -

= lim

l 0

q dq
=
l dl

.
, , , . dq ,
:
dq = dV; dq = dS; dq = dl .
r

2) dE , dq :
r

E=

dq

r
.
2
4 0 r r

(1.7.3)

3) , :
r
r
E = dE .
(1.7.4)
q

4. , , ( , ,
, , ..).
q + q .
r

l .
r
l ,
(. 1.7).
,
r
r
l , l
:
r
r
r
p
q
q+
p = ql .
(1.7.5)
,
. 1.7

,
r r
r
E = E+ + E ,
(1.7.6)
r
r
E + E , q+ q ( , ,
).
, , .. , .
r ,
r
r
r >> l (. 1.8). ( ) E + E
,

r
r
E + E :
E|| = E + E

(1.7.7)
E+ E :
r

E+ =

q
l
4 0 r
2

E =

q
l
4 0 r +
2

1
1
2qlr

=
E|| =

2
2
4 0
l

r + l
l2

4 0 r 2
r
2
2

l 2 4 r 2
r, E|| =

2qlr
4 0 r 3

. ql = p . ,

l/2

q+

r
. 1.8

E|| =

2p
4 0 r 3

(1.7.8)

. 1.9

.
,
, . N
r (. 1.9), r >> l .
N q + q ,
r
r
r
r
E + = E , , E l , . :
E
=
E+

l
l 2
r 2 +

l
r

, E = E+ ,

l << r
E+ =

l2
4 0 r 2 +
4

q
4 0r 2

(1.7.9)

(1.7.9) E ,
E =

ql
4 0 r 3

p
4 0 r 3

(1.7.10)

, ,
( , ).
, , , r
- r (. 1.10),
E=
r

p
4 0 r 3

1 + 3 cos 2 ,

(1.7.11)
r

r -; - r
.
5. , . 1.10
. h (. 1.11). r0, + ,
q = 2r0 .
dl .
dl
,

. 1.11

dE =

dl
4 0 r 2

(1.7.12)

r dl .
r
r
dE dE|| , ,
r

dE , (. . 1.11). ,
r

, dE ( dE r
dE , dl ). E dE|| :
E = dE .

(1.7.13)

||

, dE|| = dE cos .
r cos h r0:
r = h 2 + r02 ; cos =

h
h
.
=
2
r
h + r02

,
dE|| =

hdl

4 0 h

+ r02

.
2

l 0 2r0 ,
2 r0

E=

hdl

40 h 2 + r02

)2
3

hr0

20 h 2 + r02

)2
3

(1.7.14)

, h .
(h = 0) .
bnopnq{ dk q`lnopnbepjh
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enpel` c`rqq`
1.8. khmhh bejnpnb m`opfmmnqh h hmdrj0hh
1. , ,
.
2.
,
r
E . -

, , ,

r
, E .
3. . ( ).
, , (. 1.12).

r
E ,
. , ,
,
. r
, E , .
4. :
) :
. ,
;
) .
, r
: E
. , r
, , E , ;
) ; ;
) .
,
.
.
r
5. r , E ,
D (
. 1.12
). , ,
r
D . : , r , ,
D .
1.9. onnj bejnp` hmdrj0hh
1. ,
, , .

. .
, .
2. dS , ,
dN = DdS cos ,
(1.9.1)
r
r
n D ,

(. 1.13).
, r (1.9.1) r
D dS :
r r

dN = DdS ,
r

. 1.13

(1.9.2)

dS = dSn , dS r
n . D cos (1.9.1) r
r
D n :
D cos = Dn .

,
dN = Dn dS .

(1.9.3)

dS cos
dS
, D :
dS cos = dS0 .

. 1.14
(1.9.4)
dN = DdS0 .
3. (1.9.1) . . dS , ,
.
, S (. 1.14), dN dS :
N = dN = Dn dS .
S

(1.9.5)


(1.9.5) r
. , ( D ), S ,

N = DS cos = Dn S .

r :
, D r
, D .
,

4. ,
r
r
, D , D
, S.
, . ,
, .
5. .
dS , S.
( ) dS , .. , , .
dS r
r
r
, D n ( D
, , , r ).
D , r
r
. 1.15
( D , D ).
1.15 :
dN1 = D1dS1 cos 1 < 0;
dN2 = D2 dS2 cos 2 > 0.

6. .

dNE = EdS cos(E , n ) = En dS .
r r

(1.9.6)

S:
N E = E n dS .
(1.9.7)
S

1.10. enpel` c`rqq`


1. ( )
, , .r , , D .

2. q + (
; , , ).

S (. 1.16).
r
D . ,
, -

. 1.16
dS . r
D , , (. 1.16).
:
dN = DdS cos .
, , r. ,
, , (1.5.8):
D=

q
.
4r 2

dS cos = dS0 dS , r.
,
dN =

qdS0
.
4r 2

dS0
. dS0 , r2
dS
r, 20 = d ,
r
dS , q. ,
q
dN =
d .
(1.10.1)

S , , 4 .
S 0 4 :
N=

d = q .

4 0
r

(1.10.2)

, , D S q, q
, , .

3. (1.10.2) ,
. q (1.10.2)
, , S. .
, , n : q1, q2 , ..., qn . , q1 , (1.10.2),
N1 = q1 ;

, q 2 ,
N2 = q2 ,

.. , ,
N1, N2 , ..., Nn :
N = N1 + N 2 + ... + N n .

N1 , N2 , ... Nn q1 , q 2 , ... qn .
n

N = q1 + q2 + ... + qn = qi .

(1.10.3)

i =1

, ,
, , .
4. , q = dV q = dS , q = dl , , , V

, ; V, S, l , ,
, , S.
r
5. S , D
. .
, S , q (. 1.17). ,
S S1 S2. ,

. 1.17

, . , , S1
S2 (1.10.1), : N1 = N2 .
r
r
, , : N1 < 0, N2 > 0 ( D n
S2 , S1 ).
N = N1 + N 2 = 0.

, :
S , ,
, , .. , . , ,
, . , , ; , . , .
6. , :
N = Dn dS.
(1.10.4)
S

, S.
7. :
( !) -

S ,
:
N = Dn dS = q,

(1.10.5)

q , , S.
8. (1.10.5),
.
r
D , ,
1 .
1.11. ophlememhe enpel{ c`rqq` j p`q)r
}kejph)eqjhu onkei
1. ,

,
r
r
.. E D . ,
, :
) ;

) (
, dS , .
, , .
, , ).
2.
.
1) , ,
r
, D , .
2) (,
).
3) , .
4) ,
.
5) D.
6) 0 ,
: E =

D
0

3. .
1) , ( r0 ,
q ).
; , ,
. 1.18
, ,
. .
, r > r0 (. 1.18).
r
D . N
N = DS = D 4r 2 ,
(1.11.1)
2
S = 4r . q , .
N
(1.11.2)
N =q.
(1.11.1) (1.11.2),
D 4 r 2 = q .

D=

q
4r 2

(1.11.3)

D 0 , :
E=

D
0

q
4 0r 2

(1.11.4)

(r = r0 )
E0 =

q
4 0 r02

(1.11.5)

(1.11.4) (1.11.5) .

,
.
S r , ,
, : , , S0 :
N = DS = 0 .
, S D .
, : , , :

D = 0,
= 0.

(1.11.6)

(. 1.26) ,
, , , .
. 1.19 E r .

q
4 0r 2

2) .
+ .
r . D . ,
, . .
S (. 1.20).
, , :
N = DS + DS = 2 DS

( r , D ,
r
cos(D, n ) = 0 ).
q = S . N = q = S . 2 DS = S ,

D=

;
2

(1.11.7)

. 1.20

. 1.19

(1.5.6)
E=

D
0

.
20

(1.11.8)

3) (.
1.21).
:
+ = .
, , , .

E+ =

+
.
2 0

, E =

.
2 0

+ , v
v
v
v
E + E , .. E + = E .
v
(. 1.21),
v
E + E , :
v

E = E + + E =

+ =
,
2 0 2 0 0

(1.11.9)

.
, . :
v v
v
E = E+ + E = 0 .
(1.11.10)
, . 1.22
.
4) , (
r0 , ).
-

. 1. 22

. 1.21

. ,
r
. , D , . , .
: h , r > r0 ,
(. 1.23).
:
N = D 2rh
r

(
, D n
r r
cos(D, n ) = 0 ). q = 2r0 h . N = q = 2r0 h .
N , , D 2rh = 2r0 h ,

D=

r0

(1.11.11)

E :
E=

D
0

r0
.
0r

(1.11.12)


.
, , , ,
, r
D . , .
. 1.23

bnopnq{ dk q`lnopnbepjh

? ?
.
?
, , , .
1.
2.
3.
4.

onem0h`k }kejpnq`h)eqjncn onk


, ,
, . .
1.12. p`an` }kejpnq`h)eqjhu qhk
1. , .
, ,

.
, .
2. q .
q ( ,
).
, q 1
2 ( 1 2 , ,
r
r
r1 r2 . 1.24).
, q , ,
S12 ,
1 2:
2

A12 = dA .
1

, dr ,

dA = Fd r cos ,

. 1.24

.
F ( , ):
F =

qq
4 0 r 2

dr cos = dr dr
r
r
F . dr . - r , ..
r

dr = r + dr r .

,
dA =

qq dr
4 0 r 2

(1.12.1)

12
2

A12 = dA =
1

qq

r2

dr
qq 1 r2
qq
qq
=

. (1.12.2)
=
4 0 r r 2 4 0 r r1 4 0 r1 4 0 r2
1

, , ,
, ( q ), q , ,
( ), ( r1 r 2 ),
( (1.12.2) , ,
, ). 1 2 ( . 1.24 ), (1.12.2).

3. ,
,


,
.

.

,
,
( ,
),
,
.
. 1.25

. ,
.
4. .
( + ). q
(. 1.25). , 1 2. (1)
r1 , (2) r 2 . ,
, , 1
2 , ,
.
dA = Fd r cos .
, , ( , , ).
: F = qE . , ,
E=

2 0

, dr cos = dr . ,
dA =

q
dr
20

(1.12.3)

, 1 2
2

A12 = dA =
1

r2

dr =

20 r

q
20

r1

r
r2

q
20

r2

q
20

q q
r1
r2 .
20 20

r1 =

(1.12.4)
, , , , .
, , , .
.
5. , ( ).
, ,
L , : Ao 0 .
, 1 2 ,
12 (. 1.26), 1, 21, (1.12.2) (1.12.4) ,
12 21, , :
A1B2 = A2C1 .
, ,
, :
. 1.26
Ao = A1B2C1 = A1B2 + A2C1 = 0 .

:
Ao = dA ,
L

, L .
dA

dA = Fdl cos = qEdl cos = qEl dl ,


F = qE ( q , E ), E cos = El , ( El

dl ).
, Ao = dA = qEl dl = q El dl = 0 .
L

q ( q 0 ),

L El dl = 0 .

(1.12.5)

(1.12.5) ,
L .
.
, -

(1.12.5) .
1.13.

1. , , ,
, . .
, , ,
:
dA = dWn ,
(1.13.1)
,
A12 = Wn ,
(1.13.2)
. :
Wn = Wn 2 Wn1 Wn ,
Wn = Wn1 Wn 2 Wn .
( Wn ), ( Wn ) .
2. , ,
, , , , .
, , ,
, , , . , (1.12.2) (1.12.4) , :
A12 =

qq
4 0 r1

A12 =

qq
4 0 r2

r1

= Wn1 Wn 2 ,

20 20

r2 = Wn1 Wn 2 .

(1.13.3)
(1.13.4)

3. (1.13.3) (1.13.4) ,
. , , , . Wn (1.13.3) (1.13.4)

Wn =

qq

+ C1 ,

(1.13.5)

r + C2 ,

(1.13.6)

4 0r

Wn =

q
2 0

C1 C2 .
C1 C 2
, .. ( ) , ( ). , - , - .
4. , , .
:
qq
qq
qq
qq

Wn1 Wn 2 =
+ C
+ C =
.

4 0 r1
4 0 r2
4 0 r1 4 0r2

5. - ( ),
, C .
C 1 C 2 (1.13.5) (1.13.6). ( Wn ) ,
.
, C (,
, ).
,
.
(1.13.5) r = Wn = 0 , , C = 0 . q , r q , ,
Wn =

qq
4 0r

(1.13.7)

.
, C1 0
.
, C2 = . , r = 0 ( r q ). (1.13.6) r = 0 Wn = 0 , C2 = 0 . , r ,
Wn =

q
2 0

r.

(1.13.8)

6. .
, , ,

A10 = Wn1 0 = Wn1 .


(1.13.9)
, ,
, , .
7. (1.13.7) (1.13.8) , , : q , . Wn

.
8. (1.13.7) (1.13.8):
Wn = +

qq
40r

; Wn =

q
2 0

r.

+ , , , qq . , q , . , , qq .
( , qq > 0 ), , qq < 0 , .

, q < 0 , , q > 0 (
). , (1.13.7)
(1.13.8), . 1.27 1.28.

1. , .
2. .
3. ?
4. , , ?
5. , , ?
6. .
. 1.27

. 1.28

1.14.
1. . .
(1.13.7) (1.13.8) , ,
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) .
q+ , q+ , q+ ,... Wn , Wn , Wn,... .
, , Wn q+ :
Wn
.
q+

, , ,
, (
: !).
,
, . , . ,

Wn
,
q+

( 1777
.
.. , 1811 . . ).
, U .

,
, :
=

Wn
.
q+

(1.14.1)

2. (1.14.1) , q ( ), ,
Wn = q .
(1.14.2)
,
A12 = Wn1 Wn 2 .

(1.14.3)

, (1.14.2),
Wn1 = q1 , Wn 2 = q 2 ,

,
A12 = q(1 2 ) .

(1.14.4)
: , , -

.
3. ,
, , .
, ,
: 0 = 0, 0 .
( ,
, , ). , ,
. q 1 , ,

A10 = q + (1 0 2 ) = q+ 1 .
(1.14.5)
, ,
.
- , ,
. .
, . , .
4. ,
, .
5. . , .
1 =

A10
, - , q+

. , ,
, ,
.
6. Wn = q.
, , , (

).
1.29, ,
. q,
: ) q > 0 ; ) q < 0 .

7. ,
, ( ):

)
. 1.29

)
n

= i ,

(1.14.6)

(1.14.7)

i =0

)
= d .

8. ( ), .
, , .
:
A12 = q(1 2 ) = 0 , 1 = 2 .
r

, E , , , .
, :
dA = qEdr cos ,
r
r
E (.. E
).
dA = 0 , ,
qEdr cos = 0 , E 0, q 0, dr 0.

cos = 0 , =

.
2

, .
1.30 ( ) () .
9. (1.14.4) .
( ) , 1 1 :
1 =

1
.
1

, ().
, ,
( 1,6 1019 ),

1 :
1 = 1,6 1019 1 = 1,6 1019 .

. 1.30

10. . (1.14.1) q+ ( ), q
(1.13.7):
=

Wn
qq+
q
=
=
.
q+ 4 0rq + 40r

(1.14.8)

r , , .
1.15.

1.
r
E ( ), ( ).
, .
.
2. 1
2, x .
d , dx (. 1.31).
q 1 2 ,
, :
dA = qEdx cos = qE xdx ,

(1.15.1)

E cos = E x E x , ,
:
. 1.31

dA = dWn = qd .

(1.15.2)
(1.15.1) (1.15.2) q ,

E x dx = d ,

Ex =

d
.
dx

(1.15.3)

, ,
x . , x -

, .

, -

,
Ex =

.
x

:
x

x, y, z . ,
Ex =

; E y = ; Ez =
z
x
y

(1.15.4)

, :
r

E = E xi + E y j + E z k ,

(1.15.5)

(1.15.4):
r r r
i+
j + k.
y
z
x

E =

(1.15.6)

, , grad . ,
r
r
E = grad .
(1.15.7)
. 1.32

(. 1.32).

, .
3. , ,
. , ( )
r
. , E
, .
r ,
d
. :
dr
d
.
dr

E=

(1.15.8)

, , :
E=

1 2

(1.15.9)

r 1 2 , .
4. (1.15.9) , (/).
, 1
, 1 .
5. (1.15.7) q ( q , ):
r
qE = q( grad) ,
r

qE = F , q E ; qgrad = gradq ( q , ). grad : q = Wn . ,


r
F = gradWn .
(1.15.10)
(1.15.10) , , .

, ,
, .
(1.15.10) , , , . r ,
F=

dWn
,
dr

(1.15.11)

r
dWn
F gradWn .
dr

6. , , . 1.33,
, . 1.33, .
,

dWn
d

(r ) Wn (r )
dr
dr

:
dWn
d
= tg ,
= tg .
dr
dr

r
r
dWn
d
= Er
= Fr E F r . ,
dr
dr
r
r
tg = Er , tg = Fr .

(r ) Wn (r ) ( r ) , .
, .

. 1.33

, r1 (. 1.33, ) E1 , E2 r2 ( r1 r ). r
E r ( , tg > 0 ;
r
r , Er = tg , , E r ).
r
(. 1.33, ) F r r .

1. ?
2. .
3. , ?
4. .
5. ?
6. ?
7. , ? .
8. , ,
?
1.16.

1.
.
2. , , .
, ( ):
1 =

q1
4 0 r1

, ..., i =

qi
4 0 ri

, ... ,

(1.16.1)

r1 q1 ; ri q i .
1 , 2 , ..., i , ... ( ), :
n

i =1

i =1

= i =

qi
4 0 ri

(1.16.2)

3. , , , : dq , , , :
= d =

dq
4 0 r

(1.16.3)

4. , (. 1.34),
, r ,
: r >> l ( l ).
, :
= + + ,

+ =

q
4 0 r2

, =

(1.16.4)
q
4 0 r1

(1.16.5)

q ; r1 r2 .
+ (1.16.4):
=

q
4 0 r2

q
4 0 r1

q r1 r2
4 0 r1r2

(1.16.6)

l , , r1 r2 r 1 2 .

. 1.35

. 1.34

r1 r2 :
r1 r2 = l cos ,

r1r2 :
r1r2 = r 2 .

,
=

ql
4 0 r 2

cos .

(1.16.7)

ql .
, ,
=

p
4 0 r 2

cos ,

(1.16.8)

.
5. r0
. ( ) ,
h (. 1.35).
, . ,
dl :
d =

dl
,
4 0 r

dl , dl ; r
:
r = r02 + h 2 .

, dl
; , l 0 2r0 :

= d =

2 r0

dl
4 0

r02

+h

r0
2 0 r02 + h 2

(1.16.9)

(h = 0)
c =

.
2 0

(1.16.10)

6. .
, . .
7. .
r
(,
r
..), E ,
E r E :
Er = E .

(1.16.11)

.
- , , , , .. r ,
r
E .
Er =

d
,
dr

(d) dr
d = Er dr .
(1.16.12)
1 2 (1.16.12):
2

d = Er dr

1 2 = Er dr .

(1.16.11) E r , .. E :
2

1 2 = Edr .

(1.16.13)

E r , .
.
.
8. ( ).
: 1 (, ), 2

. 1.36

(. 1.36). (1.16.13) 1 2 = E r dr .
1

+ = , E =

.
0

r ,
, r0 ( r0 )
1 2 =

r0

0 0dr = 0 r0 .

(1.16.14)

, ,
.
r
(E = 0) , ( d = Edr ) , ( + )
1 . 2 , ( ) . = (r ) . 1.36.
. .
9. r1 r2 ,
( ).
(1.16.13)
2

1 2 = Edr ,
1

1 ; 2 .
, ( : ,
, ).
(1.11.4)

E=

q
4 0 r 2

r1 ( ) r2 ( ):
1 2 =

r2

q(r r )

r 4 0r 2 dr = 4 0r1 4 0r2 = 420r11r2 .

(1.16.15)

,
. ( ).
, ,
, ( ,
.
,
, ).
, ,
, 1 , , , q+ = q ,

2 . ( ,
).
= (r ) . 1.37.
.
10. . r1 ; r2 .

:
+ = .

(1.16.13)
2

1 2 = Edr ,

1 ; 2 .
(1.11.12) ,
,
E=

r1
.
0 r


1 2 =

r2

r 01r dr = 10 ln r12 .

(1.16.16)

+ = , , , . , ,

. 1.37

. ,
.
11. .
, : .
, , - ,
. , , , : . (, ), ,
? , ,
( 1.29).
.

1. , , , ?
2. :
) ;

) ;
) .

1. l = 30 (. 1.38)
= 1 /. r0 = 20
q1 = 10 2 . . .
. dl ,
dq = dl . q1 dq dF =

1 q1dl
, r
4 0 r 2

q1. 1.38 ,
r=

r0
cos

dl =

rd
,
cos

r0 q1 . dF =

q1
d.
4 0 r0

dF , , :
dF2 dF1 . 1.38 ,
dF1 = dF cos , dF2 = dF sin .

dF ,
dF1 =

q1 cos
q sin
d; dF2 = 1
d.
4 0 r0
4 0 r0

. 1.38

+,
+

F1 =

q
q
q cos
+
41 0r0 d = 410r0 cos d = 410r0 sin | ,
F1 =

q1
q
[sin sin( )] = 1 2 sin ,
4 0 r0
4 0 r0

F1 =

q1
sin .
2 0 r0

q1 .
, , q1 ,
q1
sin .
2 0 r0

F = F1 =

1.38 ,
l/2

sin =

r02

l2

4r02 + l 2

, q 1 ,
F=

q1
2 0 r0

l
4r02

+ l2

,
F=

108 106
2 3,14 8,85 10

12

0,2

0,3
4(0,2) + (0,3)
2

= 5,4 10 4 .

2. q1 = 30 q2 = 10 d = 20 . ,
r1 = 15 r2 = 10 .
. ,

r

E = E1 + E2 ,
r

E1 q1 , E2
, q2 (. 1.39). ,
,
E1 =

q1
4 0 r12


E2 =

q2
40 r22

. 1.39

:
E = E12 + E22 + 2 E1E2 cos ,
r

E1 E 2 , r1, r2 d :
cos =

cos cos =

d 2 r12 r22
.
2r1r2

20 2 152 102
= 0,25 .
2 15 10


E=

q12 q22
qq
+ 4 + 2 12 22 cos .
4
r1 r2
r1 r2

1
4 0

:
E=
= 1,67 104 / =

1
(3 108 )2 (108 )2
3 108 108
+
+2
0,25 =
12
4
4
4 3,14 8,85 10
0,15
0,1
0,152 0,12

16,7 /.

3. q1 = 3 q2 = 0,02 1,5
. , , 1 .
. , , , r1 = 1,5 r2 = 1 .
A q 1 ,
2 , A
A = A.

A = q (1 2 ).


A = q(1 2 ) = q( 2 1 ).


1 =

q1
4 0 r1

; 2 =

q1
4 0 r2

, q2 ,
A =

q2 q1 1 1
.
4 0 r2 r1


A =

3 106 2 108 1 1
= 1,8 10 4
12
4 3,14 8,85 10 1 1,5

= 180 .

4. ,
= 0,1 /. , , .
. , ,
, , , .
dl dl
, ,
d =

dl
4 0 r

r , , .
1.40 ,
dl =

rd
cos

, d =

d
.
4 0 cos

1 2 ,
2

40 cos .

1 = 2 0 1 ; ,

=2

=
40 cos 20
0

0 cos .

. 1.40

, ..
d

cos = ln tg 2 + 4 + C ,

ln tg + |0 / 6 =
(ln tg / 3 ln tg / 4) =
ln tg / 3.
20
20
20
2 4

0,110 6
2 3,14 8,85 10 12

ln 1,73 = 990 .

5. p = 2 109 r

E = 3 10 4 /. p 0 = 60
. = 30.
. (. 1.41) = 30o = / 6
: 1 = 0 = / 3 / 6 = / 6 (. 1.41, ),
2 = 0 + = / 3 + / 6 = / 2 (. 1.41, ).
. .

. 1.41

dA

dA = Md = hFd = l sin Fd = lqE sin d = pE sin d.

A=

pE sin d = pE sin d.
0

, A = pE (cos 0 cos ).

A = pE (cos 0 cos 1 ) =
= 2 109 3 104 (cos / 3 cos / 6) = 6 105 (0,5 0,86) = 2,19 105


A = pE (cos 0 cos 2 ) = 2 109 3 104 (cos / 3 cos / 2) =
= 6 105 (0,5 0) = 3 105 .


, .
, , , ,
. , , .
-
.
1.17. , ,
1. ,
.
, -,
.* .
, .
, , , ..
2. ** , . , 10151020 , . .
, , , , .
3. , . , , .
(, ,
.) .
1.18.
1. , .
, .
( *** ). , ,
.
, ,
( ).
, , ,
. , ,
.
.
*

. .
. .
***
, , , , ,
, .. .
**

2. ,
.
r

P ,
.
.
, -

P , .
, .*

r

P=

pi

(1.18.1)

pi i- ; V .
,
r

P = lim

V 0

pi

V
V

(1.18.2)

.
3. :
=

dq
dS

dq , dS.
4. .
.
, - ,
. .
, : + = .
()
( ), dS ( , ; (. 1.42)).

. 1.42

. P dV :
dp = PdV,
r
r
P . dp P .
dS
h:
*

, , .

dV = dSh =dSlos ,
h = los .
:

dp = PdSlos .

(1.18.3)

,
dS l ( , dS
).

dp = dSl.

(1.18.4)

(1.18.3) (1.18.4),

Pos = ,

(1.18.5)
r

P . Pos = n .

n = .

(1.18.6)

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, (1.18.6) . Pn
.
4. ,
, , :
r
r
P = 0 E ,

(1.18.7)

.
,
. 0 ( , P 0 E ).
5. , , , .
r
r
P E ,
Pn= 0 En,
(1.18.8)
Pn = ', ,
= 0 En.
(1.18.9)
,
(En > 0), ' > 0, .. . En < 0, ' < 0 .
r
, E (
En = 0 , , = 0 En = 0 .
1.19.
1. , , ,
dV.
2. , , , : , , , :
r r
v
= 0 = ,
(1.19.1)

0 , ; ,
.

r
. (1.18.7).
r
3. : , , ,
( ):
E < E0.
: !
r
r
, 0 .
r

.
r

0
r

. 2

1.43 0 , ,
r
r
. 0 .
4. , , , .
1.44 . . q+ q , r
r
. , 0 .
, ( ) , (
) ( ) E0.
5. , ( ).

. 1.43

. 1.44

: , (. 1.45, ).
6. , , .
, , , , .
7.
r
D .
r
, D r
r
0 E ( E )
r
P :
r
r r
D = 0 E + P .
(1.19.2)
. 1.45
8.

E :

r
r
P = 0 E .

D (1.19.2),
r

D = 0 E + 0 = 0 (1 + ) .

(1.19.3)

,
.
r
r
r
E , , D
r
E . (1 + ) (1.19.3) :
= (1 + ).
,

(1.19.4)
r

D = 0 (1 + ) = 0 .

(1.19.5)
, . ,
.
9.
.
r
D , , (. 1.45, ).
r
r
, E , D
r
r
, . 1.46 E () D ()
( ) , , .

)
. 1.46

10. , ;
. ,

, .
11. .
.
1.20.
1. , r
r
. , D E r
r
: D = 0 .
, . ( ) 0, .

, , :
) , , ,
. ,
;
) ( , , ,
). ,
( , ),
r
( , D
). , , ,
, .
2. , , , ,
, .
, ; ,
, . , .
, , 1.11 1.16.
. , 1.11, , , .
, : ) ; ) , ( ,
).

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6.
?
7.
?
1.21.
.
1. , .
, .

, . ,
.
2. ,
. , , , . . , . .

. 1.47
1.47 () ().
, , .
: , , , , , , .
3. , - .
.
, , .
. ,
. 1.48. :
.
4. ,
.

:
. 1.48
,
. 1.49
. , (. 1.49).
r
.
5. .
.
l , (.
1.50). ( , ).
r
r
( Fi ) ( Fe ).
r :

Fi os = m2r,
-,
; ; r ; m .
(

. 1.50

):

Fi sin Fe = 0
, ,

Fe = eE,
E c ; e .
l, r . , tg = l r .
, ,
l =

e
E.
m2

, , , e ( ) l:
p = el =

e2
E.
m2

(1.21.1)

, , , .
, , , p o .
6. , .. ,
.
.

7. :
,
r
. , , , .
8. ,
. ,
q+ q
r
r
F+ F (. 1.51). .
,

M = Flsin,

. 1.51

F F+ ( F ); lsin .
F qE. F : M = qlEsin. ql = p . ,

M = pEsin,
r

(1.21.2)

, , , ,
. (1.21.2) :
r
rr
= .
(1.21.3)
r

:
r
r
, , r
r
r
, ( , , . 1.52,
, ).
r
r
(1.21.2) , ,
r
( , ).

. 1.52

9. , q+ q , , ( ), ( )
. , ,
, ( F + F ). , F+ > F (. 1.52).
F+ F
F x = F+ F .

F+ = qE2 F = qE1, 1 E2 , q_ q+.


Fx = q(E1 E2).
, ,
l, los ( ). , E,
, ..

, (

los):
2 1 =

l cos

( , x).
Fx , ql :

Fx = p
r

os

(1.21.4)

(, x ).
(1.21.4) , ,
:
1)

= 0 x ;

2) os = 0 .
(1.21.4)

Fx = p x
r

(1.21.5)
r

r r

Fx F x; Fx , x, Fx = Fxi ( i
r
x); px = pos x.
r

, Fx x:

px > 0

> 0 ( px < 0
< 0);

px > 0

< 0 ( px < 0,
> 0),

, x.
r
(
r
E ). , , ,
( ). .
10. ,
. , , ,
, .
.
.
1.22. .
.
1. r
: , , P .
.
r
, , P
, , .. (, t0, ).
,
. .
, . , c .
2. .
, r
, . P . . 1.53.

3. ,
, ( ).

. 1.53

, , .
, , , , . , '' , , (. 1.54).

. 1.54

(, 1, NaCl)
, .
.
4. ( ) 1015 ,
10121013 . ,
10121013 , 1015 ( ) (
).

, .
5. ,
, .
6.
( ).

, ( ).
, ( )
.
, , ,
.
.
, ,
. , -

. 1.55

(. 1.55).
, .
, , , :
op =

, ; T .

, . .
,
( ) . , , . op = f(E), op = f(T), = f(E)
. 1.56.
7.
. . :

. 1.56

) ( ) ( ,
);
) (
, ).
. 1.57 1.58.

. 1.57

. 1.58

) ( ) (, ).
P = f(E) . 1.59. ( 1). . 1, 2.
= 0 .

, , . , .
C , ,
. . 3.
, -

.
) , . .
, - , :
=

,
T

(1.22.2)

; ; ( ).
( -
NaKC4H46 42) (BaTiO3).
.. .. . : + 22,5 C 15 .
104.
.. ..
. 103, 125 .
) .
, -

.
, ,
.
.
() . -

. 1.60

. 1.61

.
1. ,
. .
, , ,

, , .
1.60 .
2.
. .
.
3. , , , . -

.
,
, . ,
(. 1.61, ).
: ,
, , .
,
v
, (
) ,
(. 1.61, ). ( ) , (. 1.62, ).
(. 1.62, ). ,
(. 1.61, ). ( a
) (. 1.62, ), , , (. 1.61, ). , (. 1.62, ).
() ,
.

1.23. . .

. 1.62

1. , .
, , , .
. . , .
2. . ,
.
,
.
3. - .
, ,
. .
, .
, .

( , , -

). , ,
.
4. , , ,
. .
1.24.

1. .
( ).
2. -
.
3. .
, ,
. .
4.
, .
, , ( , ).

, , .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. , .
9. ? .
10. ?
?
11. ?
12. ?


, ,
, ,
.
, .
1.25.
1. , ,
, .

2. ,
:
r
r
= 0, D = 0 .
(1.25.1)
, , ( !).
, d = E xdx , x ,
A B, , r
(. 1.63). ( = 0 x = 0 ), d = 0 = const.
,
A = B 0
(1.25.2)
( B ). , .
3. B ,

n = E ;
(1.25.3)
E = 0 ,

(1.25.4)

En E ; E
r

E .

. 1.63

, .. ,
, , .
r
r
D .
r
r
r
( D = 0 E ), D :
Dn = D ;

(1.25.5)

D = 0 .

(1.25.6)

4. . .
, .
D = 0,
, , , ,
- ,
( N = q; N = 0, q = 0). ,
.
5. , , .
.
r1 r2 . , , :
1 = 2.
(1.25.7)
Ta , (1.14.8):
1 =

q1 q2 .

q1

4 0 r1

2 =

q2

4 0 r2

q1 q2 1 2:
q1 = 1 4r12 ;

q2 = 2 4r22 .

1 =

4r12 1 1
=
r1
4 0 r1 0

2 =

4r22 2 2
=
r2 .
4 0 r2 0

, 1 = 2 ,
1 r2
= .
2 r1

, , : k =
1 k1
=
.
2 k2

(1.25.8)
1

. ,
(1.25.9)

, (.. ), ,
( ).
. .
6. , ,
. r
. , D ( ) (. 1.64).
dh dS.
r
, D
: dN = DdS.
dq = dS. dN = dq.
,
DdS = dS,

D= E=
. 1.64

D
0

.
0

(1.25.10)

,
, , .
7. , , . , . , . . : , , , (. 1.65).
,
. , ,
,
. 1.65
.
8. .
, ( , , , .).
9. ,
- . , ( , , ).

10. . , ,
, .
,
( ,
: ).
1.26.
1. , . , :
, . ( !) . .
,
. ,
, , .. (1.25.1)(1.25.4).
!
. , , , , (,
).
2. , , , , . . 1.66:
) q (, ) ;
) , ;
) q ; . , , (.. , )

. 1.66

. , . .
3. , , .
. . 1.67:
) ,
;
) q ;
) q ; 1 2 . 1 2 .
, , . ,
, .

. 1.67

4.
(). ,
, (
).
5. , . :
)

. 1.68

1) , ;
2) , , .
1.68 , () () .
6. , , , , , - . , , , , , , .
1.69 .
.
, , ,

+ = . , .
7. , (
, , ,
. 1.69
).
.
, , .., , .. , , , . .

. 1.70

, , .
,
(.1.70).
1.27.
.
1. , *
:
) , ;
) , ;
) .
2.
. ,
, : , .
, ,

= d =

dS

s 4 0 r ,

(1.27.1)

dS; r dS ; S .
,
, , , , . , ,
.
3. , , . , . .
, , , :
=

(1.27.2)

, , , , , .. .
( ), , .

*

, .
, - .

dq
,
d

(1.27.3)

d ,
(q) (dq) . , , ( ),
: = 1 , = q .
(1.27.2) (1.27.3) .
4. , ,
.
5. , , .
q

(, , =

: -

!)
6. , , .
. , q. , E =

q
4 0 r

, E0 =

q
4 0 r02

( r0 ).

, .. d = Edr .

q
1 =
= Edr =
dr =

2
4 0 r r
4 0 r0
r0
r0 4 0 r
0

(1.27.4)

q , :
=

= 4 0 r0 .

(1.27.5)

, ,
.
7. =

().
, 1
1 :
1 =

1
.
1

(1.27.5) () r0 (), , 0 (/), , / 2/2


.
. , , , ( = 1), 1 .
(1.27.5)
r0 =

C
4 0

1
4 3,14 8,85 10 12

= 9 10 9 .

9 . ! (
7,1104 ).


, ?
2. .
3. ?
4.
?
5. ,
?
6. ? ?
7. .
1.

.

1.28.
1.
- .
,

( , ( . condensare , ), , , ).
2. , , ,
.
- , ( )
, q
(. 1.71). , q, , .
,
( ), .
( =

).

,
.
3.
, . , , .
, , , , . . 1.71
, .
,
,
, ( ).
, (. 1.72).
)

. 1.72

.
4. , - ,
, :
=

q
1 2

(1.28.1)

5. , ,
, . . q + , q , q + (, ).
1.29.
1. , . q. , , .
(1.28.1) , , .
2. .
1) (. 1.72, ).
S ; r0 ; (, ,
). 1 2. (1.28.1)
=

q
1 2

1.16 ,

1 2 =

r0 ,
0

(1.29.1)

; r0 .
, , .
q, S, =
1 2 =

q
0 S

q
,
S

r0 .

q 1 2 , :
C=

0 S

r0

(1.29.2)

, .
) (. 1.72, ).

r1 ; r2 .
(1.16.16)
q(r2 r1 )
r0 ,
1 2 =
4 0 r1r2

(1.29.3)

q .
q ,
C=

4 0 r1r2
r2 r1

(1.29.4)

(
, )
.
(1.29.4), r2,
C=

4 0 r1
1

r1
r2

r2 = ( r2 >> r1)
C = 4 0 r1 ,

(1.29.5)

.. .
(1.29.4) (1.29.5) , r2
r1 (r1 ). , C = 4 0 r1
C = 4 0 r1 .

r2
r2 r1

r2
, , > .
r2 r1


, , (1.29.2), S (
), r0 .
3) (. 1.72, ).
r1 r2, h,
.
1.16 ,
1 2 =

r1 r2
ln
0 r1

(1.29.6)

, .
,
(1.29.6). ,
2r1h :
q = 2r1h .
1 2 =

q
2 0 h

ln

r2
. 1 2 ,
r1
C=

2 0 h

r
ln 2
r1

(1.29.7)

5. , , , ,
( ) ( ).
, ,
.. .

, ( 1 ). 2
3 .
, ( , , ) .

.

, . , , (1,52) 105 /).

1.30.

1. . ,
, , .
, .
2. .
,
,
. , , ( , , , ).
3. , .
.
, , , ( ).
4. (. 1.73). n C1, 2, , n . ,

. 1.73

.
. (1) q+
( ). q, q+ (| q | = | q+ |. , , q+ , . ,
.
. ( , ). , , , , (
, ). ,
, (q). .
,

q1 = q2 = = qn = q.

(1.30.1)

.
1, , , ( ) 2 ..
,
, :
(1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ... + ( n 1 n ) = .
(1.30.2)
u:
1 2 = u1 ; 2 3 = u 2 ; n 1 n = u n ; = u.

(1.30.2), :
u1 + u 2 + ... + u n = u .

(1.30.3)

:
u1 =

q
q
q
; u 2 = ; ; u n =
.
c1
c2
cn

,
q
u=
c

(1.30.3) ,
q q
q q
+ + ... +
= ,
c1 c2
cn c

q:
1

c1

c2

+ ... +

cn

(1.30.4)

: , ,
, .
, , , . (1.30.1) :

c1u1 = c2u2 =.= cnun,


,

u1 : u2 : : un =

c1 c2

: ... :

cn

(1.30.5)

, , : ,
,
. (1.30.5) , , .. . ,
, . , , , .

5. .
n c1, c2, ..., cn (. 1.74).
1 2 = u ( , ,
1; , 2):

. 1.74

u1 = u 2 = ... = u n = u .

(1.30.6)

, , ,
.
:
q = q1 + q2 ++ qn .
(1.30.7)
:
q1 = c1u; q2 = c2 u; ... qn = cn u; q = cu

(1.30.7):
cu = c1u + c 2 u + ... + c n u.

u
= 1 + 2 + ... + n .

(1.30.8)

, .
, , ( ).
6. () , .
1.31.

1. 1.13 , , , .
, .
, ,
, .
, , .
2. .
, dq. : , , , .
, , .
q. , q
c

= .
dq ( ) , dA = dq( ) = dq = 0 .
, d ,
, .

. :
dA = dW ,
dW = dq =

qdq
c

, , . , q,
q

qdq q 2
=
.
c
2c
0

W = dW =
0

, c =

(1.31.1)

:
W=

q 2 q c 2
=
=
.
2c
2
2

(1.31.2)

3. .
, dq .

1 2 = u . dq

dA = dqu,
u , dq.
, :
W=

q 2 qu cu 2
=
=
.
2c
2
2

(1.31.3)

1.32.

1. , q1 q2
. , . (1.14.2),
. , q1,
W = q2 2 ,
(1.32.1)
2 , q1 , q2.
, q2,

W = q11 ,
(1.32.2)
1 , q2 , q1.
(1.32.1) (1.32.2) , q11 = q2 2
(1.32.3)
(1.32.1) :
W=

q2 2

2
q22

q2 2
2
q11

.
( (1.32.3)):
W=

q11
2

q2 2
2

1
(q11 + q2 2 ) .
2

(1.32.4)

(1.32.4) , q1 q2
. ,
1 =

q2
4 0 r

2 =

q1
4 0 r

1 2 (1.32.4),
q q
1 q1q 2
+ 2 1 .
2 4 0 r 4 0 r

W =

(1.32.5)

2. , . n
W=

1 n
qi i ,
2 i =1

(1.32.6)

i , , qi-, , qi.
1.33.
1. , , .. ,
?
, .
, , ,
, .
2. , . .
(1.31.3)
W=

Cu 2
2

(1.33.1)

u .
=

0 S

r0

, u = Er0, (E

, ).
u (1.33.1),
W=

0 SE 2 r02 0 E 2
V,
=
2r0
2

(1.33.2)

Sr0 = V , .
3. , . , .
,
=

W
,
V

(1.33.3)

,
=

dW
.
dV

(1.33.4)

, , ,
. , W , , :
=

W 0 E 2
=
.
V
2

(1.33.5)

, .
4. , E =

D
0

, -

:
=

ED
2

D2
2 0

(1.33.6)

5. , , , :
W = ( x, y, z)dV ,
(1.33.7)
v

(x, y, z) ; dV ; V ,
.

1. ? ?
2. ?
3. .
4. , ()?
5. .
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ? ?
10. ?

6. : d1 = 2 d2 = 1,5 , S = 100 .
. =

q
, q ,
U

U .

, =

q
U1 + U 2

U1 ; U2 .
, q = S ; U1 = E1d1 =

D
0 1

d1 U 2 = E2 d 2 =

C=

D
0 2

d 2 ,

d1 +

0 1

D
0 2

d2

; E1 , E2 ; D
. D = .

C=

0 S

d1
1

d2

:
C=

8,85 10 12 100 10 4
2 10 3 1,5 10 3
+
5
3

= 9,83 10 11 = 98,3 .

7. R = 3 q = 2 10 2 .
q = 2 . , .
. , , ,
.

, , .
: dW = dV ,
; dV (. 1.75).

W = dV = 4

R+ d

R r

dr ,

r ; dr .

. 1.75

0 E 2
,
2

E .

E=

, ,

q2
32 2 0 r 4

q
4 0 r 2


,
W=

q2
8 0

R+ d

dr
q2 1
q 2d
1
.
=

r 2 8 0 R R + d 8 0 R( R + d )

:
W=

(2 10 8 )2 2 10 2
= 1,2 10 5
12
2
2
2
8 3,14 8,85 10 2 3 10 (3 10 + 2 10 )

2.

.
2.1.

. .
,
, .. E 0 :
1 2 ...... n .


.
, , , .
.
,
.
I, dq,
S , dt
I=

dq
.
dt

(2.1.1)

, .
, E = const. .
, ,
I = I 0 sin (t + 0 ) ,

I0 ; =

() ; t + 0 ; 0 .


r
j .
r
j , dI , , dS

j=

dI r
n.
dS

(2.1.2)


r r

dI = jdS = jdS cos = j n dS = j dS,

dS = n dS .

r r

I = dI = j dS = jn dS .
S

(2.1.3)

jn = const I = jn S .
r
, , , j
, ..
r r

dq

S j dS = I = dt .


q = const

r r

S j dS = 0 ,

(2.1.4)

.
2.2.
?
, , 1826 .
I = G (1 2 ) = GU ,
(2.2.1)
G ;

=R

; (1 2 ) = U

.
,
(t, p .). , t o const , S const
Rt = t

l
,
S

t , t = 0 (1 + t ) .
(2.2.1)
( 1 2 )
. , ,
.
r
r
dl, dS , E j (. 2.1).
dR =

dl
,
dS

, dU = Edl , dI = jdS .

r

EdldS
U
1
, jdS =
, j = E .
R
dl

I=
r

1 r

, j = E ,
r

j = E ,

. 2.1

(2.2.2)

1
.

(2.2.2)
. (. 2.2 . 2.3).

. 2.2

. 2.3

2.3.
, , .. .
.. ..
, ,
Q = I 2 Rt .

(2.3.1)

,
dQ = i 2 Rdt ,

(2.3.2)

i = f (t ) .
, .
Q = I 2 Rt = IRIt = Uq , Uq = A . , Q = A .
(2.3.1) .
dQ ,
dV dt:
dQ = i 2 Rdt = ( jdS )2

dl
dt = j 2 dVdt .
dS

(2.3.3)

,
,

dQ
.
dVdt

= j 2 = E 2 = E 2 .

(2.3.4)

(2.3.4) .
2.4.

, , .
. , .
.
, ,
, .
, , .
, , (
) (
). .
, ,
, , , , , , , .
, (. 2.4).

. 2.4
12 , .
12 , ,
1 2
1, 2 =

A1,
2
q+

(2.4.1)


1 2 =

A1,
2
q+

(2.4.2)

,
.
12 ,
, 1 2,
A1, 2
q+

A1,
2
q+

A1,
2
q+

A1, 2
q+

= (1 2 ) + 1, 2 .

(2.4.3)

R1, 2 I,
IR1, 2 . .

, ..
t A1, 2 = Q1, 2 .
(2.4.3)

A1, 2 = q[(1 2 ) + 1, 2 ] ,

q = It Q = I 2 R1, 2t ,
It [(1 2 ) + 1, 2 ] = I 2 R1, 2t , (1 2 ) + 1, 2 = IR1, 2 .

(2.4.4)

(1 2 ) + 1, 2 , , 12. ,
IR1, 2.
(2.4.4) ,
:
(1 2 ) + 1, 2
I=
,
(2.4.5)
R1, 2

I , (1 2 ) + 1, 2 , R1, 2 , I , 1, 2 (. 2.5).

. 2.5

I=

( B A) AB

RAB


I =

( A B ) + AB

RAB

, , ,

AO
,
q

(2.4.6)

.. q .

v

F r
=E
,
q

E .
, , :
AO = Fl dl = q El dl = q,
L

= El dl .

(2.4.7)

(2.4.7) ,
.
(2.2.2)
r

j = ( E + E ) .

(2.4.8)

(2.4.5) :
) , .. ,
I=

(1 2 )

R1,2

(2.4.9)

IR1,2 = 1 2 , .. ;
) 1 2 A = q (1 2 ) = 0 ,

El

dl = 0 , .. -

, , . 1 2 = 0
I=

(2.4.10)

R = R + r ( ) . (2.4.10)

IR + Ir = .

(2.4.11)

(2.4.11) : , ;
) , I = 0 IR = 0 , , , , ,
..
= (1 2 ) .

(2.4.12)

2.5. .
, .
. , , :
=n

I = 0 .

(2.5.1)

=1

, (. 2.6).
I2
I1

I3

. 2.6

. , :
=n

i =m

=1

i=0

I R = i .

(2.5.2)

(2.5.2) (. 2.7):
I 2 R2 = B A + 2
I R I R = 2 1 .
I1 R1 = A B 1 2 2 1 1

I3

I1

I2

R1

R2

R3

. 2.7

. , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
, .
, ( )
.


2.6.
. . . (, 1901 .). :
. (
, q n 106 ).

, , , .
. () . () ,
. (
, ) .. .. (, 1913 .) . . (, 1916 .). ,
.
, 1,761011 /. , , .
. . () . .
, ,
n=

D
N A,
A

D (120)103 /3 ; A (10250) / ; N A = 6 1026 1


;
3
n (1028 1029 ) 1/ .

2.7.

,
. ,
. , . , .

m2
2

3
kT =
2

3kT

(2.7.1)

k = 1,38 10 23 / ; T 300 , m = 9,1 10 31 .


105 /.

, , .
r
r
j U (.
2.8).

dS

Udt
. 2.8

dS dt ,
r
Udt .
n, N = ndSUdt , dq = Ne = nedSUdt .

j=

r
r
I
dq
=
= neU j = neU .
dS dtdS

(2.7.2)

.
, j = 107 /2, n 10 29 1/3, e = 1,6 10 19 ; (2.7.2) U =

j
= 0,6 10 3 /,
ne

.
2.8.

.

r
, , , U r
E .
. ,
( ). . ,
U=

U0 + Umax Umax
2

F eE
= , U .
; =
+U

m m

U max = a , a = =
,

U =

b =

1 eE
= bE ,
2 m

(2.8.1)

1 e
.
2 m

U max

j = neU =

r
r
ne 2
E = E j = E ,
2m

(2.8.2)

ne 2
.
2m

(2.8.2) , (2.2.2).

2.9.

.
.


.

2
mU max

n
1

U max =

2
mU max
1
n ,

(2.9.1)

= E 2 .

(2.9.2)

eE

; = ,
m

me2 E 2 2 1 ne 2 2
n =
E = E 2 ,
2
m

2
2m

2.10.

, . , ,
, . , .
. . (1853),
,

= cT .

(2.10.1)

,

=

1
CV ,
3

(2.10.2)


ne 2 22CV m
1
,
= CV :
=
3
2m
3ne 2
3
2

= nm, CV = R
=

3kT

N Am

3 k
2m

,
2

k
= 3 T = cT ,

(2.10.3)

k
c = 3 , .
e

2.11.

.
1. , T
t = 0 (1 + t o ) , .. .
,

1 2m
= = 2 =
ne

2m

3kT

m ,
ne 2

.. T .

2. . ,
,
3R.

, 1,5 ,
3
2

9
2

( 3R ) ( 1,5R ), .. C = 3R + R = R .
,
, .
.
3. . (), ,
. .
. . , , . . , . (1928).
, .

.

1. ? ? ? ( ).
2. .
3. ? ?
4. , ? ? ?
5. ?
?
6. .
7. ?
8. ( )
. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. ? ? ,
?
12. ( , ).
13.
.
14. ?
?

1. R = 150 = 100
ri = 50 . :
1) Rv = 100 , , ;
2) .
.
1. , A B (. . 2.9),

U 1 = I 1 R1 ,

R1
; I 1 ( ).
I 1
I1 =
. 2.9

Re + ri

(1)

Re . Re = R 2 + Ri .

R1
R1 =

(2)
1

R1

Rv

R2

RRv
.
R + 2 Rv

(1) Re (2),
I1 =

R 2 + R1 + ri

.
:
R1 =

100 500
100 + 2 500

I1 =

= 45,5 ;

150
= 1,03 ;
50 + 45,5 + 50

U1 = 1,03 45,5 = 46,9 .

2.
I2 :
U2 = I2R 2 ,
(3)
I2 .
I2 =

.
R + ri

I2 (3),
U2 =

R
.
R + ri 2

:
U2 =

150 100

= 50 .
100 + 50 2

2. , r = 3
U0 = 2 U = 4 t = 20 c.
. , q = It .
dq = Idt
(1)

t

q = Idt .

(2)

,
t

U
dt .
r
0

q=

(3)

U .
U = U 0 + kt ,
(4)

k .
U (3),
t

q =

U
U 0 kt
k
+ dt = 0 dt + tdt .
r 0
r 0
r
r
0

,
q=

U 0t kt 2
t
+
=
(2U 0 + kt ) .
r
2r 2r

(5)

k (4), , t = 20
c U = 4 :
k=

U U0 4 2
=
/ = 0,1 /.
t
20

(5):
q=

20
(2 2 + 0,1 20) = 20
23

3. 1 2 , . 2.10. ,
R2 R3, 1 = 10 2 = 4 , R1 = R4 = 2 R2 = R3 = 4 . .
. .
.
, -,
, , , , -, ( ).
, . 2.10, .
.
, , ,
.
:
, , ; , , .

I1 + I 2 + I 3 I 4 = 0 .
(1)

. 2.10

.
, ,
( , ). , :
,
, .
:
) , -

IR , IR
;
) , .. ,
, .
:
AR1BR2 A
I1R1 I 2 R2 = 1 2 ;
(2)
AR1BR3 A
I1R1 I 3 R3 = 1 ;
(3)
AR3 BR4 A
I 3 R3 I 4 R4 = 0 .
(4)
(2) (4) , :
I1 + I 2 + I 3 I 4 = 0;
2 I1 4 I 2 = 6;
2 I1 4 I 3 = 10;
4 I 3 + 2 I 4 = 0.

, (). :
I1 + I 2 + I 3 I 4 = 0;
2 I1 4 I 2 + 0 + 0 = 6;
2 I1 + 0 4 I 3 + 0 = 10;
0 + 0 + 4 I 3 + 2 I 4 = 0.


I2 =

I2

I3 =

I3

; I 2 I3 , , .

1
= 22
0

1
1
4 0
0 4
0
4

1
0
0 = 96 ;
2

1
I 2 = 22
0

0
6
10
0

1
0
4
4

1
1
0 = 0, = 2
I3
0
2
2
0

1
4
0
0

0
6
10
4

1
0 = 96,
0
2


I2 =

0
96
= 0 , I3 =
= 1 .
96
96

I3 ,
, , I3 . I3 B A.
4. d = 0,6 16 .
, , n0
n0 .

. ()
l
t

= ,

(1)

t , , l, II (. . 2.11), q = ne
I=

q ne
=
,
t
t

(2)

e ; n l.
:
n = n0V = n0 lS ,

(3)

V ; l ; S .
n0 n0 . ,

. 2.11

n0 = n0 =

N
N
N
=
=
,
V0 A A

(4)

N ; V0 ; A ;
.
n0 (4) (3) n (3) (2),
I=

NlSe
.
At

l=

IAt
.
NSe

l (1) t, :
=

IAt
IA
=
.
NSet NSe

,
=

16 56
6,02 10 7,8 10 3,14 9 10 8 1,60 10 19
26

/ = 4,20103 /.

(5)

3.


3.1.
, ,
. .
, , .
(. 3.1) . ,
, . .
, , ,
.
, .
(. 3.2) , . ,
(. 3.3).
, , .
,
, , .

. 3.1

. 3.2

. 3.3

.. (1901) , (. 3.4), .. (1911) (. 3.5).

. 3.4

. 3.5

3.2.

r

dq dq,
r
r
r
(. 3.6), P , P.
, ,
r

dF' =

1 dqdq r
r.
4 0 r 3

(3.2.1)

. 3.6

, dq dq,
r
rr
r
[dq[dqr ]]

dF = k

r3

(3.2.2)

k , .
, k = 107 / (/3), ,
k=

0
4

. (3.2.2)
r

dF

r
rr
0 [dq[dqr ]]
=
,
4
r3

(3.2.3)

0 , 4k = 410 7 /.
r

dF
:
rr
1. [dqr ] .
r
.
2. dF
3.6 , .
, .
(. 3.7)

dV = Sdl dV = Sdl ,
r

dl dl I I .
r
Idl .
,

dq = Idl .
r

dq = nedV = neSdl = jSn dl = Id l .


r
r
dq = I dl .
r

dF
. 3.7

[ [ ]

r rr
0 I dl Idl r
=
,
4
r3

(3.2.4)

(3.2.4) .
r

0 Idl sin I dl sin


.
4
r2
r
r

=
dF
r

(3.2.5)

= 0 = 0 = ( Idl r
dF
r

), = 0 = ( I dl ,
r
r
Idl r ).
3.3.

rr
0 Idl r
(3.2.4)

4 r 3
r
r
Idl , I dl . ,
r

, Idl .
:

rr
0 Idl r
dB =
.
4 r 3
r
r

(3.3.1)
r

dB , Idl r .
:
r

B = dB .

,
r
, , I dl
r
Idl :
r r
r
= [I dl dB] .
dF
(3.3.2)

= I dl dB sin ,
dF
(3.3.3)
r
r
I dl dB .
,
, , .


r
B (. 3.8).
r
B .
r
B
,
.
. 3.8

.
, 1 , , 1 :

1 =

1
.
1

3.4.

. (. 3.9) (
), , (
).

rr
0 Idl r
dB =
4 r 3
r

],

Idl sin

0
dB = 4

r2

.
L

rr
0 Idl r

B=

. 3.9

4r 3

].

.
1. (. 3.10).
r
Idl
r
r
B = dB .
L
B=

0 Idl sin

4r 2

dl, r, .
. 3.10:
r=

dB
. 3.10

r0
sin

; dl =

rd
sin

r0 d
sin 2

B=

0 I sind 0 I
=
(cos1 cos2 ) .
4r0
4r0

(3.4.1)

, 1 = 0 2 = ,
B=

0 I
2r0 .

(3.4.2)

2. (. 3.11).
r
r
Idl , dB r
r
r
: dB = dB + dB . . 3.11, .
R
r

. dB = dB sin = dB , dB = B .
L

. 3.11

dB =

= / 2, sin = 1 ,

0 Idl sin
4r

0 Idl
4r 2

2 R

B=

0 IdlR
4r 3

0 R
0 R2 I
I 3 2R =
4 r
2 R2 + h 2

(R2 + h 2 ) = r .
, h = 0,

)3 2

(3.4.3)

12

0 I
.
2R

B=

(3.4.4)

3.5. .

, , r r
( ) , .. Edl = 0 .
L

? .
( , .
3.12).
r
L I. dl
r r

Bdl = Bdl cos = BdlB , dlB = rd , B =

0 I
2r

r r

Bdl =

0 I
d
2

r r

Bdl =
L

0 I
2

d = 0 I ,

(3.5.1)

.. .
r r
, Bdl = 0 .
L

N , d = 2N
r r

Bdl = 0 IN ;

(3.5.2)

. 3.12

m
r r

i =m

Ii .
Bdl = 0
i =1

(3.5.3)

0 , .
r
B 0, , ,
, .
3.6.


,
.
.
1. .
r
2. , B
r
r
, B dl 0 2 .
r
3. B . , .
r
4. B .

:
1. (. 3.13).
, . 3.13. I,
r
n. B S.
. ,
r
, B 0.
r r
r r
Bdl = Bl , Bdl = 0 IN , N = nl, Bl = 0nlI :
L

B = 0 nI .

(3.6.1)

2. (. 3.14).
,
. r0 ; n ; I .
L
r
B
r
B , L
. 3.14
. 3.13
.
r r
r r
Bdl = B2r0 , Bdl = 0 IN , B2r0 = 0 NI ,
L

B = 0 nI .

(3.6.2)

3.7.
d dS
(. 3.15) ,
d = BdS = BdS cos .
r
d n .
r r
= BdS .
(3.7.1)
S

. 3.15

B = const = BScos.
, (. 3.16):
r r
= BdS = 0 .
(3.7.2)
S

(3.7.2) .
1 = 1 1 2.

. 3.16


3.8.

. 3.17

, ,
.
:
r

dF

[ [

r rr
0 I dl Idl r
=
4
r3

]]

B = dB ;
L

[ r r]

dF = Idl B .

, (. 3.17),
dF = IdlB sin .

(3.8.1)

[ r r]

F = dF = Idl B .
L

(3.8.2)

3.9.
1. .
r
, I ,
r
; dF , :
I

F = dF = IdlB sin = IlB sin .

(3.9.1)

: F = 0 = 0 F = max = 2 .
2. .
I1 I2 r0 (.
3.18). I1 , I2 . ,
r
B1 . I1
B1 =

0 I
2r0

F2,1 = I 2lB1 sin .


= 2
. 3.18

F2 , 1 = I 2 l

0 I1
2r0

(3.9.2)

0
I1 I 2 .
2r0

(3.9.3)

, ,
F2 , 1
l

.
(3.9.2) (3.9.3)
.
, ,
,
1 , , 2107 .
3. .
1) , . 3.19.

. 3.19

pm = ISn . b,
r
, F , . ,

, , -

M = Fa h = Fa b sin .
r

Fa Fa = IaB sin 2 , ,
M = IaBb sin = ISBsin = pm B sin .
r

(3.9.4)

p m B ,

M = [ pm B] .
r

r r

(3.9.5)
r

= 0 = , .. pm B pm B. = 0 ( , ). = (
). . 3.20.
2) , , .
, dW = dA .
, , ,
,
dA = Md ,
d .

=0

=
. 3.20

, M = pm B sin ,
dW = pm B sin d .

(3.9.6)

(3.9.6), W = pm B cos + C , 0,
r r

W = pm B cos = pm B .

(3.9.7)
r

, (+ pm B) , pm B , r
r
( pmB) , pm B .
4. .
r
r
r
, pm B (. 3.21), r r
r
B ( ). dF ,
, . ,
r
r
dF dF .

. 3.22

. 3.21

, , , , , r
r
. , pm B , r
r
. pm B ,
(. 3.22).

W
B
B
= pm
cos = pm
cos .
r
r
r

r
B , =

Fr =

= 0, F > 0
r
B .

F < 0 -

3.10.
1. , , .
r
r
dr B ,
dA = Fdr cos = Fdr ,

F = IlB sin . = 2 (. 3.23)


dA = IlBdr = IBdS = Id ,

l.

d = BdS ,

2

A1, 2 = dA = Id = I .

(3.10.1)

2.

3.24)

(.

. 3.23

dA = Fdr cos = IlBdr cos = IBdS cos ,


r

dr F n B .
dA = Id ,
(3.10.2)
d = BdS cos .
3. , ,

. 3.24

. 3.25


,
(. 3.25).
abc cda. abc
r
r
dr dF -

, A1, 2 > 0, cda A1, 2 < 0.


, A1, 2 = I ( + 2 ) , A1, 2 = I (1 + ) ,
A1, 2 = 1, 2 + 1, 2 = I ( 2 1 ) = I .

(3.10.3)

dA = Id .
(3.10.3) , .
A1,2 = W1 W2 ,
W1 = pm B1 cos 1 ; W2 = pm B2 cos 2 ,
r r
B1, B2 . . -

1 2 pm
W1 = ISB1 cos 1 = I1, W2 = ISB2 cos 2 = I 2 ,

A1,2 =W1 W2 = I(1 2) =) = I(2 1) = I ,

.


3.11.

, .
r
, Idl ,
r

[ r r]

dF = Idl B ,

Idl = dq = nqdV , dF = nqdV[B] ,


r

rr

[ ]

rr
dF
F =
= q B .
ndV

(3.11.1)

.
F = qB sin .
, . .
3.12.

r

F = qE , .
, , ..

A1,2 = W2, W1, ; A1,2 = qU1, 2 ,

( ) W =

m 2
2

, ( ) -

mc2 m0c 2 , ..
W = mc 2 m0 c 2 ,

m0 ,
m = m0 / 1 2 / c 2 .


qU1,2 =

m22
2

m12
2

(3.12.1)

qU1, 2 = m0 c 2 1 1 22 c 2 1 1 12 c 2 .

(3.12.2)

, .
0
x1 (. 3.26).
y = y1 + y2 , y1
y1 =

at12
2

a=

x
F qE
=
; t1 = 1 ;
0
m m

y1 =

qEx12
.
2m02

(3.12.3)


y2 = x2 tg ;

tg =

y
0

at1

qEx1 x2
qEx1
; y2 =
.
2
m0
m02

(3.12.4)

. 3.26

,
y=

qEx1 x1
( + x2 ) .
m02 2

(3.12.5)

, .

3.13.

, , , F = qB sin .
, F = 0 F = qB :
r
r v
r
r
) = 0 = , .. B B , F = 0 ; , ;
) = / 2 F = qB , ..
q B =

m2
,
r

(3.13.1)


r=
r

Bq / m

(3.13.2)

B = const = const , r = const , .. (. 3.27).


. 3.27

T=

2r
2
=
,

Bq / m

(3.13.3)

;
r
) 0 < < / 2 B = const .
r
r
r
0 : = 0 cos
r
v
= 0 sin (. 3.28). F = q B = q0 B sin .
r
r
B , ,
.

. 3.28

h = T = 0 cos T =

20 cos
.
Bq / m

(3.13.4)

3.14.

1880 . . () ,
.
, , , r
, B I (. 3.29):
I
b

1,2 = R B ,

(3.14.1)

R .
.
. r
r
F = F , U1,2 = 1,2 .
.
U1, 2 = Ea .

(3.14.2)

F = qB; F = qE; B = E .
, j = nq, , , j =
U1,2 = 1,2 = Ea = Ba =

(3.14.3)

nq

R, (3.14.1).

I
I
=
.
S ab

j
IBa 1 I
Ba =
=
B.
nq
abnq nq b

(3.14.3)

. 3.29

. , .

1. , .
r
2. ? B ?
3. ,
.
4. , .
5. , , :
1) ;
2) .
6. . .
7. ?
8. ?
.
9. , ?
10. ? ? ( ).
11. ? .
?
r
12. B ? ,
.
r
r
13. , E B ?
?
r
14. B , .
15. ?
, .

1. D C , I = 60 , d = 10 . , (. . 3.30),
r1 = 5 , r2 = 12 .

. 3.30

. r

. 1 2 , , :
r r
r
B = B1 + B2 .
:
B = B12 + B22 + 2 B1B2 cos ,

(1)

1 2 .
1 2 I r1 r 2
:
B1 =

0 I
2r1

; B2 =

0 I
2r2

1 2 (1)

0 I
2

B=

0 I
2

,
1

r12

r22

r1r2

cos

(2)

cos. , = DAC ( ),
d 2 = r12 + r22 2r1r2 cos ,

d .

cos =

r12 + r22 d 2
52 + 122 102 23
; cos =
=
.
2r1r2
2 5 12
40

(2) :
B=

4 3,14 107 60
1
1
2
23
+
= 3,08 10 4 =
2 3,14
(0,05)2 (0,12)2 0,05 0,12 40

= 308 .

2.
R = 10 I = 80 . r
B , r = 20 .
. :

rr
0 Idl r
dB =
4 r 3
r

],

dB , I dl , r
r .
r
dl - r (. . 3.31). r
dB .
r
, B :
r

= dB ,
l

dl .
r
r
v
dB : dB , , dB|| , , ..
v
v
v
dB = dB + dB|| .

. 3.31

B = dB + dB|| .
r

, dB|| = 0 dB dl l

, () :
B = dB ,
l

dB = dB cos dB =

0 Idl
4 r 2

( dl r , , sin = 1 ). -

,
2 R

B=

0 I
I cos 2R
cos dl = 0
2
4 r
4r 2
0

2 cos R / r (. . 3.31)
B=

0 IR2
2r 3

, ,
[ 0 ][I ][R2 ] 1 1 1 2

[r ]
3

1 1 2
1
1 1
=
=
= 1 .
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2

:
B=

1 =

1 1
1 2

M max
.
p

:
4 107 80 (0,1)2
B=
= 6,28 10 5 ,
2 (0,2)3
= 62,8 .
r
B ( ) .
3. R = 10 , ,
r = 65 . I = 2 .
B .
.
r
. B
M , ,

M = pm B sin ,

(1)

p m ; B ; .

, = (sin = 1) , , p m = IS , (1)
M = IBS .
2
, , S = R ,
B=

M
.
R2 I

(2)

(2)
B=

6,5 106
3,14 2 10 2

= 1,04 10 4

4. ( = 10 ) , R 1 h = 6 . .
. ,
( /2) . ,
.
r r
r
3.32, 0 : B ( || )
r
r
( ). ||
r
. v
v
( F ) ( ( || = 0)
, ). ,
r
: || r
.

. 3.32

T = 2R .

(1)

R . , a n = 2 R . , F = man ,
e B = m 2 / R ,

= 0 sin .
(2) , R ( R / = m / eB ) (1):
T = 2

m
.
eB

, , :
[m]
1
1 2 1 2 2
=
=
=
= 1 .
[e][B] 1 1 1 1 2
:

(2)

T=

2 9,1 10 31
= 3,57 10 9 = 3,57
1,6 10 19 10 10 3

0 , || :
0 = 2 + ||2

.
(2) :
=

e BR
.
m

|| . ,
, , , .. h = T|| , || =

h
.
T

(2),
|| =

Bh
2m

,
0 = 2 + ||2 =

B
h 2
R2 + .
m
2

, /. , R
h ().
(, R ):
[e][B] 2 12 1 1 2 12 1 1 1
[R ] = 1 ( ) =
=
=
= 1 /.
[m]
1
2
1 2
:
1,6 10 19 10 10 3
0 =
9,1 10 31

1
2

2 0,06 2
7
= 2,46 10 /,
(0,01) +
2

24,6 /.

5. ,
, N = 200 , I = 5 . d1
= 30 , d2 = 20 .
.
H :

Hdl .
,
.
H , 2r, r , , , ..

Hdl = H
L

2 r

0 dl = 2rH .

, , , :
n

Il .
L H l dl =
i =1

(2)

(1) (2),
n

2rH = I i .

(3)

i =1

, , , .
. (3)
2rH = NI .


H=

NI
2r

(4)


r=

R1 + R2
2

d1 + d 2
4

r (4),
H=

2 NI
.
(d1 + d 2 )

(5)

2 0 NI
.
(d1 + d 2 )

(6)


B = 0 H .

,
B=

(5) (6),
H=

B=

2 200 5
= 1370 /;
3,14(0,3 + 0,2)

2 4 10 7 200 5
= 1,6 10 3
(0,3 + 0,2 )

4.


4.1.
, , , .. r
. B
r
() B0 ,
r
r v
r
B , .. B = B0 + B.

, , . , r
r
r
r
B B0 B , B0 , r

( B B0 , B B0 ), ( B B0 , B B0 ) ( B B0 ,
r
r
B B0 ).


. ( ). r
, pm (. 4.1)
r

pm = i S ,
r

i ; S , , .
, ,
B , .

.
r
J , .

r

. 4.1

pm

J =

pm

J = lim

V 0

(4.1.1)

, .
, .
, , ,
r
B0
r

J=

B0
0

(4.1.2)

, r

B0
0

J
B0
0

/
= /;
/ 2

J =
r

2
= /.
3
r

B J
. .

r
B .

B0

J.
(. 4.2).
.
(1010).
,

B = 0 I ,

. 4.2

I ,
( B =

0 NI

).

i, dl , i = I dl ,
pm = iS = I dldS , dS .
dV = dldS , , ..
I dldS
= J = I ;
dldS

.. B J . , J =

B = 0 J ,

B0
0

(4.1.3)
r

(4.1.2), B = B0 , -

B = B0 + B = B0 + B0 = (1 + ) B0 = B0 ,

(4.1.4)

. ,
, = B / B0 .
4.2.

, , , . , (3.5.1)
r r
(4.2.1)
Bdl = 0 I + 0 i .
r

J i . L (. 4.3) , dl. ,
dS dl.
n
ndV = ndSdl cos ,
r

dl J . i ndSdl cos .
,
i dSn = p m n = J

c. 4.3

, , , dl ,
r r

i ndSdl cos = Jdl cos = J dl ,

.. , L,

r r

i = J dl
L

(4.2.1)

r r

r r

Bdl = 0 I + 0 J dl .
L

(4.2.2)

(4.2.2) 0

r r

( 0 J )dl = I ,
r

B
0

(4.2.3)

r r
J = H

. r

/, (4.2.3) H = , H = A/ .
(4.2.3),
r r

Hdl = I .

(4.2.4)

(4.2.4) .
, , .
r
r

B H . r
r
rB . H ,
.
r
H , . H ,
.
.
1. .
r
r
J = 0 , B = 0 . ,
r
r
r
r r
r
B r B0
J =
B = B0 + B = B0 H 0 =
.
0
0

(4.2.5)

H 0 B0 , 0 .
2. .
r
r
. , H 0 = B0 / 0 . r

H =
r

B
0

J =

B0 + B
0

r
r
r
J , B = 0 J (4.1.3),
r

, H = B0 / 0 , .. H = H 0 (4.2.5)
r


. B
r
r
r
r
r
H , B0 = 0 H , B = B0 ,
r
r
B = 0H .
(4.2.6)
3. .
, .
(. 4.4).

. 4.4
r
r
B1 B , B1 < B , r
r
r
r r
r
H1 = B1 / 0 H = B / 0 , .. H1 < H ,
r
r
r
r
H = H 0 , , H1 < H 0 .
.
r

4.3. H B
,
r
r
B H . .
1 2
, (. 4.5).

. 4.5

,
= Bn 2 S Bn1 S = 0 ,

Bn2 = Bn1 ,

(4.3.1)

.
,
01H n1 = 0 2 H n2 ,

H n1
H n2

2
1

(4.3.2)

( ) , (. 4.6)
Hdl = H 1 l H 2 l = I = 0 ,
L

. 4.6

,

H 2 = H 1 ,

(4.2.3)

B = 0H ,
B1
B 2

1
2

(4.2.4)

,
r
r
Bn H ; -

B
r
H n (. 4.7).

. 4.7

4.4.
1. . , ,
(. 4.8).
r
r


pm ,
L
,

.
r
r
v

pm = iS ,

pm

. 4.8
,
; S .
. e , e - ; . ,
- i = e .

,
2r

r . S = r 2 .

pm = iS =

er
2

(4.4.1)

, - r
. pm ,
(. 4.8).
,
L = [r m] ,

(4.4.2)

L = rm ,

(4.4.3)

r r

r - (. 4.8).
r
L
r

r .


pm
= g.
L
r

pm L ,

(4.4.4)

m = gL .

(4.4.5)

(4.4.4) pm L ,
g=

e
2m

(4.4.6)

(4.4.6) .
, .
, , .. ( , ) :
r

rmi
Li

=g

mi = g Li .

(4.4.7)

2. (4.4.7) , , . (1915),
(1909).
, , , ,
. pv i . ,

Li .


r
Li , ..

.

.

. 4.9.
,
,
.

. 4.9
(
, ).
,
.
, .
. .
3. . 1925
.
1925 . . . ,
r
Ls r
mS . ,
. .

(. spin ). , ( )
. , .

.
.
r
mS .
, .

pms
= gs .
Ls

(4.4.8)

e
,
m

(4.4.9)

,
gs =

.. .
(4.4.8) (4.4.9)
pms =

e
Ls .
m

(4.4.10)

,
. , , .
, /.

LS = 0,531034 ;
mS = 0,9271023 /.
, .. 0,9271023 /
.
4. , -
, .
, . , , (
r
mS (4.4.10) , 2000
). .
4.5.
, -, - .
, < 0, < 1.
, ,
(Bi, Zn, Au, Cu, Ag, Hg), , , , .
r
- 0 ,
r
r
- 0 .
- (
) . , = 0,8410 7, = 1,710 -4.
Jx
r
- 0 . 4.10 r
r
Jx B0x (Jx B0x J B0 , r

0 ).
, . 4.10
, ( ) .
.
( ).
, . B 0x

. .
, .
F = m02 r ,

m ; 02 ; r .
.
, . 4.11 ( ), .
F F , ,
F F = m12 r .
(
.184.11
.
).
, : 1 < 0.
i,
.
r
i m ,
v
.

, . 4.12 ( ), r
r
F F
: 2 > 0.
r
i
0
i
i, .
r
m , -
. 4.12
.
r
, m
r
, 0 .
r
r
0 : 0 , . r
r
, m 0 , (. 4.13, , ).
r

r
m

e r
m

e
v

e v
r
m

r
m
)

. 4.13

, r
r
0 . m , .
, , .

. .
( ). ,
(, , ), ,
( .. ).
, , ,
. , , ( ) .
, .
, . .
4.6.
1. , , , , , :
> 0, > 1 .
Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Al, Mn, Pt, 02, . 103 106. ,
= 2105, = 3104, (FeCl3) = 2,5103.
, ( ):
=

,
T

(4.6.1)

C , .
.
.
(102 ) J B0 B0 :
J B0 (. 4.14).
J

. 4.14

B0

2. , , , .. .
, ,
.
,
( ). B0 : .
,
, .. . ,
, ,
.

. () 1905 .
( ).
.
, . . , . , , , ( ) , ,
, . , , ,
.
, - - . . ,
, , (
). . ,
, . ,
,
.
. . ,
4.7.
1. , (
102106 ):
>> 0, >> 1.

Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, , Mn Cr - , MnAlCu, MnBi, CrTe


.
, , , .
r
1) J , , r
r
B B0 .
r
r
r r
B0 , H ( H , , B0 , , ).
J H B H (), , . 4.15.
,

J, /

106

1,0
0,5

100

200

300

H, /

100

200 300

H, /

. 4.15

, H . .
2) . , . -

.
, , Jx, 1 ( ), 2 (. 4.16). Hx = 0
r
. J x , , . ,
, , .
J

J x

2
J x

J x

. 4.16

x , , .
.
3.
-
r
, . , , ( . 4.16), , , ( ).
.
r
r
,
J ( B ) r
r
.
, ( J x J x x
, . 4.16).
r
r
B
.
r
(. 4.17). J max
,
r
max max
.
r
( max
)

-. .
-. .
1
3) ,
1
. 4.17
. 1043 (770 ),
633 (360 ), 1422 (1149 )
.
. , , , .

, , .
, , . () .
. , , , .
, , 103104 . .
. , ( ).
. .
,
. , ,
, , . 4.18
( ).
N

. 4.18

. ,
, ( ).
,
, .
, .
: , , , .

:
. ,

=0

. 4.19

a (. 4.19, ).
(). . , .
,
- .

- , , .
. (, , ), - , (, ) ..
4.8. .
,
.
.


(. 4.20).
,

,

.

,
.

. 4.20
,

.

: Cr, MnO, MnS, NiCr, Cr2O3, FeO.
, , . .
. . , (Fe2O3) (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni .).
, , , , ,
.


?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ? ? ?
5. ? ?
6.
; .
7. ,
.
r
r
8. H B r .
9. B .
10. . ? ?
11. ? ? ?
12. ?
1.

5.



5.1.
1. ( . 1831 .) ,
, , .
, , ,
S, (. 5.1).
2. , , :
i =

d
.
dt

(5.1.1)

. 5.1

3. , .
, , , , .. d dt const .
4. , , :
) , ;
) ;
) .
, . 5.2.
) ;
) 1 2 ;
) 1 2
;
r
) , B ;
) , .
5. .. , -

, , , , .
:
i =

d
.
dt

. (. 5.3).

a)

B ( ) ,

. 5.3

d
> 0 (5.1.2) i < 0 .
dt

(5.1.2)

, , , ,
r

(. 5.3, ). B ,

d
< 0 i > 0 :
dt

(. 5.3, ).
, . 5.4 : , .
() .

. 5.4

5.2.

. 5.5

1. (5.1.2)
.
ab (. 5.5) (
).
-
ab.
dt , -

b:
Idt = I 2 Rdt + Id ,

(5.2.1)
I ; R ; d , , ab , ,
, .
(5.2.1)
I=

d
dt .
R

(5.2.2)

, , ,
,
+

+
r

i =

d
.
dt

(5.2.3)

2. .
, .
r

r
?
F.
, , . r
,
r
r

B (. 5.6).
. 5.6
,
. . , .

, , .
, , .
. , , , , . , , .
r r
r
r
, + u , ; u
(. 5.7).
r r
+ u .
r
r
r
r
r
rr
: F|| = q[B] , F = q[u B] , r

u .
r
r
F|| r
, F
r
FII
. F

r r

F || = qB, F = quB .

dA = F || udt cos 0 o = qBudt .

u +

F|| dt
r

F -

..
7 5.7

dA = F dt cos180 o = quBdt .


dA = dA + dA = qBudt quBdt = 0 .

, , , , , , , F . , , ,
F = 0 , .
3. , , .
, ( . 6.4). , , .
, , , (.
r
5.8). B.
, .
, .

F.
. 5.8

5.3.
, , , , .

1. ,
(. 5.9).
; l ;
.
, , , S, . ,

S

. 5.9

= BS cos = BS sin ,
r
r
r

B S; B + = ; S = lt , ;

= Blt sin


i =

d
= Bl sin .
dt

(5.3.1)

2. ,

(. 5.10).
B ; S ;
.
r
, B . , ,

n
. 5.10

= BS cos .
r

B t
= t + 0 ,
r
r
0 n B .
,
= BS cos(t + 0 ).

i =

d
d
= [BS cos(t + 0 )] = BS sin (t + 0 ) = m sin (t + 0 ),
dt
dt

(5.3.2)
BS .
(5.3.2) , , , , .
, (
B = const; S = const; = const , , = BScos = const,
r
, B , , (
= const).
, N , , :
N

d i
d N
= i .
dt i =1
i =1 dt

i =
N

(5.3.3)

= i .
i =1

N i,

= N i .

(5.3.4)
, , ,
r
B ,
i =

d
= N m sin (t + 0 ) ,
dt

(5.3.5)

N ; m .
5.4.
1. 1 2, (. 5.11).
(i2 ) , 12.
12
21

i1
i2

1
2

. 5.11
r

, B2 , i2
, 1. 2 ~ i2 . ,
12 = L12 i2 .
(5.4.1)
, , i1 , i1 :
21 = L21i1 .
(5.4.2)
12 21 , , .
2. L12 L21 .
, ( ) -

, .
L21 , 2
. L12 ,
1 .
, .
.
, L12 = L21 . ,
1 2 (. 5.11) . ,
,
= I1 (12 0) = I1 L12 I 2 .
, ,
= I 2 ( 21 0 ) = I 2 L21 I1 .
= ( ). ,
I1L12 I 2 = I 2 L21I1 ;
L12 = L21 .

(5.4.3)
3.
, .

2 (. 5.11) . 1 2 1 12 = L12i2 . 1

i1 =

d12
d
= ( L12 i2 ) .
dt
dt

12 :
) i2 ( L12 = const );
) L12 ( i2 = const );
) i2 L12 .
:
di 2
;
dt
dL 12
i1 = i 2
;
dt
di
dL

i1 = L12 2 + i2 12 .
dt
dt

i1 = L12

(5.4.4)
(5.4.5)
(5.4.6)

,
:
di1
;
dt
dL
i 2 = i1 21 ;
dt
di1
dL

i 2 = L21
+ i1 21 .
dt
dt

i 2 = L21

(5.4.7)
(5.4.8)
(5.4.9)

5.5.
1. i, , , ,
, (
):
= Li,

(5.5.1)

L , .

, , , , : i = 1 , L = .
( )
. L . , L , i
. (5.5.1) , , L = L(i).
(). , ,
1 1 :
1 =

1
.
1

2. ( ) . i. , ,
. (5.5.1), L.
. .
i B = 0ni.
, , = BS,
= N = BSnl = 0 n 2 lSi = 0n 2Vi,

(5.5.2)

l ; S ; n ; V
.
(5.5.2) (5.5.1),
L = 0n 2V.

(5.5.3)

(5.5.3) , /:
0 =

L
n V
2

1
3
2

3. ( )
( ) , ( ).
:
s =

d
d
= ( Li ).
dt
dt

(5.5.4)

L = const ( , ) I = i(t)
s = L

di
.
dt

(5.5.5)

I = const L = L(t)
s = i

dL
.
dt

(5.5.6)

i, L,
dL
di
s = L + i
.
dt
dt

(5.5.7)

, , , ; .
(5.5.5) .

di
= 1 ,
dt

L = s . ,

. , L .
, .
,
, .
5.6.
1. . 5.12, ; L
; -; K .
, .
, iS , , .
, i ( , K ).
.
, ,

R
2

L
K
. 5.12

. 5.13

.
2. (. 5.13). ; L
; R ; .
1,
I0 =

2, . . .
iR = s ,

i ; s s = L

di
dt

(,

L = const).
,
iR = L

di
.
dt

i t, , :
di
R
= dt .
i
L

(5.6.1)

R
L

(5.6.1), ln i = t + ln C (
(5.6.1) ln).
i = Ce

R
L

. t = 0, i = I0, , C = I0
i = I 0e

R
L

.
(5.6.2)
, , , . -
=

L
,
R

(5.6.3)


=
= . .

(5.6.3), (5.6.2)

i = I 0e ,
(5.6.4)
, .
, . . 5.14 ( ).

i
I0

. 5.14

3. . 1.
, ,
s .
iR = + s = L

di
.
dt
di
dt
= .
iR
L

(5.6.5)

, R:
ln (iR ) =

R
t + ln C .
L

R
t
L .

: iR = Ce

t = 0, I = 0, , C =

iR = e

i=

1 e L t

R
L

(5.6.6)

i = I 0 1 e

I 0 =

R
L

(5.6.7)

, , , (.
5.14, ).
4. L = const. L const , , .
5.7.
1. , . 5.13. 1.
I 0 =

. . -

2, , .
. dt
dA = s idt ,

(5.7.1)

s i t. L = const, s = L

di
. dt

,
dA = Lidi.

(5.7.2)
i I0 0, ,
,
0

A = Lidi =
I0

LI 02
2

(5.7.3)

(5.7.3) , . , , (5.7.3),
. , W, i, L,
W=

Li 2
2

(5.7.4)

2. (5.7.4) . , .5.13, . ( ).

L = 0n 2V .
.
B = 0ni , i =

B
0n

L i (5.7.4),
W=

B2
2 0

(5.7.5)

V.

. ,
( )
=

W
B2
=
.
V 2 0

(5.7.6)

(5.7.6) , . , , V,

W = dV =
V

B2
2 0

dV.

(5.7.7)


1. ? ,
?
2. , .
3. , .
4. ?
5. , . ?
6. ?
.
7. ?
8. ?
? ?

1. = 0,1 , N = 1000 . S = 150 2. n = 10 /. , 30.


. i :
i =

d
,
dt

(1)

= N ,

(2)

N , .
(1),
i = N

d
.
dt

(3)

(. . 5.15) ,

t , :

. 5.15

= BS cos t ,
B ; S ; ( ) .
(3)
, :
i = NBS sin t .
(4)

= 2n.
(4),
i = NBS sin t .

(5)

(5)
i = 23,14101030,11,51020,5 = 47,1, .
2. , , 50 ,
, 0,08 . .
. , ,
, , . , :
i =

( LI )
=
.
t
t

L ,
i = L

I
t

.
I
= const t . t
I
,

t
I
t . L
< I >
t

:
< i > = L

I
t

, .
:
L=

< i >
I t

:
L=

0,08
= 1,6 10 3
50

3. = 5 R = 10 ( = 40 ). = 30
. Q , ,
.
. .
, :
i =

d
.
dt

,
I i = i R , R
.
Ii R =

d
.
dt

I i =

dQ
d
,
R=
dt
dt

dQ
, dt

dQ =

d
.
R

(1)

(1), Q :
Q

Q = dQ =
0

d , Q =
R 1

1 2

, ( ) 2 = 0 ,
Q = 1 R .
(2)
1 .
1 = BS cos ,
S .
( ) S = a 2 .
1 = B 2 cos .
(3)
(3) (2),
Q=

Ba 2
cos .
R

, ():
[B][ 2 ] 1 (1 2 ) 1 2
1
=
=
=
= 1 .
[R]
1
1
1
:
0,04 25 10 4

Q=

0,01

3
2

= 8,67 10 3 = 8,67

4. N = 1200 ,
. I = 4 A = 6 . L W .
. L I
= LI.
(1)
, , N ( , ):
= N.
(2)
(1) (2) :
L = N/I.
(3)

W=

L (3),

1 2
LI .
2

W=

1
NI .
2

(3) (4) :
L=
1
2

1,2 103 6 10 6
= 1,8 10 3
4

W = 1,2 103 6 10 6 4 = 1,44 10 2 = 14,4 .

(4)

6.


6.1.

1. , , .
2. , , ,
. ,
.
3. , , .
, ;
,
(R, L, C , , ).
4.
, ( ). (
).
5. . , ,
, , ,
, ( ).
6. . ( ) . L
(. 6.1).

q0 ,
. 6.1

WE =

q02
,
2C

C .
7. . ,
. . . , : . , , , , , .
6.2, . .
. ( ). . , .
, , , ( ).

. 6.2
8. - , , , .
. , ,
,
WB =

LI 02
2

L ; I 0 .
.
9. , I 0
, , : ( , I 0 , ,
). , ,
:. , , , . ,
,
. . , ,
. ,
, ( . 6.2, ).
.
. .
, ,
. , . .
, () : q ; U ,
r
r
, ; i ; ; ; WE ; WB .
10. , , , , , ,
, r
. , x q, i,

kx2
2

q2
, ..
2C

x
r

kx2

m2

L
1

q
i
q2
2C
Li 2
2

11. . ,
:
, , .
, .
c . , ,

Li 2

q2
, 2C

Li 2
2

q2
= const ,
2C

(6.1.1)

I q .
(6.1.1)
Li

di q dq
+
= 0.
dt C dt

(6.1.2)

, , , , , , L L(i ) .
:
dq
di &
= q& ,
=i .
dt
dt

, i =

dq
= q& , i& = q&& . (6.1.2) Li
dt

:
q&& +

LC

q = 0.

= 02 ,

(6.1.3)

q&& + 02 q = 0 .

(6.1.4)

LC

q = q m cos(0 t + 0 ) ,

(6.1.5)

qm ; 0 ; 0 .
(6.1.5), . 0 .
T=

2
.
0

0 (6.1.3),
T = 2 LC .

=

1
2 LC

(6.1.6)

(6.1.7)

(6.1.5) C,
U = U m cos (0 t + 0 ) ,
U m =

(6.1.8)

qm
.
C

i = q& = 0 qm sin (0 t + 0 ) = I m cos 0 t + 0 + ,

(6.1.9)

s = Li& = L02 q m cos (0t + 0 ) = sm cos (0 t + 0 ),

(6.1.10)

q 2 q m2
=
cos 2 ( 0 t + 0 ) = WEm cos 2 ( 0 t + 0 ),
2C 2C

(6.1.11)

I m = 0 qm .

sm = L02 qm .

WE =

WEm =

q m2
.
2C


WB =

WBm =

L 02 q m2
2

Li 2
2

L02 q m2
2

sin 2 ( 0 t + 0 ) = WBm sin 2 ( 0 t + 0 ),

(6.1.12)

qm. ,
0
t = 0.
, t = 0, q = q0 i = 0. (6.1.5) (6.1.9), :
q0 = qm cos 0 ;
0 = 0 qm sin 0 .

0 = 0.
0 = 0 , , qm = q0 , .. . , qm q0
0 0 .
(6.1.5), (6.1.8) (6.1.12), , , , . /2. .
. 6.3.
q

t
u
t
i
t
s

t
W
t
W
t
. 6.3

6.2.
.
, , . .
.
, dt :
Li 2 q 2 2
= i Rdt .
d
+

C
2
2

(6.2.1)

, , dt.
Lii&

qq& 2
= i R.
C

i2R , (1) Li:


i& +

R
1
i+
q = 0.
L
LC

R
1
i& = q&& , i = q& , = 2 ,
= 02 .
L

LC

:
q&& + 2q& + 02 q = 0 .

< 0

q = q m0 e t cos(t + 0 ),

(6.2.2)
(6.2.3)

qm0 ; = 02 2 .
3. (6.2.3), : : A = q m0 e t .
. q = q(t) . 6.4.
qm0

q = qm0t

t
q = qm0

qm0
. 6.4

4. (6.2.3) ,

U = U m0 e t cos (t + 0 ) ,

(6.2.4)

U m0 .
5. , (6.2.3)
i = q& = qm0 e t [ cos(t + 0 ) sin (t + 0 )] .

(6.2.5)

0:

cos(t + 0 )
sin (t + 0 ) .
0
0

i = 0 qm0 e t

,
cos =

, sin =
.
0
0

0qm0 = I m0 .
i = I m0 e t [cos cos(t + 0 ) sin sin (t + 0 )] .

,
i = I m0 e t cos(t + 0 + ) .

cos < 0, sin > 0,

(6.2.6)

< < .
2

: /2.
6. : < 0.

T=

2
=

2
02

R2
2
LC 4 L

(6.2.7)

7.
At
q0 e t
=
= e T .
At +T q0e (t +T )

(6.2.8)

8.

= ln

q m0 e t
= T .
q m0 e (t +T )

(6.2.9)

9. ,
.

qm0e t
= e
qm0e (t + )
=

1
.

(6.2.10)

, , , .
10. (6.2.8): =

=N

. ,
=

(6.2.11)

, , , .
11. Q,
Q=

(6.2.12)

Q = N .

(6.2.13)

, .
12. , 2 = 02 , , (6.2.7), . , (6.2.3) (6.2.2), . R, , .
2 = 02 , ..

R2
1
=
,
2
LC
4L
R = 2

L
.
C

(6.2.14)

L
= R C

R R .
.

6.3.
1. ,
.
() . , , (. 6.5, , ). , , (. 6.5, ).
. , . 6.5, . R, L, C .
= m cos t ,

(6.3.1)

m ; .
.
,
, :
Li 2

i 2 Rdt = d

q 2
+ idt .
2C

(6.3.2)

. 6.5

Li 2

q2

, , d
+
2C
2
Lidt , .

q&& + 2 q& + 02 q =

q&& + 2q& + 02 q =

cos t .

(6.3.3)

q&& + 2q& + 02 q = 0 ,

, (6.3.3).
. - ,
. :
q = qm cos(t + 0 ) ;
(6.3.4)
U=

q qm
=
cos (t + 0 ) = U m cos (t + 0 ) ;
C C

i = q& = q m sin (t + 0 ) = I m cos t + 0 + ,

qm =
L

02

) + 4

2 2

(6.3.5)
(6.3.6)

(6.3.7)

Um =
LC
Im =

02

) + 4

2 2

L (02 2 ) + 4 2 2
2

(6.3.8)

(6.3.9)

qm , U m , I m , ; 0 ,
tg 0 =

02 =

LC

, 2 =

2
2

02

R2
, (6.3.7) (6.3.10):
4 L2

(6.3.10)

qm =

(6.3.11)

(6.3.12)


L + R 2
C

Um =

C
L + R 2
C

Im =

(6.3.13)

L + R 2

tg 0 =

R
L

1
C

(6.3.14)

. , . .

. RLC
. .
( ), , (6.3.7) ( ).

,q = 02 2 2 =

LC

R2
.
2 L2

(6.3.15)

, - . (6.3.7) , 0, qm

L02

= C .

m .
qm 0.
, , ..
. qm , ,
. 6.6, .
(6.3.13):
1
C

L = 0 ,

,i =

LC

= 0 .

(6.3.16)

. 0 i 0;
i0.
, . . 6.6, .
Im

qm
1 < 2 < 3

1 < 2 < 3

(6.3.1), (6.3.4) (6.3.6) , , -


.
, R
L

. 6.6

1
.
C



. , ,

U = U m1 cos (1t + 01 ) + U m2 cos ( 2 t + 02 ) .

, , , , , . , , .

, ,
, , .
. , . , ,
.
.
6.4.
1. , .
, , , , .
, ,
, .
,
, .
, .
2.
i =

d
.
dt

(6.4.1)

.
:
r
r
= E dl .
r

E E , E .
,

r
r
i = E dl .

(6.4.2)

(6.4.2) (6.4.1), :
r

L E
r

nn

n
S

dl =

d
.
dt

(6.4.3)

L
S,
L (. 6.7).
. S S. :

, ,
L.
n
. 6.7
3. , () . r
E. .
r
E. , .
r
E .
L

E , (6.4.3).
r

E.

r r
r
= E. + .

(6.4.4)

6.5.
,

(. 6.8). , ,
. 6.8
, .
,
r

,
r

E ,

dE
( dt

r
r
dE , E ) :
r

dt

r
dE , B .

dt

r. 6.9.
r

E , , , E , r
r
, dE E .
dt
r

rB , . 6.9, . E E , -

r
r
, dE E . B . 6.9, .

dt

. 6.9
2. , :
1) ;
2) .
, , :
) ( );
) ( );
) .
.
, ( ), ( ). , , , , , , , , .
, q ( ). n,

r
r
j = nq .
r
r dr
r
= , dr ,
dt
r
r
nqdr
j =
.
dt
r
r
nqdr = dP

dt. ,
r

dP
=
.
dt


r
P
;
t

r
P
=
.
t

(6.5.1)

, S,
I =

r
P r r r
j dS =
dS =
P dS .
t
t S
S

(6.5.2)
r

3. B
r
: B L

r r

Bdl = 00
L

N E
+ 0 I + 0 I + 0 I ,
t

(6.5.3)

0 , 0 ;
r

N E
t

E S, L;
I , I , I , , S ( L).
.
(6.5.3), (6.4.3), . .
6.6.
, .
.
( )
. .
.
, . , ,
, .
,
. . , . , ,
, .
6.7.

,
.
. , ,
,
, , , , , .
, .
. :
r r

1) Edl =
L

r r

d
;
dt

2) dl = 00
L

(6.7.1)

N E
+ 0 I + 0 I + 0 I .
t

(6.7.2)

(6.7.2) .
r
r r
E N E = EdS . ,
S

N E
r r
=
EdS.
t S
t

(6.5.2),
I =

r r
P dS.
t S

, , S,
r
L, J :
r r

I = J dl .
L

(6.7.2), J , E P
0 .
r
r r
B r r
r
J dl = I +
P
+

E
dS.
0

t
0

L
S

r r
J =H

0
r
r r
P + 0 E = D .
r
r r
P + 0 E dS = N D

S.

r r N D
DdS =
t S
t

D S.

,
N D
t
r
H

r r

Hdl = I +

2)

(6.7.3)


L , L,
S, L.
(6.7.3),

N D
t

. I

: .

N D
t

N D
t

(, -

, , . ,
):
I =
r

D t j
r

(6.7.4), (6.7.3):
r r
2)"
H
dl = I + I .
L

ND
.
t

r
D
.
=
t

(6.7.4)

(6.7.5)

(6.7.6)
r

H L
, L.
r
r
E B .
r
r
E : E S
1
0

, , -

, S.
3)

r r

EdS =
S

q
0

q
0

(6.7.7)

q , q , S.
r
B
r r
4) BdS = 0.
S

(6.7.8)
r

D
r

5) D = 0 E + P ;
r
r r
6) B = 0 (H + J ).

r r
r
E, B H

(6.7.9)
(6.7.10)

:
r
r
5) D = 0E ;
(6.7.11)
r

6) B = 0H .

(6.7.12)

, ,
r
r
7) j = E ,

(6.7.13)
r

j ; ; E
.
,
.
6.8.
1. , - . .
r
- E
r
(. 6.10). , ,
E 1
r
1 . r
r
E
B ,
,
r
x

r
r
E ( E , E ).
t

,
B , . E
r

E
t
1 , . 6.10
r
. E1
r
r
, 1. 1, E1 , B1 , r
B , . . ,
, .


.
r
r
2. E B r r
r
.
E , B
r
r
: E B ( ), r
(. 6.11).
3. . 1863 ., 1888 . (. ).
, , .
, .
, , , ,
. ,
(. 6.12, ).
, . 6.11
,
(. 6.13).
r

. 6.12
( ).

, .
,

, .
, (
. 6.13
).
.
, ( ). , .
4. ,
(, 100 000 /), , .
5. . .. ,
. ,
.
,
.
(, ) , . .. -, 1922 . , , ,
(820 ).
1896 . ..
( ), .
6.9.
r

1. , ; E B
.
r
r
2. E B .
3. ,

.
r
r
, E ( B ) .
r
r
E ( B ) ,

.
r
r
E B ,

.
4. .
:

(6.9.1)

0 0

( = 1, = 1)
1

0 0

=
8,85 10

12

4 3,14 10 7

3 108 / =

, .
:
=

c.

(6.9.2)

5. .
:
r r
x
E = Em cos t ;

(6.9.3)

r r
x

B = Bm cos t ,

(6.9.4)

r r

r r

r r

E m = E m j , Bm = Bm k ( E m , Bm E , B ; j , k , z); r
r
E B ; x ; .
(6.9.3) (6.9.4) :
r r
(6.9.5)
E = Em cos (t kx);
r r
(6.9.6)
B = Bm cos (t kx),
k =

x
j
k

z
.

6.14
.


r
r
(6.9.5), (6.9.6), E B
r
r
: E B
.
6. ,
. ,
r
r
E ( B )
.

6.14

.
, :
cT

= T =

(6.9.7)

7. . , , .
.

wE =

0 E 2
;
2

(6.9.8)

:
wB =

B2
2 0

(6.9.9)


w = wE + wB =

0 E 2
B2
+
.
2
2 0

(6.9.10)

, ( ) wE wB : wE = wB

0 E 2
B2
=
,
2
2 0

E=

B
0 0

(6.9.11)

wE = wB w
w = 2wE = 0 E 2

w=

0
BE.
0

(6.9.12)

.
w S , S .
S .
r
, , , , .
, (6.9.12) (6.9.1):
= w =

1
EB .
0

(6.9.13)

[ ]

r
1 rr
=
EB .
0

.
r
S S
r r
w = dS .

(6.9.14)

(6.9.15)

, V,

W = mc 2 .

(6.9.16)

, , ( - )
=

m W
w
=
=
,
V c 2V c 2

(6.9.17)

w .
r
r
r
r
k = mc ( ), k = m ( ).
8. , , .
(. 6.15).
( ). ,
.

. 6.15
. , S t, mc, m ,
S c t (. 6.15). mc ft , f , S:
mc = ft.
(6.9.18)
, , ,
W = mc2 ;
(6.9.19)
,
W = w Sct ,
(6.9.20)
w .
(6.9.19) (6.9.20) m (6.9.18):
wS = f .

f S,
p=

f
=w.
S

(6.9.21)

k ,
p = (1 + k )w,

(6.9.22)

( , ).
k = 1
p = 2w .

(6.9.23)

p = (1 + k )w cos i.

(6.9.24)

i ,
9. . , . ( ).
.
, ( ,
.).

1. ? ?
2. .
3. , , , , .
4. . .
5. ? ?
6. ? ? ? ? ? ?
7. ?
. .
8. ? .
9. , . ?
10. ? ?
?

11. ?
r
r
12. E H .

.
13. ?
14. ? ?
15. ?
?
16. ?
17. .
18. , , .
19. . .
20. ?

. ,
100 c2 1000 , 10 .
.
.

C=

0 S

(1)

, ; S
; d .
d=

0 S

(2)

, :
T = 2 LC .

C=

T2
4 2 L

(3)

T , , .

= ..

T (3), C (2),
42 0SL
d = c2
.
2

(4) :
d = (3 10

8 2

4 (3,14)2 1

1
10 2 10 6
4 3,14 9 109
= 3,14 10 3 .
102

(4)

, ,
, ,
. , , ,
, , .
, , , , . , .

1. , .. : : 3 . . 2. .
. / .. . 4- ., . . : , 2005. 496 c.
2. , .. / .. , .. . . : , 1972. . 2.
3. , .. : / .. , .. . 4- .,
. . : . ., 2002. 718 .
4. , .. : / .. . 7- ., .
. : . ., 2001. 541 .
5. , .. : / .. , .. . 8-
., . . . : , 2006. 640 .

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