Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION
PIPELINES - RISERS
GS EP PLR 502

Precommissioning of gas pipelines

05

01/2011

General review

04

10/2008

General review

03

10/2007

General review

02

10/2005

Addition of EP root to GS identification

00

02/2001

First issue

Rev.

Date

Owner: EP/TDO/TEC

Notes

Managing entity: EP/TDO/TEC/PLR

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

Contents
1. Scope ....................................................................................................................... 4
2. Reference documents ............................................................................................. 4
3. Definitions ................................................................................................................ 5
4. Precommissioning philosophy .............................................................................. 6
4.1

General ..............................................................................................................................6

4.2

Precommissioning phases .................................................................................................7

4.3

Precommissioning plan......................................................................................................8

4.4

Safety.................................................................................................................................8

5. Pipeline Cleaning .................................................................................................... 9


5.1

General ..............................................................................................................................9

5.2

Monitoring of pig trains ....................................................................................................10

5.3

Mechanical cleaning and caliper run. ..............................................................................10

6. Pipeline dewatering and swabbing ...................................................................... 12


6.1

General ............................................................................................................................12

6.2

Dewatering and swabbing principles ...............................................................................12

6.3

Dewatering.......................................................................................................................12

6.4

Final documentation ........................................................................................................13

7. Pipeline drying ...................................................................................................... 14


7.1

General ............................................................................................................................14

7.2

Vacuum drying .................................................................................................................14

7.3

Drying by circulation of dry air or nitrogen .......................................................................16

7.4

Drying by circulation of natural gas..................................................................................17

8. Selection of the drying method ............................................................................ 18


8.1

Key factors .......................................................................................................................18

8.2

Selection criteria ..............................................................................................................18

9. Other references ................................................................................................... 19


Appendix 1

Preparation of initial dewatering ........................................................................20

Appendix 2

Typical layout of instrumentation and water pumping equipment ......................21

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 2/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

Appendix 3

Typical layout of vacuum plant...........................................................................22

Appendix 4

Factors affecting the choice of drying method ...................................................23

Appendix 5

Selection chart of drying methods......................................................................24

Appendix 6

Commissioning form ..........................................................................................25

Appendix 7

Decision table model .........................................................................................26

Appendix 8

Decision table - Example of Alwyn - Frigg gas pipeline .....................................27

Appendix 9

Dew point of natural gas ....................................................................................28

Appendix 10

Instrumentation requirements ............................................................................29

Appendix 11

Corrosion Resistant Alloys .................................................................................30

Appendix 12

Calculation methods ..........................................................................................31

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 3/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

1. Scope
This general specification for the precommissioning of gas pipelines gives the minimum
requirements of Company for cleaning, dewatering and drying the pipeline.
The precommissioning will start soon after successful completion of the hydrostatic pressure
test of the pipeline and will allow the subsequent commissioning and operation of the pipeline,
without risk of internal corrosion or fluid contamination.
This specification applies to gas pipelines, either onshore or offshore, in carbon steel with or
without flow coating. For CRA (Corrosion Resistant Alloy) or cladded pipelines, additional
requirements are set for in Appendix 11.
This general specification must be completed by a PPS (Particular Project Specification), which
detail the acceptance criteria of each of the precommissioning phases.

2. Reference documents
The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. Unless
otherwise stipulated, the applicable version of these documents, including relevant appendices
and supplements, is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.
All work specified in the present document must be in conformance or in accordance with the
following codes and regulations.
In addition, the Contractor must perform his work in accordance with the PPS requirements.
Standards
Reference
BGC/PS/PCI

Title
British Gas Engineering Standard

Professional Documents
Reference

Title

DOE

Submarine pipelines guidance notes

IP6

Institute of Petroleum Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum


Industry

Regulations
Reference

Title

Not applicable

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 4/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

Codes
Reference

Title

BSI CP 8010

British Standard Code of Practice - Pipelines - Parts 1 and 2

ANSI B 31-8

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System

DNV-OS-F101

Submarine pipeline systems

Other documents
Reference

Title

Not applicable

Total General Specifications


Reference

Title

GS EP COR 560

Physical and chemical treatment of hydrostatic test water

GS EP PLR 501

Hydrostatic testing of pipelines

3. Definitions
In the present specification, and for its application, the following definitions will be used:
Precommissioning

All tasks and operations performed on the pipeline subsequent to the


pipeline construction and prior to the introduction of hydrocarbon gas.

Commissioning

All tasks and operations performed on the pipeline subsequent to


precommissioning and which concern the initial introduction of
hydrocarbon gas in the pipeline. It should be noted that
precommissioning is a construction activity whereas commissioning is
an operator activity

Operator

Entity of the Company who will receive the installations after


precommissioning and will operate them with a view to commercial
production

Pipeline

The pipeline is a section of a system or the entire system, used for the
transport of hydrocarbon gas. It can be onshore or offshore, and extends
from pig trap to pig trap, including:
Risers and their supports, when they exist
All permanent items, such as header, piping, pig trap, valves,
isolating joints, etc., when they exist
The system limits are identified in the Particular Project Specification.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 5/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

Particular Project Specification (PPS)


Gives the specific requirements for execution of the work, subject of a
Contract
Golden weld

A weld which has not been hydrotested, and is therefore subject to


additional non-destructive testing (NDT)

May

Is used to indicate that a provision is optional

Shall

Is used to indicate that a provision is mandatory

Should

Is used to indicate that a provision is not mandatory, but is


recommended as good practice

Equipment

Is used for all ancillary items of the precommissioning, not part of the
permanent facilities.

4. Precommissioning philosophy
4.1 General
In all that follows, it will be assumed that the pipeline has been flooded, cleaned, gauged and
hydrotested, as per the requirements of GS EP PLR 501, and was left full of treated seawater. It
may remain in this state for a certain time, though generally not more than six months. The
pipeline shall not be left full of air in wet condition, for obvious corrosion reasons.
The dewatering / drying will generally start immediately after the hydrotest, or just before the
commissioning.
In case of conflict in requirements between this general specification and the PPS, the latest
shall prevail.
In order not to damage the pipelines insulation valves during the pigging operations associated
with cleaning/dewatering, those valves shall have been removed prior to the water fill for the
hydrotest. Similarly, no pigging associated with cleaning/dewatering shall be performed with the
pipeline insulation valves in place. They shall have been replaced by dedicated spool pup
pieces, or alternatively, the cleaning/dewatering activities shall be performed separately for the
different pipeline sections and these sections then tied in by golden weld prior to the drying
phase (see Appendix 1). The pipeline insulation valves shall be re-installed in the pipeline prior
to the final drying.
The only exception is for subsea valves, where the removal and reinstallation of valves is not
practical. In this case, the valve cavity shall be filled with glycol gel or equivalent (to be
approved by PVV valve specialist), before installation subsea, and the valve shall not be
operated during all the precommissioning, in order to avoid debris entrapment in the seals.
It should be noted that the effectiveness of pigging, and therefore of cleaning, dewatering and
drying activities, is dependent on the condition of the inner pipe wall surface: when the pipes
have been stored on land for a long period in a saline environment, the increased surface profile
will tend to retain dust and water.
For this reason, internal flow coating of trunk lines is recommended in order to:
Minimise the corrosion during storage, and therefore the amount of corrosion products in
the pipeline
Improve the performance of the dewatering/drying process.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 6/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

All the products to be introduced in the pipeline during the precommissioning:


Shall be free from oil and contaminants
Nitrogen, methanol, glycol shall have a purity of 99% minimum
Their temperature when introduced in the pipeline shall be between 0 and 50 deg C, or
limited by the pipeline design temperature.
All the measurements and acceptance criteria shall be in SI units and pressure shall be in bar.
Base line survey using an ILI pig (In Line Inspection) could be run during the dewatering phase.
For gas pipeline, it is generally a MFL pig (Magnetic Flux Leakage), so as to be compared in the
future with records in operation.

4.2 Precommissioning phases


The different sequential phases of precommissioning shall be:
Phase 1 - Cleaning the pipeline
Phase 2 - Dewatering and optional swabbing
Phase 3 - Drying and flushing the pipeline
Phase 4 - Stabilisation at the final dew point
Phase 5 - Filling with nitrogen and inerting (when required).
The first two phases will be performed in accordance with the general procedure described
below.
The last three phases will be performed either by vacuum drying or by circulation of dry air,
nitrogen or dry hydrocarbon gas.
The two methods make use of the capacity for water evaporation in the pipeline at ambient
temperature, in the first case by vacuum evaporation, in the second case by mass transfer to a
dry effluent.
The latent vaporisation heat is taken from the ambient environment in the case of vacuum
drying, and from both the ambient environment and the drying gas in the second case. This is
the reason for possible freezing of the water accumulation in the pipe if vacuum evaporation is
too rapid, or of low evaporation process if the ambient temperature is too low.
In all cases, the flushing performed after drying which removes the residual layer of water
molecules remaining on the inner pipe wall, may be performed either with dry air, dry gas or
nitrogen.
Line swabbing with a chemical is often presented as a drying operation. In fact, it leaves a
considerable amount of liquid on the pipe wall and shall be only used when the final water dew
point at commissioning stage is not critical. When a combined dewatering/swabbing operation is
used with production gas, the liquid left in the pipeline walls will contain water. Criteria on
maximum water content in the last batch of liquid received are given in XXX. It should be noted
that this is a one shot operation, with no backup solution. The risks associated with this method
are hydrate formation and non conformity of water dew point in the sale gas.
The chemical used are methanol or glycol. Methanol use has been abandoned for safety
reasons in various countries, and can cause damages to internal coating, valves elastomeric

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 7/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

seals, etc. in addition to being toxic. For this reason its selection has to be carefully justified.
The residual mixture water/methanol left on the pipe wall prevents hydrate formation and, in
certain cases, gas can be introduced without the need for further drying operations. However,
with this type of process, it has been observed that during a certain period after dispersion of
the methanol, the gas produced still contains large quantities of water and possibly hydrates,
rendering it unfit for sale.
Glycol (or MEG, mono ethylene glycol in its most common form) is not as efficient as methanol
for drying, but is not as toxic and aggressive to internal coating, valves elastomeric seals, etc.
However, glycol swabbing should be used in conjunction with drying methods such as vacuum
drying, circulation of dry air, nitrogen or dry hydrocarbon gas, as the glycol will make the water
evaporation increasingly difficult.

4.3 Precommissioning plan


The precommissioning is a complex activity, involving numerous steps, equipments,
measurements and acceptance criteria. As such, a precommissioning plan has to be prepared
sufficiently in advance by Contractor, listing the following:
Programme of work, with list of sequence of activities and corresponding planning
Organisation chart of Contractor, with names and CV of key personnel, and possible SubContractors with their scope
List of interfaces in the project, with lines of communication
Risk analysis and corresponding contingency/emergency plans and procedures
Procedure for each activity, with its description, list and layout of equipment, required
personnel, pre-requisites to be completed, certification records of equipment, calculations,
record and approval forms
Quality plan, listing all the points (Hold, Witness or Monitoring) where Company
representative will be involved
The range and accuracy of all the instruments shall follow the requirements in Appendix
10.
This precommissioning package shall be approved by Company before any site activity can be
started.

4.4 Safety
The risks associated with the precommissioning activities must be assessed and mitigated.
In particular, the following points are to be addressed:
Equipment, pipeline under pressure (positive or negative) shall be isolated by warning
tapes, preventing unauthorised access
Handling of chemical
Risk associated with vacuum operations
Disposal of contaminated liquids, sludges or solids shall be managed in an
environmentally sound manner and in compliance with local regulations

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 8/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

Noise emission levels to be kept as low as possible


All equipment, shall have been inspected, tested and if necessary certified.
The test cabin shall be located at 10 m minimum from pipeline.

5. Pipeline Cleaning
5.1 General
The extent of the cleaning operation and the number of pig run will depend on the quantities of
debris obtained or estimated by Company when the pipeline is initially filled (see
GS EP PLR 501).
As a general rule, the cleaning programme includes one of the following combinations of
processes:
Mechanical cleaning with brush pigs or foam pigs coated with brushes. If the pipeline is
flow coated, soft brushes are to be used. In addition, the cleaning pigs are to be fitted with
magnets, to collect metallic debris.
Hydraulic cleaning with jetting effect, and/ or special gels
Combination of mechanical cleaning and/or hydraulic cleaning using various scraper pigs
and treated seawater.
Initial cleaning parameters must be carefully recorded during the first water fill, so that the
cleanliness of the pipeline can be demonstrated at the end of operations.
Pig shall be capable to pass through the pipeline, including minimum bore tolerance on pipe
and bends.
For long pipelines (> 300 km), or for pipe ID variations, the use of solid gel slugs to seal around
the pigs may be considered.
The gel slugs shall be compatible with the other fluids used during precommissioning, and with
future operation of the pipeline. A procedure shall describe the gel characteristics and its
instructions for use.
Foam pigs shall be limited to some special cases: ID variation in excess of 15%, short pipelines
etc.
For dual diameter pipelines, or where ID variation exceed 3%, use of dual diameter pigs is
required, in order to optimise the dewatering sequence.
Bidirectional pigs (BIDI) fitted with polyurethane disks, shall be preferred to cups, for their
sealing performances and general resistance to wear. The hardness of the sealing disks shall
be 65 to 75 shore A and their size shall be 102/103% of the ID. For the guiding disks, it shall be
respectively 80 to 90 shore A and 100% of ID (ID being the nominal ID)
The actual pig design will vary based on the pipe condition: length of run, flow coating or not,
etc. More guiding disks will be introduced for long runs.
Pig with jetting effect shall be included when the debris are likely to sediment in front of the pigs:
these pigs are equipped with deflectors aimed at the pipe wall in front of the pig, in order to
clean the wall hydraulically by turbulent flow and maintain the debris in suspension.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 9/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

Seawater or fresh water will be used throughout the precommissioning, after suitable injection of
chemical (as per GS EP COR 560).
The pigs are to be run with enough back pressure to control their speed. This back pressure is
dependent on the fluid used to propel the pig train (gas or liquid), the difference of elevation
along the pipeline route and the number of pigs in the train. Specific pig train behaviour should
be modelled when there is significant change of elevation along the pipeline route, using flow
simulation software.
The speed shall be maintained constant with no stoppage, nor variations.

5.2 Monitoring of pig trains


During the pig train run, the pig position and ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) shall be predicted,
based on flow meter readings. The pig launcher and receiver shall be fitted with at least one pig
indicator, and if so required in the PPS, with a second one working on a different principle,
which can be non intrusive.
The first pig of each train shall be fitted with a long range locating device, having a life of two
months. The device may be ultrasonic, acoustic, magnetic or radio type, depending if the line is
gas or liquid filled and if offshore or not. The last pig of each train is to be fitted with a short
range locating device, such as magnetic, isotopic, etc mainly to confirm arrival in pig receiver.
Stuck pig in the line can be dislodged by increasing the pressure behind, up to half the design
pressure, if the line is completely water filled, or up to 10 bars if gas filled. Contingency
procedures shall address all the steps to be taken to locate and recover the pig.
These pressures shall not be exceeded, unless proper assessment has been performed, and
Company approval granted.
All pigging operations shall be logged in a specific register, listing all the necessary information
per train: number of pig in train and type, volume and type of fluid used, time launched and
received, condition of pig at arrival, debris collected.
Proper disposal of contaminated liquid, sludge and solids is to be performed in line with local
regulations.

5.3 Mechanical cleaning and caliper run.


Mechanical cleaning will involve the separate passage of several pig trains, with at no time more
than one train or train section present in the line. For long pipelines (> 100 km) several trains
may be acceptable simultaneously in the line, provided the separation between trains allows
unloading the pig receiver without reducing the speed of the trains.
The number of trains and number of pigs in them, will depend on multiple parameters, including
the initial cleanliness status, the length of the pipeline, etc.
In case of long pipelines, involving long transit time, it is preferable to have long trains with
several pigs separated by liquid batches.
For shorter lines, less than 20 km, the preference will be to have shorter trains, with fewer pigs,
which allow better monitoring of the cleanliness of the line.
For pipelines with flow coating, the number of pig trains can be significantly reduced from the
requirements below.
A calliper pig shall be run as part of this cleaning train or as part of the dewatering train.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 10/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

As a base case and for average pipelines (20 to 100 km) four trains will be used, as follow:
5.3.1 Train A
Its purpose is to remove large debris, metallic or other. It will be comprised of a set of BIDI pigs
with brushes and magnets, separating gel plugs (at least two plugs).
5.3.2 Train B
Its purpose is to remove the small residual debris and scale adhering to the pipe will, on the
assumption that there is no more large debris.
It will be comprised of BIDI pigs pushing sections of treated seawater (at least two sections).
The pigs will have fine brushes and/or magnets and shall have jetting effect.
5.3.3 Train C
This train will remove the final debris left behind by train B, and is made of BIDI pigs placed
between small gel sections. The final section will contain at least 1 km linear of treated
seawater.
5.3.4 Train D
This train will perform the final cleaning operation, sweeping away gel residues from the pipe
wall, and in addition will record the pipeline geometry.
It will be made of BIDI pigs, separating treated water and include one calliper pig. For long
pipelines, incorporating a second calliper pig as backup is recommended.
5.3.5 Cleanliness acceptance criteria
A cleanliness acceptance criterion is to be developed in the PPS, based on the diameter and
length of the pipeline.
The collection of debris is to be performed as follow:
50 m before receiving the pig train, the liquid shall be collected in a tank, allowed to settle
and the sludge measured. The specific arrangement for the safe collection of sludge shall
be discussed with Contractor
The sludge and debris arriving in the pig trap shall be also collected.
The cleanliness acceptance criteria shall be based on the addition of these two volumes of
sludge and solid debris, either as volume or weight.
5.3.6 Evaluation of caliper run results
The data from the caliper pig (s) are to be evaluated for quality as soon as received. Within 48h,
a preliminary report is to be provided with main features found, and the final report is to be
provided within 2 weeks of the caliper run. All indications in excess of 2% nominal ID are to be
reported, located and interpreted.
Unless modified by the PPS, the acceptance criteria will be the same as for the gauging
performed during the initial flooding operation (see GS EP PLR 501).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 11/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

6. Pipeline dewatering and swabbing


6.1 General
The aim of the dewatering operation is to remove as much as possible water from the pipeline,
to minimise the subsequent drying duration, as well as to remove salt contamination from the
pipe wall. Typical receiver arrangement is given in Appendix 2, and typical layout of
instrumentation and equipment in Appendix 2.
Following dewatering, water will remain:
At the low points of the pipeline
On the pipe walls, as a film of water adhering to the rough metal surface. The rougher the
pipe wall (case of pipe stocked in saline atmosphere for a long time) and the more water
will be left after dewatering. Flow coating will help in minimising the thickness of the water
film
In the branches, fitting, service valves cavities, which shall be drained.
Like in the previous phase, dewatering will be monitored, before continuing with drying
operations.

6.2 Dewatering and swabbing principles


Dewatering will be performed with two trains using high sealing pigs (BIDI type) propelled by
super dry compressed air (dew point -40C at atmospheric pressure).
The PPS may require having a methanol or glycol slug in the dewatering train preceded and/or
followed by a nitrogen batch.
Methanol should be used only after verifying that it is not detrimental to flow coating (if any),
valves internal, etc. Its purpose is to improve the dewatering and prepare the line for drying
operations. In view of its toxicity and operating restrictions at sea, this methanol slug will only be
passed through once.
This method must not be used alone to achieve the requested dryness of the pipe, unless
explicitly requested in the PPS. It is also noted that methanol/glycol swabbing may be kept as
backup in case of problems during the dewatering train run.
The speed will be controlled by back pressure so as to achieve a speed range above 1 m/s,
with no stoppage nor speed reduction. In case of stoppage, the corresponding train will have to
be rerun.
In the case when a combined swabbing/dewatering operation is performed with production gas,
the volume of glycol is to be sufficient to achieve max. 2% water contamination at reception of
the last batch of glycol.

6.3 Dewatering
Dewatering will be performed by means of two separate pig trains, made up of BIDI pigs.
Fresh water batches will be run in the first dewatering train, to remove salt residues. The volume
of fresh water shall represent 2 to 4% of the pipe volume, and be split in several batches. The
fresh water used must be filtered to 50 microns and treated as per GS EP COR 560
requirements.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 12/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

6.3.1 Train A
The purpose of this train is to remove most of the water from the pipeline. It will include one or
two batch of fresh water propelled by super dry air (minimum dew point of -40C, measured at
entrance of pipeline) and possibly a methanol/glycol batch, between bi-directional pigs. The salt
content in the last batch of fresh water shall be less than 0.2 g/l. If this value is not achieved,
additional batch of fresh water is to be run until the value is met.
6.3.2 Train B
The purpose of this train is to disperse the residual water, especially in the low points, leaving
only a residual film on the pipe walls:
50 to 80 g/m2 for an uncoated pipe
20 to 30 g/m2 for a flow coated pipe.
Several bi-directional pigs propelled by super dry air will be run, until no liquid water is collected
in the receiver. For short pipes (less than 50 km), foam pigs (80/100 kg/m3) may be run until
there is no water collected at arrival.
The dew point measured after this dewatering shall be at least 5 deg C below the pipeline
ambient temperature, measured at 1 barg.
6.3.3 Depressurisation
After completing the dewatering, the pipeline shall be depressurised to atmospheric. Noise
levels shall be in conformity with the PPS requirements.
6.3.4 Records and measurements
The Contractor must provide all equipment necessary for the correct execution of the
dewatering operation and in particular:
A test cabin
Salinity meter
Dew point measuring and recording system. Two of these will be provided, with
appropriate calibration, and based on different measurement method.

6.4 Final documentation


A complete report for cleaning and dewatering operations will be submitted for approval by
Company and enclosed with the acceptance certificate of each phase of the precommissioning.
The following shall be included in the final report:
The calibration certificates for all instruments
The report forms signed by all parties
The debris collection report
Reports on pig run, with numbers, type, condition, etc.
Salt content in the last fresh water batch

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 13/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

The quantity, pressure and flowrate of fluids for each train


The air dew point records during the second run.

7. Pipeline drying
7.1 General
Once the dewatering has been completed, the various pipeline sections can be tied in together
by Golden welds (if hydrotested / dewatered in several sections) and the valves reinstalled in
line.
To avoid hydrate formation during commissioning and operation, the pipeline must be dried and
brought to its contractual dew point before inerting and introduction of hydrocarbon gas.
The typical dew point target for standard gas pipeline is -20 deg C at atmospheric pressure,
unless otherwise specified in the PPS.
The three following methods are possible:
Vacuum drying
Drying by circulation of dry air / nitrogen
Drying by circulation of dry natural gas.
The choice between first and second option can be made by Contractor, provided the valves
have been designed for vacuum.
The third option is generally Companys choice, and is dependent on the commissioning and
operation constraints.
These 3 methods are incompatible with glycol swabbing, as it will make the evaporation of all
the residual water more difficult.
The following requirements shall be met before the drying can be started:
Drying operation is to follow immediately the dewatering
If more than 24 h separates the end of dewatering and the start of drying, then a BIDI or
foam pig is to be run again
The sizing of the drying equipment shall be based on residual water of 50 to 80 g/m2 for
an uncoated pipe and 20 to 30 g/m2 for a flow coated pipe
Valve body cavity, branches, etc., have been drained from residual water.

7.2 Vacuum drying


The efficiency of vacuum drying is governed essentially by the two following parameters:
Quantity of water remaining in the pipe and assessment of the effectiveness of dewatering
Internal pipe temperature. The higher the temperature, the more effective and rapid will be
the vacuum drying operation by reduction of the specific volume of the water vapour
drawn out. It will be preferred in hot climates, or during summer in moderate climates. It
will be avoided in cold climates, or cold sea.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 14/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

7.2.1 Operating procedure


Vacuum drying involves vaporisation of the water at the boiling pressure corresponding to the
pipe temperature. For example:
At 5C the boiling pressure is 8.6 mbar
At 10C, the boiling pressure is 12.2 mbar
It can be combined with nitrogen or super dry air purging, if required in the PPS.
Depending on the size of the pipeline, two systems can be used to make the vacuum:
Vacuum pumps
Ejectors, generally operating with compressed air.
Vacuum pumps are particularly suited for smaller pipelines (width/diameter) and when the
internal pipe temperature is higher than 10C. Vacuum pumps have a constant volume rate of
flow which has the disadvantage of lengthening considerably the drying time.
Ejectors may be mounted in series and their efficiency can be greatly improved by using a
condenser. They have the following advantages:
No moving parts
Can treat large volumes
Compact and mounted on Skid
They work with a mass flow rate which decreases slowly with intake pressure
They only require a supply of compressed air.
The vacuum unit chosen shall be sized so as to start the vaporisation of free water in 24 h to
48 h. Typical layout of a vacuum plant is given in Appendix 3.
The drying operation shall follow the seven separate steps below:
7.2.1.1 Preliminary checks
The vacuum operation shall not be started until the following checks are completed:
Valve body are vacuum tight (drain valves properly closed)
Temporary connection, branches and pig traps have vacuum tight seals.
7.2.1.2 Pumping and leak test
Before connecting the vacuum unit to the pipeline, all the temporary equipment shall be
checked for leakage, by reducing the pressure to about 10 mbar. All connections shall be
checked for leakage by visual and audio, and upon shutdown and isolation of the vacuum unit,
the pressure shall stay stable.
The vacuum unit is reconnected and the pressure in the pipeline is reduced down to about 50 to
100 mbar. The vacuum unit is again stopped and isolated for a few hours. The pressure in the
pipeline shall remain stable, unless there is a leak.
After fixing the leakage to an acceptable rate, the pumping can be resumed, down to the
vaporisation pressure of the water in the pipe.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 15/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

7.2.1.3 Vaporisation
The vaporisation pressure is maintained until all the free water in the pipe has evaporated. This
occurs at the specific dew point at the residual pressure, and its duration will depends of the
pipeline ambient temperature and the characteristics of the vacuum pump. A pressure plateau
is observed at about 10 mbar, unless there is a leak or ice formation. The dew point decreases
slowly through this phase.
Valves, branches, low points shall be visually inspected to detect ice formation.
7.2.1.4 Desorption from walls
Once the free water has been vaporised, the dew-point pressure drops rapidly. This
corresponds to the last water molecules desorption from the pipe wall capillaries. Pumping
should be stopped when the pressure is stable and the dew point measured at each pipeline
end should be consistently below the specified value.
7.2.1.5 Purging with super dry air or dry nitrogen (optional)
A rapid super dry air or nitrogen (dew point -40C or better) blast may be sent in the pipeline, if
requested in the PPS or by Contractor. The final water molecules are removed by turbulence
effect, while the dew points at each end of the pipeline are monitored.
7.2.1.6 Soak test and drying acceptance
A 24 h soak test shall then be performed, to prove that the specified dew point has been
achieved over the full pipeline length. The pipeline shall be isolated, and the pressure monitored
at both ends. The drying is considered acceptable if after 24 h the pressure has not changed, or
can be accounted for by the leakage observed during the leak test. There shall be no significant
change of the dew point, which shall remain below the specified value.
7.2.1.7 Filling with air/nitrogen
Once the dew point acceptance criterion has been met and the soak test accepted, the pipeline
can be filled, as specified in the PPS, either with:
Nitrogen, at the pressure specified in the PPS: it can be 50 mbar (abs), or atmospheric
pressure plus 50 mbar, based on commissioning constraints
Air, at a pressure given in the PPS (generally 0.5 bar above atmospheric pressure). In
specific cases (submarine pipelines with subsea flanges for example), the pressure
requirement is 0.5 bar above the maximum ambient pressure.
If the pipeline is left with partial vacuum, all the valves and fitting shall have warning signs
reading pipeline under vacuum.

7.3 Drying by circulation of dry air or nitrogen


The water evaporates by mass transfer to a dry effluent such as air. The latent heat of
vaporisation is taken from the ambient environment of the pipe and from the circulating dry air.
This method has the following advantages:
It does not affect the safety of existing installations
It is not polluting

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 16/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05

It requires no special equipment at one end of the pipeline


Duration: it is generally the quickest drying method.
However, it does require:
A high compression capacity on site
A bulky air drying system, to generate the super dry air with a dew point of -40C
An access to both ends of the pipeline.
An alternative for small pipeline size is to use dry nitrogen instead of air. The equipment needed
is significantly simpler (it can be a liquid nitrogen tank with a vaporiser).
The four successive steps are as follow:
7.3.1 Pigging while drying
The pipeline should be pigged with high sealing disks or with foam pigs, or combination of both,
during the drying operation, to spread the water uniformly on the pipe walls. Foam pigs may be
preferred for shorter pipelines and/or if there is a flow coating. The pigs shall be propelled with
super dry air (or nitrogen) at a speed not exceeding 1 m/s for foam pigs and 2 m/s for BIDI. The
pigging shall be continued until the specified dew point has been achieved.
7.3.2 Purging
The pipeline volume shall be replaced twice, with the dry air/nitrogen, and the dew point shall
remain consistently below the specified dew point.
7.3.3 Soak test
The pipeline shall be isolated for 24 h and then the pipeline volume replaced: the drying
operation will be considered acceptable if the dew point remains below the specified dew point.
7.3.4 Filling with air/nitrogen
The filling shall be performed as per 7.2.1.7 above, leaving generally a positive pressure.

7.4 Drying by circulation of natural gas


The method is identical to the above, but air is replaced by natural gas. The gas must be dry
and free from contaminants which are corrosive in the presence of free water (H2S, CO2, etc.).
It requires an access to a dry gas source and that all surface installations have been already
commissioned. Its main advantage lies in the simplicity of the equipment to be installed and to
its very low cost.
Its disadvantage is the disposal of gas charged with water vapour: it is unfit for commercial sale
unless it can be retreated and dried. Otherwise, it has to be flared.
The other disadvantage is the long duration of this operation: the capacity of pressurised natural
gas to pick up water is limited, as shown in Appendix 9: Dew point of Natural Gas. The
efficiency will increase with lower gas pressure.
Pigging is possible during the operation, helping in water removal, and the drying is achieved
when the dew point at the exit is meeting the specified value.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 17/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

8. Selection of the drying method


8.1 Key factors
Before choosing one or other pipeline drying method, it is essential to identify all the factors and
parameters influencing the choice (see also Appendix 4) before using the decision tree in
Appendix 5.
These include:
Environmental and safety conditions
Operating requirements, power and space available, existence of an available flare line,
etc.
Commissioning requirements
Dew point to be achieved, based on gas sale contractual requirements
Cost and time limits
Pipe preservation consideration
Dry air circulation is the safest method if chemical swabbing is used
The use and disposal of methanol is now limited in many countries, and glycol will be
preferred
Vacuum and dry air circulation are the safest methods (versus gas circulation)
Drying with production gas must be carefully analysed with respect to adjacent
construction or production activities (SIMOPS) and is generally limited to very few cases.

8.2 Selection criteria


Each project has specific corresponding selection criteria. These include:
Pipeline characteristics (length, diameter, coating, geographical zone, trenching, subsea,
etc.)
Pipeline equipment at extremities (valves, pig traps, branches, etc.) and access to them
Commercial specification of the gas to be produced
Planning restrictions
Budget.
The enclosed table in Appendix 6 is a guide to commissioning data collection. The PPS should
contain recommendations, based on a preliminary screening of the methods versus the
requirements.
Contractor must justify his choice of the drying method by a decision tree supported by
calculations, as given in Appendix 5 and Appendix 7. The table in Appendix 8 gives an example
of a decision table (ALWYN to FRIGG 24 inch gas pipeline).
For information: Some formulae covering dewatering, drying, etc. are listed in Appendix 12, to
provide some means to check the results calculated by Contractor. They should be used for
information only.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 18/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

9. Other references
Following documents are applicable:
Professional Documents: DOE and IP6
Codes: BSI CP 8010, ANSI B 31-8 and DNV-OS-F101.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 19/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 1

Appendix 1 Preparation of initial dewatering


Pup piece
Pig receiver

PR

PR

Drain piping

NR d - c Manual valves not installed or removed prior to initial pigging and replaced by a pup
piece
NR e

Motorised valve closed during dewatering

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 20/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 2

Appendix 2 Typical layout of instrumentation and water pumping


equipment

OVERBOARD
DISCHARGE
PRESS (Am)
TEMP (Am)

TEMP (IP)
PRESS
TEMP

(WP)
(WP)

PRESS (IP)
1

TEMP (SS)

TEMP (SS)
SEABED
PRESS (IP)
TEMP (SS)

TEMP (SS)

PRESS (Am)

7
F

TEMP (Am)

2
4
8
5

SEA WATER SUPPLY

Key:
c

Data acquisition

Compressor package TEMP (I.P)

Pumping package

PRESS (Am) = Ambient pressure = barometric pressure

Water treatment

TEMP (Am)

= Ambient temperature

Tankage

TEMP (EP)

= External pipeline temperature

Hoses

TEMP (SS)

= Subsea temperature

Test cabin

= Flowrate

Gelled fluids

= Dew point

PRESS (I.P) = Internal pipeline pressure


= Internal pipeline temperature

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 21/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 3

Appendix 3 Typical layout of vacuum plant


VACUUM GAUGE

VACUUM
PLANT
ISOLATION

CONTRACTOR
INSTALLED
TEMPORARY
PIPEWORK

CONTRACTOR
INSTALLED
PIPEWORK
VACUUM
GAUGE

CLOSED DURING
PIPELINE ISOLATION

FLEXIBLE
INSTRUMENTS
MANIFOLD

VACUUM HOSE

PERMANENT
PIPEWORK

VACUUM PLANT
PACKAGE

DRY AIR
AND NITOGEN
INJECTION POINT

AROUNDED CABLES

FLOW TEMPERATURE

TO
INSTRUMENTS
MONITORING

MONITORING

PRESSURE

ZONE DURING

DEW POINT

DRYNESS

FLOW TEMP.

VERIFICATION

PIPIE TEMP.

VACUUM
GAUGE

PRESSURE
DEW PLANT
BAROMETRIC
PRESSURE

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
UNCLASSIFIED / SAFE ZONE
CHART
RECORDER

ELECTRICAL
GENERATORS
MONITORING INSTRUMENTS

SUBSEA
TEMPERATURE
10
PIPELINE

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 22/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 4

Appendix 4 Factors affecting the choice of drying method


Methods
Nuisance

Vacuum

Dry air

Nitrogen

Ejector noise

Gas
Heat of the flare

Safety

Danger of liquid
nitrogen

Danger inherent
to gas

Nitrogen storage

Large available
quantities of dry
gas

Operating
constraints
- Effluent

- Manpower

Low manpower

Low manpower

High manpower

Low manpower

- Equipment

Powerful air
compressors and
ejectors

Large air
compressors and
desiccators

Vaporizer

Expansion
equipment and
available flare

- Space required

Moderate

Numerous pigs

- Pressure

Close to vacuum

< 8 bar
Favourable

< 4 bar

As low as
possible

- Ambient air:
sea
temperature

High
temperatures
favourable

No limitation

- Sea/pipe
transfer
coefficient

High coefficient
favourable

No limitation

Pipe
characteristics Short, small
diameter

No limitation

No limitation

Small pipe

Dew point result

Excellent -35C

Good

Very good

Fair -20C

Duration

Medium

Medium/Long

Medium/long

Medium

Cost

Moderate

Moderate

Very high

Price of gas

Process
parameters

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 23/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 5

Appendix 5 Selection chart of drying methods


GAS SPECIFICATION

YES

VERY LOW DEW POINT


REQUIRED

IS THE PIPELINE FOR


SOUR GAS SERVICE ?
NO
NORMAL RANGE
DEW POINT

IS LARGE SPACE
AVAILABLE ON P.L. ENDISI ?
IS DRY GAS
AVAILABLE ?

Y
IS PIPELINE LENGHT
LOWER THAN 100 KM ?

Y
MAY GAS BE USED

Y
IS PIPELINE O.D.
LOWER THAN 6" ?

SAFELY AT BOTH
P.L. ENDS ?
Y

Y
SELECT THE
VACUUM PROCESS

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :
VACUUM PROCESS
NITROGEN PURGE

IS THERE A COLD VENT OR A


FLARE AT THE OPPOSITE P.L.
END OF DRY GAS SOURCE, OR
CAN DISCHARGED WET GAS
BE UTILIZED/PROCESSED ?
Y
IS THE TOTAL COST OF
PURGE GAS ACCEPTABLE ?
Y

CAN WET PURGE GAS BE


PROCESSED OR MAT IT BE DELIVERED TO THE CLIENT AS IT IS ?
Y

ALL METHODS
POTENTIALLY APPLICABLE

IS LARGE SPACE
AVAILABLE ON P.L. ENDISI ?

ALL METHODS EXCEPT


GAS PURGE APPLICABLE

IS LARGE SPACE
AVAILABLE ON P.L. ENDISI ?

Y
IS PIPELINE LENGHT
LOWER THAN 100 KM ?
IS PIPELINE LENGHT

IS PIPELINE LENGHT
LOWER THAN 100 KM ?

LOWER THAN 200 KM ?


Y

IS PIPELINE O.D.
LOWER THAN 6"

IS PIPELINE O.D.
LOWER THAN 6"

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :
GAS PURGE
VACUUM PROCESS

IS PIPELINE LENGHT
LOWER THAN 200 KM ?
Y

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :

GAS PURGE
VACUUM PROCESS

GAS PURGE
VACUUM PROCESS

VACUUM PROCESS

DRY AIR PURGE

DRY AIR PURGE


N PURGE
2

DRY AIR PURGE


N PURGE
2

COMPARE COSTS &


PERFORMANCE OF :
VACUUM PROCESS
DRY AIR PURGE

SELECT THE
VACUUM PROCESS

LEGEND
STATEMENT
RESULT

QUESTION. TEST

ANSWER TO TEST
IS NO
ANSWER TO TEST
IS YES

NOTE
This chart is valid for pipelines having a normal and high range heat
transfert coefficient. For pipelines with low range heat transfer coefficient
(e.g. polyurethane foam insulated pipelines), the chart can be used but the
vacuum drying method is not applicable.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 24/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 6

Appendix 6 Commissioning form


Gas pipeline data

P.L. NAME:

From: ______________

to: ______________________________________

Diameter (inch): ______

Length (km): ___________

OWNER/operator: _________________________

Design pressure (bar): __________________________

Design flowrate: ___________________________

Wall thickness (mm): ___________________________

Steel grade: ______________________________

Offshore length (km): ___________________________

P.L. status on seabed: ______________________

Construction period: ________

Gas data

Commiss. period: ___________

ST. up date: _________________

Natural Gas

Other Gas

H2S (%)or (mg/Sm3): ______

Total sulfur (mg/Sm3): ______________________

Composition:
CO2 (%) ____________

Water content (mg/Sm3): __________

Water dew point (C): _____________

AT (bar): ______________

Specific gravity/air: _______________

Hydrocarbon dew point (C): _______

AT (bar): ______________

Flow mode: _________

When diphasic flow, liquid content (g'Sm3 ): ______________________________

Other data - Comments:


Inlet facilities:
Outlet facilities:
Intermediate facilities:
Commissioning data:
Pipeline status before commissioning:
Pipeline status after commissioning:
Mean ambient temperature (C):
Surrounding medium of P.L.: ____

Mean temp. of surround. medium (C): _________

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 25/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 7

Appendix 7 Decision table model


Area no

Criteria

Criteria
value

Alternatives
No 1

No 2

No 3

No 4

5
5
5
5
Total for 5 value

3
3
3
3
Total for 3 value

1
1
Total for 1 value
Grand Total

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 26/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 8

Appendix 8 Decision table - Example of Alwyn - Frigg gas pipeline


Criteria

Criteria Value

Alternative 1
(Vacuum)

Alternative
(Gas purge)

Short duration
Low cost
Low water dew point
Reliable prediction of performance
Safety
No environment sensitive
No danger of pig blockage
Low manpower
No interference with other platform jobs
No danger of corrosion

3
5
5
3
5
3
3
3
5
5

8
10
8
8
10
10
8
8
10
10

8
6
8
8
4
6
6
8
6
6

Low cost
Low water dew point
Safety
No interference with jobs on platforms
No danger of corrosion

5
5
5
5
5

10
8
10
10
10

6
8
4
6
6

48

30

8
8
10
8
8

8
8
6
6
8

42

36

90

66

Area no.

Total area B

Low duration
Reliable prediction of performance
No environmental sensitive
No danger of pig blockage
Low manpower
Total area C
Total B + C

3
3
3
3
3

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 27/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 502

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05
Appendix 9

Appendix 9 Dew point of natural gas

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 28/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 10

Appendix 10 Instrumentation requirements


Phase

Cleaning and
Dewatering

Instrumentation

Division/Unit

Vacuum drying

Range

Accuracy)

Flowmeter and recorder

1 m /h

Note 1

1%

Pressure gauge and recorder

0.1 bar
1 bar

0 to 10 bar
0 to 50 bar

0.5%
0.5%

Salinity meter

1 mg/l

0 to 1000 mg/l

2%

0.1 deg C

-40 to +40 deg C

1 deg C

Dewpoint meter

Drying with air

Flowmeter and recorder

1 m /h

Note 1

1%

Pressure gauge and recorder

0.1 bar

0 to 10 bar

0.5%

Temperature probes

0.1 deg C

0 to 50 deg C

0.2 deg C

Ambient temperature recorder

0.5 deg C

-50 to 80 deg C

0.5 deg C

Dewpoint meter

0.1 deg C

-40 to +40 deg C

1 deg C

Temperature probes

0.1 deg C

0 to 50 deg C

0.2 deg C

Pressure gauge and recorder 1

10 mbar

0 to 1000 mbar

1%

Pressure gauge and recorder 2

1 mbar

0 to 100 mbar

1%

Pressure gauge and recorder 3

0.5 mbar

0 to 50 mbar

1%

Pressure gauge and recorder 4

0.1 mbar

0 to 10 mbar

1%

1 mbar

950 to
1050 mbar

1 mbar

Barometer

All other units to be SI


Note 1: Will depend of the pipeline size and pumps.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 29/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 11

Appendix 11 Corrosion Resistant Alloys


1. General
This appendix specifies additional requirements for the precommissioning of pipelines made of
Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA), or carbon steel with CRA cladding. Only additional
requirements are given in this appendix.

2. Specific Requirements
The contact between CRA pipe material and all equipment made of carbon steel or other noncompatible materials shall be avoided, with the exception of temporary pig launcher and
receiver.
2.1 Pipeline Cleaning
Only fresh water shall be introduced in the pipeline, and the chloride content shall be maximum
200 mg/l of water.
Only pig traps or components made of CRA compatible materials shall be directly connected to
the pipeline. Pig traps or components in carbon steel shall be welded only via "pup" pieces
made of compatible material and sufficient lengths to the pipeline.
Only high sealing disc pigs should be used for pigging operations, with no brush.
2.2 Pipeline dewatering
The dewatering pigs shall be driven by nitrogen or the fluid, whenever practicable. The entrance
of air/oxygen into the pipeline shall be avoided during the dewatering.
If air is being used as a driving medium, the following requirements shall apply:
The pipeline shall either be dewatered as per section 6.3
The pipeline shall be flushed or swabbed with slugs of condensed or demineralised water,
with a chloride content of maximum 2 mg/l of water, until the chloride content of the
disposed water and the introduced water is 2 mg/l
Dewatering shall continue with a second dewatering run as specified in section 6.3
The pipeline shall not be left dewatered with air before drying for more than 2 weeks
unless otherwise permitted in the PPS.
2.3 Pipeline Drying
The drying shall follow immediately after dewatering and shall be carried out in accordance with
section 7, and the second dewatering run shall be repeated if drying of the pipeline has not
commenced within 48 hours of completion of the dewatering activity.
The period between drying and commissioning shall be kept as short as possible.
Only nitrogen circulation or vacuum drying shall be used.
If vacuum purging and line filling is performed with dry air, only super-dry air with a dewpoint
better than -40 deg C shall be introduced into the pipeline.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 30/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 12

Appendix 12 Calculation methods


This appendix proposes calculation methods and formula to quantify the effectiveness and
performance of precommissioning operations. All the formulae given below are for information.

1. Natural gas water content


To calculate the dew point and the gas water content, either of the two McCarthy and MacKetta
nomographs can be used with the Bucacek method, which gives in percentage:

(mg / Nm )% H O = PA + B
3

P: absolute pressure in bar


A and B are coefficients which depend on temperature
From -40C to +40C
- A = 4926.5573 exp (0.0737433 t - 0.00030673912 t2)
- B = 44.8739 exp (0.053570327 t - 0.00019866041 t2)
From 40C to 90C
- A = 6156.9611 exp (0.0620686 t - 0.00013096345 t2)
- B = 40.5058 exp (0.055042799 t - 0.00016553793 t2)
From 90C to 130C
- A = 6156.9611 exp (0.0620686 t - 0.00013096345 t2)
- B = 70.0737 exp (0.032637894 t)
The water content of acid gas is higher than that of inert natural gas. Nomographs exist to make
the correction.
Alternatively, the curves in Appendix 9 give the water content of natural gas at various
pressures.

2. Hydrate formation
A number of calculation methods exist.
The Carson and Katz method is often used. It is based on the equilibrium constants of water
vapour/natural gas mixtures.
Conditions which favour hydrate formation are:
Gas at a temperature below the water dew point, i.e. presence of free water
Low temperature (below 4C)
High pressure
High levels of agitation (turbulence, pulsations).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 31/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 12

Conditions which inhibit hydrate formation are:


Addition of methanol or glycol
Gas pressure reduction
Pipeline heating.

3. Quantity of liquid left after swabbing


After the methanol and gel trains have passed through, a film of liquid, comprised of a
water/methanol mixture, remains on the pipeline walls.
The thickness of this film is directly proportional to the wall roughness (height of asperities).
LQ = 10-6 Id L Lr
Where:
LQ

Quantity in m3

Id

Diameter in mm

Length in km

Lr

Quantity of film in cm3/m2 of surface area


Type of surface

Film thickness (mm)

Quantity of film (cm3/m2)

0.05 to 0.1
0.02 to 0.03

50 to 100
20 to 30

Slightly oxidized bare steel


Epoxy

4. Pipeline dewatering
Flow rate of the propulsion agent
It can be calculated with the formula:
-3

D = 2.791.10 . V. Pd. (ID)2


Where:
V

is the pig propulsion velocity in m/s

Pd

is the discharge pressure of the propulsion agent in bar

ID

is the inner pipe diameter.

The discharge pressure of the agent (air, gas) can be evaluated as the sum of head loss due to
pig friction and difference in pressure head at the two pipe extremities.
-5

P = 9.81. 10 x RO x H
RO

Density of the liquid filling the pipe

Pressure head

Swabbing with methanol


Indications given in documents such as the British Gas Engineering Standard BGC/PS/PCI may
be consulted.
This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 32/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 12

These standards give the calculation methods for the methanol and nitrogen volumes in the
various trains and the pressures required moving them.

5. Vacuum drying
Preliminary calculations
Estimation of the quantity of water remaining after swabbing
Calculation of the internal pipe volume
Determination of Saturated Vapour Pressure (SVP) of the water (in the pipe) at ambient
temperature
Determination of the Final Pressure (FP) of the specified final dew point.
Vacuum extraction phase
Stage 1: the mass M1 (kg) of air in the pipe under initial conditions is:
M1 = 1.293 * Vi *

273
273 + fl

Stage 2: the mass M2 of air in the pipe at the start of vaporization is:
M2 = 1.293 *

273
SVP
Vi *
1023
273 + t1

Where:
- t1 = t2
- P2 = SVP
Stage 3: the mass M3 of the air extracted from the pipe is:
M3 = M2 - M1
Stage 4: as the ejector capacity SC1 (kg/h) and its efficiency are known, the durations D
(hours) can be deduced:
D1 =

M3
4 * SC1

Evaporation phase
It is assumed that temperature and pressure remain constant until the end of evaporation, thus,
P3 = SVP - t3 = t1, and the duration of this phase is:

D2 =

LQ
E 2 * SC 2

Final drying

At the end of this phase, the conditions are Pressure: FP, Temperature: t4 = t1
Stage 1: the mass M4 of evaporated air equals M2

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 33/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 12

Stage 2: the mass M5 of residual air at the pressure FP is:


M5 = 1.293 *

273
FP
Vi *
1023
273 + t 1

Stage 3: the mass M6 of air extracted from the pipeline equals M2 - M5


Stage 4: the duration of this final phase is:
D3 =

M6
E 3 * SC 3

Stage 5: the total duration of drying is then D4 = D3 + D2 + D1


Air purge and gas purge

These purges are based on the same principle, i.e. the mass transfer of water molecules from
the pipe wall to a jet of dry fluid injected into the pipe.
Required water quantities

W = K S Cm
Where:
W

is the quantity of water required to saturate the dry fluid per unit time (9/s)

is the mass transfer coefficient (cm/s) determined as per further formula (*)

is the transfer surface area

Cm

is the mean value of the water concentration gradient of the film remaining on the
pipe wall.
(*) K = A * Re n * Sc m *

D
d

Where:
d

Pipe diameter in cm

Water vapour diffusion capacity in a dry fluid (cm2/s)

Re

Reynolds number Re =

Sc

Schmitt number Sc =

d.u.

.D

With:

absolute viscosity of the dry fluid

density of dry fluid in pipe

dry fluid velocity in the pipe

A, n, m are constants determined by Gilliland: A = 0.023, n = 0.83, m = 0.44

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 34/35

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 502

Rev: 05
Appendix 12

Cm =

C 0 C1
C
Ln 0
C1

C0 and C1 are respectively the water concentrations of the fluid on the pipe wall and in the
middle of the pipe, C0 being the value at the start of the mass transfer process and C1 at the
end.
Required gas quantities

In the gas purge method, an initial estimation of the gas quantities required can be made as
follows:
Stage 1
Give a value for purge pressure and determine the water content of the saturated purge
gas (WS) at the pipe temperatures and pressures.
Stage 2
As the water content of the purge gas (WO) is known, the quantity of water (WE)
conveyed with each N/m3 of purge gas can be determined as: WE = WS - WO.
Stage 3
The required gas quantity (GQ) is estimated as:
GQ =

LQ
WE

With:
- LQ

in gramme

- We

in gramme per N/m3

Stage 4
A purge flow rate is given and a check is made, by means of head loss, to see whether
the purge pressure for mean flow rate given in Stage 1 has been reached. If not, the
procedure is repeated from Stage 1 with a different pressure value.
When the right pressure is reached, the purge duration is obtained.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 35/35