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..

( 2)

., 2002

621
.. . . ( 2).
: , 2001 .49

,
.

: ..., ..
..., ..


.
4 17 2001 .

1. _____________________4
1.1. , ._______________________4
1.2. .
.___________________________________________________7
1.3.
_________________________________9
1.4.
._______________________________________________________ 11
1.5. .
.____________________________________________ 12
1.6. ._______________ 15
1.7. .__________________17
1.8. ._____________18
1.9. ._____________________ 19
1.10.
, ._______20
1.11.
()
._______________________________ 21
1.12.
.___________________23
1.13.
.___________25
1.14.
.__________________ 26
1.15.

.___________________________________________________ 28
2. ._______________________________ 30
2.1. ._______ 30
2.2. ._________________32
2.3. ()
.__________________________________________33
2.4. .______________________ 34
2.5.
.__________________________________________________ 35
2.6. . _________________________________ 36
2.7. . _________________________ 39
2.8. . . ________________________39
2.9. . ___________________________40
2.10.

.___________________________________________________ 44
2.11.
. ________47
._______________________________________________ ________49

.

, :
, , , , ,
.

.
,
.



.
, , , .
(G<10 /),

(G=1030 /), (G>30 /) .


, 1,1,
(=1,13,0) (>3).
1. .

1.1. , .

: G, /; ,
; 0, 0, ;
R, / ; k.

.

(3/):

G
0

(1.1)

0
.
,
, .
,
.
0
:

,
0

(1.2)

,
. , ,

.
, ,
.
,
.

: , , ,
, ,
.


,
,
.

() ,
.
, ,
.
. 1
,
:
d0 ;
dH ;
d1 ;
d2 ;
d3 ;
d4 ;
d ;
b1, b2 - ;
b3, b4
;
.. :
..

d3 d2
2

(1.3)


( ) d2
. .

:
. .
d0
d3
d4
d1
=
0,150,27;
=
0,450,65;
=
1,11,2;
=
1,31,5;
= 0,040,10.
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2

:
0-0- ; 1-1- ; 2-2-
; 3-3- ; 4-4- ;
5-5- .
,
.

.1 .


.
().
,

, w1
.
.

,
.


. .

( ), 2<900,
- 2 = 900, ( ,

), 2 > 900.
.
.

. ,
,
.
.
1.2. .
.
,

. (
) , , ,
.
. 2.
,

.
W1
1

u1
1

. 2
( 1)
w1 ( 1)
:
i1 1 1 .
(1.4)
.
, 1 ,
:
l0 u 2 c 2u u1c1u ,
(1.5)
1u 2u
.
l0 .
1u = 0, :
l0 u 2 c2u

w1

2r

2
2u

u2

. 3 .
(. 3) , 1 900
2 900 :
w12 c12 u12 2 c1 u1 cos1 ;
w22 c22 u 22 2 c2 u 2 cos2 .
(1.6)

, 1u = 1s 1,
2u = 2s 2 :
l0 u 2 c2u u1 c1u

w12 w22 u22 u12 c22 c12

2
2
2

(1.7)

(1.7.) , l0,
, u1=u2.
,

, .
, ,
l0 ,
l1-2.
l0

p2 p1 22 12

l1 2 .

(1.8)

(1.8) :
(l1-2=0) l0 ;
. ,
.
,
2 , 1,
.

l0 /

10

(l1-2 = 0).
/

(p2 p1 )

l0

l0

c22 c12
2
2
2 1 c2 c1
l0
2l0

(1.9)

1-2 .
,
,
:
c12
.
2

p*1 p1 1

(l1-2 = 0),

p*1
c2
1 2
l0
2l0
2

(1.10)

(1.5)
( 1 = 2r)
(1u = 0) (1.10)
1

c2u
2u 2

(1.11)

(1.11) ,
2u.
1.3.
.
2
. ,
,
l0 u 2 c2u
(1.12)
)

c2 w2

c2

w 2= c 2 r
2

u2

c2u

c2

) w2

c2r

c2

u 2=c 2u

c2u

u2

. 4. :
, (2 < 900);
(2 = 900); ,
(2 > 900).
. 4 ,
c2u u 2 c2r ctg2 ,

11

2r 2
.
l 0 u 22 (1

c2r
ctg2 )
u2

(1.13)

(1.13) , ,
2 .
, ,
, .
.
2 ,
(. 4). u2
2
, ,
,
,
.
(1u=0)
(2u= 0) .
, 2 ,

tg(180 0 2 )

c2r
u2

(1.14)

c2 r

, u 0,200,25, 2<160165.
2
2=135145.
.

l0 u 22 (1

c2r
ctg2 )
u2

(1.15)

c2r
ctg2 )
u2

(1.16)

2 . , c2u u2 c2r ctg2


(1.11)
0.5(1

(1.16) , 2
.
, , < 0,5,
, > 0,5, = 0,5.
,
.
,
. ,

12

,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

.

,
, .

.
1.4.
.

, .

.
l0 u 2 c2u u1c1u

( 1u > 0)

(1u < 0) .
, 1 .
1 u1
(
) w1 w1 1,

.
.

w1 , 0,850,90.
,
,
.

1.5. .
.

13

,
2 2 ,
2.
.
, ,
.

( )
w
. (. 5).

w
w

. 5.
.

, .
, ,
.
w .
,

wr ( ),
(. 6).

w
, (. 7).

, .
,
.

14

wr

. 6.
.
)

w
)

. 7. .
,

. ,
w,
wr,
(. 7, ), .

. ,
w2

2r=1 w 0,60,8.
1

c2 r

, u
2
,
.

15

0,160,22.
,
0,250,35.
w
, ,
. 2
w2
2 . 2
2u ,
.
,
1u=0

c
l0* u22 1 2r ctg2 ,
u2

(1.17)

0
l
- ,
0
.
(1.17)

2u
u
2

l0* u22 ,

1
sin(180 0 2 )
1
,

r1
2z 1
r2

(1.18)

1
1

2
3 z

1
2

(1.19)

2
r2

r 0,5(r02 r1n2 ) - ,
.
z = 1032.
z = 1628.
, .
,
,
.
.
, ,

16

2 sin 180 0 1 2
2

z
,
t d2
ln
b d1

t
b

(1.20)

=0,350,45 .

3 1

1
r

r2

(1.21)

..
2.
1.6. .

,
. 2
300500 / 80120 /,
.


.

d =0,040,10, 0,5(d 3 d 2 ) . b3
2
: b3 b2 (02) , b2
.
b3=(0,970,98) b2.

,
( ,
, ).
.
,
, , ,
M u G(r3 c3u r2 c2u ) 0 ,
(1.22)

r3 c3u r2 c2u .


G 2r2b2 c2 r 2 2r3b3c2 r 3 .

17

b2 2 b3 3 , (
b3<b2 ),

r2 c2r r3 c3r .
(1.23)
(1.22) (1.23) ,
c2r c3r

tg2 tg3 ; 2 3 ,
c2u c3u
c3 r2
.
c2 r3

(1.24)



,
.
.
b =const,
.
2
, 2
. .. ,

b2
b3

1.7.

b3 b2 . 2
20300. 3 2 120,
3=2.
3
. d3 -
. 3
.

3=(0,850,90)1,
1 .

,
.
,
.
.
(0,80,85) b2.
..
3, .

18

,
2 .
(2 > 1500),
2=150200 /.

300450 /,
80120
/ . ,

- . ,

,
.

(d4>d3)
(4>3).

q..

F3 d 3b3 sin3 d 3b3

.
F2 d 2b2 sin2 d 2 b2

(1.25)


q ..

F4 d 4 b4 sin4

F3 d 3b3 sin3

(1.26)


d3
sin4 sin4

.
d4
sin3 sin 2

4 3
12180.
1,62,0 .
3
25 0. , 2= 16240,
4=28380.
z..=1331
.

( 3 <200),

r42 r32
2(r4 cos4 r3 cos3 )

(1.27)

:
(1.28)

.
r

r32 R 2 2r3 R cos3

19

( )
(),
(, , ).


.
5
6080 / (
).
,
, .

.
,

l/t= 2,02,4.
1.8.
.

().
:
1) (),
;
2) ,
.

, b4
.
: , .
.

, .
:
1) , .. 4 4
D4;
2)
rcu r4 cu4 ,
(1.29.)

( )
Q

Q4 ,
360

(1.30)

Q4 D4 b4 cr4 .
,
. , ,

20

,
.

.

,
, .

, ,
, .
1.9. .

.


.
.y,
:
2 (pmax pmin )
0 c02
(c c )
c max 0
c0
p

(1.31)
(1.32)

0, 0
.

Li y

c02
2

(1.33)

02/2.
,
.=const
. , -
2 r2.

. = 0,0050,08.
,
.
1.10 , .

l0*,

21

1 .
Nu,

l0*

Nu
,
G

(1.34)

G - .
Nu
Ne,
.
,
, ,
, .
, ,

Nu = N - N. - N. = Ni- N.-N. ,
(1.35)
- ;
- ,
;
N. - -
;
N. - ,
;
Ni- , .
,
, 1
,
(. 8).

l0* li* l l .
(1.36)

22

(l.+l)

i4*
P4*

la*

l0* li*

i1*
P1*

. 8 .
(1.5)

l0* u 2 c2u u1 c1u u 2 w2u u1 w1u ,
(1.37)
c2u, c1u, w2u ,w1u
-
.
1.11

()
.

l0* (
) ,
,
.
l*,
.

,
.

(. 8)

*
k
*
* P4
la
R T1 *
k 1
P
1

k 1
k

(1.38)

23

l *a

p T1*

*
P
4*
P
1

k 1
k

(1.39)



k 1

P4 k 1
P

*
*
T4 T1

T1*
a

l*a

li*

(1.40)

L*a l a*

<.
2,0-3,0 %.

L*i

L/Li

li*

)
(
, .
=0,860,88,
(, ) =0,760,80.

1
1r u2

ia 2r

.
u2 u2

(1.41)


11r.
:
). opt = 0,280,35;
) (2=1301450)
opt=0,200,28;
) (2>1500) opt = 0,120,18;

l*a
L*a
2 , 2 .
u 2 /2
u 2 /2

(1.42)

(1.13), (1.42)

li* l0* l ,

l u22

2 ( 1 ctg 2 ) .

(1.43)
=0,860,92, =0,030,08,
1,2 1,5 . , , =1,0 1,2.
.

1.12.

24

.

.

2=900

1,4

0,82
0,80
0,78
=0,74

2=1200

2=1500

0,60
0.12

0,32

2 r
u*2

.9.
.

=f()

, (1.43),
2 r

, , 2 .
(1.43) ,

, ,
, .
.
,
,
,
. =f()

, (.9).

2=1301450.
=1/u2, c , .
,
.

25


,
, .
,
, , ,
.

.10.
, ,
,
.

G
.10. :
;
.
.10

(0=0,1013 , 0=293 ).
,
1.
.
,

26

G G

0 ,1013 0

,
0
293

293
0

(1.44)
(1.45)

1.13. .

, -

.

1
,
2
.
,
, ,
,
, ()

(),
. , =1/2 <
, 2 ,
1 -
(2-1),
.
.
, ,
.
.
. =3/4 ,

.

,
.

,
.

.
,

,

( / G )
1 100%
( / G )

(1.46)

27

(/G)

;
(/G) .
15%
8% .
(
).

1 ,

3, b3,
.
.

.
, ..

.
-
.
1.14. .

: ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
,
,
12
ln ,
(1.47)
2
- ; = 0,030,06
= 0,070,12 .

:
1.

l 1 1

w12
,
2

(1.48)

1 ; 1 = 0,10,3,
1 ;

28

2. ,

l P 2 2

c22r
,
2

(1.49)

2 - ; 2 = 0,10,2;
3.

l P 3 3

c22r
,
2

(1.50)

3 - , 3 =0,050,1;

4. ,
l u 22 ,

(1.51)
,
b2/d2, =2r/u2 ,
.
( )
b2/d2=0,040,08 =0,250,35 =0,030,06. G<2 /
0,10.


,
l P 4 4

w12
,
2

(1.52)

w - w1
w1/ . 4
0,60,7.

1

l.=lp1+lp2+lp3+lT.B.

, 0,870,92.

,

( d 3 d 2 ) ( c22 c32 )
l ..
,

16 b3 sin 2 3
2

(1.53)

32
,
2

(1.54)

, = 0,0350,04.
0,650,75.

l . .

- ,
=0,100,15. 0,700,80.

29

l ..

42
,
2

(1.55)

-
, = 0,20,3.
0,400,65.
1.15.


, .
.
, =0,1013 , =(293300) .

1 0

12
k
.
2
R
k 1

(1.56)


1=1=u2, 1=80140 /
.



1 0 1
0

n1
n1 1

0=-
;
=20005000 ;
n1
n1 k

1 n
1 k n

(1.57)

(1.58)

n=0,030,06 .


12
k
22
k
*

R T1 L0 qTB q BH
R T2 ,
2 k 1
2 k 1

(1.59)

L - ;
qTB - ;
q BH - ,
q BH 0,5 qTB .

*

2 1

1
k
R
k 1

(L*0 qTB q BH

12 22
)
.
2


, (1.19) (1.51), L*0 qTB ( ) u22 .

30

, 1=2r, 1u=0, 22 12 22u 2 u 22 .



2
2
T2 T1 (



2 1 2
1


u2

)
k
2 2
R .
k 1
n2
n2 1

(1.60)
(1.61)

n2 ,
n2
k

.
n2 1
k 1



22 32
3 2
k
,
2
R
k 1

P3 P2 3
2

n3
n3 1

(1.62)
(1.63)

2
3 2 d - .
3



:
4 3

32 42
k
;
2
R
k 1


P4 P3 4
3

n4
n4 1

42 52
5 4
;
k
2
R
k 1

P5 P4 5
4

n5
n5 1

(1.64)
(1.65)
(1.66)
(1.67)

4=80120
/, 5 =6080 /.
2. .
2.1. .


. .2.1,
.2.2.
: 1-1 ;

31

2-2 ; 3-3
.
:
l1. l2 - ;
d1. d2
;
1, 2 ;
2, 3 .

.


(w2<w1) , ( 2>1).
(c3<c2) 3>2.
1
2
3
2
1

l2

l1

d1

d2
3

.2.1. :
1 ; 2 ; 3,4
.

32

1
w1

1
c1

1, i1

w2

3 ~ 1

p2. i2

c2

3, i3

c3 ~ c1
.2.2 .

c1 1. c3=c1
3=1.
,
.

, .

.
.
450,
601200.
2.2. .

.
, u1=u2=u
l0* u ( 2u 1u ) u ( w2u w1u ) .
(2.1)
2u. 1u. w2u. w1u

(.2.3).

33
1

u
w1

w2

w2u-w1u

c1

c2

c2u-c1u

.2.3. .
, ,
1 ,

li* l0* i3* i1* p ( T3* T1* ) .
(2.2)
i*3 i3

32
2
; i1* i1 1
2
2
32 12
32 12
32 12
*
*
li l0 i3 i1
l0
P ( T3 T1 )
,
2
2
2

(2.3)

l0=i3-i1 - .
(2.3) ,
,
. c3=c1
,
,
.
,
.
.
2.3. ()
.
l0* ()
,
.

, ,
, .

l1 l2, ,

34

la*=l0*-l1-l2

(2.4)
l
, ,
.

,
.
*
a

l*

R T1*
k 1

p*3
*
p
1

k 1
k

(2.5)

la*

R T1

k 1

p3

p1

k 1
k

2 12
1 3

(2.6)


.

( )

l*a
li*

(2.2) (2.5)
k 1

* k

*
3
T1 *
1
p
1

a
*
*
T3 T1

(2.7)

, 3=1,
a

k 1
) k

( 3 / 1
1.
3 / 1 1

(2.8)

,

.
2.4. .
(2.1)

l0* u ( 2u 1u ) u 2 cos 2 u 1 cos 1 .
(. .2.3)
w22 22 u 2 2 2 u cos 2 ,
w12 12 u 2 2 1 u cos 1 .
2 u cos 2 1 u cos 1 ,
(2.1),
la*

:
l01

w12 w22 22 12

.
2
2

w12 w22
;
2

l02

22 12
,
2

(2.9)
(2.10)

35

l01 ,
,
;
l02 , ,
.


l01 i2 i1 P (T2 T1 )

k
R (T2 T1 ) .
k 1

(2.11)

.

1
l02 l0* l01 ( i3* i1* ) ( i2 i1 ) ( i3 i2 ) ( 32 12 ) .
(2.12)
2

, =const,
1
k
1
l02 P (T3 T2 ) (32 12 )
R (T3 T2 ) (32 12 ) .
2
k 1
2

(2.13)

3=1

l02 P ( T3 T2 ) .

(2.14)
,
,
.

, ,
.

l01
l0* .

(2.15)
l

02
1 l* .
0
3=1

l01 l0* l02 ,

2 1
.
3 1

(2.16)

, ,
.

, .
<0,5
. =0,5 =1,0.
,
=0,7.

36

2.5.
.

.
0,5;
0,7; 1,0.
=0,5
, .
22 12
w12 w22
(l01=l02). , l01
; l02
,
2
2

1=w2 w1=2. , =const


1=2 1=2. ,
=0,5 .
.

(.2.4 ). =0,5
, ( ).
.
=0,7
,
(. .2.4 ). ,
,
.
.
=1,0 ,
l02=0.
, .. mu=0 (. .2.4 ). =1,0
.
,
.
, =0,5 =0,7.
2.6. .

, .

u
=/
(2.16)

() l *a l0*

37

(2/2). ,

l*a
,
u2 / 2

(2.17)

l0*
.
u2 / 2

(2.18)


.
1u

w1

w2
wm

0.5 u
u

ca

c1
0.5 u
u

cm

c2

38

c1u=0
1

w1

wm

c1=c

w2
0.7 u

cm

c2

0.3 u

c1u

w1

wm

w2
u

ca=cm

c2

c1

u
.2.4.
: ) =0,5; ) =0,7; ) =1,0.
,
.
,
v1=u/1 .

opt,
.

.

.
, .
, 1, 2, 1
2 ,
.

39

1 2,
i
,
. ,
.

,
. ,
.
,
,
, max 30350.
>max ,
. 1
.

20250 .
=0,5
=20250, 1=37420,
=1,0 1=22270, i=1-1
50 .
3=63660. 1
=1,0
, .

.
0,650,85,
.

=0,5 =1,0 0=0,930,94.
2.7. .


( ).



.
.2.5
=0,5 . ,
.
1
c ( ) .

40

i= 1-1 =2-1,
.
)

0.5

un=150200
230

un=150200/

0.9

230

250

0.4

250

280
0.4

0.8
0.5

280
0.4

0.5

.2.5. -50-1 ().


.2.5 ) , (
) opt,
.
opt ,
.
,
.
2.8. . .

( )
, .

, ,
.
1 2 (..2.4).

,
.
(<opt).

, , ..
,
.

41

,
,
.

, ,
.
,
.
,
.
, ( ,
, ).
,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
. .


.

, -

.
, , ,
.
2.9. .
.
0=300

1,2.
=412,
.
si-
.2.6. ,
,
,
( la l*a l0 l0* ).
( 1=3Z) L

42

, 1,1 3Z,
3Z L*a , p1* , T1* p*3 Z ,
T3*Z .
, -
,
(L0= L*0 = L*i ).
(.2.6)
( ).
0 ,0
1, 1 .
0 1.

1 2 2
l 1 0 ,
2

(2.19)

=0,900,95 .
abcd,
. a,b,c,d
.
de
,
.
,

1
2
l ( 32Z
) ,
(2.20)
2
;
=0,650,70- .

43

e
32Z
2

p*3 Z
p*K

d
l

p
dt

l03

p3.3=p3Z

L*a L*aK

L*iK

t
l02
p3.2

L0

la2

La
b
bt
p3.1

la1

l01

0
p0

p1
.2.6. si-.

44

L0 i3 Z i1 P ( T3 Z T1 ) ;

p3Z
p1

La P T1

k 1
k

(2.21)
.

(2.22)

1 3Z
.


L*a
L*i

(2.23)

L*a

P T0*

*
p
*
p
0

L*i P ( T* T0* ) .

k 1
k

(2.24)

(2.25)


k
R.
k 1


0,900,94.
L0
(..2.6)
Z

L0 l0 .
1

(2.26)

La
La < la. ,
si- .

.
R la La .
(2.27)

.
R=1,021,07.
,
. ,
,
,
, .

. ,
.
:

45

1.


(dn=const ) ;
2. ( d=const)
;
3.
;
4.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

, .
2.10. .

:
1.
;
2.
;
3.

.

,
, ,
.
: G;
0
0 ; p,
.
:
1.
;
2. 0.
0=4060 /, 0=0.
3. ,
1, u1
. 1=80140 /.
1=130200 /;
4. 1=(1,01,2)1;

46

5.
1 0

RT0
12 02
2k
R ) , 0
; T1 T0 (12 02 ) (
;
p0
k 1
2 0

6.
3Z=(0,851,0)1;
7. :
=4060 / ;
=110130 /
;
8.

n
k

,
n 1
k 1

==0,890,91;
9.

p
1
p1

k 1
k

RT

; R p , a 0,890,91;

10.
;

T3 Z

p3 Z
T1
p1

n 1
n

3 Z p

2
32Z
2

11. :
4G 1
dR

0 ,5 0 ,65 11.1. d n1
,

2
d
( 1
) 1
;
11.2. d K 1 d 1 ;
11.3. lH 1 d 1 d K 1 ;
12.
12.1.
d Z d 1 ;

12.2.

2
d KZ d Z

4G 3 Z
;
3 Z

2
d KZ d K 1 ; d Z d KZ

4G 3 Z
;
3 Z

12.3. l HZ d Z d KZ ;
13. 1 Z
,
;
14.

n1=a1/1;

unz=az/z. .

n1 250300 / ;
n1 400 /;
15. 1 Z,
1, Z

47

.
1 un/ un

295
T

16. ,

=0,5(1+Z); =0,5(1+aZ);
un=0,5(un1+unZ). =0,940,98
;
17.

k
La
R T1

k 1

18.

p3Z

p1

k
k 1

RLa
l ,

=0,940,98 ,
.

;
19.
60 u


;
R

n1
20. n d ;
1

GL

a
21. N e .
a

2.11. .
.

=/0 G,
n
0,0.
.

G, 0, 0, , ,
Ne .
, .
.2.7.

, ,

. 1, 2, 3
.

48


, 0, 0,
.
.

G T0
,
p0

n
T0

.2.8.

G T0

p0

n
T0


.

.

49

50

1.
2.
3.
4.

.. . . 3- .,
. . .: . -, 1981. - 351
.
.. , .. , .. .
. .: , 1981. 312 .
: . .:
, 1975. 200 .
.. . ., , 1972.
536 .