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COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector:

ELECTRONICS

Qualification Title:

Computer Systems Servicing NC II

Unit of Competency:

Install and Configure Computer Systems

Module Title:

Installing and Configuring Computer Systems

Department of Education
DIFFUN HIGH SCHOOL
Diffun, Quirino

HOW TO USE THIS MODULE


Welcome to the Module Installing and Configuring Computer Systems.
This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete.
The unit of competency Install and Configure Computer Systems
contains knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a Computer System Servicing
NC II course.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each of the learning outcomes of the module. In each learning outcome
there are Information Sheets, Job Sheets, Operation Sheets, and Activity
Sheets. Follow these activities on your own and answer the Self-Check at the end of
each learning activity.
If you have questions, dont hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance.
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
You may already have some of the knowledge and skills covered in this module
because you have:
o been working for some time
o already have completed training in this area.
If you can demonstrate to your teacher that you are competent in a particular
skill or skills, talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you dont
have to do the same training again. If you have a qualification or Certificate of
Competency from previous trainings show it to your teacher. If the skills you acquired
are still current and relevant to this module, they may become part of the evidence
you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss
it with your teacher.
After completing this module ask your teacher to assess your competency.
Result of your assessment will be recorded in your competency profile. All the
learning activities are designed for you to complete at your own pace.
Inside this module you will find the activities for you to complete followed by
relevant information sheets for each learning outcome. Each learning outcome may
have more than one learning activity.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


Issued by:

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COMPUTER SYSTEMS SERVICING


COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

List of Competencies

No.

Unit of Competency

Module Title

1.

Install and
Configure Computer
Systems

Installing and
Configuring Computer ELC724331
Systems

2.

Set-up Computer
Networks

Setting-up Computer
Networks

ELC724332

3.

Set-up Computer
Servers

Setting-up Computer
Servers

ELC724333

4.

Maintain and Repair


Computer Systems
and Networks

Maintaining and
Repairing Computer
Systems and Networks

ELC724334

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Code

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MODULE CONTENT

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: Install and Configure Computer Systems


MODULE TITLE:

Installing and Configuring Computer Systems

MODULE DESCRIPTOR:
This module covers the outcomes required in installing and configuring
desktop and workstation computers systems. It consists of competencies to
assemble computer hardware, install operating system and drivers for
peripherals/devices, and install application software as well as to conduct
testing and documentation

NOMINAL DURATION: 10 hours

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 1

ASSEMBLE COMPUTER HARDWARE


Contents:
1. OH&S policies and procedures
2. Tools, equipment and testing devices
3. Computer hardware
4. Operating system
5. Established installation procedures
6. Peripherals/devices
7. Application software
8. Stress test
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

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Assessment Criteria
1. Unit assembly is planned and prepared to ensure Occupational Health
and Safety policies and procedures are followed, the work is
appropriately sequenced in accordance with requirements

2. Appropriate personnel are consulted to ensure the work is coordinated


effectively with others involved on the work site

3. Devices/systems are obtained in accordance


procedures and to comply with requirements

with

established

4. Location in which devices / systems are to be installed is determined


from job requirements

5. Materials necessary to complete the work are obtained in accordance


with established procedures and checked against job requirements

6. Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the


installation work are obtained in accordance with established
procedures and checked for correct operation and safety

7. Preparatory work is checked to ensure no unnecessary damage has


occurred and complies with requirements

Conditions
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:

PC or workstations

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

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Instructional Manuals such as: Occupational Health and Safety


policies and procedure manual, device manual and hardware
diagrams and charts.

Tools, equipments and test instruments such as: protective eyewear,


digital multi-meter, crimping tools, pliers, screw drivers.

Supplies and materials such as: appropriate operating system ,driver


software, software applications and programs.

Assessment Method:
1. Hands-on
2. Direct observation
3. Practical demonstration
4. Oral Questioning

LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 3

INSTALL OPERATING SYSTEM AND DRIVERS FOR PERIPHERALS /DEVICES

Contents:
1.

Operating system (OS) is installed in accordance with established


installation procedures and to comply with end-user requirements

2.

Peripherals/devices drivers are installed and configured in accordance


with manufacturers instructions and/or OS installation procedures.

3.

OS and drivers updates/patches are accessed and installed in accordance


with manufacturers recommendations and requirements

4.

On-going checks of the quality of the work are undertaken in accordance


with established procedures
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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Assessment Criteria
1. Installation planned and prepared to ensure that safety measures,
policies and procedures followed, and that work is appropriately
sequenced in accordance with the industry standards

2. Technical personnel consulted to ensure that the work coordinated


effectively with others involved on the worksite

3. Computer systems and network devices obtained in accordance with the


established procedures and to comply with requirements

4. Location where devices and systems to be installed is determined from


job requirements

5. Materials necessary to complete the work obtained in accordance with


established procedures and checked against job requirements

6. Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the installation
work obtained in accordance with established procedures and checked
for correct operation and safety

7. Preparatory work checked to ensure that no unnecessary damage has


occurred and that work complies with requirements

8. OH&S policies and procedures for installing devices/systems are followed

9. Devices / systems are installed in accordance with requirements, without


damage or distortion to the surrounding environment or services
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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10. Variation to devices / systems installation is carried out in accordance to


customer/client requirements

11. Devices / systems are terminated and connected in accordance with


requirements

12. Unplanned events or conditions are responded to in accordance with


established procedures

13. Approval is obtained in accordance with established procedures from


appropriate personnel before any contingencies are implemented

14. On-going checks of the quality of the work are undertaken in accordance
with established procedures

15. OH&S policies and procedures are followed

16. Circuits and systems are checked as being isolated where necessary
using specified testing procedures

17. Parts or connections of the installation or service that are removed in


order to conduct the test are stored to protect against loss or damage and
in accordance with established procedures

18. Unplanned events or conditions are responded to in accordance with


established procedures

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

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19. Approval is obtained in accordance with established procedures from


appropriate personnel before any contingencies are implemented

20. Devices / systems and/or installation is tested to determine whether it


conforms to requirements

21. Parts, and/or connections removed for the purpose of testing are
returned to pre-test conditions in accordance with established
procedures

22. Final inspections are undertaken to ensure the installed devices /


systems conforms to requirements

23. Documentation in relation to the test is forwarded to appropriate


personnel and/or authority in accordance with requirements

Conditions
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:

1. Computer Hardware: Optical disc drives, Memory modules


Power supply, Cables and cords, Motherboard, Hard disk, Video card
Sound card
2. Operating systems: Windows, MAC OS X, Linux
3. Utility softwares and CD/DVD-ROMs
4. Books/manuals/magazines
5. Tools and test equipment:
5.1. Slotted head screwdriver
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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5.2. Philips head screwdriver


5.3. Long nosed pliers
5.4. Allen bit wrench
Assessment Method:
1. Hands-on
2. Direct observation
3. Practical demonstration
4. Oral and written exam

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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Learning Experience
Learning Outcome No. 1
ASSEMBLE COMPUTER HARDWARE

Learning Activities

Special Instruction

1. Read Information Sheet 1.1-1 on


Occupational Health & Safety (OHS)
Policies and Procedures.

2. Answer Self-Check 1.1-1

Compare Answers to Answer key 1.11

3. Read Information Sheet 1.1-2 on


basic requirements for a well planned
project based Installation Service.
4. Answer Self-Check 1.1-2.

Compare Answers to Answer key 1.12.

7. Read Information Sheet 1.1-3 on


the fundamentals structures and
types of Operating System

8. Answer Self-Check 1.1-3.

Compare Answers to Answer key 1.13

9. Guided by Information Sheet 1.14, proceed to the tool room and do


Task Sheet 1.1-5 on identifying
computer components and
peripherals

Observe safety in the workplace.


Trainee/trainer evaluates
performance/output using
performance checklist 1.1-4 and
makes recommendations.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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11. Read Information Sheet 1.1-5 on


the types and functions of different
tools and equipment.

12. Answer Self-Check 1.1-5

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Compare Answers to Answer key 1.15

Date Developed:
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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-1


OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading of this Information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Identify the basic precautions and procedures in planning, preparing,
installing and testing of computer hardware and software.

2. Determine the effects of computers to the people, health risk, and to the
environment.

During installation and initial test, careful planning and preparation are
to be done. To avoid personal injury and damages to wiring due to sharp pins on
connectors and printed circuit assemblies, rough chassis edges and corners, and
hot components.
Adhere to warnings and limitations regarding accessibility into areas
designated only for authorized technical personnel.
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:
SOME BASIC PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES:
Before starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and
procedures on any hardware and software settings that may be required.
Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your CPU.
Without an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause damage
to both CPU and the motherboard.
Each bank must have the same size and type of memory installed in pairs.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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Before adding and removing any other system components, make sure that
you unplug your power supply. Failure to do so may cause damage to your
motherboard and in the system component.
Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system
requirements before booting up.
If the computer does not pass any of the power on self-test (POST), the
computer will receive an irregular power on self-test. An irregular POST
is a beep code which is different from the standard beep which can either
be no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps.

EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS
Some effects of computers relating to the violation of privacy, the impact on
the labor force, health risks, and the impact on the environment.

1. Violation of Privacy
Nearly every life event is stored in a computer somewhere--in medical records,
credit reports, tax records, etc. It is crucial that personal and confidential records
be protected properly. In many instances, where these records were not properly
protected, individuals have found their privacy violated and identities stolen.
2. Impact on Labor Force
Although computers have improved productivity in many ways and created an
entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of
workers and managers have been replaced by computers. Thus, it is crucial that
workers keep their education up-to-date. A separate impact on the labor force is
that some companies are outsourcing jobs to foreign countries instead of keeping
their homeland labor force employed.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

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3. Health Risks
Prolonged or improper computer use can lead to injuries or disorders of
the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back. Computer users can protect
themselves from these health risks through proper workplace design, good
posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work breaks. Another
health risk, called computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes obsessed
with using the computer. Once recognized, computer addiction is a treatable
disorder.
4. Public Safety
Adults, teen, and children around the world are using computers to share
publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other personal information.
Some of these unsuspecting, innocent computer users have fallen victim to
crimes committed by dangerous strangers. Protect yourself and your dependents
from these criminals by being cautious. For example, do not share information
that would allow others to identify or locate you.
5. Impact on Environment
Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are depleting
natural resources and polluting the environment. The amount of resources
required to manufacture a personal computer equals that of a mid-sized
car. When computers are discarded in landfills, they release toxic materials and
potentially dangerous levels of lead, mercury, and flame retardants. Strategies
that can help protect the environment include recycling, regulating
manufacturing processes, extending the life of computers, and immediately
donating replaced computers

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-1


A. IDENTFICATION
Direction:
Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the
statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.

1. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your


CPU.
2. After adding and removing any other system components, make
sure that you unplug your power supply.
3. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system
requirements before booting up.
4. With an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause
damage to both CPU and the motherboard.
5. After starting the installation, read carefully the documentation
and procedures on any hardware and software settings that may
be required.

B. MATCHING TYPE

Direction:
Select your answer on the choices below that will correspond on
the statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided.

A. Violation of Privacy
B. Impact on the Environment
C. Public Safety
D. Health Risk
E. Impact on Labor Force

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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1. Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are depleting


natural resources and polluting the environment.
2. Although computers have improved productivity in many ways and
created an entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs,
the skills of millions of workers and managers have been replaced by
computers.
3. It is crucial that personal and confidential records be protected
properly.
4. Adults, teen, and children around the world are using computers to
share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other
personal information.
5. Prolonged or improper computer use can lead to injuries or disorders
of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back.

Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you
get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if
not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-1

A. IDENTIFICATION

1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE

B. MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. B
2. E
3. A
4. C
5. D

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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Date Revised:

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-2


BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A PLANNED INSTALLATION

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Prepare the required documents or forms before you do a well-planned
installation

2. Identify the qualifications to be a certified hardware professional so that


you could be allowed and authorized to do a well-planned installation

Are you the person everyone calls when they have a computer problem? Have
you considered getting paid for fixing near-fatal errors and turning your PC
prowess into a business? According a recent report, sales of computer services
are expected to exceed $47 billion this year in the U.S. alone, with PC repair
leading the way. But there are some requirements that you need to know before
joining the bandwagon of Computer Hardware Servicing trade, like
document/forms (e.g. Job Orders, Request Forms, and Report Sheets) and
qualifications for personnel in repairing computers.

REQUIRED DOCUMENTS/FORMS:
A. Job Order
A Job order (known as works order outside of the United States because
the work is produced in a manufacturing area known as the works) or job
order (sometimes job ticket or work ticket, as it often has some type of ticket
attached) is an order received by an organization from a customer or client, or
an order created internally within the organization. A work order may be for
products or services.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


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In a manufacturing environment, a work order is converted from a sales


order to show that work is about to be begin on the manufacture, building or
engineering of the products requested by the customer. In a service environment,
a work order can be equivalent to a service order where the WO records the
location, date and time the service is carried out and the nature of work that is
done. The type of personnel (e.g. job position) may also be listed on the WO. A
rate (e.g. $/hr, $/week) and also the total amount of hours worked and total
value is also shown on the work order.
A work order may be a maintenance or repair request from students,
faculty or staff in a university.
Orders
received
from
outside
an
organization
are
often dispatched (reviewed and scheduled) before being executed. Work orders
may be for preventive maintenance.
Contractors may use a single job work order and invoice form that contains
the customer information, describes the work performed, lists charges for
material and labor, and can be given to the customer as an invoice.
A job order is an internal document extensively used by projects-based,
manufacturing, building and fabrication businesses. A job order may be for
products and/or services. In a manufacturing environment, a job order is used
to signal the start of a manufacturing process and will most probably be linked
to a bill of material. Hence, the job order will probably state:
1. the quantity of the product to be manufactured, built or fabricated
2. the amount of raw material to be used, its price and amount
3. the types of labor required, rate (per hour or per unit) and amount
4. the machine utilization for each machine during the routing process, its
rate and amount
In a service environment, a job order can be the equivalent to a work or service
order where the job order records the location, date and time the service is
carried out and the nature of service that was carried out. The type of personnel
(e.g. job position) may also be listed on the job order. A rate (e.g. $/hr, $/week)
and also the total amount of hours worked and total value is also shown.
Sample Job Order Form
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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Computer Repair Job Order Form

Teacher Clients Name

School Diffun High School

Date March 2, 2016

Computer # 001

Service Tag# 001

Model Intel i3

Serial # 4737Z
Computer Problem: (Brief Description of the Problem)

***Blue Screen Error***


___________________________________________________________________________

For Technical Department Used Only


Fax No. (02)922-5566
Computer Fixed By: Donald B. Mandac
Date Sent Back to School: ________________
Memory Transcend 2 GHz

Processor Pentium Dual-Core 2 GHz

Hard Drive Space Hitachi Sata 80 Gig

Windows Windows 7 Ultimate

B. Request Form and Report Sheet


Computer Hardware Servicing maintenance, which includes planned
installation, main objective is to keep and improve production facilities, to keep
and improve production facilities stable and efficient at the lowest life cycle cost
with the active participation of all members in the company. A Request Form is
CBLM Computer System
Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

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used to put this objective into action. And the Report Sheet and Request Form
bring to life this maintenances purposes which are:

To increase productivity through maximum utilization and improvement


of all equipment

To develop maintenance system to reduce life cycle cost of machinery and


equipment through the involvement of everybody in the organization

To develop the operators capability to be competent in maintenance


activities through education, training and motivation.

To enhance capability for advanced and sophisticated technology that


would reinforce competitive power.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


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Sample Request Form

UNIT NO. 5-2


Description: Acer Aspire 4736Z Laptop Computer
Observation/s:

***Corrupted Operating System***

Date Reported:
March 05, 2016

Reported by:
Donald B. Mandac

Activity: Reformat Laptop

Date Completed: March 06, 2016

Sign:

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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Sample Report Sheet

Repair Report Sheet


Area/Section: DHS Computer Laboratory

Facility Type

Nature of
Breakdown

Recommendation

Laptop No
Viral Corruption
Operating System
Error
Refer to the
Technical
Department for
Reformatting of
the Operating
System

Reported by: Juan Dela Cruz

Date: March 15, 2016

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
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Date Developed:
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REQUIRED QUALIFICATION FOR A COMPUTER HARDWARE PERSONNEL:


What Qualifications Do You Need to Become a PC Repair Technician?
Education
Employers prefer applicants who have completed formal electronics
training in a vocational school, community college or similar setting, reports the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Training programs may last from 6 months to two
years. Some employers require at least a high school diploma or GED.
Certifications
Trainees can take the TESDA NC II Computer System Servicing
assessment to demonstrate their competency for entry-level jobs to employers.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority or TESDA offers a
variety of certification programs. In addition, technicians can achieve
certifications even for trainership.
Physical and Personal Traits
PC technicians must be able to squat, bend and reach to access the
computer equipment requiring repair. They should be physically able to lift at
least 50 pounds of computer components. Employers look for technicians who
can stand for long periods of time and have the ability to perceive a variety of
colors. Employers want technicians who think analytically, are organized and
pay attention to detail. They should feel comfortable working under tight
deadlines, and companies may expect them to work overtime or on weekends.
Knowledge and Skills
Applicants should know how to use a variety of standard office software, and
some jobs also require knowledge of networking. Companies prefer candidates
with previous PC repair experience, and they may look for candidates with
experience repairing specific brands of computers. Technicians need strong oral
communication skills and should be able to explain their findings to customers
using common terms.

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-2


A. IDENTIFICATION
Direction: the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement is
correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.
_________ 1. Anyone can perform a planned installation as long as he knows it.
_________ 2. The Department of Education facilitates the
competency assessment for computer technicians.
__________3. Computer Technicians are given the TESDA NC II Computer
System Servicing by TESDA after successfully taking the
Assessment.
_________ 4. Computer Technicians need not to have strong oral
communication skills for they only repair computers.
__________5. Companies prefer candidates with previous PC repair experience,
and they may look for candidates with experience repairing specific
brands of computers.
__________6. A job order is an external document by a project based
Business.
__________7. A job order can be the equivalent to a work or service order
where the job order records the location, date and time the
service is carried out and the nature of service that was carried
out.

Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you
get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if
not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-2

IDENTIFICATION

1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE
6. FALSE
7. TRUE

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3


FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:


1. Identify fundamentals of operating systems
2. Determine the different types of operating systems

An Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer


hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The
operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer
system. Application programs require an operating system which are usually
separate programs, but can be combined in simple systems.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system
and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass
storage, printing, and other resources.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the
operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the
computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly
by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be
interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that
contains a computer from cellular phones and video game consoles to
supercomputers and web servers.

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TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS:


Real-time

A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims


at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use
specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic
nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their
quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or timesharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches
between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing
operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

Multi-user

A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer


system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user
systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing
of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating
system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to use multiple accounts
on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather,
only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operating
system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the
OS makes it a multi-user operating system.

Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking

When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is


grouped under a single-tasking system. However, when the operating system
allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multitasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or coCBLM Computer System
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operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time
and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such
as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does Amiga OS.
Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to
the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows
used cooperative multi-tasking. 32-bit versions, both Windows NT and Win9x,
used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support
cooperative multitasking.

Distributed

A distributed operating system manages a group of independent


computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of
networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other
gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on
more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they
make a distributed system.

Embedded

Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded


computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs
with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources.
They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix
3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

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EXAMPLES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS:


Unix and Unix-like operating systems

Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly


based on BCPL, which he used to write
Unix, based on his experience in
the MULTICS project. B was replaced by C,
and Unix developed into a large, complex
family of inter-related operating systems
which have been influential in every
modern operating system (see History).
The Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major
sub-categories including System V, BSD, and GNU/Linux. The name "UNIX" is
a trademark of the Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating
system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. "Unix-like" is
commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the
original Unix.
Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used
heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and
engineering environments. Free Unix variants, such as GNU/Linux and BSD,
are popular in these areas.
Four operating systems are certified by the The Open Group (holder of the Unix
trademark) as Unix. HP's HP-UX and IBM's AIX are both descendants of the
original System V Unix and are designed to run only on their respective vendor's
hardware. In contrast, Sun Microsystems's Solaris Operating System can run on
multiple types of hardware, including x86 and Sparc servers, and PCs.
Apple's Mac OS X, a replacement for Apple's earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is
a hybrid kernel-based BSD variant derived from NeXTSTEP, Mach, and
FreeBSD.
Unix interoperability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. The POSIX
standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally
created for various Unix variants.
BSD and its descendants
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A subgroup of the Unix family is the Berkeley Software


Distribution family,
which
includes
FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD, PC-BSD. These
operating systems are most commonly found on web
servers, although they can also function as a personal
computer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence
to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used
by computers to connect, send and receive data over
a network were widely implemented and refined in
BSD. The world wide web was also first demonstrated
on a number of computers running an OS based on
BSD called NextStep.
BSD has its roots in Unix. In 1974, University of California, Berkeley installed
its first Unix system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science
department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as
text editors. When Berkely received new VAX computers in 1978 with Unix
installed, the school's undergraduates modified Unix even more in order to take
advantage of the computer's hardware possibilities. The Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense took interest, and
decided to fund the project. Many schools, corporations, and government
organizations took notice and started to use Berkeley's version of Unix instead
of the official one distributed by AT&T.
Steve Jobs, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed NeXT Inc., a company that
manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD
called NeXTSTEP. One of these computers was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the
first web server to create the World Wide Web.
Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code
that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, however, AT&T sued.
Eventually, after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead
and spawned a number of free derivatives, such as FreeBSD and NetBSD.

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Mac OS X

Mac OS X is a line of open


core graphical
operating
systems
developed, marketed, and sold by Apple
Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all
currently shipping Macintosh computers.
Mac OS X is the successor to the
original Mac OS, which had been Apple's
primary operating system since 1984.
Unlike its predecessor, Mac OS X is
a UNIX operating
system
built
on
technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the
1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997.
The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a
desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0 "Cheetah") following in March 2001.
Since then, six more distinct "client" and "server" editions of Mac OS X have been
released, the most recent being OS X 10.8 "Mountain Lion", which was first made
available on February 16, 2012 for developers, and to be released to the public
late summer 2012. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats.
The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop
counterpart but usually runs on Apple's line of Macintosh server hardware. Mac
OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools
that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer
agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others.
In Mac OS X v10.7 Lion, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been
integrated into the client version.
Linux and GNU

Linux (or GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like operating system that was


developed without any actual Unix code, unlike BSD and its variants. Linux can

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be used on a wide range of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches.


The Linux kernel is released under an
open source license, so anyone can read
and modify its code. It has been modified
to run on a large variety of electronics.
Although estimates suggest that Linux is
used on 1.82% of all personal computers,
it has been widely adopted for use in
servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has superseded
Unix in most places, and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers in
the world. The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red
Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Google's Android.
The GNU project is a mass collaboration of
programmers who seek to create a completely free and
open operating system that was similar to Unix but
with completely original code. It was started in 1983
by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of
the parts of most Linux variants. Thousands of pieces
of software for virtually every operating system are
licensed under the GNU General Public License.
Meanwhile, the Linux kernel began as a side project
of Linus Torvalds, a university student from Finland.
In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted
information about his project on a newsgroup for
computer students and programmers. He received a
wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating
a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members of both
projects worked to integrate the finished GNU parts with the Linux kernel in
order to create a full-fledged operating system.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed
by Microsoft Corporation and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based
computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connected
computers. The newest version is Windows 7 for workstations and Windows
Server 2008 R2 for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook Windows XP as most
used OS.
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Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an application running on top of MSDOS, which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel
architecture personal computers at the time. In 1995, Windows 95 was released
which only used MS-DOS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x
could run real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.x drivers. Windows Me,
released in 2000, was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have
all been based on the Windows NT kernel. Current versions of Windows run
on IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors,
although
Windows
8
will
support ARM architecture. In the past, Windows NT supported non-Intel
architectures.

Server editions of Windows are widely used. In recent years, Microsoft has
expended significant capital in an effort to promote the use of Windows as a
server operating environment. However, Windows' usage on servers is not as
widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against Linux and
BSD for server market share.

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-3


A. IDENTIFICATION
Direction: Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement
is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.
________1) An operating system is a set of programs that manage computer
hardware resources and provide common services for application
software.
________2) Operating system is not a vital component of the system software in
a computer system. Application programs require an operating
system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined
in simple systems.
________3) Time-sharing operating systems schedule time for efficient
use of the system and may also include accounting for cost
allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other
resources.
________4) For software functions such as input and output and
memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary
between application programs and the computer hardware.
________5) Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a
computerfrom cellular phones and video game consoles to
supercomputers and web servers
Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you
get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if
not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-3

IDENTIFICATION

1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. TRUE

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-4


COMPUTER COMPONENTS AND DEVICES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Classify of the hardware and software components of a computer with its
corresponding functions.
2. Determine the various computer components and peripherals

A computer system is a special subsystem of an organization's overall


information system. It is an integrated assembly of devices, centered on at least
one processing mechanism utilizing digital electronics, which are used to input,
process, store, and output data and information.
Putting together a complete computer system, however, is more involved than
just connecting computer devices. In an effective and efficient system,
components are selected and organized with an understanding of the inherent
tradeoffs between overall system performance and cost, control, and complexity.

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:
Basic Hardware Components of Computer System
Today, almost everyone in our information society has a basic
understanding of what a computer is and what it can do. A contemporary
computer system consists of a central processing unit, primary storage,
secondary storage, input devices, output devices, and communications devices
that work together with software to perform calculations, organize data, and
communicate with other computers.
A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions
stored in its own memory, that can be programmed to accept data (input),
process it into useful information (output), and store it away in a secondary
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storage device (store) for safekeeping or later reuse. The processing of input into
output is directed by the software but performed by the hardware. Figure below
shows some common computer hardware components.

Common computer hardware components


Computer system hardware components include devices that perform the
functions of input, processing, data storage; output and communication. The
devices responsible for these five areas are as follows:

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Input devices. Input devices allow you to enter data or commands in a


form that the computer can use; they send the data or commands to the
processing unit. Commonly-used input devices include keyboard, mouse,
microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC camera.

Output devices. Output devices show people the processed data-information --in understandable and useful form. Four commonly used
output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers, and a portable media
player. Input/output devices are playing an increasingly significant role in
our lives. The number and variety of input/output devices are expanding.

Processing devices. Processing devices are the computer electronic


circuitry housed in the system unit. The circuitry in the system unit is
part of a circuit board called the motherboard. Two major components on
the motherboard are the processor and memory. The processor, formally
known as the central processing unit (CPU), has electronic circuitry that
manipulates input data into the information people want. Computer
instructions are actually are executed in the central processing unit.
Memory is a series of electronic elements that temporarily holds data and
program instructions while they are being processed by the CPU. Both the
processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is an electronic device that
contains many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical current.
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Storage devices. Storage usually means secondary storage that can


store data and programs outside the computer itself. Storage devices hold
data, information, and programs permanently. These devices supplement
memory (also called primary storage) that can hold data and programs only
temporarily. Common storage devices include a hard disk, USB flash
drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. A drive is a device that reads from
and writes onto a storage medium. A storage medium is the physical
material on which data, information, and program are stored. Some
portable devices, such as digital cameras, use memory cards as the storage
media.

Communications devices. Communications devices provide connections


between the computer and communications networks, and enable
computer users to communicate and to exchange data, information, and
programs with other computers. Communications devices transmit these
items over transmission media such as cables, telephone lines, satellites,
and cellular radio. A widely used communications device is a modem.

In summary, we communicate with computers through input/output devices.


Input devices translate our data and communications into a form that the
computer can understand. The computer then processes these data, and an
output device translates them back into a form we can understand. The central
processing unit manipulates data and controls the other parts of the computer
system. Memory (primary storage) temporarily stores data and program
instructions during processing, while secondary storage feeds data and
instructions into the central processor and stores data for future use.
The System Unit
The Motherboard
The system unit is a box-like case that houses the processor, memory and other
electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. All other
computer system devices, such as the monitor, keyboard, and mouse, are linked
either directly or indirectly into the system unit.

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Figure below shows some of the components inside the system unit on a
typical PC, including the processor, memory, expansion cards, drive bays, power
supply, ports and connectors. The processor is the device that executes program
instructions. The memory device is a package that holds temporarily data and
program instructions during processing. An expansion card is a circuit board
that adds devices or capabilities to the computer. Finally, devices outside the
system unit, such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, or microphone, are
attached by a cable to a port or connector on the system unit.

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To conserve on space, all-in-one computer houses the system unit in the same
physical case as the monitor. On notebook computers, the keyboard and
pointing device often occupy the area on the top of the system unit. The display
attaches to the system unit by a hinge. The system unit on a handheld computer
usually consumes the entire device. On these devices, the display is part of the
system unit too.
When the cover of a system unit is removed, the motherboard, also called
system board, can be seen inside the housing. The motherboard, a single circuit
board, provides the path through which the processor communicates with
memory components, other components, and peripheral devices. In a typical
personal computer, the components attached to the motherboard include
processor, memory chips, support electronic circuitry, and expansion boards. It
is the processor that is the most important component of the motherboard.

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Many electronic components attach to the motherboard


A computer chip is a small piece of semi conducting material, usually silicon,
on which one or more integrated circuits are etched. The various chips have
standard-sized pin connectors that allow them to be attached to the motherboard
and, there, to a common electrical path, called bus, that enables data flow
between the various system components.
An integrated circuit (IC) contains many microscopic pathways capable of
carrying electrical current. Each integrated circuit can contain millions of
elements such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors. Transistors act as
electronic switches that may or may not allow current to pass through. If current
passes through, the switch is on, representing the 1 bit. If current does not pass
through, the switch is off, representing a 0 bit. Thus, combinations of transistors
can stand for combinations of bits, which represent numbers, letters, and other
characters. The motherboard in the system unit contains many different types
of chips. A miniaturized central processing unit can be etched on a chip, then
the term computer on a chip.
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A central processing unit on a chip is called a microprocessor. On a


personal computer, the central processing unit (CPU) usually is contained on a
single chip. On the larger computers such as mainframes and supercomputer,
the various functions performed by CPU are spread across many separate chips.
Today's popular Pentium microprocessor contains more than one hundred
million transistors.
Ultimately, the type of processor and the amount of RAM placed on the
motherboard define the computers speed and capacity. The processor is
generally not made by the manufacturers of PCs. It is made by companies that
specialized in the development and manufacture of microprocessors. A number
of companies make microprocessors, including Intel, IBM, Motorola, Advanced
Micro Devices (AMD), and Cyrix. Most chips are no bigger than one-half-inch
square. Manufacturers package chips so the chips can be attached to a circuit
board such as a motherboard, memory module, or adapter card.
A variety of chip packages exist.
One type, called a dual inline
package (DIP), consists of two
parallel rows of pints that attach
the chip package to the circuit
board. A pin grid array (PGA)
package holds a larger number of
pins because the pins are mounted
on the surface of the package. A
flip chip-PGA (FC-PGA) package
is a higher-performance PGA
packaging that places the chip on
the opposite side of the pins.
Another
high
performance
packaging technique does not use
pins. A single edge contact (SEC)
cartridge
connects
to
the Some common chip packages
motherboard on one of its edges.

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The Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU), also called processor, interprets and carries
out the basic instructions that operate a computer. The CPU significantly
impacts overall computing power and manages most of a computer's operations.
On larger computers, such as mainframes and supercomputers, the various
functions performed by the processor extend over many separate chips and often
multiple circuit boards. On a personal computer, all functions of the processor
usually are on a single chip.
Most processor chip manufacturers now offer multi-core processors. A multi-core
processor is a single-chip with two or more separate processors. Two common
multi-core processors used today are dual-core and quad-core. A dual-core
processor is a chip that contains tow separate processors. Similarly, a quad-core
processor is a chip with four-separate processors. Each processor on a multicore chip generally runs at a slower clock speed than a single-core processor,
but multi-core ships typically increase overall performance.
Memory
While performing a processing operation, a processor needs a place to
temporarily store instructions to be executed and the data to be used with those
instructions. The CPU cannot process data on an input device or disk directly;
the data must first be available in memory. A computer's memory in the system
unit, located physically close to the CPU (to decrease access time), provides the
CPU with a working storage area for program instructions, data and information.
Memory is also known as primary storage or internal storage. Memory
usually consists of one or more chips on the motherboard or some other circuit
board in the computer.
The major feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the instructions and data
to the CPU. Memory stores three basic categories of items: (1) the operating
system and other system software that control or maintain the computer and its
devices; (2) application programs that carry our a specific task such as word
processing; and (3) the data being processed by the application programs and
resulting information.
This role of memory to store both data and programs is known as the stored
program concept.

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Memory and storage sizes


Programs and data are placed in memory before processing, between processing
steps, and after processing has ended, prior to being returned to secondary
storage or released as output. Recall that a character is stored in the computer
as a group of 0s and 1s, called a byte. Thus, a byte is the basic storage unit in
memory. Like the CPU, memory components contain thousands of circuits
imprinted on a silicon chip. Each circuit is either conducting electrical current
(on) or not (off). By representing data as a combination of on or off circuit states,
the data is stored in memory. When application program instructions and data
are transferred into memory from storage devices, each of bytes is placed in a
precise location in memory, called an address. This address is simply a unique
number identifying the location of the byte in memory. To access data or
instructions in memory, the computer references the addresses that contain
bytes of data. The size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available
for use (Figure 4-17). A kilobyte of memory is equal to exactly 1,024 bytes. To
make storage definitions easier to identify, computer users often round a kilobyte
down to 1,000 bytes. A megabyte (MB) is equal to approximately 1 million bytes.
A gigabyte (GB) equals approximately 1 billion bytes. A terabyte (TB) is equal to
approximately 1 trillion bytes.
The system unit contains two types of memory: volatile and nonvolatile. The
contents of volatile memory are lost when the computer power is turned off. In
nonvolatile memory, the combination of circuit states is fixed, and therefore the
contents of nonvolatile memory are not lost when power is removed from the
computer. RAM is the most common type of volatile memory. Examples of
nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory and CMOS. The following subsections discuss these types of memory.

RAM

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Random Access Memory (RAM) is the memory chips that are mounted directly
on the motherboard or mounted on peripheral cards that plug into the
motherboard. The RAM chips consist of millions of switches that are sensitive to
changes in electric current. When the computer is powered on, certain operating
system files are loaded from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. These
files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. As additional programs
and data are requested, they are read from storage into RAM. The processor acts
upon the data while it is in RAM. During the running time, the contents of RAM
may change as the program is executed.
RAM comes in many different varieties. Three basic types of RAM are dynamic
RAM, static RAM, and magnetoresistive RAM. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) must be
refreshed (or recharged) constantly by the CPU or it loses its contents. Many
variations of DRAM chips exist, most of which are faster than the basic DRAM.
One type of DRAM is Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), which is much faster than
DRAM because it is synchronized to the system clock. Double Data Rate (DDR)
SDRAM chips are eve faster than SDRAM chips because they transfer data twice
for each clock cycle, instead of just once, and DDR2 and DDR3 are even faster
than DDR. Dual channel SDRAM is faster than single channel SDRAM because
it delivers twice the amount of data to the processor. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
is yet another type of DRAM that is much faster than SDRAM because it uses
pipelining techniques. Most personal computers today use some form of SDRAM
chips or RDRAM chips.
Static RAM (SRAM) is faster and more reliable than any form of DRAM. The term
static refers to the fact that it does not have to be re-energized as often as DRAM.
SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM, thus it is usually used for special
purpose, such as used in cache.
A newer type of RAM, called magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), stores data using
magnetic charges instead of electrical charges. Manufacturers claim that MRAM
has greater storage capacity, consumes less power, and has faster access times
than electronic RAM. Also, MRAM retains its contents after power is removed
from the computer, which could prevent loss of data for users. As the cost of
MRAM declines, experts predict MRAM could replace both DRAM and SRAM.

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RAM chips usually are packaged on


a small circuit board, called memory
module, which is inserted into the
motherboard (Figure 4-19). Three
types of memory modules are SIMMs,
DIMMs, and RIMMs. A single inline
memory module (SIMM) has pins on
opposite sides of the circuit board
that connect together to form a single
set of contacts. With a dual inline
memory module (DIMM), the pins on
opposite sides of the circuit board do
not connect and thus form two sets
of contacts. SIMMs and DIMMs
typically hold SDRAM chips. A
Rambus inline memory module
(RIMM) houses RDRAM chips.

A memory module being inserted in a

motherboard.
The amount of RAM a computer
requires often depends on the types
of applications you plan to use on the computer. A computer only can
manipulate data that is in memory. A computer needs a certain amount of
memory to store programs, data, and information. The more RAM a computer
has, the faster the computer will respond.

A software package usually indicates the minimum amount of RAM it requires.


If you want the application to perform optimally, typically you need more than
the minimum specifications on the software package. The necessary amount of
RAM varies according to the type of work you do and the type of software
applications you are using. The amount of RAM on your computer determines
how many programs and how much data a computer can handle at one time and
thus affects overall performance. Generally, home users running Windows Vista
and using basic application software such as word processing should have at
least 1GB of RAM. Most business users who work with accounting, financial, or
spreadsheet programs, and programs requiring multimedia capabilities should
have 1 to 4 GB of RAM. Users creating professional Web sites or using graphicsintensive applications will want 4GB or more of RAM. The amount of RAM in
computers purchased today ranges from 1GB to 64GB. In an advertisement,
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manufacturers specify the maximum amount of RAM a computer can hold, for
example, 1GB expandable to 2GB.
ROM
Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and
instructions. That is, the items stored in ROM chips cannot be modified--hence,
the name read-only. ROM is usually nonvolatile. In ROM, the combination of
circuit states is fixed, and therefore its contents are not lost if the power is
removed. The data, instructions, or information stored on ROM chips often are
recorded when the chip is manufactured. ROM chips that contain permanently
written data, instructions, or information are called firmware. Firmware can be
read and used, but cannot be changed by user. For example, ROM contains the
programs that direct the computer to load the operating system and other files
when the computer is turned on. In addition to computers, many devices contain
ROM chips. For example, ROM chips in printers contain data for fonts.
Programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a blank ROM chip on which you
can permanently place data and programs. Once the data and instructions are
programmed into PROM chip, the chip functions like a regular ROM and cannot
be erased or changed. A variation of the PROM chip, called electrically erasable
programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip, allows a programmer to
erase the microcode with an electric signal. EEPROM chips are where the CPU's
data and instructions change, but only infrequently, such as an industrial robot
used in an automobile manufacturer.
Flash Memory
Another type of nonvolatile memory is called flash memory. Flash memory is a
chip that keeps its memory when the power is shut off. Similar to a EEPROM
chip, flash memory can be erased electronically and reprogrammed. Most
computers use flash memory to hold their startup instructions because it allows
the computer easily to update its contents. For example, when the computer
changes from standard time to day-light savings time, the contents of a flash
memory chip (and the real-time clock chip) change to reflect the new time.
Flash memory chips also store data and programs on many mobile computers
and devices, such as smart telephones, digital cameras, pagers, PDAs,
automotive devices, portable media players, digital voice recorders, and
printers. When you enter names and addresses in a smart phone or PDA, a flash
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memory chip stores the data. Some portable media players such as MP3 players
store music on flash memory chips; others store music on tiny hard disks or
flash memory cards. The logic capabilities of these devices can be upgraded by
simply downloading new software from the Internet or a vendor-supplied disk to
flash memory.
CMOS
Some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips use
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology because it
provides high speeds and consumes little power. CMOS technology uses battery
power to retain information even when the power to the computer is off. Batterybacked CMOS memory chips, for example, can keep the calendar, date, and time
current even when the computer is off. The flash memory chips that store a
computer's startup information often use CMOS technology.
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

An expansion slot is a
socket on the motherboard
that can hold an adapter
card. An adapter card,
also called expansion card,
is a circuit board that
enhances functions of a
component of the system
unit
and/or
provides
connections
to
peripherals. A peripheral
is a device that connects to
the system unit and is
controlled by the processor
in the computer. Examples An adapter card being inserted in an expansion slot
of
peripherals
are
modems, disk drives, printers, scanners, and keyboards. The adapter cards
contain the electronic circuitry for many supplemental capabilities, such as more
memory, higher-quality sound devices, a modem, extra ports, or graphics
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capabilities. Figure shows an expansion card being plugged into an expansion


slot on a personal computer motherboard.
Figure below lists currently used types of adapter cards. Sometimes, all
functionality is built in the adapter card. With others, a cable connects the
adapter card to a device, such as a digital video camera, outside the system unit.
Some motherboards
include all necessary
capabilities and do
not require adapter
cards.
Other
motherboards may
require
adapter
cards
to
provide
capabilities such as
sound and video. A
sound card is used
to
enhance
the
sound-generating
capabilities
of
a
personal computer
by making two basic
Currently used adapter cards and their functions
functions possible.
First
it
enables
sounds to be captured and stored on disk. Second, it enables sounds to be played
through external speakers. The sound card can add realism to computer games
with stereo music and sound effects.
It also allows us to speak commands and enter words to our PCs via speech
recognition. The typical sound card will have receptacles for a microphone, a
headset, an audio output, and a joystick. A video card, also called video
adapter or graphics card, converts computer output into a video signal that is
sent through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen.
In the past, installing a card was not easy and required you to set switches and
other elements on the motherboard. Today, many computers support Plug and
Play, which refers to the computer's capability to automatically configure
adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them. Having Plug and Play
support means that a user can plug in a new component turn on the computer,
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and then use or play the component without having to configure the system
manually.
There are four widely used types of removable flash memory devices: flash
memory cards, USB flash drives, PC cards, and ExpressCard modules. Unlike
adapter cards that require you to open the system unit and install the card on
the motherboard, you can change a removable flash memory device without
having to open the system unit or restart the computer. This feature, called hot
plugging, allows you to insert and remove the removable flash memory and other
devices while the computer is running.

Flash memory cards and USB flash drive


A flash memory card is a removable flash memory device, which you inset and
remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer. Many
mobile and consumer devices, such as smart phones, digital cameras, portable
media players, and PDAs use these memory cards. Some printers and computers
have built-in card readers/writers or slots that read flash memory cards. In
addition, you can purchase an external card reader/writer that attaches to any
computer. Flash memory cards are available in a variety of shapes, sizes and
capacities.

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A USB flash drive is a flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on
a computer or portable device. A special type of USB flash drive, called a U3
smart drive, includes preinstalled software accessed through a Window-type
interface.
Many computers have a PC Card slot or an Express Card slot, which is a special
type of expansion slot that holds a PC Card or an Express Card module,
respectively. A PC Card is a thin, credit card-sized removable flash memory
device that primarily is used today to enable notebook computers to access the
Internet wirelessly. Express Card modules are the next generation of PC Cards.
An Express Card module, which can be used as a removable flash memory
device, adds memory, communications, multimedia, and security capabilities to
computers. Both PC Cards and Express Card modules conform to standards
developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
These standards help to ensure the interchangeability of PC Cards and Express
Card modules among personal computers.
Other Components
Buses
As previously explained, a computer
processes and stores data as a series
of electronic bits. These bits are
transferred internally within the
circuitry of the computer along
electrical channels. Each channel,
called a bus, allows the various
devices inside and attached to the
system unit to communicate with A PC Card slides in a PC Card slot
each other. Just as vehicles travel on
a highway to move from one destination to another, bits travel on a bus.

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Just as vehicles travel on a highway, bits travel on a bus

Buses are used to


transfer bits from
input devices to
memory,
from
memory to the CPU,
from the CPU to
memory, and from
memory to output
or storage devices.
All buses consist of
two parts: a data
bus and an address
bus. The data bus
transfers
actual
data
and
the
address
bus
transfers
information about
where
the
data
should
go
in

memory.
A bus is measured by its size. The size of a bus, called the bus width, determines
the number of bits that can be transmitted at one time. For example, a 32-bit
bus can transmit 32 bits (4 bytes) at a time. On a 64-bit bus, 64 bits (8 bytes)
are transmitted from one location to another at a time. The larger the number of
bits handled by the bus, the faster the computer transfers data. If a number in
memory occupies 64 bits, it must be transmitted in two separate steps when
using a 32-bit bus: once for the first 32 bits and once for the second 32 bits.
Using a 64-bit bus, however, the number can be transmitted in a single step,
transferring all 64 bits at once. The wider the bus, the fewer number of transfer
steps required and the faster the transfer of data. Most personal computers today
use a 64-bit bus.
Every bus also has a clock speed. Just like the processor, the clock speed for a
bus is measured in megahertz. The higher the bus clock speed, the faster the
transmission of data, which results in applications running faster. Most of
today's processors have a bus clock speed of 400, 533, 667, 800, 1066, or 1333
MHz.
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Buses allow the various devices inside and attached to the system unit to
communicate with each other

Two basic types of buses are found in a computer: a system bus and an
expansion bus. A system bus is part of the motherboard and connects the CPU
to main memory. An expansion bus allows the CPU to communicate with
peripheral devices. Data transmitted to the CPU travels from the expansion bus
and the system bus. When computer professionals use the term bus by itself,
they usually are referring to the system bus. Since the types of expansion buses
on a motherboard determine the types of expansion cards you can add, you
should understand the expansion buses commonly found in today's personal
computers:

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An old and slowest expansion bus is the ISA (Industry Standard


Architecture) bus. A mouse, modem card, sound card, and low-speed
network card are examples of devices that connect to the ISA bus directly
or through an ISA bus expansion slot.

The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is a high-speed


expansion bus that connects higher speed devices. Types of cards inserted
into a PCI bus expansion slot include video cards, sound cards, SCSI
cards, and high-speed network cards. The PCI bus transfers data about
four times faster than the ISA bus. Most current personal computers have
a PCI bus.

The PCI Express (PCIe) bus is an expansion bus that expands on and
doubles the speed of the original PCI bus. Nearly all video cards today use
the PCI Express bus, as well as many hard disks and network cards.
Experts predict the PCI Express bus eventually will replace the PCI bus
completely.

The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is actually a bus designed by Intel


to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and video are transmitted.
When an AGP video card is inserted in an AGP bus slot, the AGP bus
provides a faster, dedicated interface between the video card and memory.
Newer processors support AGP technology.

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) and FireWire bus are buses that
eliminate the need to install expansion cards into expansion slots. In a
computer equipped with a USB, USB devices are connected to each other
outside the system unit and then a single cable attaches to the USB port.
The USB port then connects to USB, which connects to the PCI bus on the
motherboard. The USB hot plug feature allows peripheral devices to be
connected to or removed from the USB port while the PC is running. The
FireWire bus works in a similar fashion. With these buses, expansion slots
are available for devices not compatible with USB or FireWire.

The expansion bus for a PC Card is the PC Card bus. With a PC Card
inserted into a PC Card slot, data travels on the PC Card bus to the PCI
bus.

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A system unit has many ports


Ports and Connectors
A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a
system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from
the computer. An peripheral device, such as a keyboard, monitor, printer,
mouse, digital camera, and microphone, often attaches by a cable to a port on
the system unit. Most of the time, ports are located on the back of the system
unit, but they also can be placed on the front .
A connector joins a cable to a port. A connector at one end of a cable attaches
to a port on the system unit, and a connector at the other end of the cable
attaches to a port on the peripheral. Most connectors are available in one of two
genders: male and female. Male connectors have one or more exposed pins.
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Female connectors have matching holes to accept the pints on a male


connector. Manufacturers often identify the cables by their connector types to
assist you with purchasing a cable to connect a computer to a peripheral. Figure
show the different types of connectors you may find on a system unit. Notice that
some are color-coded to help you match the connector to the correct port. Some
system units include these connectors when you buy the computer. You add
other connectors by inserting adapter cards on the motherboard. Certain adapter
cards have ports that allow you to attach a peripheral to the adapter card.
The motherboard is designed with several port options, including at least one
serial port and parallel port each, several USB ports, and a FireWire port.

A serial port is a type of interface that connects a device to the system


unit by transmitting data one bit at a time. It usually used to connect
devices that do not required fast data transmission rates, such as a mouse
or keyboard. The COM port (short for communications port) on the system
unit is one type of serial port. Some modems, which connect the system
unit to a telephone line, use a serial port because the telephone line
expects the data in a serial form. Serial ports conform to either the RS-232
or RS-422 standard with 9-pin or 25-pin. One of the 9 or 25 lines carries
the serial signal to the peripheral device, and another line carries the
signal from the device. The other lines carry control signals.

Parallel ports allow the parallel transmission of data; that is, several bits
are transmitted simultaneously. Figure also shows how 8-bit bytes travel
in parallel over 8 separate lines. Extra lines carry control signals. Parallel
ports
use
the
same
25-pin
RS-232C
connect

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or or the 36-pin Centronics connector. These ports provide the interface


for such devices as high-speed printers, external magnetic tape or disk
backup units, and other computers. Two newer types of parallel ports, the
EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) and the ECP (Extended Capabilities Port),
use the same connectors as the Centronics port, but are more than 10
times faster.

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A serial port and parallel port

USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports are used in high-speed device


interfaces. Up to 127 peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a single
USB port. USB ports are ideal for digital cameras, scanners, games
controllers, MP3 music player, CD & DVD, removable hard disk, PDA,
smart phone, and high-speed modems. Many system units have six to
eight USB ports. Some newer peripheral devices may attach only to a USB
port. Others attach to either a serial or parallel port, as well as a USB port.
When connecting a device to a USB port, you do not need to install a card
in the computer. Simply plug one end of the cable into the USB port and
the other end into the device. To attach multiple peripherals using a single
USB port, you can use a USB hub. A USB hub is a device that plugs in a
USB port on the system unit and contains multiple USB ports in which
you plug cables from USB devices. Some USB hubs are wireless. The latest
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version of USB, called USB 2.0, is a more advanced and faster USB, with
speeds 40 times higher than that of its predecessor.

FireWire ports,
also called IEEE
1394 port, are
similar to the
USB port and
can
connect
multiple types of
devices
that
require
faster
data
transmission
speeds such as
digital
video USB and FireWire ports are replacing traditional ports
cameras, digital
VCRs color printer, scanners, digital cameras, and DVD drives to a single
connector. Up to 63 devices can be connected together using a FireWire
port. The latest FireWire version, called FireWire 800, is much more
advanced than its predecessor, FireWire 400. The FireWire also supports
Plug and Play. Many computer professionals believe that ports such as
USB and FireWire someday will replace serial and parallel ports
completely. Having standard ports and connectors, such as USB and
FireWire, greatly simplify the process of attaching devices to a computer.
In general, FireWire has replaced parallel and SCSI ports, and USB ports
have replaced mouse, keyboard, serial, audio, and parallel ports. Some
newer computers do not have a serial or parallel port. Users plug the device
in a USB or FireWire port. Figure 4-32 shows how USB and FireWire are
replacing other ports completely.

There are five special-purpose ports available: MIDI, eSATA, SCSI, IrDA, and
Bluetooth. These ports are not included in typical computers. For a computer to
have these ports, you often must customize the computer purchase order. MIDI
(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) ports connect the system unit to a
musical instrument, such as an electronic keyboard. The electronic music
industry has adopted MIDI as a standard to define how devices, such as sound
cards and synthesizers, represent sounds electronically. A synthesizer, which
can be a peripheral or a chip, creates sound from digital instructions. A system
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unit with a MIDI port has the capability of recording sounds that have been
created by a synthesizer and the processing the sounds to create new sounds.
Nearly every sound card supports the MIDI standard, so you can play and
manipulate on one computer sounds that originally were created on another
computer.
An eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port, allows
you to connect an external SATA hard disk to a computer. SATA hard disks are
popular because of their fast data transmission speeds. eSATA connections
provide up to six times faster data transmission speeds than external hard disks
attached to a computer's USB or FireWire port.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports are special high-speed parallel
port and provide a parallel interface that enables faster data transmission than
serial and parallel ports. Also up to 15 SCSI peripheral devices can be daisychained to a single SCSI port; that is, they are connected along a single cable.
The first SCSI device connects to the computer, the second SCSI device connects
to the first SCSI device, and so on. SAS (serial-attached SCSI) is a newer type of
SCSI that transmits at much faster speeds than parallel SCSI.
Power Supply, Cooling Technology
Many personal computers plug in standard wall outlets, which supply an
alternating current (AC) of 115 to 120 volts. This type of power is unsuitable for
use with a computer, which requires a direct current (DC) ranging from 5 to 12
volts. The power supply is the component of the system unit that converts the
wall outlet AC power into DC power. Different motherboards and computers
require different wattages on the power supply. If a power supply is not providing
the necessary power, the computer will not function properly.

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Built into the power supply is a fan that keeps the power supply cool. Many
newer computers have additional fans near certain components in the system
unit such as the processor, hard disk, and ports. Processor chips generate quite
a bit of heat, which could cause the chip to burn up. Although the computers
main fan generates airflow, many of todays processors require additional
cooling. A heat sink is a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its
surface that absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components such
as a processor. Because a heat sink consumes extra space, smaller device called
a heat pipe cools processors in notebook computers.

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TASK SHEET. 1.1-4

Title:

Identify the Different Computer Components and Peripherals

Performance Objective In the tool shop, given the supplies, computer


components and peripherals, materials, and equipment, you are
required to identify the different computer components and peripherals
and their specifications in 15 Minutes.

Supplies/Materials:

Paper and Pen

Equipment:

1. Computer
2. PPE

Steps/Procedure:
1. Proceed to the station (with PC Unit) assigned to you
2. Identify the different components and write the specifications of
each component on your paper.
3. Submit output to trainer for evaluation

Assessment Method:

Practicum with interview

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST TASK 1.1-4


Criteria

Yes

No

Computer components and peripherals are identified


correctly
Questions about the computer components and peripherals
are answered correctly
Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) were used properly
The objective of the activity are achieved accordingly

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5


TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Identify the different tools and equipment used in computer systems
and networks
2. Determine the different use and functions of these tools and equipment
One important thing to consider before executing a well-planned computer
installation is that one must be knowledgeable in the different tools and
equipment used in computer systems and networks. Furthermore, the idea on
how these tools and equipment are properly used is another important
consideration in installing computer systems.

Hardware Tools/Equipment and


their Functions

Illustrations

Protective Eyewear

enclose or protect the eye area in


order to prevent particulates,
infectious fluids, or chemicals
from striking the eyes

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Multi-tester or Multi-meter

A multi-meter or a multi-tester,
also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm
meter), is an electronic measuring
instrument that combines several
measurement functions in one
unit

Pliers (Assorted)

Pliers is a hand tool used to hold


objects firmly, for bending,
or physical compression.

Screwdriver

A screwdriver is a tool for


driving screws and often rotating
other machine elements with the
mating drive system

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Soldering Gun

A soldering gun is
a tool for soldering metals using
tin-based solder to achieve a
highly conductive contact

Desoldering Tool

Desoldering tools are used for


removing the molten solder so that
the joint may be separated.

Allen Wrench

A hex key, Allen key, or Allen


wrench (also known by various
other synonyms) is a tool of
hexagonal cross-section used to
drive bolts and screws that have a
hexagonal socket in the head
(internal-wrenching hexagon drive)
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Flashlight

A flashlight (or torch in British


English) is a hand-held portable
electric-powered light source.
Usually the light source is a
small incandescent light
bulb or light-emitting diode (LED)

IC Insertion and Extraction Tool

Used for extracting and inserting


BIOS Chip

Mirror

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In hardware servicing a mirror is


used for inspecting the peripherals

Tweezers

Tweezers are tools used for


picking up objects too small to be
easily handled with
the human hands

Antistatic Wrist Strap

An antistatic wrist strap, ESD


wrist strap, or ground bracelet is
an antistatic device used to
safely ground a person working on
very
sensitive electronic equipment, to
prevent the buildup of static
electricity on their body, which
can result in electrostatic
discharge (ESD)

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Gloves
A gloves are garments for covering
and protecting the whole hand

Printer

a printer is a peripheral which


produces a text or graphics of
documents stored in
electronic form, usually on
physical print media such as
paper or transparencies

Computer

A computer is
a programmable machine designed
to automatically carry out a
sequence of arithmetic or logical
operations

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Windows Operating System


CD/DVD

An operating system is used as an


intermediary between hardware
and software

Device Driver
CD/DVD

An application used
to install the device
and peripherals of a
computer systems
and networks

RS 232 pin
insertion/extraction
tool

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RS232 and D-Sub


Pin Insertion and
Removal Tool

Computer Networking
Tools and Device and
their Functions

Illustrations

Crimping Tool

A crimping tool is a tool


designed to crimp or
connect a connector to the
end of a cable. For
example, network cables
and phone cables are
created using a crimping
tool to connect the RJ45 and RJ-11 connectors
to the end of the cable. In
the picture to the right, is
an example of what a
crimping tool looks like.
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This example shows a tool


capable of crimping both
RJ-11 and RJ-45
connectors.

LAN Tester

A Device used for


testing network
cable connectivity

UTP Unshielded
Twisted Pair Cat 5
Cable

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A cable used for


computer
networking

RJ 45 Connector

A plastic connector
used for UTP Cable
to connect
computers in a
network

Ethernet Switch

A network
switch or switching
hub is a computer
networking
device that
connects network
segments or network
devices

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References
1. http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/OHS/default.htm
2. www.cengageasia.com
3. www.wikipedia.com
SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-5

A. IDENTIFICATION.
Direction:
Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the
statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.

________1. Protective Eyewear enclose or protect the nose area in order to


prevent particulates, infectious fluids, or chemicals

________2. Uni-tester is an electronic device for measuring instrument that


combines several measurement and functions

________3. Fliers are hand tool used to hold objects firmly for beding or physical
Compression

________4. A screw is a tool for driving screws and often rotating other machine
elements with the mating drive system
________5. A Soldering Gun is a tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder
to achieve a highly conductive contact
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B. MATCHING TYPE
Direction: Select your answer on the choices below that will correspond on the
statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided.

1. Mirror
2. Flash light
3. Gloves
4. Tweezers
5. IC Insertion and Extracting Tool

______ 1. A hand held portable electric light source


______ 2. Used for extracting and inserting BIOS Chip
______ 3. Used for inspecting peripherals
______ 4. Intended for picking up objects too small for human hands
______ 5. Used for hand protection

Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you
get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if
not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-5

C. IDENTIFICATION

1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. TRUE
D. MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. G
2. J
3. F
4. I
5. H

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EVIDENCE PLAN

QUALIFICATION:

COMPUTER SYSTEM SERVICING NC II

Title of Evaluation

INSTALL AND CONFIGURE COMPUTER


SYSTEMS

Units of
competency
covered

INSTALL AND CONFIGURE COMPUTER


SYSTEMS

Written Examination

Demonstration with
Questioning
Observation with
Questioning

Ways in which evidence will be collected:


[tick the column]

Identifies and obtains materials necessary to complete


the work in accordance with established procedures
X
and checks against systems requirements

Obtains tools, equipment and testing devices in


installation work which establishes procedures and to
comply with requirements

Assembles computer hardware in accordance with


established procedures and systems requirements

The evidence must show that the trainee


Plans and prepares unit assembly to ensure OH&S
policies and procedures, sequences the work
appropriately in accordance with systems
requirements

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Obtains tools, equipment and testing devices which


needs to carry out installation work that establishes
and checks procedure for correct operation and safety

Configures Basic-input-output-system (BIOS) in


accordance with hardware requirements

Creates portable bootable devices in accordance with


software manufacturer instruction

Prepares customized installers in accordance with


software utilization guide and end user agreement

Carries out installation of portable applications in


accordance with software user guide and software
license

Installs Operating system (OS) in accordance with


established installation procedures and to comply with
end-user requirements

Installs and configures peripherals/devices drivers in


accordance with manufacturers instructions and/or
OS installation procedures.

Accesses and installs OS and drivers


updates/patches in accordance with manufacturers
recommendations and requirements
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Undertakes on-going checks of the quality of the work


in accordance with established procedures

X
X

Installs application software based on software


installation guides, end-user requirements and
software license agreement

Carries out variation to application software


installation in accordance to customer/client
requirements

Accesses and installs software updates in accordance


with manufacturers recommendations and
requirements

Tests devices / systems and/or installation to


determine whether it conforms to requirements

X
Conducts stress test to ensure reliability of equipment
in accordance with manufacturers instructions and
system requirements
X

Follows 5S and 3Rs according to environmental


policies
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Forwards documentation to appropriate personnel and


/or authority in relation to the test in accordance with
requirements

Identifies the different computer operating systems


X

Enumerated the different peripheral devices

Application packages & use of application programs


X
Identifies motherboard properly
X

Identifies video cards properly

Identifies sound card

NOTE: *Critical aspects of competency

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Table of Specification
Objectives/
Content Area/
Topics

Comprehensive

Application

# of
Items/ %
of test

(2)

(3)

(10)

4%

6%

20%

(2)

(3)

(5)

(10)

4%

6%

10%

20%

(1)

(1)

(3)

(5)

2%

2%

6%

10%

Knowledge

Unit assembly
is planned and
prepared to
ensure OH&S
policies and
procedures are (5)
followed, the
10%
work is
appropriately
sequenced in
accordance
with
requirements
Operating
system (OS) is
installed in
accordance with
established
installation
procedures and
to comply with
end-user
requirements

Documentation
in relation to
the test is
forwarded to
appropriate
personnel
and/or
authority in
accordance

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with
requirements
Computer
hardware is
assembled in
accordance with
established
procedures and
systems
requirements

(2)

(3)

(10)

(15)

4%

6%

20%

30%

(3)

(2)

(10)

6%

4%

20%

(15)

(12)

(23)

(50)

34%

24%

42%

100%

Tools,
equipment
and testing
devices needed
to carry out the
installation
work are
obtained in
(5)
accordance
with
10%
established
procedures and
checked for
correct
operation and
safety

TOTAL

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PERFORMANCE TEST

Trainee: ______________________________________

Score: _____________

Qualification: __________________________________

Date: ______________

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: ASSEMBLE COMPUTER HARDWARE

I.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

DIRECTION:
Select the best answer from among the choices given. Write
your answer on your answer sheets. (15 minutes time limit. 10 items each)

1. In OHS policies and procedures, OHS stands for:


A. Occupational Health and Safety
B. Operational Health and Safety
C. Occupational Help and Safety
D. None of Above
2. Before starting the ________, read carefully the documentation
and procedures on any hardware and software settings that may
be required.
A. Inspection
B. Installation
C. Intonation
D. None of the Above
3. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to
your ________.
A. Monitor
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B. Printer
C. CPU
D. All of the Above

4. Without an effective ________, the CPU can overheat and cause


damage to both CPU and the motherboard.
A. Cooling Fan
B. Heat Sink
C. Motherboard
D. All of the Above

5. Each bank must have the same _____ and type of memory
installed in pairs.

A. Size
B. Speed
C. Accuracy
D. All of the Above

6. Before adding and removing any other system components, make


sure that you unplug your _________.

A. Motherboard
B. UPS
C. Power Supply
D. All of the Above
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7. Failure to do so may cause damage to your motherboard and in


the _________.

A. Solar System
B. System Component
C. Shoot System
D. None of the Above

8. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system


requirements before _________.

A. Booting Up
B. Heating Up
C. Warming Up
D. All of the Above

9. If the computer does not pass any of the ________________ (POST),


the computer will receive an irregular_________________. An
irregular POST is a beep code which is different from the
standard beep which can either be no beeps at all or a
combination of different beeps.

A. Power on Self-Test
B. Power on Supply-Test
C. Power on System-Test
D. None of the Above
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10.
Some effects of computers relating to the violation of privacy,
the impact on the _______, health risks, and the impact on the
environment.
A. Strike Force
B. Lightning Force
C. Labor Force
D. None of the Above.

II.

MATCHING TYPE

Directions: Match the appropriate description of the following. Refer to the


selection of words on the top and match them to the questionnaires below.
Write the letter of your answer in your answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit.
10 items each)

A. Fundamentals of Operating System

A. Operating System
B. Application Programs
C. Time-Sharing Operating System
D. Multi-User Operating System
E. Single-Tasking System
F. Distributed Operating System
G. Embedded Operating System
H. Ken Thompson
I. Mac OS X
J. Linus Torvald
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1. Require an operating system which are usually separate


programs, but can be combined in simple systems.
2. Is a set of programs that manage computer hardware
resources and provide common services for application
software.
3. It allows multiple users to access a computer system
concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multiuser systems as they enable a multiple user access to a
computer through the sharing of time.
4. He began the Linux kernel project in1991, in a university in
Finland.
5. Is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed,
marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is preloaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers.
6. He wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, which he used to write
Unix, based on his experience in the MULTICS project.
7. An operating system designed to be used in embedded
computer systems.
8. An operating system type that manages a group of independent
computers and makes them appear to be a single computer.
9. When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the
system is grouped under this system.
10. An operating system type that schedule tasks for efficient
use of the system and may also include accounting for cost
allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other
resources.

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III.

TRUE OR FALSE

Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is TRUE. If the statement is FALSE.


Write your answers in your answer sheets. (5 minutes time limit. 5 items
each).

A. Qualification for a Computer Hardware Servicing Personnel

___________ 1. Anyone can do an installation as long as he knows how to


do it.
___________ 2. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports conducts
the assessment for NC II Computer Hardware Servicing.
___________ 3. Computer Technicians need not to have a strong oral
communication skill.
___________ 4. Companies prefer candidates with previous pc repair
experience, and they may look for candidates with
experience in repairing branded computer.
____________ 5. PC Technicians must be able to jump, bend and reach to
access the computer equipment requiring repair.

IV.

Modified TRUE OR FALSE

Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is TRUE. If the statement is FALSE


change the underlined word and write the correct answer. Write your answers
in your answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit. 15 items each. Wrong
spelling wrong)
A. Computer Devices and Peripherals
1. A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control
of instructions stored in its own memory, that can be programmed
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to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output),


and store it away in a secondary storage device (store) for
safekeeping or later reuse.
2. The encoding of input into output is directed by the software but
performed by the hardware. Figure below shows some common
computer hardware components.
3. Computer system hardware components include devices that
perform the functions of input, processing, data storage; output
and transfer.
4. Input devices allow you to enter data or commands in a form that
the computer can use; they send the data or commands to the
processing unit.
5. Input devices show people the processed data--information --in
understandable and useful form.
6. Processing devices are the computer electronic circuitry housed in
the system processing.
7. The circuitry in the system unit is part of a circuit board called the
motherboard.
8. The memory, formally known as the central processing unit
(CPU), has electronic circuitry that manipulates input data into the
information people want. Computer instructions are actually are
executed in the central processing unit.
9. Memory is a series of electronic elements that temporarily holds
data and program instructions while they are being processed by
the CPU. t
10.
Both the processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is
an electric device that contains many microscopic pathways
designed to carry electrical current.

11.
Storage usually means primary storage that can store data
and programs outside the computer itself.
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12.
Communications devices provide connections between the
computer and communications networks, and enable computer
users to communicate and to exchange data, information, and
programs with other computers.
13.
The system unit is a box-like case that houses the
processor, memory and other electronic components of the
computer that are used to process data.
14.
When the cover of a system unit is removed, the
motherboard, also called system board, can be seen inside the
housing.
15.
An interior circuit (IC) contains many microscopic
pathways capable of carrying electrical current.

V.

COMPLETION

Complete the sentence by giving the right answer in the blanks. Write your
answer in you answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit. 10 items each. Wrong
spelling wrong)
A. Tools and Equipment
1. enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates,
infectious fluids, or chemicals is called___________.
2. An electronic measuring instrument that combines several
measurement functions in one unit is called_____________.
3. A hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for bending, or physical
compression is called_________.
4. A tool for driving screws and often rotating other machine
elements with the mating drive system is called___________.
5. A tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a
highly conductive contact is called_______________.

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6. Tools used for removing the molten solder so that the joint may be
separated are called_______________.
7. A is a hand-held portable electric-powered light source is
called__________.
8. Tools used for picking up objects too small to be easily handled
with the human hands are called _________________.
9. A garment used for covering and protecting the whole hand is
called___________.
10. A peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents
stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as
paper or transparencies is called________________.

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ANSWER KEYS
I.

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

II.

MATCHING TYPE

A.
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. J
5. I
6. H
7. G
8. F
9. E
10.

C
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III.

TRUE OR FALSE

A.
1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. TRUE
5. FALSE
IV.

Modified TRUE or FALSE

A.
1. TRUE
2. PROCESSING
3. COMMUNICATION
4. TRUE
5. OUTPUT DEVICE
6. SYSTEM UNIT
7. TRUE
8. PROCESSOR
9. TRUE
10.

ELECTRONIC DEVICE

11.

SECONDARY STORAGE

12.

TRUE

13.

TRUE

14.

TRUE

15.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

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V.

COMPLETION

A.

1. PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR
2. MULTI-METER OR MULTI-TESTER OR VOM METER
3. PLIER
4. SCREWDRIVER
5. SOLDERING GUN OR IRON
6. DESOLDERING TOOLS
7. FLASHLIGHT
8. TWEEZERS
9. GLOVE
10.

PRINTER

CBLM Computer System


Servicing,NC II
Installing and
Configuring Computer
Systems

Date Developed:
March 2,2016

Date Revised:

Document No. DHS CSS-001-16


Issued by:

Page 96 of 96

Developed by:
Donald B. Mandac

Revision # 0