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FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROPOSAL (PHY4999A)

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, FACULTY OF SCIENCE


SESSION 2015/2016

NAME

: MUHAMMAD KHAIRUL ADIB BIN MUHAMMAD YUSOF

MATRIC NO.

: 170637

PROGRAMME : BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) MAJOR IN PHYSICS


COORDINATORS

1.0

: DR. CHE AZURAHANIM CHE ABDULLAH & ASSOC.


PROF. DR. CHEN SOO KIEN

PROJECT TITLE
Event Generation of Final-State Radiation of Decays of
Collisions at 13 TeV Using Pythia Software.

Z Bosons Produced in

pp

2.0

SUPERVISOR
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zaidan bin Abdul Wahab.

3.0

INTRODUCTION
The

boson is one of two elementary particles known as the weak bosons, the other one

being the W boson. The

boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. Because

it is a type of bosons, it has spin of 0 but no magnetic moment. These weak bosons are among
the heaviest particles identified so far, having mass of 91.2 GeV/c 2 which is slightly heavier
than an Iron atom. The weak force, has the shortest range among four fundamental forces
(weak, strong, electromagnetic and gravity). The

boson which is the carrier of this type

of force, being relatively heavy is significant as the range of force is inversely proportional to
its carrier mass, given by the formula:

RZ =

2.1637 x 1018 m
MZ c

At the Large Hadron Collider, this massive weak (or more accurately electroweak) bosons
produced predominantly via

qq

annihilation and easily detected by the decay into a pair

of leptons.

u+u Z

d +d Z

++ l
Z l

(production)

(decay)

Z boson is highly unstable particle thus the decay process occurs almost instantaneously.
In

the

centre-of-mass

pair must be at least 91


the production of

energy of the

qq

GeV corresponding to
boson.

This exact data analysis had been done during LHC Run 1 (2009 - 2013). This year, after two
years of maintenance and upgrading, LHC will start its Run 2. The collision energy will be
13Tev, a significant increase over the initial three-year LHC run (7 Tev to 8 TeV). This
decision has been taken in order to optimise the delivery of particle collisions for Physics
research and thereby speed the route to potential New Physics.
3.0

OVERVIEW
The differential cross sections for the production of photons in

decays are presented as a function of the transverse energy of the photon and its separation
from the nearest muon. The data for this process is generated at

of pp collision using

Pythia software and presented graphically using Fireworks from Compact Muon Solenoid
experiment.
4.0

DESCRIPTION
In Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two protons are collided at certain centre-of-mass energy,

. In Run 1, the

equals to 7 TeV for a particular experiment that analyse the

final-state radiation of decays of Z bosons into


has

. However for Run 2 which

TeV yet to be carried out, some preparations need to be done beforehand. One of

the common preparation is to generate data from simulated collision events in simulation
software like Pythia and will be used to compare it later with the experimental data. For this
simulation, we select a sample of events in which a Z boson decays to

an energetic photon. We measure the differential cross sections

d
dE T

and

with respect to the

photon transverse energy

ET and

d
d R

from the nearest muon. Here , R =

around the beam axis and

with respect to the separation of the photon

, where

is the azimuthal angle (in radians)

is the pseudorapidity. The cross sections include contributions

from the Z resonance, virtual photon exchange, and their interference, collectively referred to
as DrellYan (DY) production.
5.0

OBJECTIVES
Some objectives have been outlined to be achieved upon the completion of this project:
5.1

To generate event of final-state radiation of decays of Z bosons

produced in pp collisions at centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.


5.2
To present the data in form of differential cross section in respect to
transverse energy of photon and the separation between it and the nearest muon.
5.3
To study the relationship between different transverse energy of
photon and differential cross section as well as the relationship between the
separation of photon with the nearest muon and differential cross section.
5.4
To display the simulated event using Fireworks software developed
by CMS experiment.
5.5
To study the importance of data preparation before actual experiment
6.0

is done at the LHC at higher centre-of-mass energy.


METHODOLOGY
The methodology of this project is purely done on computer using Monte Carlo simulation
software namely Pythia 8.2. This kind software is also called an event generator. The first step
is to install the software on Scientific Linux OS. There are also other additional software
needed such as ROOT and Fireworks. Secondly, necessary codes are written that include
initialisation values, processes, event loop, particle loop (to search for interested particles),
cuts as well as histograms plotting. Then, the data from Pythia is linked to ROOT to display it
in form of meaningful curves that can be fitted using certain mathematical functions. Also, the
curves are important to study the relationship between manipulated and responding variables.

Lastly, an event-display project software (Fireworks) is used to produce graphical intuitive


images of the beam collisions.

7.0

8.0

EQUIPMENTS
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
REFERENCES
8.1

Computer running Scientific Linux OS


Pythia 8.2 software
ROOT software
Fireworks software
Study of final-state radiation in decays of Z bosons produced in pp

collisions at 7 TeV (Journal).


http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.07940
8.2

An Introduction to Pythia 8.2 (Manual).

http://home.thep.lu.se/~torbjorn/pdfdoc/pythia8200.pdf
8.3

Introduction to Fireworks (Manual).

https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/CMSPublic/WorkBookFirewors
8.4

Compact Muon Solenoid Physics: Technical Design (Report).

http://cds.cern.ch/record/922757/files/lhcc-2006-001.pdf