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How it all came together…

PROCESS

Dream Defenders facilitated a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the

world to highlight their elements of rebellion. The project included graphic artwork, education via social media and this curriculum toolkit. The research for Blacked Out History: Rebellion was done by Dream Defenders organizers

throughout the state of Florida, and the artwork was created by a team of Dream Defenders artists, and talented allies. The curriculum toolkit was created by traditional and radical educators in Dream Defenders membership

body. Rebellion features 9 organizations including; Left Roots, FRELIMO, Brown Berets, Sandinistas, Young Lords, Zapatistas, South African Student Movement, Black Panther Party and the Popular Front for the Liberation

of Palestine.

This project was a labor of love.

RESEARCH CONTRIBUTORS

The Black Panther Party - Dream Defenders Staff Brown Berets - BADD Squadd

Left Roots - Orlando Squads Mozambique Liberation Front - GoDDsville Squadd

Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine - South West FL Squadd

Sandinistas - FIU Squadd South African Student Movement - Trill Squadd

Young Lords - Broward Squadd Zapatistas - Miami Squadd

CURRICULUM CONTRIBUTORS

Sherika Shaw

Kiesha Moodie

Athena

Shoshanna Bordes Isaiah Thomas

Jonel Edwards Chauntey Robinson

Steve Gilliam

Content

LESSONS

Embody the Change You Want to See: 4 Square & Presentation……………………………………………

Standards and Objectives………………………………………………………………………………

Vocabulary Worksheet…………………………………………………………………………………

Presentation Guidelines…………………………………………………………………………………

Grading Rubric - ruby star………………………………………………………………………………

Embody The Change You Want To See: Essay…………………………………………………………………

Standards and Objectives………………………………………………………………………………

ONE PAGERS

The Black Panther Party………………………………………………………………………………………….

The Brown Berets…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Left Roots………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The Mozambique………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine…………………………………………………………………….

Sandinistas…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

South African Student Movement………………………………………………………………………………

Young Lords………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Zapatistas…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

ARTWORK

LESSONS

EMBODYING THE CHANGE WE WANT TO SEE:

PRESENTATION

Introduction:

Dream Defenders will begin a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the world and highlight their elements of rebellion. This lesson asks students to explore movements and organizations that led social change and display a coherent understanding of organizations and issues.

Standards and Objectives:

See Below

Essential Questions:

How are you creating the change you want to see in the world and the society we live in? What kind of leader do you want to be?

Materials Needed:

One pagers on organizations

Art (optional)

Presentation Guidelines

Vocabulary Worksheet

Grading Rubric - ruby star

Vocabulary:

move·ment / ˈm o͞ovm ə nt/ noun

1. a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.

strug·gle / ˈstr ə ɡə l/ verb

1. make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or constriction.

tac·tic / ˈtaktik/ noun

1. an action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end.

strat·e·gy / ˈstrad ə jē / noun

1. a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

or·gan·i·za·tion / ôr ɡə n ə ˈzā SH( ə )n/ noun

1. an organized body of people with a particular purpose, especially a business, society, association, etc.

cap·i·tal·ism / ˈkap ə dl ˌiz ə m/ noun

1. an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state which often leads to exploitation of workers

pa·tri·arch·y / ˈp ā tr ē ˌärk ē / noun

1. a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

white su·prem·a·cy/ noun

1. the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race, and should therefore dominate society.

lib·er·a·tion /ˌlibə ˈr ā SH(ə )n / noun

1. freedom from limits on thought or behavior

Suggested Procedure:

To set up this activity, the teacher will make copies of the information on the 4 or 5 organizations out of the 9 provided with this toolkit. The teacher should pick the organizations that they believe will resonate most with their class demographics.

STEP ONE

To introduce the unit teachers will go through the vocabulary with students using the Fierre M odeled Vocabulary Worksheet provided.

STEP TWO

Students will read the one pagers on each organization together as a class. After reading each one pager, students will participate in a think- pair-share. They’ll read the one pager, share the main idea with a partner, the teacher can call on a couple of groups to share their thoughts on what they’ve just read.

STEP THREE

Students will be introduced to the concept and rules of the game 4 square (http://www.squarefour.org/rules) with the modification to fit this activity. Teacher will label 4 or 5 areas in the classroom that represents the 4 or 5 organizations they read about. When prompted, students will be asked to go to the labeled area of the classroom that has the organization that they like the most. There should be a number limit for each area to assure the class is evenly distributed.

STEP FOUR

Once the students self select their organization of choice. Each grouping of students by organization will discuss why they chose the organization they did using guiding questions.

Guiding Questions:

What was the struggle this organization was fighting?

What Strategy and tactics did your organization use?

STEP FIVE

The self selected groups by organization will then work together to create a presentation to the rest of the class on their organization. Students should aim to embody the organization and talk it on as their own. Dressing in similar apparel, using similar language, etc. Refer to Presentation Guidelines.

*Students should feel free to use other forms of media and text to learn more about this organization.*

STEP SIX

Students present their assigned organization to the class. The teacher will use the rubric to assess the group’s presentation.

Standards & Objectives

Common Core Standards (6th grade):

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Objectives:

Students will be able to understand key vocabulary related to social justice movement.

Students will be able to cite strong and thorough textual evidence from the text.

Students will be able to support analysis of what the text say as well as inference drawn from the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.7 Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

Objectives:

Students will be able to integrate information from images and text into presentation

Students will be able to display a coherent understanding of organization and issue.

Common Core Standards (9th - 10th grade):

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Objectives:

Students will be able to cite strong and thorough textual evidence from the text.

Students will be able to support analysis of what the text say as well as inference drawn from the text.

Students will be able to understand vocabulary related to social justice movements.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

Objectives:

Students will be able to analyze various accounts of movement and organization

Students will be able to determine which details are emphasized in images and why

Student’sName: Date:
Student’sName:
Date:

PresentationGuidelines

Eachgroup’sgoalshouldbetoembodytheirorganizationduringtheirpresentation.Theroomshould

thinkthatthepresentersareapartoftheorganization.Theroomshouldgatherasenseofthe

organizations,lingo,appearance,culture,missionandvision.

Answerthesequestionsthroughyourpresentation:

Whydidthemembersofyourgrouppickthisorganization?

Whatwasthestrugglethisorganizationwasfighting?

WhatStrategyandtacticsdidyourorganizationuse?Wasiteffective?

Howdidthisorganizationdressandtalk?Whatwastheorganizationalculture?

Student’sNames:

NameofOrganization:

CATEGORY

4

3

2

1

Reasonfor

Itwasclearwhyall

Itwasclearwhy

Wasmentionedbut

Wasnotincluded

group'schoice

memberschosethis

mostmembers

notclearwhyanyof

oforganization

organization

chosethis

organization

thememberschose

thisorganization

Points:

Organization's

Organization's

Organization's

Organization's

Wasnotincluded

mission

missionwas

missionwas

missionwasnot

included,clearand

mentionedbutnot

clearly

Points:

explained

clearlyexplained

communicated

Organization’s

Wasincludedand

Wasincludedbut

Wasincludedand

Wasnotincluded

struggleand

explainedwith

notexplainedwell,

notattemptedtobe

fight

examples

didnotinclude

examples

explained

Points

Points:

Organizations

Wasincludedand

Wasincludedbut

Wasincludedand

Wasnotincluded

strategyand

explainedwith

notexplainedwell,

notattemptedtobe

tactics

examples

didnotinclude

examples

explained

Points:

Organizations

Wasincluded,

Wasincluded,

Wasincludedand

Wasnotincluded

physical

presentation

visibleand

visiblebutnot

notattemptedtobe

explained

explainedwell

explained.

andculture

Points:

GroupsPoints:

/20

TeacherComments:

EMBODYING THE CHANGE WE WANT TO SEE: ESSAY

Introduction:

Dream Defenders will begin a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the world and highlight their elements of rebellion. This lesson asks students to explore movements and organizations that led social change and to communicate their point of view or the information they’ve gained through clear and coherent writing.

Standards and Objectives:

See Below

Essential Questions:

How are you creating the change you want to see in the world and the society we live in? What kind of leader do you want to be?

Materials Needed:

One pagers on organizations (see below)

Art (optional)

Vocabulary:

move·ment / ˈm o͞ovm ə nt/ noun

1. a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.

strug·gle / ˈstr ə ɡə l/ verb

1. make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or constriction.

tac·tic / ˈtaktik/ noun

1. an action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end.

strat·e·gy / ˈstrad ə jē / noun

1. a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

or·gan·i·za·tion / ôr ɡə n ə ˈzā SH( ə )n/ noun

1. an organized body of people with a particular purpose, especially a business, society, association, etc.

cap·i·tal·ism / ˈkap ə dl ˌiz ə m/ noun

1. an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state which often leads to exploitation of workers

pa·tri·arch·y / ˈp ā tr ē ˌärk ē / noun

1. a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

white su·prem·a·cy/ noun

1. the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race, and should therefore dominate society.

lib·er·a·tion /ˌlibə ˈr ā SH(ə )n / noun

1. freedom from limits on thought or behavior

Suggested Procedure:

To set up this activity, the teacher will make copies of the information on all the organizations provided with this toolkit.

STEP ONE

Students will read the short excerpts on each organization together as a class. After reading each excerpt a couple of students will share initial reactions about the organization they just read.

STEP TWO

The teacher will give the students the two prompts to choose from. They would write either an argumentative essay or an informative essay.

Argumentative Prompt: According to what you’ve read in organization A, what is your stance on the strategy this organization used to create social change?

Informative Prompt: According to what you’ve read in organization A, what was this organization's strategy to create change?

STEP THREE

Students can then share essays with the class or turn them into the teacher.

STANDARDS & OBJECTIVES

Common Core Standards (6th grade):

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Objectives

Students will be able to produce clear and coherent writing

Students will be able to develop, organize and style writing to best convey point of view and/or information from text

Common Core Standards (9th - 10th grade):

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Objectives

Students will be able to produce clear and coherent writing

Students will be able to develop, organize and style writing to best convey point of view and/or information from text

ONE PAGERS

BlackPantherParty

Imagery:BlackPanther;thepeople;the[solidarity]

fist.

Importance:EmoryDouglasdidalotofimageryof

everydayworkingclasspeopletoshowthatregular

peoplewereapartofthestruggle.DreamDefendersis

talkingaboutdevelopingprogramsthatcanprovide

directservicestothecommunitiesthatweservebased

ontheirbasicneeds.

Summary:InOctoberof1966,inOaklandCalifornia,

HueyNewtonandBobbySealefoundedtheBlack

PantherPartyforSelf‐Defense.ThePantherspracticed

militantself‐defenseofminoritycommunitiesagainst

theU.S.government,andfoughttoestablish

revolutionarysocialismthroughmassorganizingand

communitybasedprograms.

KeyPoints:

communitybasedprograms. KeyPoints: ● Vision:BPP10PointPlanoutlinedwhatfreedomwouldlooklike

Vision:BPP10PointPlanoutlinedwhatfreedomwouldlooklike

Comingofageafterthebigwinsinthecivilrightsmovement.MLKwasalive,MalcolmXwas

assassinated.

MajorwinsfromCivilRightsMovementwerenotfeltbyurbanyouthsotheywere

disconnectedfromthatmovementandthetacticsthatwentwithit.

Theywereheavilyinfluencedby“Third‐Worldism”

Theystartedasreadinggroupsdoingspeak‐outsoncollegecampuses.

BlackPower‐Theysawblackasaconsciousnessandnotacolor.

Theiropen‐carrytactics,aestheticandknowledgeofthelawallowedthemtoattractattention

andownspacesthatultimatelyhelpedthemtoownthenarrativeinmomentswhenthey

shouldn’t.

PantherssawBlackPeopleastherevolutionaryedgeneededtotakeoverthestatewhile

workingwithotherpeopleofcolorandpoorpeople.

Peoplewerepoorandthebiggestvictimsofcapitalismafterthewinsof;heavypolice

repressionandbrutalityonadailybasis;burgeoninganti‐warmovement.

Theywerelovedandprotectedbythecommunity

Theycreatedagenerationalaestheticthatembracedblackness

Theymadestatementsaboutpatriarchy,homosexualityandtalkedalotabout

intersectionalityinthemovement.

Morethan50%oftheirmembershipwaswomenandcarriedgunsbuttheywereexcluded fromthevisualsandaestheticsthatwereshownandconsideredpowerfulinphotos

BrownBerets

Imagery:brownberets[symbolformilitancy],La

Causa,theBerets’newspaper,hasasymboloftwo

riflescrossedoveracrosswithabrownberetatthe

top

riflescrossedoveracrosswithabrownberetatthe top Importance: ​ Thosethatareoppressedorganizefor themselves

Importance:Thosethatareoppressedorganizefor

themselves

Summary:TheBrownBerets(LosBoinasCafes)area pro‐Chicanoorganizationthatemergedduringthe

ChicanoMovementinthelate1960sandremains

activetothepresentday.[1] Thegroupwasseenaspart oftheThirdMovementforLiberation.TheBrown BeretsfocusonreturningallUnitedStatesterritory onceheldbyMexicotoMexico;theyhavealso organizedagainstpolicebrutalityandadvocatefor educationalequality.SeveralgroupshavebeenquiteactivesincethepassageofCaliforniaProposition

187.

KeyPoints:

Fightingagainsttheestablishment,theBrownBeretsemergedinthelate60’s&70’sand

becamepartoftheChicanoLiberationmovementthatbuiltpowerbyorganizingbarriosand creatingalternativestopoorworkingconditionslaidoutbythestate.

DuringtheChicanoLiberationmovement,theBrownBeretsstartedoutwithjustcivic educationandinvolvement,butthatsoonchangedintomoreradicalmeansofattaining justicethroughmilitantdirectaction.

TheBrownBeretsrespondedtothecommunity’sneedsspecifically;therewasinadequate healthcaresotheyopenedupfreeclinics.

Thosethatareoppressedorganizeforthemselves.

TheBrownBeretswereagroupofBrownyouthfightingforself‐determinationoftheChicano

people.Theyemergedinthelate60sandearly70sandbecameapartoftheChicano

Liberationmovement.

TheBrownBeretsfoughtagainsttheestablishment(theState).Thespecifictargetsofthe

establishmentweretheunderfundedschools,police.

Theybuiltpowerbyorganizingintheneighborhoods(orbarrios)abouttheissuesthatwere

affectingthemthemost.

TheyledactionsagainsttheEastLApolicestationsfortheirbrutality,harassment,andkilling

ofChicanoyouth.

DuringtheChicanoLiberationmovement,peopleofMexicanheritagewerefacing discriminationandracismintheircommunities,policebrutalityandharassment,poorworking conditions,inadequateeducationandhealthcare,andtheVietnamwar.

Thegroupstartedoutwithjustciviceducationandinvolvement,butthatsoonchangedinto moreradicalmeansofattainingjusticethroughdirectactionandmilitancy.

Theywereactuallyapartofthecommunitiestheyserved.Theywerechildrenoftheworking poor,farmers,etc.

TheBrownBeretshada13‐pointpoliticalprogramthatincludedreturningtheland(Aztlan,

whichisthehomelandforindigenousAztec,stolenbytheUSGov’t),employment,education,

housing,environmentaljustice,etc.

Theywereagainstcapitalismandimperialism.

PatriarchywassomethingthatwasnotaddressedintheBrownBerets.Womenwere

‘important’tothemovement,butnotintermsofowningstrongleadershippositions.

Thegroupworebrownberetsasasymbolofpridefortheirrace,Chicanoculture,andhistory

(hencewhytheyarecalledtheBrownBerets).Italsowasasymbolformilitancy.Brownand

yellowwereprominentcolorsfortheorganization.

LaCausa,theBerets’newspaper,hasasymboloftworiflescrossedoveracrosswithabrown

beretatthetop.

onlyrealrevolutionarychangeandpoliticalpowerbypoorworkingpeoplewouldgainreal

equalityandfreedom.”FreedomfortheBrownBeretswastheself‐determinationofthe

Chicanopeople,tohavecontrolovertheireconomicsandpolitics.

Thosethatareoppressedorganizeforthemselves.TheBrownBeretsrespondedtothe

community’sneedsspecifically;therewasinadequatehealthcaresotheyopenedupfree

clinics.

TheeducationsystemwasfailingBrownyouthandsotheyorganizedstudentwalkoutsand

advocatedformoreChicanorepresentationinschoolcurriculumandstaff.

FREEtospecificallyaddresscommunityneedswhilestillfightingthebiggermonsterthatisthe

system.

Tofreeourselvesfromthevariousoppressionsthesystemplacesonusasapeople,

community,etc.

LeftRoots

Imagery:L(pointstotheleft);earthtones,left“wing”

Imagery: ​ L(pointstotheleft);earthtones,left“wing” Importance: ​ ​ Theuseofclayred,mustardyellow,black

Importance:Theuseofclayred,mustardyellow,black

andbrowntoelicitBlack,Chicano,Yellow,and

indigenouspower,isdirectlycorrelatedtothe

organization’smissionoftransformingtheleftwing.

ThesignificanceoftheLeftRootslogoisthatonlytheL

oftheorganization’sabbreviatednamepointsleft,

signifyingthatsocialismistheonlyroadtoour

collectiveliberation;evokesBlack,Chicano,Yellow,

andindigenouspower,throughtheiruseofearth

tones.

Summary:LeftRootsisanationalformationofLeft

socialmovementorganizersandactivistswhowantto

connectgrassrootsstrugglestoastrategytowin

liberationforallpeopleandtheplanet.Whilemassorganizationsmustbecentralfeaturesofstrong

andvibrantsocialmovements,Leftcadreformationsaretoo.TheU.S.Left,dueinparttoexternal

assaultsandinpartfrominternalweaknesses,isatthispointunabletocoherethesemassstruggles

intoaneffectiveforceforrevolution.Thismustchangeifhumanityhasanyhopeofsurviving,much

lessthriving.ThisisacentraltaskofarekindledLeft,andLeftistsengagedinmassorganizationsand

socialmovementshaveaunique,butyetunfulfilled,roletoplayinhelpingtoreimagineandgivelife

toaLeftthatisasradicalasitisgroundedinmassstruggles.

KeyPoints:

LeftRootsisorganizingandbuildingaunifiedleftandunitingabaseunderanewerformof

socialismbasedonliberationforallworkingclasspeoplenomattertheiridentity.

LeftRoots’formationwasinresponsetoa“perioddominatedbyarulingclasshell‐benton

intensifyingimperialistwar,neoliberalausterity,unfetteredextractionofnaturalresources,

andmilitarizedcrackdowns.”

LeftRootsrecognizesthat“whitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobiaandotherformsof

oppressionaredeeplyembeddedinmoderncapitalismandwillnotsimplywitherawayonce

wehavetossedcapitalismintothetrash‐binofhistory”

LeftRootsshiftsculturethroughpoliticaleducationtrainingthattheygiveorganizersin

variousfieldsofstruggle;aimedtospreadtheirideology.

LeftRootsisthereorganizationandreformationoftheUnitedStatesleftwingthataimto

connectgrassrootsstrugglesfromacrossthecountrytowinfreedom.

definefreedomastheliberationfromwhitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobia,imperialism,

andanyotherformofoppression,andinstitutinganewsocietybuiltonpro‐feministand

pro‐queeractionsandmovements,democraticandnon‐sectarianordivisiveelements.

LeftRootsisorganizingandbuildingaunifiedleftandunitingabaseunderanewerformof

socialismbasedonliberationforallworkingclasspeoplenomattertheiridentity.

Weaimtobuildontheinspiringworkofpastsocialmovements

Theybuildpowerbybuildingmeaningfulrelationshipswiththepeopleofthecommunityand

connectionorganizationstoworktogethertowardsfightingoppressiononalargerscale

collectively.

LeftRoots’formationwasinresponsetoa“perioddominatedbyarulingclasshell‐benton

intensifyingimperialistwar,neoliberalausterity,unfetteredextractionofnaturalresources,

andmilitarizedcrackdowns.”

Leftroots’formationwasduetothethelackofasocialassemblingthathastheobjectiveof

revolutionarychange.Theircollectivegoalsaretobuildrelationshipswithpeopleofthe

communityandwithotherorganizationstobuildstrengthandmomentumfora“larger

strategyofliberation.

Strengthenorganizationsandmovementsandtheirconnectiontoalargerstrategyfor

liberation;andbuildrelationshipsbetweenorganizers,leaders,andactiviststopavetheway

forboldandcohesivecollectiveactioninthecomingperiod.

LeftRootsshiftsculturethroughpoliticaleducationtrainingthattheygiveorganizersin

variousfieldsofstruggle;aimedtospreadtheirideology.

LeftRootsrecognizesthat“whitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobiaandotherformsof

oppressionaredeeplyembeddedinmoderncapitalismandwillnotsimplywitherawayonce

wehavetossedcapitalismintothetrash‐binofhistory”

LeftRootsalsoacknowledgestheenvironmentalmovementthatfightstoendthedevastating

effectsofpollution,animalextinction,globalwarmingetc.,statingthat,“theplanetisnota

commoditytobepossessed,ownedandexploitedbyhumanityforourownpurposes”

FRELIMO|TheMozambiqueLiberationFront

Imagery:TheMozambiqueflaghasfourcolors:green,

red,blackandyellow,separatedbylinesofwhite.

Greenfortherichesoftheland,redforthestruggle

forindependence,blackfortheAfricancontinent,

yellowforthecountry’snaturalresourcesandthe

whitelinessignifypeace.

whitelinessignifypeace. Importance: ​ TheflagofFRELIMOreflectstheparty's

Importance:TheflagofFRELIMOreflectstheparty's

Marxist‐Leninistideologies.Theirgoalwas

internationalsupportandwiththeirownpropaganda

theyweresuccessfulDeconstructingFreedom

​​FreedomforFrelimowasliberation,andfreedomfrom

allcolonialruleandforces.

Summary:TheMozambiqueLiberationFront (FRELIMO)(Portuguesepronunciation:[fɾeˈlimu]), fromthePortugueseFrentedeLibertaçãodeMoçambiqueisthedominantpoliticalpartyin

Mozambique.Foundedin1962,FRELIMObeganasaliberationmovementfightingforthe

independenceofthePortuguese​​OverseasProvinceofMozambique.Independencewasachievedin

June1975aftertheCarnationRevolutioninLisbonthepreviousyear.Attheparty's3rdCongressin

February1977,itbecameanofficiallyMarxist–Leninistpoliticalparty.ItidentifiedastheFrelimo

Party(PartidoFrelimo).

KeyPoints:

1.)TheMozambiqueLiberationFront’sstrugglewastheindigenouspeople’sfightagainst

Portuguesecolonization.

2.)FRELIMOformedinneighboringDaresSalaam,TanzaniaonJune25,1962,byexiled

MozambicanswhowereworkingtoliberatethemselvesfromthecolonizingPortuguese.

3.)FRELIMOfacedaninternationallyfundedandsupportedanti‐socialistdeathsquadthat

wasfundedbyadjacentwhiteminoritygovernments.

4.)FRELIMOformedwhenthreeanticolonialnationalistorganizationscametogether:

MozambicanAfricanNationalUnion,NationalDemocraticUnionofMozambique,National

AfricanUnionofIndependentMozambique

Frelimotriedtorevivethecountry’sshatteredeconomy,butitseffortswerehamperedbyits

commitmenttocollectiveagricultureandbythedestructiveactivitiesofthedissident

MozambicangroupknownasRenamo.

ThemainenemyafterdefeatingthePortuguesewasRENAMOaninternationallyfundedand

supportedanti‐socialistdeathsquadthatwasfundedbythewhiteminoritygovernments

FRELIMOformedinneighboringDaresSalaam,Tanzaniaon25June1962,byexiled

MozambicanswhowereworkingtoliberatethemselvesfromthecolonizingPortuguese.

Theirgoalwasforliberationforthemozambicanpeople.Foreignpolicywasanothergoalof

FRELIMOgainingdiplomaticsupportfromtheUNsotheycouldgetsuppliesfortheirpeople

andfortheirpeopleontheground.Alsoisolatingportugalinternationalandcounterits

propaganda

FrelimostrugglewasoneofindigenouspeoplesagainstthePortuguesecolonization.

Frelimouseddifferentformsofpropagandatoshiftthenarrativeofthewarandtheir

campaigntowinoverinternationalsupport.

Frelimoleadershipstressedequalityforwomen,butmetmuchresistancefromalotofmen

theorganization.

Theyhadeducationprogramsforwomen,butwomenhadlittlesayintheeducationthey

received.AlthoughFRELIMOwasintentionalaboutmakingchangesaroundgender,divisionin

theorgcausedavoidinthegroup’ssolutions

Weshouldusethefreecampaigntocreatepropagandacampaigns,usinghowpeoplewantto

getfree,andbringpeopleintoaspacewherewesharepowerplayers,whilegivingpeople

resourcesonhowtotalktothem.

PopularFrontfortheLiberationofPalestine

Imagery:

Thefirstsymbol:insidearedcircle,ablackarrow

pointsfromawhitesemi‐circletoamapofoccupied

Palestine(Israel)andtheterritories.Belowthearrow,

ontherightside,isagreendot.

Thesecondsymbol:Insideawhitecircle–whichis

placedonaredbackground‐awhitearrowpoints

fromaredsemi‐circletoaredmapofoccupied

Palestine(Israel)andtheterritories.Belowthearrow,

ontherightside,isawhitedot.

ontherightside,isawhitedot. Importance: ​ Thesymbolsrepresentthereturnof

Importance:Thesymbolsrepresentthereturnof

Palestinianrefugees.Redsymbolizesthegroup’s

Marxist‐Leninistheritage.

Summary:ThePopularFrontfortheLiberationof Palestine(PFLP)isasecularPalestinianMarxist‐Leninistandrevolutionarysocialistorganization

foundedin1967byGeorgeHabash.Ithasconsistentlybeenthesecond‐largestofthegroupsforming

thePalestineLiberationOrganization(PLO),thelargestbeingFatah.PFLPisdescribedasaterrorist organizationbytheUnitedStates,[7] Canada,[8] andtheEuropeanUnion.[9] Othercountries,suchas India,China,RussiaandtheUnitedKingdomdonotdesignatethePFLPasaterroristgroup.

KeyPoints

ThePFLPaimstoliberateallofPalestinebyestablishingademocraticsocialistPalestinian

statethatincludesthedestructionofzionismandthereturnofthePalestinianrefugeesto

theirhomeland.

Theywanttocreateacommunist,working‐classparty,andthebestwaytheyseetodothatis

toliberatePalestinefromIsraelirule.

FreedomforthisorganizationistheliberationofindigenousPalestineandtobuilda

functioningworking‐classparty,freefromIsraelicolonialrule.

Theywanttobefreefromglobalimperialism.Theywantliberation.Theywantequalrights.

ThePFLPisfightingagainstIsrael,theZionistmovement,thePalestinianAuthoritygoverning

body,globalimperialism,andArabreaction.

ThePFLPaimstoestablishademocraticsocialistsociety.

liberatingallofPalestineandestablishingademocraticsocialistPalestinianstateincludingthe

destructionofIsraelandthereturnofthePalestinianrefugees.

Theirtacticshaveincludedhijackings,assassinations,carbombings,suicidebombings,and

paramilitaryoperationsagainstcivilianandmilitarytargets.

ThePFLPaimstomobilizeandleadthestruggleofthePalestinianmassesforthereturnto

Palestine,selfdetermination,andtheestablishmentofaPalestinianstate.

ThePFLPisfightingagainstIsrael,theZionistmovement,thePalestinianAuthoritygoverning body,globalimperialism,andArabreaction.

ThePFLPhasaround800membersbuthaslimitedsupportamongPalestiniansintheWest

BankandGaza.

theircollectivegoalistobreakdownconservativeArabstates,destroyIsrael,andapply

MarxistdoctrinetothePalestinianstruggle,whichitsawaspartofabroaderproletarian

(working‐class)revolution.Marxistsbelievethattheworkersoftheworldmustuniteandfree

themselvesfromcapitalistoppressiontocreateaworldrunbyandfortheworkingclass.

PFLPseemstohavealove/haterelationshipwiththeircommunity.Theywantto“free”

Palestinebutareusingviolentmethodstoachieveit.

WhentheleaderofPFLP(AbuAliMustafa)wasassassinatedbytheIsraelimilitaryforces,

threedaysofnationalmourningwasdeclaredandthousandsofPalestiniansattendedhis

funeral.HisdeathwasavengedbykillingtheIsraeliMinisterofTourismsoitseemsthatthe

PFLPreceivessupportfromsomepeopleintheircommunity.

Theywanttocreateacommunist,working‐classparty,andthebestwaytheyseetodothatis

toliberatePalestinefromIsraelirule.

Patriarchy,homophobia,andclassismarenotaddressedintheirorganizationortheirstruggle

FreedomforthisorganizationistheliberationofallofPalestine.Theorganizationwantsto

buildaworking‐classparty.Habash(thefounderofPFLP)viewstheliberationofPalestineasa

fundamentalpartofthecommunistrevolution

Theywanttobefreefromglobalimperialism.Theywantliberation.Theywantequalrights.

JustliketheDreamDefenders.WebelievethatthisshouldinformtheFreeCampaigninthe

waythatweeducateourcommunitiesonissuesrelatingtooppressioninallareasofthe

world

Sandinistas

Imagery:Red[socialism]andBlack[anarcho]flags

imagesandbannersofAugustoCesarSandinoand

ErnestoCheGuevara,imagesofwomenandchildren

attherallies,imagesofwomenwithriflesand

fatigues.Thephotosofthepeople'spovertythetin

roofsandthecamposinosworkingthefieldwereto

showtheinequalityinthecomparedtowhereand

howthecolonoslived.

Importance:Postersofpromotingwomenand

thankingthemfortheirservicetotherevolution;

inclusionandabsorptionoftheneedsoftheentire

society

inclusionandabsorptionoftheneedsoftheentire society Summary: ​ TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront ( ​

Summary:TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront (Spanish:FrenteSandinistadeLiberaciónNacional,FSLN)isnowademocraticsocialist​​political partyinNicaragua.ItsmembersarecalledSandinistas[sandiˈnistas]inbothEnglishandSpanish. ThepartyisnamedafterAugustoCésarSandinowholedtheNicaraguanresistanceagainstthe

KeyPoints:

TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront(FSLN)wasananti‐imperialist,leftistrevolutionary

organization.Nowit’sthecurrentrulingpartywithademocratic‐socialiststance.

TheFSLNwasformedbyuniversitystudentsinLeon,Nicaraguawhowereinspiredbythe

AlgerianLiberationFrontandwerecombatingsocialinequalityandfightingforredistribution

ofwealthandland.

WomenduringandaftertherevolutionhavebeenalargepartoftheFSLN.Fighting

discriminationandmarginalizationofwomenandfortheequalityofmenandwomen

Theybeganwithfightingforaccesstoeducation,health,housing,andsubsistenceforall

people’s.

Theyengagedinguerillawarfare,mobilizingintheinvisiblepartsofthecountrymeaningthe

campesinosinthecountryside.Theideology‐Sandinismo‐tookelementsofMarxistclass

analysisandSandino’snationalistandanti‐imperialistideology.

TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront(FSLN)wasananti‐imperialist,leftistrevolutionary

organization.Itisnowthecurrentrulingpartywithademocratic‐socialiststance.

TheFSLNwasformedbyuniversitystudentsinLeon,Nicaraguawhowereinspiredbythe

AlgerianLiberationFront.TheFSLNwascombatingsocialinequalityandfightingfor

redistributionofwealthandland.

WomenduringandaftertherevolutionhavebeenalargepartoftheFSLN.Fighting

discriminationandmarginalizationofwomenandfortheequalityofmenandwomen

Theybeganwithfightingforaccesstoeducation,health,housing,andsubsistenceforall people’s.

TacticsandStrategyincludedguerillawarfare,mobilizingintheinvisiblepartsofthecountry meaningthecampesinosinthecountryside.Theyalsoranliteracycampaignsandcampaigns forpoliovaccinations.

TheSandinistasfirstfightwasagainsttheUnitedstatesanditsoccupationofthecountryin

theearly20thcentury.Althoughatthattimetheywerenotformallyreferredtoasthe

sandinistasbutratherasaNicaraguanresistanceledbyAugustoSandino.

ThereunificationoftheFSLNwasempoweredbyininsurgencyoftensofthousandsofYouths

fromacrossthenation

Theideology‐Sandinismo‐tookelementsofMarxistclassanalysisandSandino’snationalist

andanti‐imperialistideology.Thewantedtoorganizeforthemilitaryoverthrowofthe

Somozasdietothereunresponsive&disregardingattitude/actiontopeacefuldemandsfor

democratizationandeconomicreform.

Overtimetheyfacedseveralsetbacksandbegantoregainfocustoestablishpolitical

platforms,nationalizationofpropertyownedbytheSomozasandtheirsupporters,improving

workingconditions,freeunionizationforallurbanandruralworkers,safe‐guardedfixed

pricesforbasiccommodities,improvedpublicservices,housingconditions,andeducation.

Theyabolishedtheuseoftorture,politicalassassination,endingdeathpenalty,and

establishingequalityforwomen

Bythemfocusingonthepoliciesofmassliteracy,healthcarereform,andthepromotionof

genderequality‐‐theSandinistaswereembeddedintotheircommunity.

Theywerefocusedonengagingtheirentirecoretobetheenginefortherelationship.There

wasmuchdedicationtoenfranchisingthecountry’svastruralandurbanpoorthroughmass

organizations.

PowerfulfigureslikeNoraAstorga‐guerillaandfutureUNambassadorforUN

Thisinitselfhelpshiftsocietyawayfromtheirinnate“machismo”mentality,whichis

essentiallyanicaraguan/latinamericanreferencetopatriarchy.

Whenthesandinistasgainedpower,theyworkedonestablishingthefollowing:

nationalizationofpropertyownedbythesomozasandtheirsupporters;landreformation; improvedconditionsandfreeunionizationforbothruralandurbanworkers;improvedpublic serviceshousing,andeducation;EqualityforWoman;andtheformationofapopulararmy.

Womenplayedanintegralroleinthedevelopmentoftheirnation.ThevictoryoftheFSLN

broughtcrucialchangesandgainsforwomeninlegislationandotherfactions.By1987,over

30percentoftheexecutivepositionsintheSandinistagovernmentwerewomen.Someissues

werepresentinmaintainandsupportoflocal,socialservicesontheirownwithoutassistance

andhumanresources.Thiswasdifferentfromotherrevolutions‐‐wherewomanwere

side‐lined.

SouthAfricanStudentMovement

Summary:#FeesMustFallisastudentledprotest

movementthatbeganinmidOctober2015in

responsetoanincreaseinfeesatSouthAfrican

universities.Theprotestsalsocalledforhigherwages

forlowearninguniversitystaffwhoworkedforprivate

contractorssuchascleaningservicesandcampus

securityandforthemtobeemployeddirectlyby

universities.ProtestsstartedattheUniversityof

WitwatersrandandspreadtotheUniversityofCape

TownandRhodesUniversitybeforerapidlyspreading

tootheruniversitiesacrossthecountry.

KeyP

TheSouthAfricanStudentMovementwere

fromthecommunitiesandgeographicalareas

theywerefightinginandfor

theywerefightinginandfor ●

Theirtacticsofresistancewastoorganizeactionsandprotest;alsorefusedtogotoclass

underthemantra“SchoolsNeedStudents”

Theirvisionwastoendthehightuitionandmandatoryfeesaswellasthestrictand

unnecessarytotalitarian‐likesocialstandardstheywereupholding.Theeconomicconditions

seepedintosocialconditions.Studentsfromlow‐incomehouseholdsandneighborhoodswere

forcedtopaycollegecoststheysimplycouldn’tpay.Theirvisionwasn’toneofpeace,butone

offairness.

Theirtacticsofresistancewastoorganizeactionsandprotest;alsorefusedtogotoclass

underthemantra“SchoolsNeedStudents”

believedthatcollegestudentsshouldpayareasonableamountforhighereducation

Theywerefromthecommunitiesandgeographicalareastheywerefightinginandfor

Theyweresuccessfulintheirdreamsofloweringthecostofhighereducationthrough

thoroughorganizing.

Theyshiftedthenegativeanddownwardtrendtheculturewasheadedtowardsandcreated

ideologiesthatbreechfarbeyondcollegecampusculture.

Theyralliedagainsttheeconomicwarthatwasheldagainstthoseofthelowerclasswho

couldn’taffordtheamountofmoneyinstitutionsforcedthemtopay.Asfaraspatriarchyand

homophobia,thetwowerenotdiscussedorfoughtagainst.

organizationwasaimingtoeliminategreedfromcorporateentitiesbecauseitbreachedinto

thelivesofeveryonearoundthem

Theynotonlydespisedtheinstitutionsforraisingthetuitiontopricesfarbeyondthegrasps

ofthestudents,butforenforcingstrictsocialrulesthatweresimilartothatofagovernment

underdictatorship.

TheyaimedforsimilargoalsandpossessthesametenacityastheDreamDefenders.

YoungLords

Imagery:outlineofPRflagw/handrisinginfront andthephrase“TengoPuertoRicoenmiCorazon”‐

militantbrandingandincludessilhouettesofAK‐47’s

Importance:Theirvisionofpowerwastoseethe

proletariattakecontrolofthemeansofproduction

Summary:TheYoungLords,laterYoungLords Organizationand,inNewYork(notablySpanish Harlem),YoungLordsParty,wasaPuertoRican nationalistgroupinseveralUnitedStatescities, notablyNewYorkCityandChicago.TheYoungLords beganasaPuertoRicanturfgangintheLincolnPark, ChicagoneighborhoodofLincolnParkinthefallof

1960andasacivilandhumanrightsmovementon

GritodeLares,September23,1968.

KeyPoints:

GritodeLares ​ , September23,1968. KeyPoints: ●

TheYoungLordswereMarxistswhostruggledforself‐determinationofPuertoRicans,the

buildingofsocialismandthedefeatofthebourgeoisie.

TheirgoalwasalwaysPuertoRicanself‐determinationbuttheirstrategychangedovertime.

Theybecamemorefocusedonpreparingforanupcomingarmedstruggle.

TheirstrategywastoeducateandorganizetheU.S.workingclass,beginningwithPuerto

RicansintheUS.Theirvisionofpowerwastoseetheproletariattakecontrolofthemeansof

production.

Thesocialconditionsprovedtoberipefortheradicalizationofincarceratedyouth.Their

strategywastoorganizetheproletariatintheU.S.andtomobilizePuertoRicans.

TheYoungLordswereMarxists;theysawhistorythroughthelensesofdialecticalmaterialism.

Aslongasasocietyhadcontradictions,particularlycontradictionsofmaterialinterests,there

wouldoppression.Theywantedasocietywherethesecontradictionswereresolved.

Thesocialconditionsprovedtoberipefortheradicalizationofincarceratedyouth.Their

strategywastoorganizetheproletariatintheU.S.andtomobilizePuertoRicanstofightfor

theself‐determinationofPuertoRico.Onewaytodoitwasthroughtheirnewspaper,Palante.

TheirstrategywastoeducateandorganizetheU.S.workingclass,beginningwithPuerto

RicansintheUS

Theirvisionofpowerwastoseetheproletariattakecontrolofthemeansofproduction.

TheirgoalwasalwaysPuertoRicanself‐determinationbuttheirstrategychangedovertime.

Theybecamemorefocusedonpreparingforanupcomingarmedstruggle.

thecampaigns’directionswereultimatelydecidedbythecommunity.Theyengagedindirect

action

Theyalsohadadrugrehabilitationprogramaswellasfreebreakfastandfreeclothing programs.

TheYoungLordswereMarxist‐LeninistsandadheredtoMaoZedongThought.They influencedtheyouth

theYoungLordshadissueswithmachismo.Astheygrewinunderstandingandsocialpractice, theyevolvedontheirpositions.Theyrejectedsexism,homophobia,andbelievedinthe destructionofcapitalism.

TheydressedsimilarlytotheBlackPantherParty.TheirsymbolincludedanoutlineofPuerto Ricowithahandraisingarifleinfrontofitandthephrase“TengoPuertoRicoenmi Corazon.”TheytendedtousethestyleofthegeneralPuertoRicanliberationmovement.

TheirimagerywasverymilitantandincludedsilhouettesofAK‐47’s.Theywouldalsocarrythe

PuertoRicanflagatrallies.

Theself‐determinationofPuertoRicans.Thebuildingofsocialismandthedefeatofthe

bourgeoisie.

organizeusingclassdialecticalmaterialistanalysislens

helpusnavigatethecollapseofourpresentlate‐capitalism.TheDreamDefendersshould

investigateourconditionsscientificallyandworktopreparethepeoplefortheworseningof

thecrisisofcapitalism.Freedomcannothappenifwestillhavetobepart‐timeserfs.

Zapatistas

Imagery:Blackflagwithredletter“EZLN”andared

star,sometimesanoutlinethesouthernareaof

Mexicoinwhichtheygovern.Manyalsowore

bandanas/blackmasks.

Mexicoinwhichtheygovern.Manyalsowore bandanas/blackmasks. Importance: ​ totheformationofthedemocratic

Importance:totheformationofthedemocratic

Zapatistaszone,theyrepresentedthepeoplewho

livedthatstruggleandwantedtochangetheir

conditions

Summary:EZLNwasformedinoppositionto neoliberaltradeagreementssuchasNAFTA,signedby theMexicanandUSgovernments.TheEZLNformedin responsetothesigningofneoliberaltradeagreement

NAFTAonJanuary1st,1994andtheirfightwasonefor

thefreedomoftheirpeoplefromglobalizationitself.

TheZapatistasvisionwastofreetheirpeoplefromthepolitical.Theconditionstheywereupagainst

werelackoffreedomofexpression,therighttoorganize,andthefreedomtosettheirownpricefor

theproductstheyproduced.

KeyPoints:

Theirfightwasn’tonlytowardtheMexicangovernmentbutagainstneoliberalismandagainst theglobalizationofthepoorandworkingclass.

FormedthedayNAFTAwassigned‐Jan1st,1994

thesocialandeconomicconditionswereunjustfortheworkingclass.Theirstrategywas

armingthemselvesnottotakeoverpowerbuttocreateaspacefordemocracy.

Theirvisionofpowerwasbringingpeopletogetherfromlowerincomecommunities

Theirtargetwasneoliberalismandglobalizationitself.

Theconditionstheywereupagainstwerelackoffreedomofexpression,therighttoorganize,

andthefreedomtosettheirownpricefortheproductstheyproduced.

Whentheyfirststarteditwasindigenous/peasantrootedorganizationwithguerillatactics,

whocollectivelywantedabetterlifestandardforthepeople.

“YaBasta”(enoughisenough)asfarlivingconditionsforthepoorandworkingclass.Over

timetheyhavegraduallybeendissolvingitsclandestinemilitarystructureintosomethingthat

isfarmorefluid.

inthelatestyearsthey’velivedasifthey’vewonagainsttheMexicangovernmentlivingin

autonomousareasgovernedbytheZapatistaswherewomen’srights,queerright,education

andhealthcareflourish.

Fromthebeginningofguerillatakeoversoftowns,totheformationofthedemocratic

Zapatistaszone,theyrepresentedthepeoplewholivedthatstruggleandwantedtochange

theirconditions

Theybelievedinthe“edijosystem”inwhichcommunallandworkedbythepeopleshouldbe

controlledbythepeoplenotthegovernment.

Blackflagwithredletter“EZLN”andaredstar,sometimesanoutlinethesouthernareaof

Mexicoinwhichtheygovern.Manyalsoworebandanas/blackmasks.

EZLNistheacronymoftheorganization

theimplementationofautonomy,collectiveorganizing,andself‐government

theconditionswhichleadtotheirrebellionresonatewiththefreecampaign.Wesimilarlyare

identifyingthecoreissuesaffectingthemarginalizedofMiamitofindsolutionstothe

problemsandempowerthepeoplewithinthosecommunitiestohelp(re)buildabetterworld

forthepoorandworkingclass.

ART WORK

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