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BASIC REFRESHER

LEVEL 111

NOT MEASUlcERIENT
SENSITII'E

25 Januarv 1991
SUPERSEDING
MILSI7D-410D
23 JULY 1974

MILITARY STANDARD
NONDESTRUClTVi? TESTING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION AND
CERTIFICATION

AMSC N/A

AREA NDTI

DISTRJBUnON STATEMENT A. Approved for public release distribution is


unlimited.

F O R E W O R D

1. This military standard is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies of the
Department of Defense.
2. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent

data which may be of use in improving this document should be addressed to


ASDE3ES. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 454334503. by using the self
addressed Standardization Document Improvement Proposal @D Form 1426) appearing
at the end of this document or by letter.
3. n/m,-STD-410E specifies the qualification and certification requirements for
nondestructive testing/nondestructive inspection personnel. Previous revisions of this
specification addressed the requirements for personnel using penetrant, magnetic
particle, ultrasonic, eddy current and radiographic nondestructive testinglnondestructive
inspection methods. This revision adds detailed requirements for acoustic emission and
neutron radiographic methods as well as general requirements for any other
nondestructive method for determining the acceptability of a product. In addition, this
revision upgrades the designation of Level I, eliminates the Level I Special, adds an
instructor level of qualification and adds a recertification requirement for Level III.

MILSTD-4IOE

CONTENTS

PAGE

PARAGRAPH
1.
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
1.4

SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levels of qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levels of certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1
1
1
1
1
2

APPLTCABLE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Non-Government publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Order of precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Certifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Closed book examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Contracting agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Documented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Employer
............................... 3
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
General examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Instructor . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
On-the-job
. . training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Organ~zatlon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Outside agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Practical examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Prime contractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Product form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Specific examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Test samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Training ......................................... 4
;

iii

MILSTD-310E
CONTENTS
PARAGRAPH

PAGE

4.
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

GENERAL F?EQUlREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Certification procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levels of qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perso'nnel
. . duties and responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tralnrng program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Experience requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records and documentation administrative practices .....
Recertification requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outside agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.4.1
5.4.4.2
5.4.4.3
5.4.5
5.4.6
5.4.7
5.5
5.6
5.6.1

DETAILED REQtJIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Levels of qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Trainee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Level I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Level I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Jnstructor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Level
. .ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Specialist personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Minimum required training hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Previous training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Previous experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Equivalent
. . experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Exam~natlons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Specific . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Practical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Level l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Level II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
LevelIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Administxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Re-examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Designation of instructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

MILSTD-410E

CONTENTS
PARAGRAPH

Loss of certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinstatement of certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recertification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
13
14

NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Level1 Special .....................................
Intended Use .......................................
Subject tenn (key word) listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes from previous issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14
14
14
14
15

1. SCOPE
1.1 Pumose. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification
and certification for personnel involved in the application of nondestructive inspection
WI) or nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel. These requirements include training,
experience and examination.
1.2 ~oplicability.This standard applies to personnel using NDI or NDT methods to
accept materials, products, subsystems, components or systems for the Government,
prime contractors or subcontractors. It also applies to those individuals directly
responsible for the technical adequacy of the NDI and NDT methods used as well as
those providing the technical training or supervision for NDI or NDT personnel. This
standard is not intended to apply to individuals with administrative authority only over
the above identified personnel or to research personnel developing technology for use
by qualified and certified NDI or NDT personnel.
1.2.1 Common methods. This standard contains detailed requirements for the
applicable training, experience, and examination for the following methods:
Liquid penetrant
Magnetic particle
Mdy current
Ultrasonic
Radiography
Acoustic emission
Neutron radiography

(pr)

m)
m

(RT)
(AE)
(NRT)

1.2.2 Other methods. This standard may apply to other NDI or NDT methods such as
leak testing. thermography, holography, computed tomography. or any other method
that can determine the acceptability or suitability for intended service of a material,
part, component, subsystem, or.system without impairment of the intended function.
The requirements for personnel training, experience, and examination for these other
methods shall be as established by the contracting agency and shall be in accordance
with the guidelines established for the methods listed in 1.2.1.
1.3 Levels of
are:
Trainee
Level I
Level I1
hstructor
Level III

The levels of qualification established by this standard

1.4 Levels of certification. The levels requiring certification in accordance with this
standard are:
Level I
Level I1
Level Lll
2. APPUCABLE DOCUMENTS
2.1 Non-Government ~ublications.The following documents form a part of this
document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the
documents which are DoD adopted are those listed in the issue of-the DODISS cited in
the solicitation. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of documents not listed in the
DODISS are the issues of the documents cited in the solicitation (see 6.2).
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDBTRUCTIVE TESTING
ASNT-CP-189 - ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive
Testing Personnel
AShT Recommended Practice No. ShT-TC-1A
Certification in Nondestructive Testing

- Personnel Qualification

and

(Applications for copies should be addressed to the American Society for


Nondestructive Testing, 1711 Arlingate Plaza, Columbus OH 43228-0518.)
2.2 Order of ~recedence.3n
. the event of a conflict between the text of this document
and the references cited herein, the text of this document takes precedence. Nothing in
this document, however, supersedes applicable laws and regulations unless a specific
exemption has been obtained.

3.1 Activiq. One of the organizational elements of an agency of the Department of


Defense.

3.2 Certification. A written statement by an employer that an individual has met the
applicable requirements of this standard.
3.3 Certifier. A designated representative of the employer with the responsibility and
authority to document that an individual meets the applicable'requirements of this
standard.
3.4 Closed book examination. An examination administered without access to
reference material except that provided with or in the examination. Questions utilizing
such reference material shall require understanding of the information contained
therein rather than mere location.

3.5 Contracting agency. A government activity, prime contractor or subcontractor


procuring the product requiring testing or the nondestructive testing services.
3.6 Documented. The condition of being in written form.
3.7 Emplover. The government activity, prime contractor, subcontractor, or outside
agency employing individuals performing NDI or NDT.
3.8 Evaluation. The determination of the significance of relevant indications.
3.9 Examination. A formal, controlled, documented interrogation conducted in

accordance with a procedure.


3.10 Ex~erience.Actual performance or observation conducted during work time
resulting in the acquisition of knowledge and skill. This does not include classroom or
laboratory training but does include on-the-job training.
3.1 1 ~ e n e r a examination.
l
A written examination addressing the basic principles of the
applicable NDI or NDT method.
3.12 Indication. The response, or evidence of a response, occurring during a
nondestructive inspection or test.
3.13 Instructor. An individual qualified and designated, LAW this standard, to provide
classroom or laboratory training for NDTMDI personnel and to administer and grade
qualification examinations.
3.14 Interoretation. The determination of whether indications are relevant or
nonrelevant.
3.15 Method. One of the disciplines of nondestructive inspection or testing (e.e.
.radiography) within which different techniques exist.
3.16 Qn-the-iob train in^. Training. during work time, in learning insuumentation set
up, equipment operation, recognition of indications, and interpretation under the
technical guidance of a designated Level I[ or Level DI individual.
3.17 Organization. The entity, Government or private, having the responsibility of
complying with this standard.
3.18 Qutside aeency. The organization under contract for NDI or NDT services which
may include the training and examination of personnel to the requirements of this
standard. Consultants and self employed individuals are included in this definition

3.19 Practical examination. The examination used to demonstrate an individual's ability


in conducting the NDI o r NDT methods that will be performed for the employer.
Questions and answers need not be written, but observations and results must be
documented.
3.20 Prime contractor. The organization having responsibility to the government for a
system, component, or materials.
3.21 Procedure. A detailed, written instruction for conducting NDI or NDT or certifying
personnel. All procedures shall be approved by a Level ID.
3.22 Product form. Materials, parts, or components having similar NDI or NDT
characteristics. Examples of individual product forms are: castings. extrusions, plate,
aeldments, pyrotechnics, bonded assemblies, composite materials, and printed circuit
boards.
3.23 Oualification. The skills, training, knowledge and experience required for
personnel to properly perform to a particular Level.
3.24 Soecific examination. The written examination to determine an individual's
understanding of procedures, codes, standards, and specifications for a given method
used by the employer.
3.25 Techniaue. A category within a method, for example: ultrasonic immersion testing
or fluorescent dye penetrant inspection.
3.26 Test samples. Parts containing known defects and used in the practical
examination to demonstrate the candidate's proficiency in using a particular method.
Test samples will not be production parts unless the Level ID has previously
investigated the parts and documented all abnormal or out of specification conditions
within the samples. Alternatively, test samples can refer to images of actual hardware,
i.e.. radiographs, when the candidate's required proficiency is in the interpretation of
the image rather than the generation of the image.
3.27 Training. An organized and documented program of activities designed to impart
the knowledge a n d skills t o b e qualified to this standard. This program may be a mix
of classroom, laboratory, programmed self-teaching and on-the-job training as
approved by the appropriate Level III.

4 . GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Certification ~rocedure.All organizations involved in any aspect of NDI or NDT

shall develop and maintain a procedure for the qualification and certification of their
NDI or NDT personnel. This procedure shall be in accordance with the requirements
of this standard. The procedure shall be available for review by the organization's
customers. The procedure, as a minimum, shall include:
4 . l . i Levels of aualification. This shall include identification of the levels of
qualification covered by the procedure. The organization may add any additional
levels that are appropriate; however, in no manner can the organization eliminate or
reduce minimum requirements of this standard in its qualification and certification
procedure.
4.1.2 Personnel duties and responsibilities. This shall include the identification of the
duties and responsibilities for the different levels of qualification.
4.1.3 Trainine Droeram. This shall include-outlines of the instruction provided by the
organization as well a s sources of outside training utilized by the organization.
4.1.4 Exoerience reauirements. This shall include the techniques within the method and
the minimum amount of time for each technique.
4.1.5 Examination oractices. This shall include the designation of the individuals or
organizations that will perform the examinations as well as the number of questions.
and the specific types of physical tests to be used.
4.1.6 Records and documentation administrative oractices. This shall include the
description of the details to be recorded for each certified individual and identification
of the individuals responsible for developing, administering, and maintaining the
employer's certification program.
4.1.7 Recertification requirements. This shall include the employer's requirements for
recertification of personnel. It shall also include the requirements for the loss and
r&nstatement of certification.
4.2 Personnel. Personnel (Government. prime contractor, subcontractor, outside
agency, etc.) performing, specifying, reviewing, monitoring, supervising, or evaluating .
NDI or NDT functions for the purpose of accepting items for the Government shall be
qualified to the appropriate requirements of this standard. Personnel performing
specialized NDI or NDT, such a s ultrasonic thickness gauging or e l e d & l conductivity
tests, with equipment designed for and limited to such usage and that produces clearly
recognizable output for both acceptable and unacceptable conditions, do not require
qualification to this standard.
4.3 Methods. For the common methods listed in paragraph 1.2.1 of this standard, the
requirements for training, experience and examination are detailed in section 5 of this
standard. These requirements, as well as those requirements contained in the two
publications referenced in paragraph 2.1, shall serve as guidelines for those methods
not listed in paragraph 1.2.1.

4.4 Com~liance.Prime contractors shall be responsible for compliance to this standard


by their subcontractors. Those organizations utilizing outside sources for training or
examination of their personnel shall be responsible for assuring that the appropriate
requirements of this standard are met. The employer'is solely responsible for the
certification of its employees and cannot certify for another employer. Individuals
cannot certify themselves.

4.5 Outside agency. An employer may utilize an outside agency to develop a


certification program, train and examine NDI or NDT personnel and perform any other
Level LU function. An outside agency cannot certify personnel. The employer shall
document the suitability of any outside source selected to perform any function to meet
the requirements of this standard. This documentation shall be sufficient to justify that
the outside agency is capable of performing the required Level III functions.
5. DETAILED R E Q W S
5.1 Levels of qualification. There shall be five levels of personnel qualification.
5.1.1 Trainee. A trainee is an individual who is participating in a training program for
an NDI or NDT method and is not certified. Trainees shall obtain work experience
only under the direct supervision of a Level Il, Level III or Instructor in the same
method. Trainees shall not independently conduct tests, make accept or reject
decisions, or perform any other NDI or NDT functions.
5.1.2 Level I.Level I is the first certifiable qualification level. The Level 1 certification
shall be for a specific technique in a given method. The Level I individual shall have
the skills and howledge to perform specific tests, specific calibrations, and, with prior
written approval of the appropriate Level III individual, specific interpretations and
evaluations for acceptance or rejection, and document the results in accordance with
specific procedures. The individual shall be knowledgeable of any necessary
preparation of parts before or after inspection. The individual shall be able to follo\r
procedures in the techniques for which certified and shall receive the necessaiy
guidance or supervision from an Level II or Level E
l individual.
5.1.3 Level II. Level I1 individuals shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and
calibrate equipment, conduct tests, and t o interpret, evaluate, and document results in
accordance with procedures approved by the appropriate k v e l LU. The individual shall
be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method in which he is
certified and shall be capable of directing the work of trainees and Level I personnel.
The individual shall be able to organize and document NDI or NDT results. The
individual shall be familiar with the codes, standards, and other contractual documents
that control the method as utilized by the employer.

.,

5.1.4 In~rrucror. Lnstructors shall have the skills and kn~wledgeto plan, organize, and
present classroom, laboratory, or on-the-job training programs of instruction, in
accordance with approved course outlines, in the method for which appointed. The
individual shall be familiar with the codes, standards, and other contractual documents
that control the method , a s utilized by the employer.
C/O*

5.1.5 Level

5I'4LC

JD. Level III individuals shall have the skills and knowledge to interpret

codes, standards. and other contractual documents that control the method as utilized
by the employer; select the method and technique for a specific inspection; and
prepare and verify the adequacy of procedures. Only individuals certified to Level I
II
shall have the authority to approve procedures for technical adequacy in the method to
which they are certified. The individual shall also'have general knowledge of all other
NDI or NDT methods utilized by the employer. The individual shall be capable of
conducting or directing the training and examination of personnel in the method
certified. The individual shall nor conduct NDI or NDT for the acceptance of parts
unless the demonstration of proficiency in this capability was included in the practical
examination upon which, in part, the certification is based.
5.2 Training. Candidates for certification as Level I or Level II shall complete
sufficient organized training to become familiar with the principles and practices of the
applicable test method and techniques. The training shall be conducted in accordance
with a detailed course outline approved by a Level El. The training shall cover basic
principles, products, equipment, operating procedures and techniques, and the
applicable specifications, codes and instructions used by the employer. The
supplements to SNT-TC-IA may be used to develop the training outlines. Subjects
not covered in the instruction shall not appear on the training outline. The training
outlines shall include the list of references from which the training material is derived.

5.2.1 S~ecialist~ersonnel.The training shall be presented by an Irstructor or a Level


IU with the exception that specialist personnel not qualified to this standard may be
used to provide instruction on highly specialized topics. Selection of such pers~nnel
must be approved by the Level ID.
5.2.2 Exams. An individual must pass-a final exam in order to receive credit for a
block of training hours. Such examinations given in conjunction with training shall not
be used to satisfy any of the qualification examination requirements of section 5.4.

5.2.3 Minimum required trainine hours. The minimum training hours for Levels I and

In are given in table I for a variety of NDIMDT methods. The minimum training hours
for those methods not covered by table I shall b e as determined by the Level III and
agreed upon by the facility's customer. There are no additional training requirements
to transition from Level II to Level ID nor can an individual have sufficient training to
allow certification to Level IU without prior certification as a Level 11 or performance
equivalent to a Level II.

RIILST?)-4 IOE

TABLE I. h4WTMU4 TRAJNING HOURS. LEVELS I AND II

CONDITION
~

[I1

I21

I31

Penetrant

16

Magnetic particle

12

20

Eddy current

12

40

52

Ultrasonics

40

40

80

Radiography

40

40

80

Acoustic Emission

40

40

80

Neutron radiography

28

40

68

[I ] k v e l I
[2] Level 11, with prior Level I Certification
131 Level 11, no prior Level I Certification

5.2.4 Previous training. Training obtained from a prior employer must be documented
and verified by the previous employer in order to be accepted by the current employer.
For personnel credited with training from a prior employer or those not certified within
6 months of their training, refresher training must be provided. The refresher training
shall cover the following subjects with the depth of coverage of each subject
determined by the Level III responsible for the employer's certification program:

Standardization and calibration


Operation of applicable test or inspection equipment
Specific test o r inspection procedures
Interpretation and evaluation of test or inspection results
Safety
Applicable codes, standards and specifications

5.3 Ex~erience.Candidates for certification at Levels 1. II or IU shall have sufficient

practical experience to assure that they are capable of performing the duties of the
level for which certification is sought. The minimum requirements for Levels I, II and
Dl are given in Table II.
TABLE II. h4NMUvl EXPERIENCE REQUIREh4ENTS
,

CONDITION

PI

PI

[I1

[21

Penetrant

130 hrs

270 hrs

400 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

Magnetic particle

130 hrs

400 hrs

530 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 Yr

Eddy current

130 hrs

1200 hrs

1330 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 yr

Ultrasonics

400 hrs

1200 hrs

1600 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 yi

Radiography

400 hrs

1200 hrs

1600 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 Yr

Acoustic Emission

400 hrs

1200 hrs

1600 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 Yr

Neutron radiography 800 hrs

2400 hrs

3200 hrs

4 yrs

2 yrs

1 yr

METHOD

[51

[61

[I] Trainee experience for Level I. Experience in method must be at least


half this tine.
[2] Level I experience for Le\.el II. Experience in method must be at least
half this time.
[3] Trainee experience for direct certification to Level II. . Evperience in
method must be a t least half this time.
[4] Level Il experience required for Level

III with no college degree.

[5] Level II experience required for Level


degree.

III with technical associate

[6] Level II or equivalent work experience required for Level E


l with technical
bachelors degree. Equivalency of the work experience shall be determined and
documented by the Level III responsible for the employer's certification program.

5.3.1 Previous ex~eriencc.A candidate's experience with a previous employer may be


accepted by the current employer only if that experience is documented and verified by
the former employer.
5.3.2 Eauivalent ex~erience.For personnel certified under previous revisions of this
document or other qualification/certification programs, the equivalency of their
previous experience to the requirements of table TI will be determined and documented
by the Level III.

5.4 Examinations. The examinations to verify the physical and technical qualifications
of candidate personnel shall consist of a physical examination. a general examination,
a specific examination, and a practical examination. The requirements for the physical
examinations; the questions utilized for the general and specific examinations and the
checklist for the practical examination shall be available for review by the facility's
customers. If the actual test questions given during certification examinations are not
kept in each certified individual's records, then the listing of questions from which
examinations are derived shall be available for review by the facility's customers. The
questions shall be made available to certification candidates only during administration
of the examinations.
5.4.1 Phvsical. The physical examination shall assure that the applicants near vision
and color perception meet the following requirements. Near vision tests shall be
administered annually and color perception tests shall be administered prior to
certification or recertification. These tests shall be administered by an individual
approved by the Level III responsible for the maintenance of the certification program
or by the outside agency utilized for the examination of personnel:

Near vision - Jaeger #I test chart at not less than 12 inches, or equivalent with one
eye, either natural or corrected.
Color oerception - Distinguish and differentiate between the colors used in the methad
for which certification is sought.
5.4.2 General. The general examination for all levels shall be a closed book

examination consisting of questions that cover the cross-section of the applicable


method at the appropriate level. The questions, answers, and references in the
appliixble SNT-TC-IA supplement and other publications may be used to develop the
general examination. A minimum of 40 questions shall be used for the general
examination at each level. For Level IlI. the general examination questions will
address the general knowledge of other methods as well as the method for which
certification is sought. Possession of a current ASNT NDT Level III certificate by the
candidate shall be satisfactory evidence that the general examination requirement is
satisfied.

5.4.3 Suecific. The specific examination for all levels shall be a closed book
examination and shall cover the specifications, codes, equipment, operating procedures,
and test techniques the candidate may use in the performance of his duties. A
minimum of 30 questions shall be used for the specific examination at each level.
5.4.4 Practical. The practical examination shall consist of a demonstration of

proficiency by the candidate in performing tasks that are typical of those to be


accomplished in the performance of his duties. Test samples used in the examination
may be actual hardware, if the candidate is required to demonstrate proficiency in the
application of the process as well as interpretation of results, or may be images, such
as radiographs, if the candidate is only required to interpret the results and not
perform the process of generating the image. Written checklists covering the topics
detailed below shall be developed by the Level IJIto assure adequate coverage and to
assist in the administration and grading of the examination.
5.4.4.1 b v e l I.The candidate shall demonstrate proficiency by using the appropriate

method to examine at least one test sample for each technique to b e used and
document the results. The test samples shall be representative of the products to be
encountered by the candidate in the performance of his duties. The checklist shall
address proficiency in the use of the procedures and equipment or materials,
adherence to procedural details and the documentation of the results. If the Level I
candidate is to accept products, then the checklist shall also include proficiency in the
interpretation and evaluation of indications.
5.4.4.2 Level Il. The candidate shall demonstrate proficiency by using the appropriate

method to examine a t least one test sample for each technique. The candidate shall
interpret, evaluate and document the results of the examination of the test samples.
At least two test samples shall be evaluated for each method. The test samples shall
be representative of the products to be encountered by the candidate in the
performance of his duties. The checklist shall include proficiency in the use of the
procedures and equipment or materials. adherence to procedural details, and the
accuracy and completeness of interpretations and evaluations of indications.
5.4.4.3 Level. III. The candidate shall demonstrate proficiency by preparing an

NDIMDT procedure appropriate to his employer's requirements. When the candidate's


duties will include inspection or evaluation of products, then proficiency in
performance of such tasks shall be demonstrated also. The checklist shall address the
practical and technical adequacy of the procedures prepared by the candidate, and
when applicable, the adequacy of the interpretation and evaluation of indications. In
the event that the candidate has already developed satisfactory procedures, then it is
not necessary to develop another one for the practical examination. The results of the
practical examination shall be documented. Procedures developed for a previous
employer can be used to satisfy this requirement if their adequacy can be verified and
documented.

5.4.5 Administration. A Level HI, knowledgeable and familiar with the specifications,

standards, codes, techniques and products associated with the employer, and certified
Level III in the method for which the examinations are given, shall be responsible for
the administration of all qualification examinations. The administration and grading of
those examinations using multiple choice or truelfalse type questions can be delegated
by the.level III. If an outside agency is used to provide this function, then the
employer shall assure that the individual who performs the administration of the
examinations is fully qualified. In no case can an examination be administered by
one's self or by a subordinate.
5.4.6 Grading. The candidate for certification must achieve a minimum grade of 70%

on the general and specific qualification examinations. The candidate must detect all
discontinuities or conditions specified by the Level HI during the practical examination
and achieve a minimum score of 70% on the remainder of the practical examination.
The candidate must have an average score of no less than 80% in order to be eligible
for certification. All examination scores shall be of equal weight in determining the
average score.
5.4.7 Re-examination. Candidates failing any examination (general, specific or

practical) shall receive additional training or wait at least 30 days before attempting
re-examination. The additional training shall be documented and shall address those
areas found deficient in the candidate's skills or knowledge. The re-examination shall
not utilize the same questions or specimens that were used in the initial examination.

5.5 Designation of Instructors. Instructors shall be designated by the Level JJ3


responsible for the employer's
certification .program
and shall meet a least one of the
. following criteria:
a. Be certified to Level

in the method for which they will be designated Instructors

b. Possess the equivalent of a B.S. in engineering, physical science or technology and


have adequate knowledge in the method for which they will be designated Instructors.
c. Possess an associate's degree in physic21 science or technology and have a
minimum of 5 years experience, or equivalent, as a Level II in the method for which
they will be designated ~nstructors.
d. Possess a minimum of 10 years experience as a Level 11, or equivalent, in the
method for which they wili be designated Instructors.

5.6 Certification. Personnel who have demonstrated that they possess the appropriate

qualifications shall be certified by their employer in accordance with the employer's


certification procedure. Certification is not required for personnel who are trainees or
those who are designated as Instructors.
5.6.1 Records. The employer shall maintain certification records for personnel for as
long a s their certification is in effect. Such records shall be available for audit by the
facility's customers. The records shall include, as a minimum:

a. Name of the individual certified.


b. Level, method, and techniques for which individual is certified,
c. Results of all qualification examinations, including the separate test scores, that the
individual has taken.
d. Date and expiration of current certification(s).
e. History of all previous NDTMDI certifications with current employer.
f. Training history which identifies source and dates of training, course hours and

-grades (if given after training), and instructor's name.

g. Experience history, both with current and previous employers, sufficient to justify
satisfaction of experience requirements for certification.
h. Results of physical examinations.
i. Extent and documentation of formal education.
5.6.2 Loss of certification. Certification may expire, be suspended or be revoked.
Certification shall expire when employment is terminated or when the cenification
interval has lapsed with no recertification attempted. Certification shall be suspended
when the periodic physical examination is overdue, the individual does not perform in
the method certified for at least 12 consecutive months, or the individual's
performance is found to be deficient in any manner. Certification shall be revoked
when the individual does not perform in the method certified for at least 24
consecutive months or the individuals conduct is found to be unethical or incompetent.
5.6.3 Reinstatement of certification. Certifications which have been suspended may be
reinstated when the cause for suspension has been corrected and the correction verified
by the employer. Certifications that have expired or been revoked may not be
reinstated except by recertification.

5.6.4 Recertification. Level I and I1 personnel shall be recertified ar intervals not to


exceed three years. Level lIl personnel shall be recertified at intervals not to exceed 5
years. The physical and practical examinations, equivalent to those required for initial
certification, shall be given prior to recertification. The extent to which the
individual's knowledge of the general and specific examination subject areas is
examined shall be determined by the Level III responsible for the employer's
certification program and shall be documented in the individuals certification records.
6. NOTES
(This section contains information of a general or explanatory nature that may be
helpful, but is not mandatory.)
6.1 Level I Soecial. The Leve! I designation in this revision is equivalenL to the Level I
Special designation of MIL-STD-410D. The MIL-STD-4IOD Level I Special was
limited to the ultrasonic and eddy current methods. Experience has shown that the
Level I Special designation is an effective way of designating the entry level
certification for nondestructive inspection and that it should be allowed a for all
methods; thus the change was made in this revision. Because of the increased
responsibilities assigned to the Level I, minimum required classroom training hours are
no? specified (see table 1).

ur

6.2 Intended use. When invoked in a Request for Proposal (RFP),lnvitation for Bid
of other similar document, the contracting agency should request that a copy of
the offeror's existing qualification/certification procedure for NDI o r NDT personnel be
included with the technical proposal. If the offeror has no existing procedure or if the
existing procedure does not comply with this standard, then the contracting agency
should request that the offeror's approach for establishing a procedure that complies
with this standard b e included in the technical proposal. In addition, if the contacting
agency intends that personnel using methods other than those listed in paragraph 1.2.1
be qualified and certified to this standard, then details on the offeror's approach to
conducting such an effort should be requested as part of the technical proposal.

m),

6.3 Subiect term (key word) listing.


Acoustic emission
Certification
Eddy current
Liquid penetrant
Magnetic particle
Neutron radiography
Nondestructive testing
Qualification
Radiography
Ultrasonic

6.4 Chanees from orevious issue. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to
identify changes with respect to the previous issue due to the extensiveness of the
changes.

Custodians:
Army.- MR
Navy - AS
Air Force - 11
Reviewer Activities:
Army - AR

Preparing Activity:
Air Force

- I1

(Project No. NDTI-0176)

INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
First edition

1992-05-15

Non-destructive testing - Qualification and


certification of personnel

Reierencc number

is0 9712:1992(E)

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

I S 0 97121992(E)

Non-destructive testing
personnel

- Qualification and certification of

For the purposes of this lnternational Standard, the


following definitions apply:

This lnternational Standard establishes a system for


the qualification and certification, by a cenlral independent body, of personnel to perform industrial
nondestructive testing (NDT) using any of the following methods:

3.1 authorization: Permission to work. issued by


the employer or responsible agency and based on
the individual's suitability for a specific job. In addition to the certification. amongst othels the jobspecific knowledge. skill and physical ability could
be assessed.

a) eddy-current testing;
b) liquid-penetrant testing;

d) radiographic testing;

3.2 qualilication: A demonstration of the knowledge. skill. training and experience required to
property perform NDT tasks.

e) ultrasonic testing.

3.3

c) magnetic testing;

certification: The orocedures. leading to a written testimony of the 4alification of an individual's


competence in an NDT

The system described in this lnternational Standard


may also apply to visual inspection. leak testing.
neutron radiography, acoustic emission and other
NOT methods where national certification pmgrammes exist.

L,;Cp

3.4

certificate: Written testimony of qualification.

J\ 3.5 naUonal ceNfying body: The agency that administers procedures for certification of NOT personnel in accordance with the requirements of this
lnternational Standard.

,,,,/ \*

&'
r2

Abbreviations
qualifying body: A competent organizalion. independent of the employer or responsible agency,
authorized by the national certifying body to prepare
and administer examinations to qualify NOT personnel.

3.6

The following abbreviations shall be used to identify


the five NDT methods covered by this International
Standard:
English
Eddy current

f 3

CF

Liquid penetrant
Magnetic
Radiography

PT
MT
RT

RS
MG
RI

Ultrasonic
Nondestructive
testing

French
Couranls de
Foucault

Ressuage
Magnetoscopie
Rayonnements
Ionisants
UT
US Ultrasons
NOT END Essais non
destructifs

candldate: The individual seeking certilication


under the qualification and certification scheme.

3.7

employer or responslble agency: The organization lor which the candidate works on a regular
basis.
3.8

NOTE 1

Candidates may be self-employed.

basic education: The minimum formal education required for qualification.

3.9

I1 may be used to determine duralion and level


training and experience required prior to

b) The practical test lor levels 1 and 2 is to verify

'TE 2

3.10 NDT training: A process o l instruction in theory and practice in the NDT methods in which certification is being sought, which may take the form of
training courses to an approved syllabus in addition
to periods of practical work under qualified supervision but shall not include the use of specimens
used in practical examinations.

ability to set Up and Operate test equipment, and


perform the necessary settings to yield satislaclory test results.
specific examination: The specific examination
C-d"
4 includes both a written and a practical part for levels

3.11 experience: The period during which the candidale performed the specific NDT method as his
main activity under qualified supervision. inciuding
personal application ofthe NDT method to materials,
parts or structures but not including tests performed
during training courses.
3.12 NDT method: The application of a physical
principle in nondestructive testing (for example:
ultrasonic testing).
3.13 NDT technique: A specific way of utilizing an
NDT method (for example: immersion ultrasonlc
testing).
3.14 NDT procedure: An orderly sequence of ~ l e s
which describe in detailed terms where, how and in
.fhich sequence an NDT method should be applied
,o a product.
3.15 NDT inshuctions: A written document detailing
the.precise steps to be lollowed in testing in accordance with an NDT procedure.

3.19

Iand 2. and only two written parts for level 3.

a) The written test is concerned with components,


systems, equipment, operating procedures and
test techniques commonly used in a particular
industry or industrial sector. It involves the demonstration of knowledge related to the product
being tested and covers the applicable specifications, codes and acceptance criteria. For level
3 only, this examination includes the writing of
one or more satisfactory procedures.
b) The practical test involves, for levels1 and 2. the
demonstration of familiarity with and the ability
to operate the necessary test equipment on prescribed mmponents and the ability to record and
analyse the resultant informalion to the degree
required.

&

3.20 lob-specific examination: Any additional


examcnation concerned with the application of an
NDT methog to a specialized product not commonly
involved in a particular industrial sector. This
examination. which supplements this International
Standard. is carried out following written guidelines
with results recorded to meet quality-assurance or
customer-audit requirements.

This examination is outside the scope of lhis


International Standard.
NOTE3

3.16 industrial sector. A particular area in industry


or technology where specialized NOT practices are
utilized requiring specific skill. knowledge, equipment or training to achieve satisfactory performance. An industrial sector may be interpreted to
mean a product (welds, castings, elc.) or an Industry
(aerospace, steel, etc.).
qualiIica~lonexamlnauon: An examination administered by the national certifying body or by an
authorized qualifying body, which shall include a
general examination and a specific examination for
each level of competence.

3.17

3.18 general examinauon: The general examination


includes both a written and a Practical part for levels
1 and 2. and only a written part for level 3.

3.21 bainee: An individual who works under the


supervision of certified personnel but who does not
conduct any tests independently. does not interpret
test results and does not write reports on test results. This individual may be'regislered as being in
the process of gaining appropriate experience to
establish eligibility for qualilication lo level 1 or for
direct access to level 2.

4 Levels of c o m p e t e n c e
4.1

Classification

An individual certified in accordance with this


national Standard shall be classified in one of three
levels depending upon the Individual's respective
a) The written test Is mncerned with the principles
whereas one who has not yet
of
Of the
method and' at least
lorlevel
attained
certllicallon
may
be registered as a trainee,
level 3, covers basic knowledge of other NDT
melhods. of materials and pmcesses. and of
4.2 NDT level 1
discontinuities arising through the use of various
materials, manufacturing processes or service
An individual certified to NDT level 1 is qualified to
conditions. For level 3, the requirements for
carry out NDT operalions in accordance with written
certification of NDT personnel are also Included.

instructions and under the supervision of level 2 or


level 3 personnel. The individual shall be able to set
up the equipment. carry out the tests, record the
resulls obtained, classify the results in accordance
with written criteria, and report the results. He shall
not be responsible for the choice of the test method
or technique to be used. nor for the assessment of
test results.

4.3

NDT level 2

An individual certified to NDT level 2 is qualified to


perform and direct nondestroctive testing in accordance with established or remgnized techniques. The individual shall be competent to choose
the test techniques to be used; to set up and calibrate equipment; to interpret and evaluate results i n
accordance with applicable codes, standards and
specifications; to carry out all duties for which a
level 1 lndlvldual is qualifed and to check that they
are property executed; to develop NDT procedures
adapted to problems which are the subject of an
NDT specification; and to prepare written instructions and organlze and report the results of
nondestructive tests. The individual shall also be
familiar with the scope and limitations of the method
for which helshe is qualifed, and be able to exercise
assigned responsibility for on-the-job tralnlng and
guidance of trainees and NDT level Ipersonnel.

4.4

NDT level 3

An individual certified to NDT level 3 shall be capable of assuming full responsibility for a test facility
and stall; establishing techniques and procedures;
interpreting codes, standards. specifications and
procedures; and designating the particular test
methods, techniques and procedures to be used.
The individual shall have the competence to interpret and evaluate results in anordance with existing codes. standards and specifications: have a
sulficient practical background in applicable materials. labrication and product technology to select
methods and establish techniques and to assist in
establishing acceptance criteria where none are
olherwise available: have general familiarity with
other NDT methods; and have the ability to train
level I and level 2 personnel.

5
5.1

G e n e r a l principles of certification
Administration

The certification activity that includes ail procedures


adopted to demonstrate the qualification of an individual to carry out tasks in a specific NDT method
and leads to a written testimony of hislher competence shall be adminlstered in each country by
the national certifying body, with the assistance.
where necessary, of duly authorized qualifying
bodles.

0) 5.2

(/

National certifying body

The national certifying body shall be a non-profit


organization which has no direct involvement in
training of NOT personnel and which is recognized
by the I S 0 member body of the country Concerned.
5.2.f

Composition

The national certifying body shall be Supported by


an adminislrative committee, which shall i n c l d e
eminent representatives of NDT societies, cummittees, users, suppliers. government departments
and other interested parties as appropriate. The
NCB shall establish. In writing. the number of members of this committee, their qualifications (including
education. training and experience), the means and
extent of documentation of their qualifications. and
their tenure.
5.22

Responsibilities

The national certifying body


a) shall initiate, maintain and promote the national
certification scheme as specified in this International Standard;
b) shall administer the procedures and operations
for certification in accordance with national
documents meeting the minimum requirements
of this International Standard, and a stringent
code of ethics. including sanctions, which shall
apply to committee members and certificate
holders;
c) may delegate, under its direct responsibility. the
detailed administration of the certification pmcedure to other organizations which will act as
qualifying bodies and which could represent industrial sectors:
d) shall take the ultimate responsibility for the
certilication scheme, including technical and adminislrative requirements;
e) 'shall approve, either directly o r through a qualifying body, properly stafied and equipped examination centres which it shall monitor on a
periodic basis and
f)

shall keep ail appropriate records and issue, or


delegate the issuing of, written testimonies.
o r responslble agency
--a-

The employer or responsible agency shall introduce


the candidate to the national certifying body and
document the validity of the personal information
provided, including the declaration of educatlon.

:ng and experience needed to eslablish the el,w,lity o f (he candidate, but shall not be directly iniolved in the certification procedure itself.
The employer or responsible agency shall be fully
responsible for all t11at concerns the authorization to
operate and the validity of the results of NDT operations.

proved by the national certifying body in that


method. Table 1 and annex 8 are provided for guidance; however national certifying bodies shall lake
into consideration education. certification in other
methods, training facilities and other factors.
Table 1 - Minimum duration of trainina
Training hours

If the individual is self-employed, or introduces himself* he shall assume all responsibilites deskribed
for the employer or responsible agency.

5.4

Examination c e n t r e s

Examination centres established by the national


certifying body o r through authorized qualifying
bodies shall, as a minimum requirement.

NDT method

1
1

Eddy-current testing
Liquid-penetrant testing

1
1

40

l6

Radiographic testing
Ultrasonic tesliog

use only specimens prepared or approved by the


national certifying body for the practical examinations conducted at that centre.

80

40

Magnetic testing

a) have adequate qualified stan; premises and


equipment t o ensure satisfactory qualification
. . indusexaminations for the levels, methods and
trial sectors concerned;
b) use only those documents and .examination
questionnaires established or approved by the
national certifying body;

+._

40

80

40

80

1 Training hours include both praclical and lheoretical lrainlng courses.

2 Direct access to level 2 implies the total of the.


hours shown lor levels 1 and 2

Whenmore than one authorized examination centre


exists, each shall have specimens containing comparable defects. Under no circumstances shall
examination specimens be used for training purposes.

6.3.2

6
6.1

Taking into account the scientific and technical potential of candidates for level 3 certification. it i s
considered that preparation for qualification could
be done in dilierent ways: by taking training courses.
attending conrerences o r seminan such as organized by industrial or independent associations, and
studying books. periodicals and other specialized
printed matter. No training hours have therefore
been specified in table 1, although references cited
in annex B do suggest course content and duration.

General

Candidates shall have a combination o f education.


training and experience adequate to ensure that
they have the polential t o understand the principles
and procedures o f the applicable NDT method.

6.2

Level 3

Eligibility for examination

Education

fvldence of education may be required to establish


the eligibility o f a candidate.

6.4

6.3 T r a i n i n g

6.4.1

j.3.1 Levels 1 and 2


To be eligible to apply for certification in any NDT
method. the candidate shall provide evidence of
successful completion of a training programme ap-

Experience
Levels 1 and 2

To be eligible lor certification. the candidale shall


have the minimum experience Indicated i n table2
for the method in which helshe i s seeking certiSication.
.

Table 2

- Minimum experience requirements

Table 3

- Minimum experience requirements lor


level 3
Degree

NDT method

Experience
(months)

four-year accredited science or engineering mllege


or university programme

Successful mmpletion of at leas1


Wo years of engineering or science study at an
accredited college.
university or technical school

NOTES
1 Work experience in months Is based on a nomlnal
40 hlweek (175 h/month). When an lndivldual Is workIng more lhan 40 hlweek. helshe may be credited wilh
experience based on the total hours. but helshe shall
be required lo produce evidence of this experience.

I
I

Direct access lo
level 3 by a now
ceriilied -&rator
wilh experience
euuivalent to level

2 For level 2 certification, lhe.intent of lhls International Standard is lhat work experience consists of
time accrued as a level I . If the individual Is being
qualified directly to level 2, wilh no time at level 1. the
experience shall consist of the sum of the periods r e
quired for level 1 and level 2

Graduate of a
four-year accredited science or engineering college
or university
. pro.
gramme
Suacessful wmpletion of at least
two years of engineering or xience study at an
amedited college.
university or technical school

3 Credit for work experience may be gained simultaneously in two or more of the NDT melhods covered
by this International Standard, with the reduction i n
total required experience as follows:

I
I

a) two testing methods


time by 25 %;

c) four or more testing methods - reduction of total


required time by 50 %.

6.4.2

I No degree

- reduction of total required

h) three lesting methods -reduction of total required


lime by 33 %:

The candidate shall be required to show Illat. for


each of the testing methods for which helshe seeks
certification, helshe has at least half of the lime
required in labie2.

48

No degree

I
I

Level 3

Level 3 responsibilities require knowledge beyond


the technical scope of any specific NDT method. This
broad knowledge may be acquired through a variety
of combinations of education, training and experience. Table3 details rnlnimum experience related t o
formal education. All candidates for level 3 certification in any NDT method shall have successfully
completed the practical examination for level 2 i n
that method.

NOTE - 11 the college or university degree is issued In non.


deslludive testing. lhe experience required lor a m s to
level 3 may be reduced by 50 %.

6.5. V l s l o n requirements

The candidate shall provide documented evidence


o f satisfactory vision, in accordance with the following requirements:
a) distant vision shall equal Snellen fraction 20130
o r better In at least one eye, either unmrrecled
o r corrected;

b) near vislon shall permit reading a minimum o f


Jaeger number 2, or equivalent type and size
letters, at not less thanJ&cm
on a standard
Jaeger test chart for near vision, in at least one
eye. corrected or uncorrected;
c) colour vision shall be sumcient that the candidate can distinguish and dillerentiate contrast

between the colours used in the NDT method


concerned.

b) the date of certification;

c) the date upon which certilication expires;

7
7.1

Examinations
Examination content

The qualification examination shall consist of a


general and a specific examination and normally
m v e r a given NDT method as it is applied in one or
more specific industrial sectors.
For level Iand level 2. each of these two examinations shall include both a written and a practical
test.
For level 3, however, besides the written general
examination. the specific examination shall consist
of two written tests t o b e respectively designated
'specific (seclor)" and "specific (procedure)'. No
level 3 practical test as such is required.

In the general examination, the candidate shall


demonstrate sullicient proficiency in performing the
NDT method. In the specific examination, he shall
demonstrate his ability t o use the same NDT method
In the industrial sector concerned.

-2

Administration o f examinations

All examinations shall b e conducted in examination


centres established o r approved by the national
certifying body. Detailed procedures for the s t ~ c ture, monitoring and grading of examinations by the
nalional certifying body are contained in annex A.

Criteria applicable to re-examinalion with respect to


(a) partial o r complete failure o f examination and (b)
extension of certificalion t o other methods or sectors
are described i n annex A: subclause A.l.5 refers to
levels 1 and 2. and A.2.4 t o level 3.

8.1

Administration

Based o n the results of the qualification examinalions, the national certifying body, directly or
through its authorized qualifying bodies, shall announce the certification. and issue cerlificates
and/or corresponding wallet cards.

8.2

d) the level o f certification;


e) the NDT method;
I) the industrial sector(s) concerned:
g) a unlque identification number;
h) the siqnature of the individual certified:
i) a photograph o f the individual certified and

j) the cold seal of the national certifying body o r the


approved qualifying body cancelling the pholograph to avoid falsification.
NOTE 4 By issuing the certilicale and/or the mrra
sponding wallet card, the national certifying body or the
qualifying body attests lo the qualification of the individual
but does not give any authority lo operate. There may be
a special space on both lhe certilicale and lhe wallet card
for ihe signature of the employer or responsible agency
authorizing the holder of the cwtificale lo operale and
taking responsibilily for leal results. This authorization
also serves as testimony of aclivity of the certified lndividual.

9
9.1

Validity and renewal


Validity

The period of validity shall not exceed a maximum


o f live years from the date of certification indicated
on the certificate and/or wallet card.
Certification shall be invalid
a) i f the lndlvidual changes from one industrial
sector to another. i n which case he/she shall
successfully mmplete supplementary examinations lor the new industrial sector;
b) at the option of tile national certifying body afler
reviewing evidence of unethical behaviour;
c) i f the individual becomes physically incapable of
perlormlng hls/her dutles. based upon the visual
examination taken at least every second year
under the responsibilily of his employer o r responsible agency.

Certiflcates a n d wallet c a r d s

9.2
Zertificates and corresponding wallet cards shall
bear:
a) the name of the individual certified;

Renewal

ARer the first period of validity. certification may be


renewed by the national certifying body, directly or
through an authorized qualilying body, for a new

period of similar duration, provided the individual


meets the following criteria:

national certifying body will have the option of


replacing this simplified examination by an
alternative. structured credit system under its
control).

a) helshe provides evidence at least every second

year of satisfactory visual examination and


b) heishe provides evidence of continued satisfactory work activity without significant interruption.

if the individual fails to achieve a grade of 80 % or


better in the simplified examination, helshe shall
apply for new certification.

NOTE 5 A significant interruption means an absence or


a change of activity which prevents h e certifiedindividual

10

from practising the duties corresponding to his/her level


in the method and the industrial sector(s) for which
helshe is certified, for one or several periods for a total
time exceeding one year.

The national certifying body or its authorized quatiwing bodies shall keep

If the criteria for renewal are not met. the individual


shall apply for recertification.

9.3

Recertification

Upon completion of each second period of validity,


or at least every ten years. certification shall be renewed by the national certifying body. directly o r
through an authorized qualifying body, for a similar
period, provided the individual meets the two criteria for renewal and successfully completes a slmplified examination to assess hislher current
knowledge.
This simplified examination shall consist of:

Files

a) an updated list of all Individuals certified. classified a m r d i n g to level. test melhod and industrial
sector;
b) an individual file for each lndividual certified and
for each individual whose certification has been
withdrawn, containing
I)application forms.

2) examination documents, including questionnaires, answers. descriptions of specimens,


records, results of tests. written procedures
and/or techniques, and grade sheets,
3) renewal documents, including evidence of

physical condition and continuous activity.

a) Level I and level 2: a practical examination or.


ganized in accordance with a simplified procedure:

4) reasons for any withdrawal of certification


and details of any further penalty inflicted.

b) Level 3: a written examination which includes 20


questions on the application of the test method
in the industrial sector concerned and 5
questions on this International Standard (the

Individual liles shall be kept under suitable conditions of safely and discretion for a period at least
equal to the total of the initial period of validity plus
the renewal period.

Annex A
(normative)

Administration of examinations
A.l

Examinations for l e v e l 1 and l e v e l 2

A.l.l

Table A.l

- Required number of questions General examination

Qualification examination

Number of questions
The qualification examination administered under
this International Standard shall include a general
examination and a specific examination for each
level of competence. Each examination shall mnsist
of a written parl and a pradlcal part The pradlcal
parl shall be of sullicient duration, complexity and
smpe to verify adequately the candidate's ability to
apply the NDT method to real test situations.

A.1.2

NDT method

Examination content

1.21 General exarnlna~on

of

basic-knowledge

questions valid at the date of examination. The candidate shall be required, as a minimum, to give anto the fixed number Of multiple-choice
questions shown in tableA.1.
The practical test in the general examinalion is to
verify the candidate's ability to make the required
settings and operate the test equipment properly in
order to obtain satisfactory results and correctly interpret these results. The candidate shall therefore
be required to demonstrate this ability. with mmments; using the means of verification>vailable for
each test method. such as calibration blocks,
Image-quality, indicators and magnetic-field lndifalOE.

For the radiographic test method, there shall be an


additional examination on radiation safety.

"OTE 6

Eddycurrent testing

30

30

Liquidpenelrant testing

30

30

Magnetic testing

30

30

Radiographic testing

40

40

Ultrasonic testing

40

40

Examinations on the radiographic test method


.ay indude either X- or garnrna-radiation, or both, depending upon the procedure of the national certirying
MY.

Specific examlnation

In .the specilic examlnation, the candidate shall


demonstrate his ability to use the relevant test
method in the industrial sector concerned.

The written test in the general examination shall include only questions selected from the national cer-

collection

Level 2

A.1.22

In the genera! examlnation, the candidate shall


demonstrate proficiency in performing the relevant
NDT method.

body's

Level 1

'

The written test in the specific examination shall include only questions selected from the national certifying body's current mllection related to all
industrial sectors or from the mllection of specific
questions maintained by an authorized qualifying
body related to the industrial sector concerned.
During the specific examination. the candidate shall
to a fixed number of
be required to give
questions. as defined in tableA.2. including
multiple-choice questions. calculations. written procedures and questions on codes, standards and
specilications.
~ h , practical test inthe specific examination is to
verify the
ability to perlorm testing of
prescribed components relating to the industrial
sector concerned, and to record and analyse the
resultant information to the degree required, accurding to specific testing instructions or specifications. and to the NDT level being sought.
The specimens used for the practical test shall be
Selected from a ml~ection
of representative specimens chosen b~the national certifying body or by its
authorized qualifying body.

For level 2. the candidate shall be required to demonstrate the ability to prepare written instructions for
level 1 personnel.

cedure which includes at least ten check points. 7his


procedure shall be developed by the national certi.
lying body o r an authorized qualifying body.

If the practical test in the specific examination covers two o r more industrial sectors, the number of
specimens to be tested shall be increased proportionally to examine the candidate's competence
in each of the industrial sectors concerned.

A candidate for a practical examination may use his


own apparatus. The examiner shall investigate the
reliability o f the test apparatus made available to the
candidate. and unreliable apparatus shall be re_
placed. as well as any apparatus that may be rendered unserviceable during the course of the
examination. Any item of apparatus brought by a
candidate that i s unreliable o r rendered unserviceable during the examination shall be replaced by the
candidate himself.

Table A.2

- Required number of questions Specific examlnation


Number of questions

NDT method
Level 1

Level 2

Eddy-current testing

15

15

Liquid-penetrant testing

20

15

Magnetic testing

20

15

Radiographic testing

20

20

Ultrasonic testing

20

20

A.1.4

The general examination shall be graded separately


from the specific examination so that the candidate
may be examined later for certification in another
branch of industry without having t o take the general
examination again; thus a certified operator changing from one industrial sector t o another keeps the
benefit of the general examination valid for all industrial sectors.
To be certified. the candidate shall obtain a grade
of at least 70 % in each of tfi&ur
tests I
examination ana a cumnosite arade of at least

If the written part o f the specific examination covers


two or more industrial sectors. the number of
questions shall be increased proportionately t o
reasonably cover each o f the industrial sectors, and
evaluated accordingly.

A.1.3

The composite grade for.the respeclive level shall


be determined by adding the weighted marks obtained from multiplying each of the four test marks
by a weighting factor t o be selected from tableA.3.
The total of the selected weighting factors shall
equal 1.00.

Conduct of examinations

All examinations shall be conducted in examination


centres approved and monitored by the national
certifying body, either directly or through an author-'
ized qualifying body.
At the examination. the candidate shall have in his
possession a valid proof o f identification and a n official notification o f the examination, which shall be
shown to the examiner o r invigilator on request.
Any candidate who, during the course of the examination, does not abide by the examination rules o r
who perpetrates, o r is an accessory to, fraudulent
conduct shall be excluded from further participation.
The written and practical tests shall be conducted
and supervised by an examiner chosen among NDT
level 3 personnel and designated by the natlonal
certifying body, either directly o r through an authorlzed qualifying body. The examiner may be assisted
by one o r more invigilators placed under his responsibility.
The examiner shall mark the written tests completed
by the candidate; he shall judge and mark the results of the practical tests in accordance with a oro-

Grading

/(

Table A.3

/c,

- Weighting factors for gradlng - Levels


1 and 2

I
Level

Weighting factor
General

Speciflc

Written

Practical

Written

Practical

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 lo 0,4

0.2 to 0.4

0.2 to 0.4

A candidate failing for reasons of unethical behaviour shall wait at least 12 months before reapplying.
A candidate who fails to obtain the pass grade for
the whole examination may take one. and only one.
retest in a maximum o f two parts. provided the
minimum percentage (70%) was obtained i n each

-t and that retesting takes place within 12 months


o f the failed examination.

A candidate for re-examination shall apply for and


take the examination in accordance with the procedure established far new candidales.
A certified operator wanting to extend certification
in a given NOT method to new industrial sectors
keeps the benefit of the general examination and
shall be required to take only the related specific
examination.

A2
A.21

E x a m i n a t i o n s f o r level 3

A.2.1.2

Specilic examlnation

The specific examination shall include two parts, to


be marked separately. The first part is designated
"specific (sector)" and the second "specific (procedure) ".
The specific (sector) test shall include 20 questions
on the application of the NDT method in each industrial sector concerned. The necessary questions
shall be chosen from a list maintained by the
national certifying body o r by an authorized qualifying body.
The specific (procedure) test shall require the drafling of one or more satisfactory NOT procedures.

Examination content

The qualification examination for level 3 candidates


shall consist only of a written examination. normally
covering a specified test method applied in one or
more industrial sectors.
This examination shall cover
a) basic knowledge relating to the test method applied for and to materials, processes and dis2
general-examination
continuities;
level
questions relating to at least two other test
methods covered by this International Standard
and selected by the candidates themselves; and
requirements for the certification of NDT personnel;
b) specific knowledge relating to the application of
the NOT method i n which the candidate is being
examined in the industrial sector concerned. including the applicable codes. standards and
specifications, plus knowledge of the product
being tested.
If the candidate is not certified to NOT level 2 at the
time of application, then helshe shall also successfully complete the level 2 practical examination in
the relevant NOT method.

The general examination shall include only


l~iultiple-choice questions, selected from the
national certifying body's collection of basicknowledge questions valid at the date of the examination. The number of questions shall be as follows:
a) 30 questions on the main test method and materials, processes and discontinuities:
b) 10 level 2 questions on each of at least two additional test methods;
c) not less than 5 questions o n the personnelcertification scheme.

A.2.2

Conduct of examinations

All examinations shall be conducted in examination


centres established or approved by the national
certifying body. and shall be monitored by the
national certifying body, directly or through an authorized qualifying body.
At the examination, the candidate shall have i n his
possession valid proof of identification and an official notilication of the examination, which shall be
shown to the examiners o n request.
Any candidale who. during the course of the exa'mination, does not abide by the examination rules o r
who perpetrates, or is an accessory to, fraudulent
condud, shall be excluded from further participation.
Examinations shall be conducted and supervised by
at least two examiners chosen among level 3 operators and designated by the national certifying body.
directly or through an authorized qualifying body.
Each examiner shall correct and grade separately
the dillerent parts of the examination i n accordance
with procedures established by the national certifying body. During a meeting, each o f the examiners
shall present and explain his grades, and a n average grade shall be calculated for each part o f the
examination.

The written general examination shall be graded


separately so that the candidate may be examined
later for certification in another branch o f industry
without having to repeat the general examination.
To be certified, the candidate shall obtain a grade
of at least 70 % in each part of the examination and
a composite grade o f at least 80 %.
The composite grade for the respective level shall
be determined by adding the weighted marks obtained from multiplying the test marks in each part

..

of the examination by a weighting factor to be selected from tableA.4. The total of the selected
weighting factors shall equal 1.00.
Table A.4

- Weighting factors for grading Level 3

minimum percentage (70 %) was obtained in each


part and that retesting takes place within 12 months
of the first failure. In the case of a second failure to
obtain the pass grade, the candidate shall be re.
examined in all three Parts.
A candidate for re-examination shall apply for and
take the examination in accordance with the procedure applicable to new candidates.

A certified operator changing from one industrial


sector to another, but who keeps using the same
NDT method, retains the benefit of the general
examination and shall be required to take only the
two specific (sector and procedure) examinations
concerning the new industrial sector.
A candidate failing for reasons of unethical behaviour shall wait at least 12 months before reapplying.
A candidate who fails to obtain the pass grade for
the whole examination may take one, and only one,
retest in a maximum of two parts, provided the

A special procedure may be apptied in the case of


a candidate taking examinations for certification in
several testing methods within a period of one year.
to avoid the duolication of level 2 ouestions relatino
to the additiorial test methods & well as thos;
questions relating to codes or standards and the
certification scheme.

Annex B
(informative)
Technical knowledge of NDT personnel
6.1

General

This annex provides a bibliography of international


publications detailing course content. The minimum
hours of training recommended to confirm eligibility
for examination are detailed in the main text of this
International Standard.

8.2

[2] The cdrnpiete Recommendations o n international harmonization offraining qualification


and cerfilication or nondestructive testing personnel. Prepared by the lnternational Cornrnittee on Non-Destructive Testing. adopted
November 1985. Available from tlie Foundation
lor the Qualification o f NDT Personnel. P.O.
Zoetermeer.
The
Box 190. 27M1- AD

.'

References

C13 Technical Document IAEA-TECDOC-407 (1987).


Training guidelines in nondestructive testing
techniques,
International Atomic Energy
Agency, WagramrnerstraCe 5. P.O. Box 100.
A-1400 Vienna. Austria.

[3] ASNT recommended praclice SNTITC-IA


1988
Edition. Tables I-A l o I-H (recommended
training courses). Published by the American
Society for Non-destructive Testing. 1711
Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518. Columbus.
Ohio 43228-0518. USA.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

At.(

JpJ")'

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING


A.5

L&

,&

CD-,
~ ;.a.e:&
,:\,;"p

st-\<

&Cc&o,:f..

s.\.

Liquid Penetrant testing is a quick and reliable nondestructive test method used for detecting various
types of discontinuities which are opened to the surface of a material or part.
During normal operation, critical components of aircraft engines, airframes, missiles, space vehicles,
nuclear reactors, and other modern machinery, are often subjected to extreme loads and vibrations. In
time, these extreme loads and vibrations may cause a component to develop an intemption in its normal
physical structure or configuration. This is called a DISCONTINUITY.. Although the discontinuity may not
affect the usefulness of a part when it occurs, or even alter the parts appearance to the naked eye (since
the discontinuity may be minute) repeated stresses or overloading may eventually cause that part to fail. It
can be seen therefore, that detection of small discontinuities before they progress into a DEFECT, which
is detrimental to part serviceability, is of vital importance to prevent loss of equipment and personnel.
Failure of the part may cause one of the following:
$-~)s&~2 P-0
1 ._Maior Repair: "Down %me" for major repair caused by part failure is expensive inc_;u) &&&
,A
, (2
terms %st
time.
2. Lpss of Eclui~meG:Total loss of equipment due to part failure is expensive in terms of
lost time and equipment.
\o\\,2 .
7
b ' -'
3. Loss of Personnel: Total loss of the equipment may result in the loss of operating
.$, @-'
personnel.
-3 t

'"7%
*'."

d s

a';,

PENETRANT INSPECTION CAPABILITIES


Penetrant inspection can detect open to the surface discontinuities, such as:
Ip +6+.r.~
23 f ~ r a c k s
Laps
. yoPorosity
(hole through a wall)
--:I' Leaks
,*'<&
Seams
Pits +
,')
,
"

,X.&

bD

~ndercut.~

/"

Note: This is only a partial listing. A listing of all discontinuities caused by metal and non-metallic material
preparation, material forming, and material processing would be too unwieldy for this study guide.
Penetrant inspection can be used w$h reliable accuracy on the following nonabsorbent materials:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Aluminum
Magnesium
Brass
Copper
Titanium
Bronze

7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

Cast lmn
Stainless Steel
Non-Magnetic Alloys
Ceramics
..
Hard Rubber
Plastic

Caution: As some plastics, rubber, and synthetic products may be affected by oil, tests should be made
before penetrant inspecting such materials to avoid damaging the part under test.

\
\

-*u \

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PENETRANT INSPECTION

xv*\

The basic principle of penetrant inspection is capillary action. Capillary action is the action by which the
surface of a liquid, where it is in contact with a solid, is elevated or depressa The materials, processes,
and procedures used in liquid penetrant testing are all designed to facilitate capillarity and to make the
results of such action visible and capable of interpretation.
The forces of capillarity, or capillary action, may be obsewed when a plastic straw is inserted into a glass of
water. When the straw is inserted, the water molecules enter the straw and begin to attract other nearby
molecules, pulling them up the straw by cohesion. This process continues as the water rises higher and
higher. The water continues to rise until the pull of the surface tension is equalized. Cohesive forces
prevent the water from falling back down the straw. Capillary action as applied in n O n d e S t ~ ~ ttesting
i ~ e is
somewhat more complex, since various surface conditions hindering or assisting the action are
encountered. Liquid penetrants in nondestructive testing have low tension and high capillarity. Capillary
action is illustrated in Figure 1-1.

$6
WATER LEVEL IN STRAW
WATER LEV!.IN GLASS

(_I*

Figure 1-1 CAPILIARY ACTION

The basic objective of liquid penetrant inspection is to increase the visible contrast between the
discontinuity and its background. This is done by treating the whole object with an appropriag searching
liquid of high mobility and penetrating power (which enters the surface opening of the discontinuity), and
then encouraging the liquid to emerge from the discontinuity to reveal the flaw pattern to the inspecting
personnel under daylight conditions (visible dye penetrants) or, when exposed to black light (fluorescent
penetrants).

.-

There are several methods by which the basic principles of penetrant inspection can be administered. -In
each method, however, there are certain general procedures which must be followed.
GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR PENETRANT INSPECTION
The following are general procedures for penetrant inspection:

, ,

h-1 ,c,~'J\
Y,Q,6
-i
' c>k s C

1. Selection of the Aoorooriate


lnsoection Process:
,,

L. o&/'(
b,;

*L

,,

The appropriate inspection process shall be determined by the testing facilities


available, the type and amount of parts to be tested, and the results anticipate
desired.
2. Pre-Testing: If the material to be tested could be affected by oil, sulphur or c
tests shall be performed to ensure that the parts are not damaged, when placed
.L-8
under penetrant inspection method test.
3. Pre-Cleaning: The part to be inspected shall be pre-cleaned in order to remove any
contaminating material.
A
.<
,
CAUTION: Inadequate pre-cleaning is the source of most of the false indications encountered.
24
4. Pre-Drying: Parts which have been precleaned shall be dried to remove all traces of
j
,yJ2L.A 2 . p
cleaning material.
5. Penetrant Application: Penetrant shall be applied to a part under test in a manner
c&'d \
/.appropriate to the type of part or facilities available. Sufficient dwell time shall be
allowed for optimum penetration. Figure 1-2.
\ fee +

"~'5-~3*
-&Q
FC<

A,%
c,

7 -@ .
U'J\
y
1

Fguro 1-2 PENETRANT APPLICATION AND DWELL TIME

6. Penetrant Removal: Penetrant shall be removed from the surface of the part under test

in the manner dictated by the type of penetrant used. Figure 1-3.

Fgure 13

REMOVAL OF EXCESS SURFACE PENElRANT

7. Developer Application: Developer shall be applied to the part under test as appropriate
to the process being used and the configuration of the part under test. Sufficient dwell
time shall be allowed for optimum results. Figure 1-4.
3

figure 1-4 DEVELOPER APPLICATION

i
I

8. Inspection Interpretation: The part shall be inspected and the discontinuity interpreted

and evaluated to the applicable acceptance standard. Figure 1-5.

Fgure 1-5 lNSPECTlON AND INTERPRETATION OF INDICATIONS

t
9. Post-Cleaning: The developer shall be removed after inspection interpretation and
prior to returning the part to service.

PENETRANT SELECTION FACTORS


The proper selection of a penetrant to be used for penetrant inspection is dependent on many factors
such as penetrabilu visibility, particular type of discontinuity sought, configurationof part, surface
conditions, facilities and equipment available, etc. Selection of the proper penetrant, therefore, should
be based on penetrant sensitivity.
PENETRANT SENSITIVIPI: Penetrant Sensitivity is herein defined as the ability of the penetrant, along
with compatible family items in its group, to effectively find discontinuities of the type sought under the.
penetrant inspection circumstances involved. Using this definition, the penetrant most adaptable to the
majority of penetrant inspection conditions that will exist, is the proper penetrant.
COMPATIBILITY: Penetrant materials supplied by qualified producers are not compatible or
interchangeable for the purposes of penetrant inspection. Use only one manufactureCs group of
materials in an inspection line or portable inspection operation. This is known as a farnilygroup, and
intermixing of families is not permitted unless the "mixed family" has been previously qualified. +
PENETRANT MATERIALS
Penetrants: Penetrants are classified by Method and Type as follows:
Method A
Fluorescent dye
c+&+$\a
Method B
Visible dye
TYPe 1
Water-washable
Post emulsifiable, lipophilic, or , ,
Type 2
Post emulsifiable, hydrophilic
Type 3
Solvent removable
Emulsifiers are classified as either:
Emulsifier:
An emulsifier that is water-soluble
Hydrophilic
An emulsifier that is oil-soluble and not water-soluble
Lipophilic
Solvent removers are classified as follows:
Solvent Remover:
Halogenated
Non-halogenated
/
Developers:
Developers are classified by form as follows:
Dry powder
I
;./
Water soluble
Water suspendible
Nonaqueous
Specific application (i.e.Plastic film)
All penetrant materials are supplied in either bulk form or in small pressurized canisters.

,
'

/Y

SELECTION OF LIQUID PENETRANTTEST METHOD


When a specific liquid penetrant test method is not specified by the contract, the selection of a suitable
penetrant inspection process is made by the Level Ill who makes this decision based on seven basic
factors.
1. Requirements previously established by component drawings applicable documents on
material or Darts to be laced under examination.
2. Type and siie of disc&tinuity to bGetected.
3. Suriace c ~ n d i t i gof
i part to be examined.
- - jw;bc4, 'mih)
4. Configuration of part to be examined.
.
5. The number of parts lo be examined. -+
i
6. Facilities and equipment available.
7. Effect of the penetrant chemicals on material being examined.

f %.iY.3
i

PT Ill BASIC

TABLE 1
ASME CODE CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID PENETRANT METHODS AND TYPES
METHOD A -FLUORESCENT PENETRANTS
Type 1 Water Washable Penetrant (Procedure A-1)
Dry, Wet, or Nonaqueous Developer
Type 2 Post-emulsifiable Penetrant (Procedure A-2)
Lipophilic or Hydrophilic Emu!sifier
Dry, Wet, or Nonaqueous Developer
Type 3 Solvent Removable Penetrant (Procedure A-3)
Solvent Rernover/Cleaner
Dry. Wet, or Nonaqueous Developer
METHOD 8--VISIBLE PENETRANTS
Type 1 Water Washable Penetrant (Procedure B-1)
Wet or Nonaqueous Developer
Type 2 Post-emulsifiable Penetrant (Procedure B-2)
Lipophilic or Hydrophilic Emulsifier
Wet or Nonaqueous Developer
Type 3 Solvent Removable Penetrant (Procedure 8-3)
Solvent RemoverICleaner
Wet or Nonaqueous Developer

PT Ill BASIC

TABLE 1.a
MIL STD 6866 CLASSIFICATIONOF LIQUID PENETRANT METHODS AND TYPES

TYPE
Type I
Type II
Type Ill

Fluorescent Dye
Visible Dye
Dual mode (visible and fluorescent dye)

METHOD
Method A
Method B
Method C
Method D

Water-washable
Post emulsifiable, lipophilic
Solvent removable
Post emulsifiable, hydorphilic

SENSITIVITY
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4

Low
Medium
High
Ultrahigh

DEVELOPERS
Form a
Form b
Form c

Form d
Form e

Dry powder
Water soluble
Water suspendable
Nonaquesous
Specific application

SOLVENT REMOVERS
Class (1)
Hologenated
Non-halogenated
Class (2)
Class (3)
Specific application

METHOD A TYPE 1 INSPECTION PROCESS


The Method AType 1 Penetrant Inspection process uses a water-washable fluorescent penetrant and a
dry, wet, or non-aqueous wet developer. The penetrant has self-emulsifying properties to make it water
removable.
Method A Type 1 Process is generally used when:
1.
Examining large volume of parts.
2.
Discontinuities are not wider than their depth.
.
3.
Surfaces are very rough (i.e., sand castings, rough weldments).
4.
Examining large areas.
5.
Examiningthreads and keyways.
6.
The lowest fluorescent penetrant sensitivity is sufficient to detect the discontinuities
inherent to the part.
7.
Removal of excess penetrant may be difficult due to rough surfaces.
8.
Sulphonates in emulsifying agents will not affect nickel bearing
TABLE 2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
SPECTION PROCESS

--

... ..~.. ... ..

1. The use of fluorescence ensures good

visibility of flaw indications.


,
n\

2. Process is not reliable in finding

2. Process can'be cofisidered as a one-step

d-i

i.'process and, therefore, fast and economical.

scratches and shallow discontinuities.

->-,.

3. Process &n be used for detecting a wide

3. Penetrant can be affected by acids

ard chrom!es.

-.of. discontinuities.
range

4. Penetrant used can be easily washed off with

water.
5. Process is easily adaptable to a large volume

of small parts.

4. Process is not reliable on anodized

surfaces.

5. Process is susceptible to over-

washing.

6. Process is excellent for rough surfaces,

keyways, and threads.


7. Process is relatively inexpensive.

6. Water contamination may destroy


\\

'

usefulness of penetrant.

17. Not good forwide shallow


1

PT Ill BASIC

discontinuities (width greater than

METHOD A TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESS


The Method A Type 2 Penetrant Inspection process uses a post-emulsifiable fluorescent penetrant, a
lipophilic emulsifier, and a dry, wet, or non-aqueous wet developer. The materials used in this process are
very similar to that described for Method A Type 1 process, except that these penetrants are not selfemulsifiable. A lipophilic or hydrophilic emulsifier is used to make the penetrant water washable.
METHOD A TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESSES ARE GENERALLY USED WHEN:
1.
Examining large volume of parts.
2.

1-

A higher sensitivity than Method A. Type 1 is required or


'desired.

3.

y7
1

penetrants.
4.

5.

?j ,I/

The part is contaminated with acid or other chemicals that will harm'water-washable

Discontinuities are wider than their depth.


Variable, but controlled, sensitivities are necessary so that nondetrimental discontinuities can be disregardedwhile harmful or detrimental discontinuities are

6.

detected.
Examining parts which may have discontinuities contaminated with in-sewice soils.

7.

Examining for stress, cracks or intergranular corrosion.

8.

Examining for grinding cracks.

9.

High visibility is required.

TABLE 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


METHOD A TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESS,/"

d@+4{

'IJ

/--

h---

ADVANTAGES
1. Fluorescence used in this p w s s is more

brilliant, thus ensuring greater visibility of


flaw indications.
2. High sensitivity for very fine discontinuities.

3. Good on wide shallow discontinuities.

(width greater than depth)

DISADVANTAGES-1. Process is a two-step process, and

therefore requires more time.


2. Additional equipment is required for

application of the emulsifier.


3. Not as good on parts with complex

shapes (i.e. threads) as Type 1.

4. Process good for high volume production.

4. Additional material increases cost.

5. Process normally not affected by acids.

5. Emulsifier dwell time very critical.

6. Process not as susceptible to over-washing.

PT Ill BASIC

METHOD A TYPE 3 INSPECTION PROCESS


The Method A Type 3 Penetrant lnspection process uses a solvent-removable fluorescent penetrant, a
penetrant remover (solvent) and non-aqueous developer. The penetrant is not water-washable but is
removed instead with the solvent remover.
Method A Type 3 lnspection Process is generally used when:
1.

Spot examination is required.

2.

Water-rinsing method is not feasible because of part size, weight, surface


condition, no water available, no heat for drying, or field use.
TABLE 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
METHOD A TYPE 3 INSPECTION PROCESS
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

1. Process can be used for spot inspection

1. Use of solvent to remove penetrant

prohibits inspecting large areas.

on large parts.
2. Process can be used when water-rinsing

methods are not feasible.

+-

2. Sensitivity can be reduced by the

application of excessive amounts


of remover.

METHOD B TYPE 1 INSPECTION PROCESS


Method B Type 1 Penetrant lnspection process uses a water-washable visible dye penetrant and wet or
non-aqueous developer. The penetrant has self-emulsifyingproperties to make it water removable and is
of a brilliant red color.
Method B Type 1 Process is generally used when:
1.

The lowest sensitivity is sufficient to detect the discontinuities inherent to the part.

2.

Examining large volume of parts.

3.

Discontinuities are not wider than their depth.

4.

Surfaces are very rough (i.e., sand castings, rough weldments, pitted areas).

5.

Examining large areas.

6.

Examining threads and keyways.

7.

Removal of excess penetrant may be difficult due to rough surfaces.

PT Ill BASIC

TABLE 5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


METHOD B TYPE 1 PROCESS
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

1. No blacklight or darkened area required.

1. Process is not reliable in finding scratches.

2. Process can be considered as a one-step

2. Process is less sensitivity for fine

discontinuities.

process and, therefore, fast and economical.


3. Process can be used for detecting a wide

3. Penetrant can be affected by acids and

range of discontinuities.
4. Penetrant used can be easily washed off

with water.

ch-omtes.
4. Process is not reliable on anodized surfaces.

5. Process is susceptible to over-washing.

5. Process is easily adaptable to a large

6. Water contamination may destroy usefulness

of penetrant.

volume of small parts.


6. Process is excellent for rough surfaces,

7. Not good for wide shallow discontinuities

keyways, and threads.

(widlh greater than depth).

7. Process is relatively inexpensive.


METHOD B, TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESS
Method B, Type 2 Penetrant lnspection process uses a post-emulsifiablevisible dye penetrant, an

emulsifier, and a dry, wet or non-aqueous developer. The materials used in this process are very similar to
that described for Method A, Type II process, however, the eenetrants are not self-emulsifiable. An
emulsifier is applied over the penetrant to make it water washable.
Method 8, Type 2 lnspection process is generally used when:
1.

Examining large volume of parts.

2.

A higher sensitivity than Method B, Type 1 is required or desired.

3.

The part is contaminated with acid or other chemicals that will harm waterwashable penetrants.

4.

Discontinuities are wider than their depth.

5.

Examining parts which may have discontinuities that are contaminated with inservice soils.

6.

Examining finished suiiaces and other general purpose examinations.

TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


METHOD B TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESS
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

1. No blacklight or darkened area required.

1. Process is a two-step process, and

2. High sensitivity for fine discontinuities.

therefore requires more time.

3. Good on wide shallow discontinuities.

(width greater than depth)


4.

Process good for high volume production.

5. Process normally not affected by acids.


6. Process not as susceptible to overwashing.

2. Additional equipment is required for

application oi the emulsifier.


3. Not as good on parts with complex

shapes (i.e. threads) as Type 1.


4. Additional material increases cost.

5. Emulsifier dwell time very critical.

METHOD B. TYPE 3 INSPECTION PROCESS


The Method B, Type 3 Penetrant lnspection Process uses a solvent-removable visible dye penetrant, a

- -

penetrant remover (solvent) and a dry, wet or non-aqueous developer. The penetrant is not waterwashable but is removed instead with the penetrant remover.
Method 8, Type 3 lnspection Process is generally used when:
1.

Spot examination is required.

2.

Water-rinsing is not feasible because of part size, weight, surface condition, no


water available, or remote location.
TABLE 7 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
METHOD B TYPE 3 INSPECTION PROCESS
ADVANTAGES

1. Process can be used for spot inspection

on large parts.
2. Process can be used when water-rinsing

methods are not feasible.


3. No blacklight or darkened area required.
4. Process is highly portable.

DISADVANTAGES
1. Use of solvent to remove penetrant

prohibits inspecting large areas.


2. Sensitivity can be reduced by the

application of excessive amounts


of remover.
3. Visibility of indications is limited.

As shown in the previous paragraphs, the test method is dependent upon the materials used. It should
be obvious that in order to achieve the desired results.the proper selection and use of materials is of vital
importance , and mandatory that the written procedure be followed to the letter.

Figure 1 TYPICAL PENETRANT INSPECTION EQUIPMENT

INSPECTION BOOT11

ULTRA VIOLET
LIGHTS

N0TE:WHEN THE EQUIPMENT IS USED FOR A TYPE 2 INSPECTION PROCESS, THE EXTRA TANK
(SHOWN BY THE DASHED LINES) WlLL BE USED FOR M E PENETRANT. IN M I S EVENT, THE TANK
IDENTIFIED ABOVE AS THE PENETRANT TANK WlLL BE USED FOR M E EMULSIFIER. WHEN THIS
EQUIPMENT IS USED FOR THE TYPE 1. PROCESS, THE ADDITIONAL TANK IS NOT REQUIRED.

PT Ill BASIC

14

PENETRANT INSPECTION KITS.


Penetrant inspection is practical for field use, because these materials are supplied in the form of portable
kits. Both Fluorescent and Visible Dye Penetrant inspection kits are available, but it is essenlial that only
the complete family of penetrant inspection materials be employed for these field kit inspection
operations.
PORTABLE VISIBLE DYE PENETRANT KITS. Portable Visible Dye Penetrant Kits are available for field
inspection. A typical Visible Dye Penetrant Kit is illustrated in Figure 2.
A VlSlBLE DYE PENETRANT KIT usually contains:
1.

Spray cans of cleaning or removal fluid

2.

Spray cans of visible dye penetrant.

3.

Spray cans of nonaqueous developer.

4.

Wiping cloths and brushes.

BRUSH A N D WIPES

PENETRANT

CLEAN

Figure 2 Portable Visible Dye Penetrant Kit

PORTABLE FLUORESCENT DYE PENETRANT KITS. Portable Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Kits are
available for field inspection. A typical Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Inspection Kit is illustrated in Figure 3.
A FLUORESCENT DYE PENETRANT KIT usually contains:
1.

A portable black light and transformer.

2.

Spray cans of cleaning or removal fluid.

3.

Spray cans of fluorescent dye penetrant.

4.

Spray cans of nonaqueous developer.

5.

Wiping cloths and brushes.

PENETRANT

DEVELOPEfi

Figure 3 Portable Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Kit

PT Ill BASIC

PORTABLE
BLACK L I G H T

In summary, let's consider the advantages and limitations of the liquid penetrant test method
ADVANTAGES OF PENETRANT TESTING
Materials are relatively inexpensive
Some methods are relatively fast
Sensitive: can detect discontinuities .001" or greater.
Versatile: can be used on any non-porous, non-absorbent material.
LIMITATIONS OF PENETRANTTESTING
Some methods are time consuming and therefore expensive.
Can only detect discontinuities open to the surface.
/

Surface of part should be 60 to 125 degrees F.


Cannot be used on very rough surfaces..-----+
Procedure can be messy.
May require good ventilation.
No easy pemlanent record.

LEARNING MODULE 4
INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION OF INDICATIONS
This learning module describes the interpretation and evaluation phases of NDT, discontinuity
characteristics. and the classifications of indications and discontinuities.
THE INSPECTOWEXAMINER'
Since correct evaluation of a discontinuity depends on accurate interpretation the inspector is the key in
the inspection process. The success and reliability of any NDT depends upon the thoroughness with
which the inspector conducts the examination from the initial step all the way through to the final
interpretationof the indications. The inspector must carefully follow the procedure, search out indications
and then decide the seriousness of discontinuities found to determine the disposition of parts according
to the severity of the flaw indications. Remember poor processing can be worse than no inspection,
because, if improper processing yields no indications for the inspector to interpret the part would be
considered acceptable whether it is or not. In some cases, the inspector may perform only the inspection
phase of the process. At other times, the inspector may perform all phases of the process. In either case,
the success and reliability of the inspection depends on the thoroughness of the inspector, and proper

f-

processing of the part.


The" inspector* as used in this learning module is referred to as the "examine? in the ASME Code.
PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION
The personnel performing the liquid penetrant test must be qualified and certified in accordance with S M TC-?A. A review of the company's "Written Practice" would be necessary to determine the specific
requiiements for qualificationto any level of competency as recommended by SNT-TGIA

- . . ..

TERMINOLOGY

. .

Quite often inspectors will confuse the various terms used and will use them incorredly. Therefore, it is
important that the inspector have a clear understanding of the terms relating to liquid penetrant testing.
INDICATION: a response, or evidence of a response, that requires interpretationto determine its
significance.
DISCONTINUITY: a broad term relating to a condition that is foreign to the normal structure of a material. A
discontinuity may or may not be detrimental to the intended service life of a part and must therefore be
evaluated.
HelMer Associates, lnc
PTMcd4 O 1989

DEFECT: a term applied to a discontinuity which may be detrimental to the intended service life of a part,
and exceeds the limits of the applicable acceptance criteria.
INTERPRETATION: the action performed by the inspector in determining the cause of an indication.
EVALUATION: the action performed by the inspector in comparing the magnitude and severity of an
indication to a predetermined acceptance criteria in order to determine acceptance or rejection of the part.
RECOGNrrlON OF TYPES OF INDICATIONS
it must be recognized that all indications are not caused by discontinuities. Some indications are the result
of faulty processing of the part, while other indications are the result of part design. The penetrant
inspector must be able to recognize the various indications that might appear. Penetrant indicationswill
fall into one of three categories:

1.

False Indications

2.

Nonrelevant Indications

3.

True or Valid Indications

Usually there are specik differences between all three and a well-trained inspector should be able to
determine into which of the three categories an indication is to be classified. Qualified inspectors, using
acceptable procedures and codes, can usually determine the cause and category of the penetrant
indication.
FALSE INDICATIONS

In nondestrudiwe testing, an indication that may be interpreted erroneously as a discontinuity is


considered a false indication. In all NDT disciplines, false indications can become major pmblems in the
the NDT
.- . . .inspection process. Usually a thogugh knowledge of the manufacturing processes ,involved,
.
process, and previous experience of the inspector is necessary to readily and accurately classiiy a false
indication.
The most common causes of false indications are the improper or inadequate precleaning of the part, and
the improper or inadequate removal of the excess surface penetrant. If all the surface penetrant is not
completely removed in the removal process, the remaining penetrant may produce false indications. This
is true for both the fluorescent and visible penetrant methods. The use of the black light during the
removal of fluorescent penetrants is very helpful in determining that adequate removal has been achieved.

Hellier Associares, Inc


PTMcd4 O 1989

A properly cleaned part would show only a very faint, or no pink background if visible penetrants were

used, or only very faint, or no areas of background fluorescence when fluorescent penetrants are used.
False indications due to incomplete washing are usually easy to identify, since the penetrant will be in
broad areas rather than in the sharp patterns found in the true indications.
The danger of poorly cleaned parts, which produce the false indications, lies in the fact that there may be
actual discontinuities in the improperly cleaned areas which would be masked by the false indications. If
false indications interfere with interpretation of true indications found on the parts complete reprocessing
of the parts would be required.
NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS
Non-relevant indications are true indications produced by uncontrolledtest conditions. However, the
conditions causing them are present by design or accident, or other features of the part having no relation
to the damaging flaws being sought. The term signifies that such an indication has no relation to
discontinuities that might constitute defects.
NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS DUET0 FILLETS, THREADS, AND KEYWAYS: Sharpfillets, threads,
and keyways will often retain penetrant at their base and produce indications despite a good removal

f'-

technique. This is particularly tiue when post emulsified penetrants are employed. Because heat-treating
or fatigue cracks often do m

r at such locations it is essential that the inspector check these locations

very carefully.
NON-RELEVANT INDIGATTONS DUE TO PRESS-FIT: Anotherwndition which may create nokrelevant
indications is when parts are press-fitted into each other. if a wheel is press-fitted onto a shaft, penetrant
will show an indicationat the fit line. This is perfectly normal since the two parts are not welded together.
The only problem with such indications is that penetrant from the press fit may bleed out and mask a true
. . dis~ontinuity.

CWUliUOW: Where penetrant bleed out may mask discontinuities on press-fit parts, the time between
application of developer and inspection should be held to a minimum to prevent excessive bleed out.

Hellier Associates, Inc.


PTMod 4 Q 1989

TRUE INDICATIONS
The last classification of indications is the group of which we are most interested and is called the true
indication which is caused by a discontinuity.
True indications can be further classified into four major groups. They are: inherent, primary processing,
secondary processing, and service discontinuities. These are covered in detail in another module.
Three basic questions must be answered to facilitate proper interpretation of the flaw indications:
1.

What type of discontinuity would cause the indications?

2.

What is the extent of this discontinuity?

3.

What effect will this discontinuity have on the anticipated service of the part?

NOTE: The answers to the first two questions are the prime responsibility of the inspector. The answer to
the third question, unless specific acceptance criteria are specified, usually requires special assistance.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF DlSCONTlNUrflES
Generally speaking, we can divide discontinuities into five basic types. These are:

Fine, Tight Surface Cracks. Such cracks may be shallow or deep, but their most
signifmnt characteristics is their very small and tigM surface opening. Deep
cracks of this type, once well penetrated, may provide a reservoir of penetrant, and

2.

therefore, may be easier to show than shallow cracks.


Broad, Open Surface Discontinuities. Discontinuitiesof this type may be shallow
or relatively deep. Their significant characteristic is their width which tends to
permit penetrants to be removed from the discontinuity, especially when water
spray removal techniques are employed. Care must be taken to ensure this does not
occur.

3.

Porosity. Generally speaking, porosity is a discontinuity having a cavity below


the surface which is connected to the surface by a very small channel. Porosity is
typically found in castings and welds and is sometimes referredto as gas holes.

4.

Shrinkage: Micro or sponge shrinkage in castings which is opened to the surface


by machining and etching may be hard to differentiate from cracks. Much care
must be used in evaluating this type of indication.

5.

Leaks or Through Cracks. Discontinuities of this type are cracks or openings


which pass from one surface to another.

Hellier Associates, lnc.


PTMcd4 63 1989

FLAW INDICATION CATEGORIES

There are five basic types of indications which may be seen by the inspector. These indication types
caused by the discontinuities listed in the above paragraph are as follows:
1.

Continuous linear indications

2.

Intermittent linear indications

3.

Rounded indications

4.

Small dot indications

5.

Diffuse or weak indications

It is possible to examine an indication of a discontinuity and determine its cause as well as its extent. such
an appraisal can be made if something is known about the manufacturing processes or the operational use
to which the part has been subjected. The extent of the indications, or acurmulation of penetrant, will
show the extent of the discontinuity.
The vividness of the visible dye penetrant on the contrasting white developer or the brilliance of the
fluorescent dye penetrant will give some indication of the discontinuity's depth. Deekdiscontinuities will
hold penetrant and therefore, will be broader and more brilliant. Very fine discontinufies can hold only
small amounts of penetrant and will therefore appear as fine lines.
In many instances, more accurate flaw evaluation may be obtained by removing the indications and
reapplying nonaqueous wet developer so that the rate and amount of penetrant bleed out can be closely

f!

observed to facilitate the interpretation of the flaw discontinuity.


CON'NUOUS LINEAR INDICATIONS
Cracks, cold shuts, and forging laps usually show as a continuous line indication. A crack will appear as a
sharp or faint-jagged line, straight line or intermittent line, while cold shuts will usually appear as smooth,
straight, narrow lines. Scratches and die marks will also appear as straight lines, but the bottom of the
.

,di.s.continuityis usually visible.


\

a,

/
\

CONTINUOUS LINEAR INDICATIONS


\

Hellier Associates. Inc


P T M w ' 4 @ 1989

INTERMITENT LINEAR INDICATIONS


The same discontinuities that appear as straight lines may also appear as linear intermittent indications.
This condition is caused by the discontinuity being pattially closed at the surface due to metal working
such as machining forging, extruding, peening, grinding, etc. As an illustration, grinding cracks are
caused by local overheating of the surface being ground, but these cracks may be partially closed by the
plastic flow of the metal over the crack caused by the high shear forces produced on the surface of the
metal. Grinding cracks can show as a craze pattern made up of a network of very fine cracks.
f

'.'.

rC

/-'

,'

/
/-

,
'

'.

INTERMITTENT LINEAR INDICATIONS

ROUNDED INDICATIONS
Rounded indications generally indicate porosity caused by gas holes or pin holes or a generally porous
material depending on the extent of the indication. Deep crater cracks in welds frequently show up as
rounded indications, since there is a large amount of dye penetrant entrapped.
The indications may appear rounded because of the volume of penetrant entrapped, ailhough the actual
defects may be irregular in outline.
\

#
0.-

-a

I
(r

b
B

ROURDED IRDlCATlOMS
\

Hellier Associales, Inc.


PTMcd4 O 1989

SMALL DOT INDICATIONS


Discontinuities of this nature result from a porous condition of the material. Such indications may denote
small pin holes, excessively coarse grains in a casting, or may be caused by micro-shrinkage or certain cast
alloys. A series of aligned dots might result from a very tight crack.
NOTE: Internlittent dot indications, or even a generally heavy background may also result fmm surface
corrosion pining, general intergranular surface corrosion or even an excessively mugh surface. This type
of indication may obscure indications from genuine cracks.

3'

.....

..

....

.' .

.... . .

..

..

..

..
SHALL DOT IRDIEATlOMS
\

DIFFUSE OR WE3K INDICATIONS


This condition may be caused by a porous surface, insufftuent cleaning, incomplete removal of dye
penetrant or excess developer. Weak indications extending over a wide area should be viewed with
suspicion. When this condition is encountered, the part should be completely reprocessed.

DIFFUSE OR WEAK IHDICWTIOMS

Hsllisr Associalss. Inc.


PTMod4 @ 1989

FATIGUE OR SERVICE CRACKS


Fatigue cracks or sharp shallow cracks developed while the part is in service are extremely dangerous and
represent an eventual part failure. Care must be taken to detect these discontinuities.

FATIGUE OR SERVICE CRACKS


\

Hellier Associates. Inc.


PTMod4 8 1989

LEARNING MODULE 1
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
PRlNClPLES OF MAGNETISM

In order to understand how and why a magnetic particle test works it is necessary to understand the
principles of magnetism.

HORSESHOE MAGNET

The most familiar type of magnet is the horsehoe magnet shown

in figure 1-1. It will attract magnetic materials to its ends where a leakage field occurs. These ends are
commonly called "north" and "south" poles, indicated by N and S on the diagram. There will be no
attraction except at these poles. Magnetic flux lines, or lines of force flow from the north to the south pole

as long as they are external to the magnet. Since these lines of force always form a complete circuit, they
also pass through the iron or steel of which the magnet is made. Note thatwithin the magnet the lines are

Figure 1-1. Horseshoe h f q n e t

Ifthe ends of the horseshoe magnet are bent so that they are close together, as shown in figure 1-2, the

ends will sti!l attract magnetic materials. However, ifthe ends of the magnet zre benl closer together, and
the two poles completely fused or welded into a ring as shown in figure 1-3, the magnet will no longer
attract or hold magnetic materials because there is no longer a leakage field. The magnetic field remains as
shown by the arrows, but without poles there is no attraction. Such a piece is said to have a circular field,
or to be circularly magnetized, because the magnetic lines of force are circular.

Fiwre 1-2. H o m s h a e hiagnel w i t h Polci CloseTocclher

MT MOD 1

Any crack in the fused magnet or cicularly magnetized part which crosses the magnetic flux lines will
immediately create noflh and south poles on either side of the crack. (see figure 1-4). This will lorce some
01 the rnagnetic flux (lines ol force) out of the metal path and is referred to as lluxleakage. Magnetic

materials or particles will be attracted by the pole created by the crack, forming an indication of the
discontinuity in the metal part. This is the principle whereby rnagnetic particle indications are formed by
means of circular magnetization.

Figure 1-4. Cnck in Fused Horjeshoe Magnet

BAR MAGNET

If a horseshoe magnet is straightened, a bar magnet is created a s shown in figure

1-5. The bar magnet has poles at either end and magnetic lines of force flowing through the length of it.

Magnetic particles will be attracted only to the poles. Such a piece is said to have a longitudinal field, or to
be longitudinally magnetized.

Figure 1-5. f f o n e s h o e Magnet Straightened t o Form

831Magnet

MT M O D 1

- -

A slot or discontinuity in the bar magnet which crosses the magnetic flux lines will create north and south

poles on either side ol the discontinuity (see tigure 1-6). These poles will attract magnetic parlicles. In a
similar manner, if the discontinuity is a crack even though it is very fine, it will still create magnetic poles as
indicated in figure 1-7. These poles will also attract magnetic particles. The strength of these poles wiil be
a function of the number of flux lines, the depth of the crack and the width of the air gap at the surface.
The greater the pole strength, the greater the leakage field. The strength of this leakage field determines
the number of magnetic parlicles which will be gathered to form indications: strong indications at strong
fields, or large discontinuities, and weak indications at weak fields of small discontinuities.

MAGNETIC PARTICLES

-7

Figure 1-6. $lot in Bar Magnet Attracting


Magnetic Particles

TMAGNETIC

PARTICLES

CRACK

Figure 1-7. Crack in Bar Magnet AtLncting


M q n e l i c Partides

'

MAGNETIC FLUX CHARACTERISTICS

Magnelic lines of.lorce (flux lines) may be described by several characteristics,

A. They are closed loops.

B. They can be distorted (like a rubber band).


C. They return upon themselves.
'D. They never cross.

E. They seek the path of least resistance.

F. They are most densely concentrated at the poles oi the magnet.


G. They flow from north to south outside the magnet, and from south to north within the magnel.

CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS
All materials read to a magnetic field in one of three ways. They are. therefore, classilied as diamagnetic,

. paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic. When made into a rod, a diamagnetic material is repelled by a magnetic
field and will align itself at right angles to the field. When a paramagnetic or a lerromagnetic material is
made into a rod, it will be attracted by a magnetic field and will align itself parallel to the field.

1.

Diamagnet~cmmaleria!s have permeabilities slightly less than unity. Bismuth has the iowest

permeability known (.9998).Other diama~neticmaterials are phosphorus, antimony, flint glass, and
mercuky. Such materials are usually consideredto be nonmagnetic.

2.

Paramagnetic materials have permeabilities greater than unity. Those whose permeablities are

only slightly grealer than unity such as platimum (1.00002), are called paramagnetic and are usually
considered to be nonmagnetic.

3.

Ferromagnetic materials have permeabililies great than unity and are usually Considered to be

magnetic. Ferromagnetic materials are iron, nickel, cobalt, and many alloys such as permalloy, alnico,
permivar, elc. Usually materials wiih permeabilities of 1.1000 or greater aree referred lo as lerromagnelic.

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Low Carbon Content Sleel Vs. High Carbon Content steel

Low

Large grain with a very simple structure

High

Smaller grain size; the structure is more complex for added strenth

Example of each before a magnetizing force is applied:

Low Carbon

Figure 1-8
ATOM ARRANGEMENT
Hiah Carbon

Figure 1-9
When a magnetizing lorce is applied to low carbon content steel, the aloms align easily.

F i g u r e 1-10

More magnetizing force is required to align the atoms of high carbon steel into magnetic domains. As
illustrated in figure 1- 9, the atom directions are more disarranged than low carbon content in figurel-8

magnetizing
force

F i g u r e 1-11

When the magnetizing force is removed from low carbon content steel, most of the atoms return to their
normal orientation (figure 1-8), leaving little magnetism. High carbon content steel is different. Because it
is much harder to align the atoms; when the magnetizing force is removed many atoms will stay aligned
and the material will retain a greater amount of magnetism as shown in figure 1-12.

Figure 1 - 1 2

You will notice thal a malerial of high reluctance has:

1. Low permeability

..

2. High retentivity

3. High coercive force

4. High residual magnetism

And material with low reluctance is easy lo magnethe. It has:

1. High permeability

2. Low retentivity
/-

3. Low residual magnetism

4. Low coercive force

PROPERTY

LOW CARBON

HIGH CARBON

Permeability

High

Low

Reluctance

Low

High

Relentivily

Low

High

Residual Field

Low

High

Coercive Force

Low

High

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


MAGNETIC FIELDS

INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELDS


Magnetism may be induced into a material by placing the material in an already existing magnetic field. This
can be illustrated by making a screwdriver magnetic by mbbing it against a permanent magnet. An easier
method is through the use of electrical current. Ifa wire is wrapped around a screwdriver and electric
current passed through the wire, the screwdriver becomes magnetized.
PERMANENT MAGNETS
Permanent magnets are sometimes used to induce magnetic fields within a test specimen. The use of
permanent magnets for magnetization has many limitations and they are, therefore, only used when these
limitations do not interfere or prevent the formation of adequate leakage fields at the site of a discontinuity.
ELECTRIC CURRENTS
Electric currents can be used to create or induce magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic
lines of force are always at right angles (900) to the direction of the magnetizing current flow. Therefore,
the direction of the magnetic field can be altered, and is controlled by the direction of the magnetizing
current. It is important to know how to use electric currents to induce the magnetic lines of force so that
they intercept and are, as near as possible, at right angles to the discontinuity. Eiiher circular or
longitudinal magnetic fields can easily be created in a test specimen. The strength of the magnetic field
can be varied, and through the use of several types of current, variations in field strength and distribution
can be accomplished.
There are basically two types of electric current used as a magnetzing force. These are alternating current
(AC), direct current (DC). Alternating Current or AC is current that reverses its direction of flow at regular
intervals. Such current is frequently referred to as AC. Direct Current or DC, as the name implies, refers to
an electric current flowing continually in one direction through a conductor. Such current is frequently
referred to as DC.
AC VS DC
The magnetic fields created by alternating current and by direct current differ in many respects. The most
important difference in magnetic particle testing is that the magnetic field created by alternating current is
confined near the surface of the part referred to as skin effect, while the magnetic field created by direct
current penetrates below the surface of the part.

MOD 2

Although different types of magnetizing current can be used in magnetic particle inspection only one
type is generally best suited for each type of inspection to be performed.
Alternating current (AC) is used for the detection of surface discontinuities only, due to the skin
affect.
Direct current (DC) or Halfwave direct current (HWDC) is used for detection of either surface or
subsurface discontinuities.
Regardless of the type of current used for magnetization, the magnetic field created in the test part will be
either a circular field or a longitudinal field.
CIRCULAR MAGNETIZATION. Circular magnetizationderives its name from the fact that a circular
magnetic fiekl atways surrounds a conductor such as a wire or a bar carrying an electric current (see figure

. 2-1). The direction of the magnetic lines of force (magnetic field) is always at right angles to the direction of
the magnetizingcurrent. An easy way to remember the direction of magnetic lines of force around a
conductor is to imagine that you are grasping the conductor with your hand so that the extended thumb
points parallel to the electric current flow. The fingers then point in the direction of the magnetic lines of
force. Conversely, if the fingers point in the direction of current flow, the extended thumb points in the

f
.

direction of the magnetic lines of force.

Magnetic Field Surrounding an


Electrical Conductor

F i g u r e 2-

Since a magnetic part is in eHect a large conductor, electric current passing through this part creates a
magnetic field in the same manner as with a small conductor (see figure 2-2). The magnetic lines of force
are at right angles to the direction of the current as before. This type of mangetization is called circular
mangetization because the lines of force, which represent the direction of the magnetic field, are circular
within the part. The strength of the magnetic field is dependent upon the current passing through the
conductor.

Magnetic Field in Part Used as a Conductor

F i g u r e 2-

CIRCULAR MAGNETIZATION WITH INSPECTION EQUIPMENT. To create or induce a circularfield in a


part with stationary magnetic particle inspection equipment, the part is clamped betweenthe contact
plates and current is passed through the part as indicated in figure 2-3. This sets up acircuiar magnetic
field in the part which creates poles on either side of any cradc or discontinuity which wns parallel to the
length of the part. The poles will attract magnetic particles, forming an indication of the discontinuity.
T CONTACT PLATE

CONTACT P L A T E7

Cteating n Circular Magnetic Field in a Part

On parts that are hollow or tubelike, the inside surfaces are as important to inspect as the outside. When
such parts are circularly magnetized by passing the magnetizing current through the part, the magnetic
field on the inside surface is negligible. Since there is a magnetic field surrounding the conductor of an
electric current it is possible to induce a satisfactory magnetic field by placing the part on a copper bar or
other conductor. This situation is illustrated in figures 2-4 and 2-5. Passing current through the bar
induces a magnetic field on both the inside and outside surfaces.

CRACKS O.D. OR 1.0.


MAGNETIZING CURRENT
Figure 2- 4

Circular Magnetization of a Cyclinder


Using a Central Conductor

Figure 2- 5

Circular Magnetization of Ring-Type Parts


Using a Central Conductor

LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIZATION. Electric current can also be used to create a longitudinal magnetic
field in a piece of magnetic material. The nature and direction of this field is the result of the field around
the conductor which forms the turns of the coil. Application of the rule of the thumb to the conductor at
any point in the coil illustrated in figure 2-6 will show that the field within the coil is lengthwise as indicated.
F A G N E T I C FIELD

Figure 2- 6

WIRE COIL

Magnetic Lines o f Force i n a Coil

When a part made of magnetic material is placed inside a coil as shown in figure 2-7, the magnetic lines of
force created by the magnetizing current concentrate themselves in the part and induce a longitudinal
mangetic field. Inspection of a cylindrical part with longitudinal magnetizationis shown in figure2-18. If
there is a transverse discontinuity in the part, such as that in the illustration, small magnetic poles are
formed on either side of the crack. These poles will attract magnetic particles, forming an indication of the
discontinuity. Compare figure 2-8 with figure 2-3 and note that in both cases a magnetic field has been
induced in the part which is at right angles to the defect. This is the most desirable condition for reliable
inspection. The strength of the magnetic field within a coil is dependent upon the current flowing through
the coil, the number of turns in the coil, and the diameter of the coil.

,-WIRE

LM,*GNETIZING
Figure 2-17

COIL

CURRENT

Longiludinal Magnetic Field in a Fart Placed in a Coil

Figure 2- 8

MAGNETIZING CURRENT
7

Longitudinal Magnetic Field Shows Transverse Crack

INDUCED CURRENT MAGNETIZING. When a direct current in a circuit is instantly cut off, the field
surrounding the conductor collapses, or falls rapidly to zero. The rapid change of field tends to generate a
voltage (and current) which is opposite in direction to that which had been established in the circuit. When
ferromagnetic material is under the influence of such a collapsingfield, the effect is greatly increased.

Under certain conditions the rapid collapse of the field can generate very high currents inside
ferromagnetic material, and the phenomenon can be made useful in some magnetizing problems. An
extremely useful application of a collapsing field method fo magnetization has been developed for the
magnetizing of ring-shaped parts such as bearing races, without the need to make direct contact with the
surface of the part. Regardless of the type of magnetizing current employed, whether DC, AC or halfwave, the induced current method is usually faster and more satisfactory than the contact method. Only
one operation is required and the possibility of damaging the part due to arcing is completely eliminated
since no external contacts are made on the part.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


INSPECTION METHODS
CURRENTIPARTICLEAPPLICATION. Two methods of processing are used in magnetic particle
inspection. The Continuous Method and the Residual Method. Which of the two methods to use in a
given case depends upon the magnetic retentivity of the part being inspected and the desired sensitivity
of the inspection to be made. The continuous method must be used on parts having low retentivity.
Highly retentive parts may be inspected using the residual method. For a given magnetizing current or
applied magnetizing field the continuous method offers the greatest sensitivity for revealing discontinuities.
CONTINUOUS METHOD. This method implies that the magnetizing force is acting while the magnetic
particles are applied. When the current is on, maximum flux density will be created in the part for the
magnetizing force being employed. In some cases, usually when AC or half-wave DC is being used as the
magnetizing current, the current is actually left on, sometimes for minutes at a time, while the mangetic
particles are applied. This is more often needed in dry method applications than in the wet. Leaving the
current on for long periods of time is not practical in most instances, nor is it necessary when using the wet
method. The heavy current required for proper magnetization can cause overheating of parts and contact
/

burning or damage to the equipment if allowed to flow for any appreciable length of time. In practice, the
magnetizing current is normally on foronly afractiin of a second at a time. All that is required is that a
sufficient number of magnetic particles are in the zone and free to move while the magnetiiing current
flows. The bath ingredients are so selected and formulated that the particles can and do move through
the film of liquid on the surface of the part and form strong, readable indications. The viscosity of the bath
and the bath concentration are important, since anything that tends to reduce the number of available
particles or to slow their movement tends to reduce the build-up of indications.
RESIDUAL MRF1OD. The residual method is a method of inspection in which magnetic particles are
applied to parts after the parts have been magnetized. The residual method is used only when parts are
magnetized with DC and the parts have sufficient retentivity to form adequate magnetic particle indications
at discontinuities.

Usually the use of the residual method is limited to the search for discontinuities which

are open to the surface, such as cracks.


WET VS DRY M E M O D
The magnetic particles may be applied to the surface of the test part in the form of a wet suspension, in
which the magnetic particles are held in suspension in a liquid vehicle, which is flowed over the test part,
or in the form of dry powder which is dusted over the test part. The particular method to be used would be
determined by the test conditions, or dictated by specification. Each method has distinct advantages and
limitations.

WET METHOD ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS. As is true of every process, the wet method has both
good points as well as less favorable characterisitics. The more important good points of the wet method,
which constilute the reason for its extensive use, as well as the less attractive characteristics are tabulated
as follows:

It is the most sensitive method for very fine surface cracks.

b.

It is the most sensitive method for very shallow surface cracks.

c.

It quickly and thoroughly covers all surfaces of irregularly-shaped parts, large or small, with

d.

magnetic particles.
It is the fastest and most thorough method for testing large numbers of small parts.

e.
f.

The magnetic particles have excellent mobiliy in liquid suspension.


It is easy to measure and control the concentration of particles in the bath, which makes
for uniformity and accurate reproducibility of resuls.

9.
h.

It is easy to recover and reuse the bath.


It is well adapted to the short, timed shot technique of magnetization for the continuous
method.

i.

It is readily adaptable to automatic unit operation.

j.

It is not usually capable of finding defects lying wholly below the surface if more than a few

k.

thousandthsof an inch deep.


It is messy to work with, especially when used for the expendable technique, and in field
testing.

I.

A recirculatingsystem is required to keep the particles in suspension.

rn

it sometimes presents a post-inspection cleaning problem to remove magnetic particles


linging to the surface

Fluorescent magnetic particles used in suspension in liquids have the same unfavorable characteristics

which go with the usual wet visible method techniques. There is the additional requirement for a source of
black-light, and an inspection area from which the white light can be excluded. Experience has shown that

these added special requirements are more than justified by the gains in reliability and sensitivity.

GENERAL. The dry powder method is primarily used for the inspection of welds and castings where the

detection of defects lying at or very close to the surface is considered important. The particles used in the
dry method are provided in the form of a powder. They are available in red, black, yellow and gray colors.
The magnetic properties, particle size and shape, and coating method are similar in all colors making the
particles equally efficient. The choice of powder is then determined primarily by which powder will give the
best contrast and visibility on the parts being inspected and the degree of sensitivity desired.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS. The dry powder method has good points and less favorable
characteristics. These advantages and disadvantages which may influence its use for a specific
application are summarized in the following list:
Excellent for locating defects wholly below the surface and deeper than a few
thousandths of an inch.
Easy to use for large objects with portable equipment.
Easy to use for field inspection with portable equipment.
Good mobility when used with alternating current (AC) or half-wave direct current
(HWDC).
Not as messy as the wet method.
Equipment may be less expensive.
Not as sensitive as the wet method for very fine and shallow cracks.
Not easy to cover all surfaces properly, especially of irregularly-shaped or large parts.
Slower than the wet method for large numbers of small parts.
Not readily usable for the short, timed shot technique of the continuous method.
Difficult to adapt to a mechanized test system.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


EQUIPMENT

GENERAL. Considerations involved in the selection of magnetic particle inspection equipment include
the type of magnetizing current and the location and nature of inspection. Magnetic particle inspection
equipment serves two basic purposes, which dictate requirements for the size, shape and functions.
These two purposes are to provide convenient means for accomplishing proper magnetization and to
make possible, rapid inspection of parts, with assurance that the inspection results will be reliable and
reproducible.
STATIONARY EQUIPMENT. A typical stationary horizontal wet magnetic particle inspection unit of
intermediate size is shown below. The unit has two contact heads for either direct contact or central
conductor, circular magnetization using a copper rod between the heads or a cable connected to a
contact block between the heads. Units contain a coil used for longitudinal magnetization. The coil and
one contact head are movable on rails. The other contact head is iiied; the contact plate on it, being air
cylinder operated, provides a means for clamping the part. The unit has a self-contained power supply
with all the necessary electrical controls. Magnetiuing currents are usually three phase full-wave DC or AC
depending upon usage requirements. The units are made in several different sizesto accomodate
different length parts and with various maximum output currents. A full length tank with pump, agitation
and circulating system for wet inspection media is located beneath the head and coil mounting rails. A
hand hose with nozzle is provided for applying the bath. On special units automatic bath application
facilities are provided.

Typical Wet Horizontal Magnetic Particle Test Unit

This unit is used tor the wet method with either the visible or the fluorescent magnetic particles. The unit
is equipped with a black light seen mounted on the back rail, and a hood and wrtains which may be drawn
to exclude white light when the fluorescent particles are used in the wet suspension.
Direct current up to 6,000 amperes, derived from full wave rectified three phase AC, is delivered to the
adjustable contact heads, for circular magnetization. A built-in coil is provided for longitudinal magnetization. This unit is equipped with the infinitely variable current control by means of a saturable core reactor,
and also with the self-regulating current control.
A great number of variations of these typical magnetizing units is available. These variations are in size, in
current output and kinds of current, in the methods of current control, and in numerous types of fittings to
expedite magnetization of odd-shaped parts. In addition there are many accessories, such as contact
pads, automatic bath applicators, contact clamps, leech contacts, steady-rest for heavy shafts, prod
contacts. special shaped coils, powder guns, etc.
MOBILE EQUIPMENT A versatile mobile inspection unit is shown below. These units are available in
several sizes ranging from 2000 to 6000 amperes of AC and HWDC oulputs. The units have remote control current out-put, ONIOFF and MAGlDEMAG controls which permit one-man operation at the site of the
inspection. The units are used with either rigid or cable wrapped coils for longitudinal magnetization and
demagnetization. Cables connected to a part or passing through it are used for circular magnetization or
demagnetization. Mobile units can be easily moved to any inspection site where suitable line input
voltages and current capacity are available.

Typical AClHWDC Mobile Magnetic Particle Test Unit

MOI7 7

\'

,q'

PORTABLE EQUIPMENT

A small portable unit which can be handcarried is shown below. These

units have both AC and HWDC outputs and must be used with a portable coil or cable wrapped coils to Ion
gitudinally magnetize, or with prods or clamps for circular magnetization. The units usually have a remote
ONlOFF control permitting a one-man operation for many applications. They can be used wherever an
adequate 115 volt AC power source is available.

MAGNETIC YOKES

Magnetic yokes are small and easily portable. They are very easy to use and are

adequate when testing small castings or machined parts for surface cracks and for weld inspection. They
induce a strong magnetic field into that portion of a part that lies between the poles or legs of the yoke.
The induced field flows from one leg of the yoke to the other in an orientation as shown below and yokes
and probes are available with either fixed or articulated legs, also shown below. Yokes are available for
operation from a 115 volt, 60 hertz AC outlet, and some are equipped with a rectifier so HWDC may be
used. A permanent magnet yoke is also available, permitting inspections to be performed without the use
of electric current.

INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION OF INDICATIONS


DEFINITIONS
in order to properly and accurately intrepret and evaluate magnetic particle indications the magnetic
particle inspector should understand certain definitions which are used in connection with this inspection
method. Since these terms are used frequently in this learning module, the inspector must fully
understand the meaning of each of the following.
INDICATION. in magnetic particle inspection an indication is an accumulationof magnetic particles being
held by a magnetic leakage field to the surface of a part. The indication may be caused by a discontinuity
(an actual void or break in the metal) or it may be caused by some other condition that produces a leakage
field.
DISCONTINUIN. A discontinuity is an interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of a
part. These discontinuities may be cracks, laps in the metal, folds, seams, inclusions, porosity, and similar
conditions. A discontinuity may be very fine or it may be quite large; it will generally be a definite
separation or void in the metal.
DEFECT. A defect is a discontinuity which exceeds the limits of the acceptance criteria and, therefore,
interferes with the usefulness of a part.
BASIC STEPS OF INSPECTION. Magnetic particle inspection can be divided into these three basic
steps:
a. Producing an indications on a part.
b. Interpreting the indication
c. Evaluating the indication.
PRODUCING AN INDICATION. In order to produce a proper indication on a part it is necessary to
magnetize the part using the proper magnetizing force necessaryto produce the desired magnetic flux
oriented in the proper direction (i.e. circular or longitudinal).
INTERPRETING THE INDICATION. After the indication is created, il is necessary to interpret that
indication. Interpretation is the deciding of what caused that indication, what magnetic disturbance has
attracted the particles in the particular pattern found on the part. If the operator knows something about
metal processing, it is possible to determine from the appearance and location of an indication the cause
of the indication.

NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS
NATURE AND TYPE. It is possible to magnetize parts of certain shapes in such a way that magnetic
leakage fields are created even though there is no discontinuity in the metal at the point. Such indications
are sometimes called erroneous indictions or false indications. They should be called "non-relevant
indications" since they are actually caused by distortion of the magnetic field. They are real indications but
since there is no interruption in the metal they do not affect the usefulnessof the part. It is important that
the operator know how and why these non-relevant indications are formed and where to look for them on
the parts being inspected.
EXAMPLES OF NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS
MAGNETIC WRITING. This is a condition caused by a piece of steel wbbing against another piece of steel
which has been magnetized. Since either or both pieces contains some residual magnetism the rubbing
or touching creates magnetic poles at the points of contact. These local magnetic poles are usually in the
form of a line or scrawl and for this reason the effect is referred to as magnetic writing.
COLD WORKING. Cold working consists of changing the size or shape of a metal part without raising its
temperature before working. When a bent nail is straightened by a carpenterwith a hammer the nail is
being cold worked. Cold working usually causes a change in the permeability of the metal where the
change in size or shape occurs. The boundary of the area of changed permeability may attract magnetic
particles when the part is magnetized.
HARD OR SOFT SPOTS. If there are areas of the part which have a different degree of hardness than the
remainder of the part these areas will usually have a different pemteabirQ. When a part w l h such areas of
different permeability is inspected with magnetic particle inspection, the boundaries of the areas may
create local leakage fields and altract magnetic particles to form indications.
BOUNDARIES OF HEATTREATED SECTIONS. Heat treating a part mnsists of heating it to a high
temperalure and then cooling it under controlled conditions. The cooling may be relativity rapid or it may
be done quite slowly, depending upon the characteristics of the metal which are desired. It is possible to
increase or decrease the hardness or the grain size of the metal by varying the temperature and the rate of
cooling. On a cold chisel the point is hardened to cut better and to hold an edge. The head of the chisel,
which is the end struck by the hammer, is kept softer than the cutting edge solhat il won't shatter and
break. The edge of the hardened zone frequently creates a leakage field when the chisel is inspected
with magnetic particle inspection.

MOD 2

..

ABRUPT CHANGES OF SECTION. Where there are abrupt changes in section thickness of a magnetized
part, the magnetic field may be said to expand from the smaller section to the larger. Frequently
thiscreates local poles due to magnetic field leakage or distortion. These leakage fields will attract
magnetic particles thereby creating an indication. The non-relevant indication will usually be "fuzzy" like an
indication which is produced by a discontinuity beneath the surface.
INTERPRETATION AND ELIMINATION OF NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS,
INTERPRETATION. It may at first appear to the operator that some types of non-relevant indications
discussed and illustrated in the preceeding material would be difficult to recognize and interpret. For
example, the non-relevant indications shown in figures 9-5 and 9-6 may look like indications of subsurface
discontinuities. However, there are several characteristics of non-relevant indications which will enable
the operator to recognize them in the example cited and under most other conditions. These characterisitics of non-relevant indications are:
a.

On all similar parts, given the same magnetizing technique, the indications will occur in
the same location and will have identical patterns. This condition is not usually encountered when dealing with real subsurface defects.

b.

The indications are usually uniform in direction and size.

c.

The indications are usually "fuzzy" ratherthan sharp and well defined.

d.

Non-relevant indications can always be related to some feature of construction or cross


section which accounts for the leakage field creating the indication.

ELIMINATION OF NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS. Although non-relevant indications can be recognized


in most cases, they do tend to increase the inspection time, and under certain condiiions may mask or
cover up indications of actual discontinuities. Therefore it is desirable to eliminate them whenever
possible.
In most cases non-relevant indications occur when the magnetizing current is higher than necessary for a
given part. consequently, these indications will disappear if the part is demagnetized and reinspected
using a sufficiently low magnetizingcurrent.
TRUE OR VALID INDICATIONS. If the indication is caused by a discontinuity it is termed a true indication
or a valid indication.
If the indication is caused by a discontinuity at the surface of the part the particles are usually tightly held to

the surface by a realtively strong magnetic leakage field. The line of particles is sharper and well defined
and there is a noticeable "build-up" of the particles. This build-up consists of a slight mound or pile of

MOD 2

15

particles which on deep surface cracks is sometimes high enough above the surface of the part to cast a
shadow. If such an indication is wiped o f f the discontinuity can usually be seen.
Ifthe indication is caused by a discontinuity below the surface it will be a broad fuzzy looking accumulation

of particles rather than being sharp and well defined. The particles in such an indication are less tightly
held to the surface because the leakage field is weaker.
EVALUATING THE INDICATION.
After the indication has been formed and has been interpreted, it must be evaluated. It is necessary for
the operator to decide whether that indication in that particular location on that particular part will affect the
usefulness of the part.
Evaluation is the determination of whether the part can be used in spite of the indication, whether the
cause of the indication can be removed without affecting the strength of the part, or whether th epart must
be scrapped.
As a guide, the following basic considerations may be used in conjunction with the operatoh knowledge
and experience to help in the evaluation of indications.
a.

A discontinuity of any kind lying at the surface is more likely to be harmful than a
discontinuity of the same size and shape which lies below the surface

b.

Any discontinuity having a principal dimension or a principal plane which lies at right
angles or at a considerable angle to the direction of principal stress, whether the discon
tinuity is surface or subsurface is more likely to be harmfulthan a discontinuity of the
same size, location and shape lying parallel to the stress.

c.

Any discontinuity which occurs in an area of high stress must be more carefully con
sidered than a discontinuity of the same size and shape in an area where the stress is low.

d.

Discontinuities which are sharp, such as grinding cracks or fatigue cracks, are severe
stress-raisers and are more harmful in any location than rounded discontinuities such as
scratches.

e.

Any discontinuity which occurs in a location close to a keyway or fillet must be considered
to be more harmful than a discontinuity of the same size and shape which occurs away
form such a location.

LEARNING MODULE 9
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION
In order to properly and accurately interpret and evaluate magnetic particle indications the magnetic
particle inspector must understand certain definitions which are used in connection with this inspection
method. Since these terms are used frequently in this learning module, the inspector must fully
understand the meaning of each of the following.
INDICATION. In magnetic particle inspection an indication is an accumulationof magnetic particles being
held by a magnetic leakage field to the surface of a part. The indication may be caused by a discontinuity
or it may be caused by some other condition that produces a leakage field.
DISCONTINUITY. A discontinuity is an interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of a
part. These discontinuities may be cracks, laps in the metal, folds, seams, inclusions, porosity, and similar
conditions. A discontinuity may be very fine or it may be quite large; it will generally be a definite
separation or void in the metal. The word "Discontinuity covers the condition before it is determined
whether it is a defect or not. The cause of magnetic particle indications is usually a discontinuity - whether
physical or magnetic. And if we exclude those discontinuities that are present by design and consider
only those present in the metal by accident or as the result of some manufacturing process, these may still
not make the part defective in the sense that t s service performance will be affected unfavorably. we
come, therefore, to the conclusion that a discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.
It is a defect only when it will interfere with the performance of the part or material in its intended service.
So we should be careful to refer to a discontinuity as a defect only when it makes the specific part in which
... . it
. occurs unsuitable for the purpose for which it was designed and manufactured.

DEFECT. A defect is a discontinuity.whichinterferes with the usefulness of a part.

P
Magnetic particle inspection can be divided into these three basic steps:
a. Producing an indications on a part.
b. Interpreting the indication.
c. Evaluating the indication.

Hellier Associates, Inc.


MTMcdS
0 1989

PRODUCING AN INDICATION
In order to produce a proper indication on a part it is necessary to have some knowledge of the principles
of magnetism, the materials used in inspection, and the technique employed. Since these subjects have
been covered in previous learning modules observance of the procedural steps outlined should insure
that a proper indication is produced.
INTERPRETINGM E INDICATION
Aiter the indication is created, it is necessary to interpret that indication. Interpretation is the deciding of
what caused that indication, what magnetic disturbance has attracted the particles in the particular pattern
found on the part. If the operator knows something about metal processing, it is possible to determine
from the appearance and location of an indication the cause of the indication.
NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS
NATURE AND TYPE
It is possible to magnetize parts of certain shapes in such a way that magnetic leakage fields are created
even though there is no discontinuity in the metal at the point. Such indications are sometimes called
erroneous indications or false indications. They should be called "non-relevant indications" since they are
actually caused by distortion of the magnetic field. They are real indications but since there is no
interruption in the metal they do not affect the usefulness of the part. It is important that the operator know
how and why these non-relevant indications are formed and where to look for them on the parts being
inspected.
NOTFFThe use of fluorescent magnetic particles on parts with non-relevant indications is recommended
since they emphasize the contrast between the particle build-up at a relevant discontinuity and that due to
the non-relevant field.
..

.-...

Non-relevant indications are divided into the following five classes depending upon their cause:
a. Magnetic writing.
b. Cold working.
c. Hard or soft spots.

d. Boundaries of heat treated sections.


e. Abrupt changes of section.

Hellier Associales. Inc.


MTMod 9
C3 1989

MAGNmC WRITING
This is a condition caused by a piece of steel Nbbing against another piece of steel which has been
g touching
magnetized. Since either or both pieces contains some residual magnetism the ~ b b i n or
creates magnelic poles at the points of contact. These local magnetic poles are usually in the form of a
line or scrawl and for this reason the effect is referred to as magnelic writing. In figure 9-1 the part in the
top view is magnetized wilh a circular field. If another part made of magnetic material is ~ b b e against
d
or.
comes into contact with the magnetized part, as in the second view, a weak field will be induced into the
smaller part. Afler the smaller part has been removed the circular field in the original part will be altered or
distorted to some extent as shown in the bottom view. Since there is no force to change the direction of
the altered field, there will be some leakage at the point of distortionwhich will attract magnetic particles.

FEURE 9-1 CREATION OF MAGNETIC WAITING

Hellier Associates. Inc.


MTMod9
G3 1989

COLD WORKING. Cold working consists of changing the size or shape of a metal part without raising its
temperature before working. When a bent nail is straightened by a carpenterwith a hammer the nail is
being cold worked. Cold working usually causes a change in the permeability of the metal where the
change in size or shape occurs. The boundary of the area of changed permeability may attract magnetic
particles when the part is magnetized.
HARD OR SOFT SPOTS
If there are areas of the part which have a different degree of hardness than the remainder of the part

these areas will usually have a different permeability. When a part with such areas of different permeability
is inspected with magnetic particle inspection, the boundaries of the areas may create local leakage fields
and attract magnetic particles to form indications.
BOUNDARIES OF HEATTREATED SECTIONS
Heat treating a part consists of heating it to a high temperature and then cooling it under controlled
conditions. The cooling may be relativity rapid or it may be done quite slowly, depending upon the
characteristics of the metal which are desired. It is possible to increase or decrease the hardness or the
grain size of the metal by varying the temperature and the rate of cooling. On a cold chisel the point is
hardened to cut better and to hold an edge. The head of the chisel, which is the end struck by the
hammer, is kept softer than the cutting edge so that it won't shatter and break. The edge of the hardened
zone frequently creates a leakage field when the chisel is inspected with magnetic particle inspection.
ABRUPT CHANGES OF SECTION
Where there are abrupt changes in section thickness of a magnetized part, the magnetic field may be said
to expand from the smaller section to the larger. Frequentlythis creates local poles due to magnetic field
leakage or distortion. If a part as shown in figure 4 2 is magnetized in a coil, poles are set up at each end
and some leakage occurs at A and B. also, the change of section at C is quite abrupt and there may be a
leakage
across this angle as shown. These leakage fields will attract magnetic particles thereby creating an
.-indication. The indications formed at A and B are usually very easily interpreted; that at C may be more
difficult to recognize as being non-relevant. If the indication is continuous around the shaft it should be
suspected as being caused by the shape of the part ratherthan by a discontinuity. The non-relevant
indication at C will usually be "fuzzy" like an indication which is produced by a discontinuity beneath the
surface. If there is a crack ordiscontinuity in that area it will usually produce an indication which is sharper
and it probably will not run completely around the part.

Hellier Associates, Inc.


MTMod 9
01989

FKGURE 9-2

LOCAL POLES CREATED BY PART CONFIGURATION

On parts with keyways a circular magnetic fieki can also set up non-relevant indications as in figure 9-3.
Particle accumulations may occur at A where there are leakage fields. A keyway on the inside of a hollow
shaft may also create indications on the outside as indicated at area B in figure 9-4. Here the magnetic
field is forced out of the part by the thinner section at the keyway.

Figure 9-3 Concentration of Field in a Keyway

Figure 9 4 Exlernal Leakage Field Created


by an Internal Keyway

Hellier Associates, Inc.


MTMod 9
0 1989

The gear and spline shown in figure 9-5 were magnetized circularly by passing current through a central
conductor. The reduced cross section created by the spline ways constricts the magnetic lines of force
and some of them break the surface on the outside diameter. Particles gather where the magnetic lines of
force break through the surface thereby creating indications.

Fgure 4 5 Gear and Shaft Showing Non-relevant lndicalions Due to Internal Splines

Figure 9-6 shows a non-relevant indication on the under side of a bolt head. The indication here is caused
by&e slot in the head.

Figure 9-6 Non-relevant indications under head, created by slot on top of head

Hellier Associates, Inc.


MTMod 9
@ 1989

INTERPRETATION AND ELIMINATION OF NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS.


INTERPRETATION
It may at first appear that some types of non-relevant indications discussed and illustrated in the
preceeding material would be difficult to recognize and interpret. For example, the non-relevant
indications shown in figures 9-5 and 9-6 may look like indications of subsurface discontinuities. However,
there are several characteristics of non-relevant indications which will enable the operator to recognize
them in the example cited and under most other condiiions. These characteristics of non-relevant
indications are:

On all similar parts, given the same rnagnefiing technique, the indicationswill occur in the
same location and will have identical patterns.

b.

The indications are usually uniform in direction and size.

c.

The indications are usually "fuzzy" rather than sharp and well defined.

d.

Non-relevant indications can always be related to some feature of condruction or cross


section which accounts for the leakage field creating the indication.

ELIMINATIONOF NON-RELEVANT INDICATIONS


Although non-relevant indications can be recognized in most cases, they do tend to increase the
inspection time, and under certain conditions may mask or cover up indications of actual discontinuities. It
is-therefore,desirable to eliminate them whenever possible.
In most cases non-relevant indications occur when the magnetizing current is higher than necessary for a
given part. consequently, these indications will disappear if the part is demagnetized and reinspected
using a sufficiently low magnetizing current. Under most conditions the value of magnetizing current
which is low enough to eliminate non-relevant indications will still be sufficient to produce indications at
actual discontinuities. This will be true where the non-relevant indication is magnetic writing, and for
. sewml other types, but may not hold where there are abrupt changes of section. It is therefore desirable

to determine whether the non-relevant indication was caused by an abrupt change of section before
reinspecting.
The proper procedure is to demagnetize and reinspect using a lower value of magnetizing current,
repeating the operation with still lower current if necessary until the non-relevant indications disappear.
Care must be taken not to reduce the current below the value required to produce indications of all actual
discontinuities. Where there are abrupt changes of section two inspections may be required: one at a
fairly low amperage to inspect only the areas at the change in section, the other at a higher current value to
inspect the remainder of the part.
Hellier Associates, lnc.
MTModS
01989

TRUE OR VALID INDICATIONS


If the indication is caused by a discontinuity it is termed a true orvalid indication. Ifthe indication is caused
by a discontinuity at the surface of the part the particles are usually tightly held to the surface by a relatively
strong magnetic leakage field. The line of particles is sharper and well defined and there is a noticeable
"build-up" of the particles. This build-up consists of a slight mound or pile of particles which on deep
surface cracks is sometimes high enough above the surface of the part to cast a shadow. If such an
indication is wiped off the discontinuity can usually be seen.
If the indication is caused by a discontinuity below the surface it will be a broad fuzzy looking accumulation
of particles rather than being sharp and well defined. The particles in such an indication are less tightly
held to the surface because the leakage field is weaker.
The difference in appearance between indications of surface and subsurface discontinuities is clearly
shown in figures 9-7 and 9-8. Notice the sharpness and definition of the line of magnetic particles in figure
9-7. The pattern in figure 9-8 is much broader than that in figure 9-7 and is quite typical of the indications
formed over subsurface discontinuities.

Figure 9-7 indication of surface discontinuity

Helliar Associates, lnc.


MTMcd9
0 1989

Figure 9-8 Indicationofsubsurface dismntinuS

EVALUATING THE INDICATION


Lastly, after the indication has been formed and has been interpreted, it must be evaluated. It is
necessary for the operator to decide whether that indication in that particular location on that particular part
will affect the usefulness of the part.
Evaluation is the determination of whether the part can be used in spite of the indication, whether the
cause of the indication can be removed without affecting the strength of the part, or whether the part must
be scrapped.
As a guide, the following basic considerations may be used in conjunction with the operator's knowledge
and experience to help in the evaluation of indications.
a.

A discontinuity of any kind lying at the surface is more likely to be harmful than a
discontinuity of the same size and shape which lies below the surface.

b.

..

Any discontinuity having a principal dimension or a principal plane which lies at right
angles or at a considerable angle to the direction of principal stress, whether the
discontinuity is surface or sub-surface is more likely to be harmfulthan a discontinuity of
the same size, location and shape lying parallel to the stress.

c.

Any discontinuity which occurs in an area of high stress must be more carefully
considered than a discontinuity of the same sue and shape in an area where the stress is
low.

d.

Discontinuitieswhich are sharp, such as grinding cracks or fatigue cracks, are severe
stress-raisers and are more harmful in any location than munded discontinuities such as
scratches.

e.

Any discontinuity which occurs in a location close to a keyway or fillet must be considered
to be more harmful than a discontinuity of the same size and shape which occurs away
form such a location.

Hellier Associates, Inc.


MTModQ
@3
1989

R T LESSON 100
INTROI?UCTION
T O RADIOGRAPHY
. .
Radiography is an important part of the inspection and development process within
industry.
It is used to check structural materials, castings and weld integrity in the construction of . .
buildings, power stations, pressure vessels, pipelines, bridges and oil drilling platforms. It
is also used in the routine inspection of materials and component parts for the
airrrafrlaerospace, automotive, and shipbuildingindusnies.
. Radiography is recognized by various organizations thfoughout the world as a reliable nondestructive inspection technique for revealing hidden defects that might lead to failure in
se~ce.

...<

ADVANTAGES OF RADIOGRAPHY
.

, -

. .

Radiographic inspection is superior to other methods in a number of applications:

I)

It is a nondestructive test method

2)

Reveals the internal condition of the materid.

3)

Applicable to mast materials.

4)

Discloses fabrication and assembly errors.

5)

Reveals structural discontinuities.

6)

Provides a permanent visual representation of the object

L ?a

c f l 4

LIMITATIONS OF RAIIIOGRAPW
RadiographiciDspection has s e v d inhumtlimhtions:
1)

Two-sided acccxibility of the spechen is required.

2)

Specha sizt and coafigun;ltionmay limit the exteat to which a specimen


may be radiographed

3)

Radiography wiU not ddece all discontinuities.

4)

T i invoIved and equipmeat costs makeradiography apemiye.

5)

Presents a potential safety hazard.

IQ erod)

Radiopphy uses X or

&&on

A radiograph records the radiation that has


passed through a component so thatflaws can
be derectcd A comwnent of uniform seaion
without flaws or defects allows the radiafion to
pass through the film and produce a uniform
image.

to produce an image on a f i l m

A defect in a component such


as a bIow hole is deteaed by
producing a darker image on
the film.

MAKING A RADIOGRAPH

Beam of radiation

Film in a caswttc

. .

~ hcomponent
t
to be tested orinpxted is placed betweenaliadiation s o m and a speiAIY
prepared film Precautions are taken to wure that unauthorized persons are kept away from the
area to.preventU n I l M a r y exposnre to radiation.

When the equipment is operated some radiation penetrates the component and is recorded on the
film.After cxposnre the film is p
e in a darkmom m M o p the image.

RT LESSON 101

-.

.,-

INTRODU&'~ON TO IONIZING RADIATION


T H E STRUCTURE OF MATTER

AU matter whether solid, liquid or gas consists of elements, or combiinations of elements. .

:.'

'

An element is a substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by


. chemical m a s .
Two or more dements can combine chemically to form compounds as follows:
combine chemically to form the solid

1)

at room temperature, sodium and


sodium chloride (NaCI).

2)

!hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water (HzO).

3)

carbon and hydrogen combine toform the gas methane (m).

There are 92 mmally d

g dements. If an element is qeatedly divided a stage wilI


b e d e d where it can no longer be subdivided and still possess its chemical form.
These individual particles of matter, whose existence was suggested by the Greeks, are
called 'atoms'.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM


The atdm is the basic building block of all matter. The atom.is the d e s t particle that
possesses all the chamcteristics of an element

&

planets orii~ting-the
sun.

.
I

..

s!

..

..

~ ;.'''.~ Atd.l&-of&atomisthe-'Z'.Y
~ ~ ; ~ ~ h : ' .
bulk or 'nude& which is positively
. .
, .,..
.,.: . charged Whirling around
..
. . - ...........
'. - n u c l e u s i. nthep ~ ~ ...
i m ~ ~
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
::"
.:
.
.
4
d
&
&
&
*
.
*
&
are
&
&
~
Y
Y
.
"-;i>:... ...
.
.. . . . ...,
-. . --...?,. ..
.. ... . , ;:jr;.;
'charged
!'> -.:...;; . ': .: ,
.. . . . ->c.
:.
....
.
.
.
..
..
' .

..

,,

Prolon +vc

Prolor6

Eloarnil-vc

charge

charge

.
The nucleus itselfis
made up of two types
of paaicles of
appro-Y
equal
mass: 'protons'
which are positively
charged and
'neutrons' which
cany no charge.

EIelectrons are 1840


timeslighter than
protons or neutrons,
and have negligible.
. mass.

?he total negative charge of all


h e elelectrons orbiting the
nucleus balances the positive
m e o f theprotonsin the
nucleus. The atom as a whole
therefore has no e l d c a l
charge.

EICC~O& the ~udens


in c ~ defined
y paths or shells, Each shellcontainsa catainnumbex
of elechons. The oqta shall has fcwaclccwns t&anit can @kcIt'is pnpand to khan:'.the .
'vacantplaceswitfi c l c m u ~from
s other atoms. This aIIows one atamto combine ch+caIIy with
anotha:
. .
'

Thechemicalpro~ofatomsarc~odbythenumbaofelectronsindx:outn:shelL
A . t m of a particuk clementhave a fixed andequal nambcrofelectrons and protons Mdanormal
ciratmma The numbm of protons in the n u d w of aparthhclanent is known as tfie
atomic number of the clrmcnt

...

MASS NUMBER

("A" number)

_ -,.

? h e m s of an atom is fix& by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.


L .

2 Neutrons

13 Protons
14 Neufrons

00
00

Hydrogen

Helium

1proton + 0 neutrons
Mass number = 1

2 p ~ t o nt
s 2 neutrons
Mass number = 4

13protons t 14neutrons

Mass number =27

Theatomic n u m b i s the number of protons, and is a ~ c m i s t iofc thc atom of a


p
m
m
i d~nent,
for example:

Hydrogen
Helium
AlmDinium

ISOTOPES
The atoms of each elemerit kiitain aJe6nite number of protons but may have a different
number of neutrons. The& atoms are called 'isotopes' and are given an identifying number
related to the weight of the nucIeus. Such atoms have the same chemical properties, but
have different weights and radiation properties.
The three different isotopes of hydrogen are an example. These isotopes are chemically
identical but are written:

.:

...

Other well known isotopes used for indastrial radiography are:


1)

Cobalt 60

Nore: the fop number


represents he total
number of prorons
and neutrons in the
nudm Ehe alorm-c
weight. The bottom
number representr
the as~micnrunber.

3)

Iridium 192

1P2Ir
77

.Th& arc isot~pcswfiich;givt off some form of ionizing radiatioa In the process they
may themscva be mnsfhmd into otfierelements by lmingpartides.fromthtnuclcus.
1sornpcs chat have a @eat& number of neutrons than pmmns in tfie n&cIeusan said to be
'unsta&'. Unstable isotopes try to s t a b i i themselves spontaneously by a nnmba.of
diffwprocesses:

1)

by nlcasingneutrons .thatis ejectingneutrons frmnthe nucleos.

2)

by s p W g neutrons into anew proton plos an electron, which fIies off at hi&
speed.

The isotopes which arc usefnlforradiography give offgmmaradiation as a aof some


and affects
of these spontaneouschanges. Gammamdiation is vay penphotographic fiIa - hence its uxfdness.

TYPES OF RADIATION

- . Dlning the radioactive decay process, caused by the splitting of the neutrons, radiation is
released in three different forms:
- '

1)

2)
3)

alphapdcles (a)
betaparticles (p)
gamma rays (Y)

Alpha particles - are 2 neutrons and 2 protons (helium nucleus) bound together to
behave as one fundamental particle. Alpha particles are emitted from heavy nuclei
containing a large number of nucleons (neutrons and protons) such as Americium 241, an
anificial elment
Beta particles - arc high speed elecEons which are emitted from the nucleus. Beta
particles are emitted dlning the decay of Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60.

Gmitna rays are electromagneticradiations (as are radio waves and Light waves)
that are emitted from the nucleus. After the emisdon of alpha and beta particles, the
nucleus can re-adjustits ehergy still fkther by the emission of gamma rays. This emission
does not ftnther change the element These gamtna rays are used for radiography.

Apart fromxntudy oarnringradioisotopes, it is also possible to produceradioactivity in


n d y stable elements by the use of a nuclear reactor,or a high energy particle
amelemlor. This is done by introducingenergy into the stable nucleus in the form of an
energetic paaide such as a neutron. The nuc1ev.s then loses this excess energy by giving
off radiation in the form of gamma rays
Radioisotopes are producbi in nuclear reactors by twomethods:

1)

They can be sepaiatedout of fission hgments, ifenemfedwhen afnel element like


uranium 235 is used E m m ~ l of
e ~comma nidioiitopes
this manner
- rxoducedin
.
are cesium. 137, strontium90 and krypton 85.

2)

'~$ble~ents&bcmaderadi~by~adngthrmina~e~d~onina
ndearreactor, shieldtd by specially designed aaxssholes. Nentrons originating
f h m the mxta are used to irradiate thcsestable clancats. Examples of
mdioisotopes prodnced by this m&od am cobalt60 from cobaIt59, iridium 192
fromiridium 191,'and thulium 170f r o m t h h 169.

All these radioisotopes may be used for i n d d radiography.

RT LESSON 102

'RADIATION SAFETY
DANGERS OF IONIZLNG RADIATION
It is vital thatpeople who use and operate X-ray and gamma-ray equipment obsave the
proper safety standards. Radiation may damage your health and shorten your Iife. Your .
safety is of utmost importance.

Ionidngradjationsarc pa&cularly dangerous becanstthey arc invisible and cannot be


detected by the human senses.
They can canse injury to human tissues and organs, for example those that prodnce red
blood corpuscles in bone marrow.

&tcn&e dosesof ionizing mdiations can m n ~localized


e
damage such as radio&m&is
or gangrene. They may also cause wad h& disordas, such as Ieukaunia, {cancer of

ffie bl&)

which may eventualIylead to death.

?he darnaee that on be done to vow

health by &nidng radiations m$ also


affect future generations.

Some effects ofradiation accumulate


with time. Each radiadon dose
received adds to those already gained,

However. X-raysarid gamma rays used for industrialpurposes cannot make a room or an object or
the air radioactivt. When m s u r e is over the radiomhed o b i a i s hamless and can be
approached and handled dsafety. A m e y met& n k bc t b d after each expasme to ensure
that the sourceis safe to approach.

...

CONTROL OF RADIATION EXPOSURE

Employers and employees are rcqkedto do aIl t h i s rmsonably praaicablc m restrict the
extent to which people an:exposed to ionizing radiations.
?he unit of mdiation dosc is the REM Forpractical~nrposcs
when measming X and
gamma &on
the rem can bc considered to be apvahu to the RAD or the Rocntgeo

j-j
\

-:

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSES


?he statutory regulations'sI;ecify' h<hurndose of ionizing radiation you may receive
from any fadioaaive substanceor any machine or apparatus which pmduces ionizing
radiation
The permitted levels are dependent upon the parts of the body expsed to the radiation. To
controI doses within the permitted levels, dose rates are nx%mredin the wo*g
environment. If the relevant dose rate is exceeded,appropriate action, such as restricting '.
access or opemtional time,must be taken.
-

MEASURING RADIATION

~adiationdoseratr:ismwsm?edwidi.'.
.:
aradiationmetcrorm o n k S o q ' ...

. . ..
.. .

typesuseGdga:m~tnbcstodetcct
gamma or X-rayi o n i d o n and m
battayoperatcd. 'Ihtrcadontscalc
i s i n r ~ ~ t g u i s p e r h o n r, .a n d ~ t g e 'n s ..
:.. . .
per hour. .
'

Thtaccnmnlatedwllo'lebody
dose of ionizingradiation
I X W ~ V Cby
~ rnonimnd
pmsoPQM)nnel
must not ex&
125 remiper calendar quarter
or 5remiper year.

SAFETY EQUDPMENT AND REQUIREMENTS


.

. - _ -._

PERSONAL PROTECTION

To ensure that you are efEectivelyproteaed from ionidngradiaton ahd that the ma%imum
dose rates are not wrceedwi, statutory @tiom
appIy to aU industrial radiographic
options.
These legularions are cantakedinthe Ccde of Federal Regulations and State Regulations.

RADIATION DOSE RATE METER (SURVEY METER)

This is the most important item of eqnipmcnt far yoar safety and protection. .Thesnrvcy
nebx is a dclicatc inshmnmt usually calibrated in milliroentnens
..
- per
- hour (mdhr).
~ndicationofthe dose ratcisdirect-it is used to:
1)

. Check theposition at which bmim should be set up.

A m e y meter shouId always be available to each nvliogaphy team.

The survey meter s h o d be a p p r o p for


~ the type of radiation in use. Where necessary
scale conversion data s h o d be available.
Survey mters should be tested by a qualifiedperson before use. niey must be calibrated
at 90 day intends and afta: dl repairs. Rtconls of calibrations must be kept by your
employer.

AUDIBLE ALARM D O S l M E T m

Theseinstrwnentsindicatethcprcse~xof~onbyanaudibIehignaL
w a n d e r
and Wter thanthc smvey m e and an designed to be canid on your paw& They

. gi~cwamiogofhighdoselatc~~mustbenvirdrcdondrtrSngchewhokpaiodof

ps@leep~sure.l k y m p a r t i c n l a r y v a h a b I e w h e n u S i n g X - ~ ~ y m ~ ~ o n
eqmp~becaasefheZrgiwaaimmtdiaawamiog.
kisdtotesttheuuits~~y

tbensmtthatthtyanmgoodworIdngorder,andthatthe~~~icatestht~~~of
. ionizingradiatioa

FILM BADGES AND THERMO-LUMINESCENT DOSIMETERS

Regulations require you to wear a H.mbadge so that thc amount of radiation you are
exposed to is documented Thc f%n badge consists of a photomphic film in a special
holder, which you should attach to your trousers belt or to the outside of your normal
clothing.

FROM

R(CWBTAWINWW ~OPEM
QIP

mhLORPLLSIXCLSE
OWVESLSBETA6HIEU)l
RU8

Atthccndofthcase~thcfilmkpnxxssedandassesscdtod~ethcamo~of
radiation received. The film badge pmvidcr a -record
of your dose. Your
p a x d radiation dose noprdis kzpt by yonr cmploya. Yon may ask to see it at any
misonable time.
~ ~ ~ 6 ~ n a , ) m a y b e n s e d ~ o f a f i l m b a a g e t o m a &
your personal dose. A TLZ) is a phosphor in a solid cyrstd shactnre that, when cxpostdto
lonizlngradiationsbncs~~ergy.
W h W h e n h e a t c d t h c ~ i s n l ~ i n & e f o r m o-f.
Wwhich is p e o n a l to tkc exposing radiation.
..

,--.%

Always wear your film badge or TLD on the outside of your normal clothing, at the fmnt
of your body.
- . .- ^

If you remove your coat or coverall when wotking,.make sare that you W e r the film
- badge to either your shirt or tronsem.

Dating "offwork" paiods keep your film badge away fium high tcmperahncs, such as hot
pipes andradiators. Protea it frompssibIe ch*
attadc,and do not keep it near
luminous articles sach as alarm docks,watches, compasses,and mdhtion sources.

:p-

'00

wear y o u r f i badge dming6e


whole w0rki.a~M o dincIuding
preparation 6tmnspt, d g
up and storing equipmat

If yo0 notice any defects in the film


badge holder, partiaxlady if any of
themctaIinserts aremissing, orif
you 10%or damage it, inform your
snpavisor at once.

R+hnn yoor film badge pmmpfly at


thetimespccifie& Alwayscnsore
thatyou have a new badge to wear
before giving up the old one.

POCKET DOSIMETER

A dinxX nadingpocbdosimctarteadingform0 to at lease200 mR must be wom in


addition to a film badge to detamine your acaunnlateddose. It is not an acceptable :
substimtc for a f
ilmbadge, but is an optionalcheck. Thc major a d m g e of &edimx
nading pocloct dosimeter is thatit gives an imnmbfcindicationof your wgosmc dose.

ALARMJNG DOSIMETER

an audible alarm whenever the dose rate equals or

.-

An darning dosimeter pmvi&g


ex&
500 mR&rmWhr
must be worn in addition the the film badge and direct reading pocket
dosimeter.

SAEETY WITH RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT

Allequipment must be maintained in a good, cIean, safe, working order.

It must be

'[

chccked b e f q and afteruse by the raaiographer at each site. A record of these checks
shouId be kept showing details of any defects, and the action taken to remedy them. In the
case of ga& expos& devices, a &ey meter must be used during the exinination.
This will aIso confirm that the survey meter is wod6.u~.Ifthe survey meter pives
- no
reading, check with another survey &w.Report a~unwual
readi;lgs.

Esniprmnt must have a


k of
pmmting useby d
&
people. X-ray equipmenti s usually
fittedwith akcy switch on the corn1
panel or box. The key s h d be in the
custody of themiiograph'?~IImnst
.only be used when the equipment is in
m o v e d aftetuse.

Gamma containes are fitted


withdtherabyoraspecial
typc of lock. You mnst
cnsmethat it is kept locked at
dlti- cxocpt during
exgosure. The key should be
Inthe custody of the
mdiographer.

0'

GENERAL PROTECTION
Everybody in the area w h & - i o ~ ~ is
~ being
o n usedmust be protected fiom
radiation. In a prmauent instalIation shielding is provided by an enclosure of thick walls.
On sites where it is not reasonably practicable to provide walled enclosures alternative
protection must be ananged

Distance is an effeclive protection from radiation. ?he greater the distance from the source,
the lower the radiation level will be. For example, at Mice the distance fiom the source,
the radiation level wilI be a quarter of its original level. Thisfollows the inverse square
law.
. -

BARRIERS
. -

-.

TOmake sure that otherpeopl'oii the site are adequately protected you must set up a
suitabIy marked area, to keep out a l l except authorized persons

If for good reason this barrier is not set up at the 2 mWhr dose rate boundary it must be so
indicated and explained on the daily repod
-

RADIOGRAPHIC PERSONNEL
- . _ - --

People working wirh ionizing radiations an:categorized amrdhg to heir degree of


and
involvement There are three categories: Radiation Safetv Officer, Radiographer,
- .
Radiographefs Assistant

The Radiation Safety Officer is usually a supervisor appointed by the Licensee who .
has the knowledge of, responsibility for, and authoriey to enfom appropriate radiation
protection rules, standanls, and practices on behalf of the liceme.
- The Radioeraoher is an individual who perfom or who, in attendance at the site
where the &tion exposure device or sealed source is being used, personally supervises
radiographic operations and who is responsible to the licensee for assuring compliance with.
the re-dati~niand conditions of the license.

The Radiographer's Assistant & an individual who, under the personal supervision
of a radiographer, rises radiographic wgosme devices, sealed sources or related handling
tools, or radiation survey instruments in radiography.
STORING AND TRANSPORTING SOURCES
When a sourceis not in usc or in transit.you must cnsunthat it is kept in a secure storaEe
a m . Ihestorage area m& be ~ d et r h c ~ ~ ofoan nddperson,
who keeps a

record of thc utilization of somces, and who has castody of the keys.
Waming notices mnst be fixed to the ootdde of the storage area. Tne notices mast include
the internationally agreed symbol for ionizing radiation.

L.

EAUTIDN
-

W D E[AT110N
*

AREA
n

..

TRANSPORTING A SOURCE

1)

Enson'thatit is id:a locked, shielded containez Check thatit is suitably shielded by


usbga m e y meter.

2)

Enson thax you know its type, andactivity.

3)

Enson that yon an wearing a film badge cn-'ED, a d i m readingdosimeterand an


alarming dosimeter.

4) . Follow tlteFeda& State a n d l o w l r e ~ o o s .

Note: you should chcck that every sealed source containeryou receive k marked with a
proper labelb h @ t n g the cu~otdarts,
anda "RodiwaivekiA.iataial"label.

.-

LESSON 103

l.,-RT A .

X-RAY EQUIPMENT
THE NATURE O F X-RAYS

X-rays

Light rays

X-raysare elecfmrnagneticradiarions and have rhe same nature as'radiowaves,light and


ultra-vi01e light They mvel at the same speed as light and obey most of the same laws.
They differin that their wavdength is much shorter than Iigkrays.

Ilis this cbaracttaistic thaf forms the basis of the a b i i of X-lays to penetrate solid
matexiak.

PRODUCTION

X-RAYS

l-7
Whm electrons travelling at bigh speed collide wit&rnattcrin any form, heat and X-rays are
produced. To do this the following are nccdcd:

I)
2)
3)

a source of ibe elections.

a rneans of acoclera(ing them to high s p e d


a m&od of stoppingthua

This is done within the modem X-ray tube - a glass or ceramic tube or envelope in which a
vacuum has been produced- Two e l d e s are placed inside the tube: an anode or
positive electrode and a cathode or negative electrode. These are connected to e l e a r i d
circuits with a Iow voltage and a u m ~flow
t on the cathode side and a high voltage induced
into the anode by a transformer. Electrons are produced by:
Heating the &ent of the cathode with an decwic current libxxtes the electrons.
Increasing the cunrent raises the temperam
of the ilamentand hence increases
the number of electrans liberated.
Electrons

Cathode

2)

&ode

Applying a high voltage across the anode and cathode


from the cathode towards a target faceon the anode.

a beam of electrons

Electrons

Cathode

3)

h d e

The electrons arc stopped by ailowingthrm m hit the target hon the an&
Whcn the
cleumns are brought to an abmpt halt by the target Eacc a BnalI amomof their energy
(about1percent)isnalizedasX~ays.Thercmainiog99percentisdissipatedasheat

CONTROL PANEL

All the controls necessary for the 6puadon of the X-ray tube head are collected together in
a control box or in an operating paneL

?he diagram shows an example of a portable conlroIarrangement that 'Alows the


mdiogmpher to carry it to a convenient, safe opemting position It is made of sheet stwi,
has a lid and wxyhg handle and is weatherproof. It includes the following f e a m . .

-.

RcmovabIe safety Ley vhi& bm&s the p o w happy to give the ~ o g r a p h s


control against accidentalradiation.
X-rays on button
X-rays off button.
Delay light
CabIe connector to power supply.
CaJdeconnector for anxiIiary powcr to warning system.
CabIc conneaor to mbe head
MiEmpaage control to alta the quantifyof radiatian.

MiIIiammctcrtokdimemk~
Kilovoltage control to aZtapeeetratingpowaof racktion.
Rilovoltagc metawhi& may also indicate the line voItagc
T iwith automatic wtposm\: met

Note: on some wmolpanels theremay be other wmning lighrs:

Red light tube head on orX-rays on. Green light - tube head off orX-rays ofi

. Some ako have ma~mnhcwarning of '


may be &le

Hellier, Inc.

or light wmnings.

o about
~ to begin', or 'exposmeon'.

Thuc

(---I
.-.

TUBE HEAD

,. -

The x-ray tube is enclosed in a metal cannister, connected to gcounci, and f i e d with an

insulating liquid (oil) or gas. It also houses a aansformer, supplying high and low voltage,
and a cooling system (as a lot of heat is generated). The tube head provides shielding
against unwanted radiation.
.X-rays emerge from a window made from a material which allows the passage of most of.
the radiation Some windows on low kiIovoltage units are made of BeryLIium which has a
low rate of absorption of X-rays.
- A red light may be incorporated in the head which flashes a warning when X-rays are
W i g generated

&ss-section of a tube head


I

...

o$

'

VYl

The X-ray tube is made of a toughened glass such as pVrex. It is shielded to restrict the
escape of radiation and contains an anode and a cathode seaIed in a vacuum
The calho& is connected to the ncguivcpole of the high voltage circuit At the end of the
tube there is a fiIament madcof tungsten as it ha5.a high melting point
~ hnumber
c
of electrons c&tted depends on the Wqemimereached by the filament on the
cathode, when it is heated by the eI&c ammt Varying the cumnt varies the

tcmpaahne and So in tmn controk the emission of elabnns.

The m&is co~ccted


to the positivepole of thc
voltage Wt, ?he anode usually
consists of a solid block of coppawith its end cnt away to form an an& of about 709
Thisprovides a focal spot of &dent size, and spreads the heat so that the target does not
mcIt Thetarget is made of tungsten set into tfic faceof the anode. As much heat is
. generated at thc anode, a large area of impact is desirable.
U~lliorIn-

The elecrron beam of negativeIy charged electronsi s accelerated towards the anode by
appIying a very high voItagc to the cathode. This voltage is rimmedin kilovolts 0.
The tube c m t from the cathode to the anode is low and is measured in x d J i a n ~

(dl.
The impact ofdeamns on the target faceof the anode generafesxgys. Theinteaityo
the X-rays emitted by the Eube are in proportion to the tube current

Note: only thew&X-ray


from rhe uugetface.

b m i%
shown. X-rays are hawever ememrned
in all directions

A bmm of radiation can be produced either laterally, axblly or obliquely panoramic


depending upon the shape of the target face.

APPLICATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF X-RAY EQUWMENT


X-ray equipment commercially a v W l e for i n d u s t r i a l m d i ~ ~ ~work
h i c is class3ied
according to maximumkilovoltage. The choice of equipment depends upon the type of
work to be undertaken There are other types of X-ray equipment but they are not suitable
for work on site locations.

Approximate thickness of steel which it is practical to examine using X-rays


Self-rectified wuivment
Ak&num (kV)

kilovoltage

Hellier, Inc.
RT Lesson 103

routine
work
inches

maximum
thickness
inches

onstant potential equipment


mutine
work
inches

r~aximum

thickness
inches

RT LESSON 104
GAMMA RAY-SOURCES AND EQUIPMENT
ADVANTAGES OF GAMMA-RAY EQUIPMENT

ww

1)

Portability gammaradiography is
paaiahdy Snitable for use on site
locations, becansc it is portable and
requires no power supply or cooling
system.

3)

--

2)

Accessibility - gamma-ray
source containas are
genaallysmallandcanbe
takEninto places which are
lnacccssibleto X-ray
@p-t

SmaIf source-to-film distance a gamma-ray somce is suitable where a small sourceto-filmdistance is necessary, such as when radiographing weMs on small diameterpipes.

Hellier,
- IIC.

~n

High penetrating power some gamma-ray sources have a very high energy
(penetrating power) which makes it possible to reduce the time of l e exposure, and obtain
satisfactory radiographs of verymetal components.

Capital outlay Iow ove& cost compared to X-ray equipment


6)

Scatter less scatter compared to X-rays.

DISADVANTAGES OF GAMMA-RAY EQUIPMENT

1)

Gamma radiation cannot~bkwitchedoff. Thereforeradiographers need to be


protectad at all times from these penctratingrays by c o d y designed equipment
and procedures.

2)

The quality of the radiograph cannot be readily controlled as it can with X-rays.
The gamma-ray wavelength caonot be altexed using the same isotop~

3)

Gamma rays give a higher energy r a w o n than X-rays, with less contrasting
images. This makes the radiographs more difficult to interpret
.

4)

The activity of some radioactive isotopes with a shoa haJf-life decreases quickly in
a short time. It is therefore necessary to periodically replace thc source.

5)

Precautions are essential when storing or tranrpo&g the s o w and container.

INSPECTING A LARGE COMPONENT ON S r r E

EXPOSURE DEVICES
The gamma-ray source is eontainedinside a radiation shield known as an exposure device.
Each type of radiogmphic
- - exposure device has a source holder and is fiped with an
arrangement for exposing the source when required.
Exposure devices used for site indusb3 radiography fall ioto two geneml categories:
shutter tweand umiection me. There are manv variations of each. Radiomnhm must
..
ensure &I they &-familiar&h any special f&es of h e equipment to be-usad
Employers are responsible for providing traiaing in the use of this equipment
- -

SHUTTER TYPE DEVICES


W~tha shutter type device the sealed source is exposed for radiography without the source
leaving the W + o fthe container. ?his is done by either swingingaside, or rotating part of
the shielding.

1)

Front shutter

The radiation beam is exposed by raising theh n t shutter. These containers are
mggcd,rcliab1e and s u i t a b 1 e f o r r m o s t ~ otedniqoes,
n
exceptpipewelds.

2)

Rotating shutter
In this type the s
o
w is exposod by rotating the shntttr by hand, or by ranotc
cable o p d o a When s o m of high adivity are used the shutter should be
o p t e d by remote w n t d

Care must be taken to ensure that the source is exposed away frorn the radiographer.

Rotating shutter type devices are us& for radiography of pipe and other applications
qujring a directiondl exposure.

PROJECTION TYPE DEVICE (CABLE OPERATED)


The s o w is moved along a guide tube to an external working position by means of a
cable. The cable is driven forward bv the radiomphu. using a hand&&
wind-out
gear. At the end of the exposure the &ble is retfaced to &the source to its shielded
position.
. -

Control Cable
/

Projector

Exnose
8----

Lbl Source i n Transit

(c) Source at Radiographic Site

Scurce

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR USERS OF RADIOACTIVE SOURCES


To protect radiographers, 0the.r workers on the site and the public, there an:a number of
regulatory agency reqkments that must be compIied with by anyone usingradioactive
sounzs. In addition, each lecensee must prepare an Operating andEmergency Prowdim
Manual which contains deiailed instruction for the operation of the equipment, safety
p&m,
anddetailed instructions in the event an equipment malfunction, an accident or
other unusual incident occurs.

1)

Radiographas most be given proper safety inshuctions on thc dangersofionizing


radiation,and the use ofequipment.

2)

ThqymnstwmrafilmbadgeorTIl)torccordthe~tion&s~dved,
Rtcords ofpefional dose must be mainrainedby the anpIoyer.

3)

73ey mnst war a direct rcadingpockct dosimeter to snpp1&ent the film badge or
'ILD for personal monitodng.

-2
C

Establisl> ~ e s t r i c t e dArea

5)

6)

?hey must take reasonable precautions to minimize exposure to radiation by


establishing the unrestricted area around the workplace on the site. Limiting the
useful b&m to the minimum sizepracticable will aIso minimize exposme and
reduce the size of the radiation area. Any additional shielding that can be utilized
wiU also minim& exposure.

They must use a qxkymeter to checkthe level of radiation at regular intervals, and
at source contajnm after every exposure.

7) - - Thcy must ensm~


that gamma radiation cxpmx~
devices arc kept locked at all
times except when acmally bdng used for radiographic q o m m .
8)

Hellier, Inc.

They must ensm~


that -radiation
somces am stored scantly in a dcsignatcd,
locked storage area when not bdng used on ajob site

RT LESSON 105

RADIOGRAPHI~FILM$ AND INTENSIFYING SCREENS


RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

Most Nms used for radiography have emulsion on both sides, however, films with emulsion on
only one side are availble. Single-sided &requires much longer exposure times than doublesided films.
.

<

An x-ray film is made up of seven layers:

1.

The super-marum which is a thin layex of clear hardened gelatin which protects the
underlying emukion from damage during normal handling. (a)

2.

The &ion
which is sensitive to X-rays, b r a y s , light, heat, pressure and some
chemicals. The mulsion consistsof a large nnmbw of minute grains of silver *bromide
(silver halide) embedded in a supportingmedium of gelatin. When radiation strikes the
emulsion a change takes place kihe physical stTuctme of the grains.
effed:is called
' which is invisible.untilthe filmis chemically p~~
@)

3.

A substratumwhich wnsistr;of a miof


and a b i g m a w It ensures that
the thin emulsion Layer adheres irmly to the base dtuing the stages of processing. lhisis
particularly important in high tempaatrne automaticpmming techniques, and processing
under tropical conditions.,..(c)

4.

?he base which is a ce11ulose tciacate or polyster such as 'Esta~'which forms a tough,
transparent, but flexible base. (d)

&\"@
protective coating (a)

Protective coating (a)


..
..-..-

, -53

THELATENTIMAGE
.

The word 'latent' means hidden and it is used to


indicate the invisiblephysical change that takes
place when the grains of silver bromide
suspended in the gelatin are affected by light,
X-rays, gamma rays or other radiations. This
small physical change is then exploited by
development, the farmaton of tiny grains of
black, metallic silver, to produce a visible image.
. .

It is these grains,suspended in the

gelatin on both sides of the pliable


base, that form the image that is
visible after the frlm is processed

RcMive
speed

Relative

expo-

d-- -gcain

(mediumhigh speed)

Note: thesefigures rd2.r to a rypicul range of-

The nature of the emnIsion, and the onxxssin~of the film. moduces a 'imkiness'
in the imam=
"
which is the random clnmphg of G s i l v a ~&IS. The &a t.t&i&b.d @VQbromide
the less graininess t h a t will be in the image. The grain s i z is dated m the smsitivirv ofthe film
to radiati0~& d y , fine grain is associatedw& slow speed films. and
g
& wibhip$
-films.
~

6
i

FILM CASSETTES
Fdm cassettes can be flexible, &-h*d
or rigid The flexible cassette is made fmrn strong, vinyl
and is used extensively for site radiography because it can be readily adapted to various shapes and
sections, such as pipework and circumference welds. There are two designs:
1)

Double envelope cassettes


These have an inner and outer envelope.
The outer envelope is closer to the film
size than is possible with a rigid cassette.
This makes accuratepositioning of the
film for exposure easier.

2)

Single envelope cassettes


?hex have a nylon press . .
down fastener which gives
good light-tight sealing. It
also enables the-cassetteto be
opened or closed at a touch.

3)

Semi-rigid cassettes
Theseconsistof a cardboardfront and back hinged together with flaps on the inside that are
folded ovetthe filmto pmduce aligkt-tigfitmvclope. Although not as flexible as the
previously desuibed cassettes they can be formed around a large -ex
pipe or casting.

4)

Rigid cassettes
T~.CFC
con& of a thin albminiuinot had plastic front andbackwiih a felt prcssmr:pad
attachedta thehideof th'ebackto'keepthcfiImandscrceztmdkces ininbmtecontact
Thcsc a m used when farming tfie film.mundthe part is not nqoinxl.

Hellier, Inc.
RTLesson IOS

F.,.3

.:.<..

:..-...

INTENSIFYING SCREENS
The d e w of photographic effect of X-rays and gamma rays depends on the amount of radiation
enerm that is absorbed by the sensitized C O ~ M ~of: the f i This is about 1 per cent for radiation
and
of m7&um penebrating power. The remaining % per cent of radiation pass&through the fh
is not used. To overcome this. the film mav be sandwiched between two intensWnt!
- - meens. .
Under the action of X-rays and gamma
these screens either emit electrons (lead screens) or
fluoresce (fluorescent screens) which results in an e m photographic effect upon the film emulsion
layers. Intimate contact between the f h and the screens is necessary to obtain sharp images.

rays

There are three main types of screen in general use: lead foil, salt or fluorescent and fluorometallic.
LEAD FOE SCREENS
These are used extensively for industrial radiography. The intensifying effect is caused by the
liberation of electrons fium the lead foil under the excitation of radhion. These electrons strike the
film creating and intensification of the photographic action in the emulsion of the film. This
intensifying actions results in a reduction in exposure t h up to 75 per cent ?he lead screens also
absorb the low energy smaer &tion resnlting in improved contfdst

Lead screens art made np from thin


sheets of lead foil, which is d~
uniform in stcuc& and stu& on t6
a thinbase, such as stiff paper or card.

Flaws on scrtens,.such as scratches or mcks


in the d a c e of the metaL are visiile on the
radiographic image. T h d o r e damaged
m n s shonId not b c ' d

Narmally two lead screeos are nsed. The thickness of the front screen mustbe matched to the
M e s s of the radiation used Thisis to allow the primary radiation m pass throur31, while
stouuing as much as ~ossib1eof the secondanr radiation k .
which h&i a Ionm&veheth
The front screen is usually 0.005" thick, and the rear screen about 0.10" thick. It is however
possibIe to use two screens of the same thickness.

Lead i u t a s i f y k g scnens arc not particulariy effective w i t .x-ray equipment below about 120 kV.

'

FLUORESCENT SCREENS (OR SALT SCREENS)


. .
These consist of a thin flexible. base coated with a fluorescent layer made up from fine crystals of a
suitable metallic salt usually calcium tungstate. Two main types are used in industrial
radiography:

'

1)

high definition (fine grain) screens, made of small salt c~ystals

2)

screens giving Figh intensification (rapid or high speed screens) made of larger salt
crystaIs.

Exposun to X-rayscauses the salt crystals to


glow with a blue light 'ilk light a6E&
the
fihandproducest%emainpaiiof thelatent
film image.

Theradiographic film isplaced


bctwccn two screens coated with
thescsalts,sothatthesaltcoatingis
in contaa with the film

Salt screens rcducccxposnn time and allow


a lower kilovoltage to be used. However,
definition is affeded by salt screens.
dcpendingonthcrjzc6f thesaltaykals.
Faster smms givc the worst &ect

Thtscnensandthcfilmarcthen
p W in a mml or plastic c8ssette.or
film holdex. so that thcv arc in

Salt screens shouId be examined frequently to ensorc tfiat they are &txh mdust and dia. They
can be cleaned with a sIightly soapy sponge, or wad of cotton wool, applied gently until all traces
of dirt have been removed. At no time shonld thc sponge or cotton wool be wet enougfi to allow
b p s of water to fall on the scrceps.
over once with a iwistcneddmp cloth wad. Dry with
a clean so& cloth f k e from loose fibres.

Note: salr screensare rarely used with gmnma radiation

Hellier, Inc.
RT

T~.v.vnn7nF

FLUOROMETALLIC SCREENS

-..

These meens are a combination of &&I& screen and the salr screen giving the elecmn emission
effect and the fluorescent effect They consist of pairs of s m m s made up of flexible or mrd
support thin lead foil layer of fine grain fluorescent salt They are normally used with fine grain,
high conblast direct type fikn giving an i n t d c a t i o n which can reduce the exposure by a s much
as nine times, yet without losing too much sensitivityof flaw detection They are made in different
grades to suit different X-ray and gamma-ray energies.
Their use is largely confined to routine inspection when speed of exposure is essential but when
. ordinary salt ScTeens would give too great a loss in critical inspection.

THE INTENSIFICATION FACTOR


This is express as the ratio of the exposure without using screens to that of using screens as
follows:
Intensification factor =

JZmosurewithout screens
Exposure with srreens

It varieswith the kilovoltage andfhe circuitry of the X-ray set b e i g used.

The graph shows the intemiEcatibn factor with the kilovoItageused for salt and lead screens.

..

With salt screens the maximum &&is


o b ~ e atdabout 200 kilovolts. With I& screans the
inleosification dfect is only obtained above 120kilovolts.

~ellier,Inc.

R T T ~ r m n1 n F

..

RT LESSON 106
PRODUCING THE RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE

IMAGE FORMATION
A radiopph is a shadow picture of a component which has been placed between an X-ray tube,or
a gamma-ray source and the film. The appearance of the shadow picture produced is influenced by
the relafive positions to each other of the items in the diagram

It is imp0rc1.1~
that i n d m radiographm are f a d i a r with the geometricalprinciples of image
formation. Because X-rays and gammarayshavdin straight lines like rays of E a t , the shadow
or image foxmation they produce is easia to wcplain in tams of light as shown in the diagrams.

If a beam of light firoma fh&@t shines through a hole in a card onto an object placed between
the card and a screen,then aprimary shadow image of the o b j a wilI be formed on the s a e u ~
This primary shadow is r c f d to as the umbra.

T3e sharpness of the shadow image of the object depends on the items in the diagram.
.

- ..

..

Ethcseitems or factors are not correctthe wnbra will bG surroundedby a secondary shadow
refened to as the penambra, The width ofthc nmXnalW o w is n : f d to as g e o d e
~ ~ t ~ h a r p(Ug.
m s If the width of thc pea&
shadow docr not exceed 0.020.. the image
will. appear sharp to the unaided eyc In practice, since the source always has sorne dimension
there will always be sorne peII~bra1
shadow.

PRODUCING TEEE SHARPEST POSSIBLE IMAGE


The foIIowing conditionswilI implove tttc sharpness of the shadow image:

1)

Use the smaUat possible focalpoint or source

2)

Ensnre thc d

3)

~nsartthe&possib~e~Ct~~somccandthe~(~)

e s t possible distance bctwm the oobject and the screen (fSlm).

FACTORS THAT AFFECT IMAGE FORMATION AND PENUMBRA


.- *. .
SOURCE SIZE
If the size. of the sourceor focal spot is inaeased from a small source to a larger source,the
resulting shadow image of the object wiU be less sharp, (ie. the penumbra increases).

SOURCE-TO-FILM DISTANCE
The distance betweenthe sornrr.ar focal pint and the film is known as the s ~ m t o - f i l m
distancc Kthe s o m is moved farther away from the film the amoont of shadow ovcdap
- or
puuunbra is nduoed. t h d y pmkcing a sl'larper image.
When the sourceis close to the screen
or 6lm it produces alarge penumbral
shadow, resulting in an unsharp image.

When the source is moved Wier away


from the smm or film it produces a
nantowcr penumbral shadow, thatby
. reducing the geomefric unsharpness.

OBJECT-TO-FILM DISTANCE (OFD)


.

&

<

1.

This is always calculated as the distance berwmthe s o w side of the object aridthe film It is
essential that the image of any discontinuitiespresent in the objectshould be as sharp as possible.
A space b e ~ e the
n objea and the film.should be avoided as this has an adverse effect upon the
sharpness of the irnage.

When the object is movcd


awayhmthcscnxnorf3m
it gives an increastd shadow
owdap and an nnsharp h k g e

When the obj& is moved close


tothesmmorortilmit gives a
reduced shadow overlap and a
sharper image.

2)

To prevent distortion the f h


or screen should be at right*.
angles to the source of radiation

3)
d.

The plane of the object and the fih


or screen should be paallel to give a
sharp image and reduce distortion.

CALCULATING GEOMETRIC. UNSHARPMESS (Ug)

A sharp image has a small width of penumbra (I0.020")med


to as geometric unsharpness
(Ugj. This is obtained uskig the d e s t avaiIabIe somoe, the longest pracfical source-to-film
distance with the object placed in mntaa with the film hoIder.

The size ofthe peuumbm (Ug)can be CaICnlatedfromthediagram using the following formula:
u g = fxd
D

Ug = h'ze of source3 x (obicb-to-filrn distance)


source-to-obj& distance

CALCULATING TRE EVLZWIMUR.P FOCUS-TO-FILM DISTANCE


The minimum sourceto filmdisthce that would prodnce an image with a Ug of 0.020"can be
dcuIated using the following formnla:

Sotmeto-fiImdismnce = focal mot size x obiect-to-fiIm distance i objea-to-fitn distance


(tninimm)
Imximmugpermittcd

GAMMA RAY EXPOSURE FACTORS


- _ ..

TYPE OF SOURCE
The rype of source used, ie. Iridium 192 or Cobalt 60, wiU determine the energy (penetrating
power) of the radiation. Since S e r g y o f a m of source remains constant the only way- .
To change the energy used is to change &e ty@of so&.

ACTIVITY OF SOURCE

The activity of the source in Curies govems the inteusity of the r a w o n emitted and it cannot be
varied. 'Ihe intensity of ~adiatiouis proportional to the d e strengthof a source and will affect the
exposure time required to produce aradiograph oE a given dMsity. That is, radiographs of equal
density would be produced if the s a m specimen is radiographed with a 50 Curie source with an
exposure of two minutes and with a 100 Curie source with an exposun: of one minute.
It is esse;ltial that the s o w decay chart be availabIe as the exposure rime must be adjusted as the
activity of the source'decreases thpugh decay.

OTHER FACTORS
C o n s i d d o n of other factors such as source-to-film distance, film-type,intensyfing screens, and
processing would be the same as4&scu.sed with an x-ray exposure.

DETERMINING RADIOGRAPHIC EXPOSURES

X-KAY EXPOSURE CHARTS


Methods of detumining c o w radiographic exposure are by:
I.

Rcfaence to acposmc charts these provide exposure conditions r t q


thichcss of matcdat ~ hcxposm
t
is usnaIly cxpnssed in tams of u

M for a given

s or

An cxponnc chaa is a graphplotted on semi-log graph paper. Tht exposurerequired to

achieve a fixed density isrdated to the ma&


thlckmss. An exposurcchact is dcvdoped
for a particolarX-rayma&ine using a fixedset of conditions such as matuial type, film
type,SFD,
iil&,.pmcessing, processing a n d d t i n g dens%%y.If any of these
factors changethe c q c m b chartis no longer valid and some compensation must be made.

2.

Rcfuwicc to pnxious cxposmcmrds.. theseprovide infounation to pmducc coxrect


cxwmw, but the data may not always bc awBabIc or sai3icicnt for the uarti&

3.

Trialandemx:althougIrthis~odkoftcnnse&,itisnsnalIyvaywastefuIandcostly
..
both in teams of time and tilm. This method of demmmng an exposure is not
recommended except in u n d W.

USE OF AN X-RAY EXPOSURE CHART


To detemine the proper exposure,enter the chart at the base for the thichess of the specimen and
move vertically to intersect the desired Kv. Move horizontally to the left h r n this intersection
point and read the required exposure in mAS or mAM
X-ray Exposure Chart- 160 KvP Unii

USE O F A GAMMA RAY EXPOSURE CHART

. - .%
;

These cham are used although sbnie&hii't&s


to x-ray exposure charts are different in that the
exposure time must be determined using the formula shown on the chart
Iridium 192 f3pasure Chart

IRIDIUM 192 EXWSURE FACTORS FOR

T -TIME (MINUTES1 FOR OENSINZO'


EF EXPOSURE FACTOR
0 -SOURCE=CO-FILM DISTANCE (FEETI
S -SOURCE STRENGTH (CURIES1

INCHES OF STEEL

,
/

- -

RT LESSON 107

After exposing the film to radiation rhe hlm must be processed (developed) to make the latent
image visible. This is carried out in a darkroom under subdued light (safelight) of a color and
intensity that will not affect the film.

High quality results depend upon deanIiness, the quality and concentration of the processing
solutions and the c o w combination of temperatme, time and agitation.
There are two main methods of pmxssing, manual and automatic, which incolporate the essential
steps oE
/lAex& wrc 4
b
.
+,!$I ;ki.
development
-5'r'q
s i l v r ~J t ; l - ' + @ ~ g
@ washing
(Jdrying

---"

ep e\

6%

i'&b-d"k~?

MANUAL PROCESSING
The filmsare suspendedvertically in the tanks on suitable hangers or clips so that s e v d films can
be processed together. The operator agitates the films and transfers thuniium one tank to another.

PREPARING

FILM FOR PROCESSING

Check that the developer solntiou'is nady and at the right

n o d y 6SF (2O0C).

Check that the darkroomis seam, the white light off and a n d m safety Light on.

UNLOADING THE CASSETTES


- .,
FLEXIBLE CASSETTES

Undo the 41
of the cassette carefully.
W~thdrawthe film.and screensfrom the
cassette, slowly, to <void excess friction.
Remove the lead d place them on
one side. Handle the film by one comer
or by the edges and not by the emulsion

RIGID CASSETTES

Place the cassette on a bench with the


backside up. 0p.u and careNly pick
up the 61mby its edges. T d e r the
film into avatical position with a
flowing motion, avoiding bending it.

surface.

Radiographic films are sensitiveto pressme, acashg, kinking and friction. Friction may produce
an clectdcal dkharge known as 'static' which causes marldngs on the film.

Aaach the film to the hanger, asming that the clips hold it m t l y and GY
on the hanger.

PROCESSING THE FILM


Processing is canied out in deep tanks containing ch&
solutions. The tanks are immersed in a
jach m help corn1the tcflperatmc of thc solution.

-.

Whcn the film is pnxxssed,it is i m m d in each of the tanksfor artcommended period of time.
A timer.isused to control the time.

i-

Film processing comprises five stages which are numbered in the iUustradon.
.

..

-.

1)

Immerse the f h fully in each tank in


sequence for the time periodrecoq~n~ended
by the manufacturers of the p&sing
chemicals.

',

3)

Agitate the fiIm up and dawn for


about ten seconds when it is first
immersed and then for about ten
seconds eveq minute during the
developing time.

4)

When d e u i n gfilm from tank to


tank, drainback smpIns so1ntion off
filmtostopcaqylngovoIi@from
one tank to another. Use running
water in the washing tank If a static

2)

Tap the hanger on the tank after


immsing the film to free any air
bubbles which may be attached to it

5)

'Ihn&erthcfilmfromthe~~
tankand place in a drying cabiiet for
approximately.twenty minutes, or .
nnriIit is dry. Do not placc wet films
over or near films already drying. Do
not place films too close together as
hey may touch and stick togethir as
they dry.

wattrtankisustd, agitate thefilm


when washing and change the wam
frequentIy.

AUTOMATIC PROCES

This allows radiographic films to be processed and dried automatically, without constant operator
attention It is quicker than manud pnx~ssingand can be kept working for 24 hours a day if
require&.
.

-.

The filmis fedin through a sIot and fecd


tray fium the darkroom side of the walL

The processcdradiograph is delivered so


thatit can b checked as it comes out of the
machine.

OncetheiiImhas beenfedinto.tht
processor, it is tcansprted at constant
speed through developer, fuccr, wash
and drying sections by three racks of
mllers immersed in deep tanks.

The controlpanel has warning lights to indicateconditions inside the processor.

PREPARING FlL?dS FOR READING


u;arnincthcfiImfor~gfanlls(~)~andchtckthe5density.
P b it m apmtcctiw avelope,madcthe unnlope with thenfqlpce nmbmofthe f3.m and .

g-*

presenttheiihtothe5nreadm.

EXAMINING T m FILM FOR PROCESSING FAULTS (ARTIFACTS)


It is important that radiographs b&kc of in the arm ofintarst as they may bt cause for rejection
of the radiograph. It is important not only to rtcognizc film aaifacs,but to also undastand their
cause and how to remedy them. .
'

UNSUTrABLE SMRAGE OR CARLESS HANDLING OFFKMS ATTIME OF EXPOSURE

CAUSE

AR'I?FACI'

'Pre-exposure or 'doubteexposure' to X-rays or


gamma rays giving either
overall fogging of film or
showing other inexplicable
patterns (Emrn intervening
objects). Image present on
both sides of f i

L,/

REMEDY
-

Insufiicient protection
of film fmm radiation
in storage or in transport

Make sure that frlm


is stored or
transported under
radiation proof
conditions

Elmi left in the vicinity of


tube or somce while making
exposures

Keep films away


fiom tube or
source during
exposure

Back scatter

Use adequate

backing sheet
during exposures

G M d mottle and greater

1) Film has been stored for too

&>,&FA

1) Do not over-stock

-$43
fim t r y t o m
film a t h i .about
thteemonths

2)Storeinacooldry
P9
C

Note: thisfbr@ab is rare $hameacalEy sakipackage is unbroken.


Wavy mottlc with a 'watay'

-~*-gt

conditions

Ston in dry place and


avoid constant
dampness in dark
room comparatively
rarefault with modem
packaging

",

,
\

\9

.&

I '

bf,
o@

I/

&Y

b/

>/-

MIS-HANDLING THEF E M AND FAULTY DARKROOM EQUIPMENT

0-

ARTIFACT

CAUSE

REMEDY

Overall veiling or fogging.


Image may be discernible
on one side only (usually
by physical test)

Excessive exposure to
safelight, or faulty safelighting

Test safelights before


use; follow maker's
instructions
particularly with
regard to wattage of
lamps and handling
distance

Patches of heavy density


or streaks of density near
edges of Wm

Improperly closed cassettes


or film holders
.

charge
cause&&
p f i g film out of package

Darkdots with lines radiating


fiam them
Image on bob sides of61m

W~thdrawfilm slowly

from packet

tfao

. ,

E'"

Check that cassettes.


and fiIm holders are
closed before
exposure

@'

-fl Pressure on or buckling of


fiImswhile loadinginto
cassettes or holde?;~

Handle carefully.
Avoid buckling or
bending hlm

As above but dark areas


Cyi'mb W r K

As above but caused after

D& cr&ceat Lhumb nail'

Heavy prcssmc or kink marks

Avoid 'czimpii or
kinking fiIm while
hmdhg. This fault is
more likely with large
filmsor whith long
lengths of film

Pressun of heavy specimen


on film; more likely when
usiagenvelope wrapped film
or ffcxibk holdax May be due
to ovUti@t binding of film on

Forheavy objects use

expoSnE

marks, often s m u n d e d by

lighter areas

Light or dark marks


corresponding to contour
ofspedmen

weId surface

As above. This is a
fairly rare fault

rigidcassettes
preferably, or pIace

themcarefully on
envelapcpackedfilm,
Avoid overtightening
securingstraps

.-*:x,

.;.,:...j
.-

- . . -.
MIS-HANDLING 'JXEFILM AND FAULTY DARKROOM EQUIPMENT - CONTINUED
ARTIFACT

CAUSE

REMEDY

Small sharp spots of


reduced density. Images
may be on both sides of
film but do not coincide

Dust trapped between


intensifying screens and
film

CIean screens and


avoid dust in darkroom as much as
possible. This fault is
commonplace but not
usually confusing

Light or discololned
streaks along film, usually
on one side only

Inseaion of Om for processing


into a channel hanger which is
contamhtd with fixer

Wash and dry all


hangers thoroughly
before use.

F
^

,.

rDark rounded spots or


smears on one side of film

Gght spots as h

Light or dark spots but not


as obvious as above two

PeriodicalIy
thoroughly clean all
hangers and clips

Developer splashedprior to
processin& Bad darkroom
iayont a d gross ~ e s s n e s s

Keep loading bench


dry. Do mt splash

Irisplashes

As above

Warmsplashes Iffilmis
developedimmktely these
may not show. If left for some
time they may bc d&

As above

distrlcalsh a b o r n

ARTIFACT

CAUSE

REMEDY

Light fogging - excessive

Attempted impdon in
front of safelight during
development Incorrect
safelighting

Use timeand'

I""-veil

temperature method of
development Do not
' h e l o p by
inrpecrion'
--

'

Solarisation: partjalor
complete rev& to a
positive instead of a
negative image

Exposure during development


I) Unsafe lighting

2 9

d).A

s ' YVF

I) Check safelamps

to:

Uneven development Patchy.


streaky and mottled @ns.
k g e s on both sides

"
e/\

--

3'

4-

2)

Makesure white
Iight is off

2) White light

This fault is rare

1) Lack ofagitation

1) Asitate adequateIy
as recommended

2) Overshortdevelopment
in wann soIutions

2) Give coma time


md
for development

3) Attanpfingto
over-sure
conpeaate
by under
development

3) 'Developmeat
inspCCtion1is bad
by
pmctice. Conect
expm.timc and
always qroixss
stan*

-P
Flow marks, bromide
sfmamers, dark areas

below light areas and


vice versa

Lack of agitationcausing
nnevcn development, dae
to rclease of by-products in
developmentprocess

properly. ie,

10-15seconds on hrst
immersion and
5-10 seconds in each
subsequent minute

Undeveloped, unfixed or
unwashed area at top edge
offilm

Hellier. Inc.

Failrne to maintain solution


levels

RcpI&tanksas
WP&~

....

ARTIFACTS OCCURRU\TG DURZNG PROCESSING - CONTlMJED

FAULT

Reticulation: fine network of


lines on surface of film

Dichrornic fog. p W h colour


when viewed by transmitted
light, greenish coIour when
viewed by reflected light
NL

-CAUSE

llFMEDY

Gmss temperature
diaFerence bween
various processing
solutions

Mainrain solutions
at recommended
temperatures. This .
fault is rare with most
modern Nms

1) Contamina~onof
developer by fixer or
vice versa

1) Discard

rinse or stop
2) ~nade~uatk
bath

2) Make sure rinse

%. .

contaminated
developer
water is i s g ,
or renew stop
bath more often

3) Makeacid
fixer bath
-

ARTIFACTS OCCURRING DURING WASFENG AND DRYING

Small blisters oruinkled


spots on film; areas of
emulsion missing

REMEDY

Excessive washing, usually


by allowingfilm to remain in
static water at higher than

Wash in cold running


water for not more
than half an hour (ten
minutes is usually
adequate)

Drying rm& usually light


spots with slightly darkex
edges, or can be streaks.
Visible on one side only

1) Failure to use wetting-agent


rinse after washing

1) Use wetting-agent
bath to promote
~ v wa g

2) Poor drying discipline

2) Do notput wet
films above dry or
nearly dry films in
drying cabinet

Density change due to uneven


W g

Avoid placiog films


too close tog&er in
hot air c a b i i In
extremccasesfib
may stick together

CAUSE

AR.TFACI'

--

- -

/
Patches of density change
usndlIy darkerand in
central area of film

( 2 2

/y

,$'j\
\

'

Hellier, Inc.
RT

T-evnn

ln7

d i.

$\

,,(

60

4m

Designation: E 748 - 90

Standard Practices for


Thermal Neutron Radiography of Materials'
Thir rlmbrd is isucd ""dcr ,hc Crcd dciignxion E 7": Ihc nurnkr irnrn~diatclylollau.inc thc drrbgn3lion indicalrr ihc ? u i a i
original adoption or. in ihc nw ofrcririan. thc )czr uilrsl rcvirion. A nurnkr in prcnthitiJlcatr\ ille ?car liilall rc$npra\al. A
rumrwnpl cprilon (,) indintcs zn Ldir~rirldangc rincc ~ h cIan rclirion or rapprov3l.

I. Scope

I. I Purpose-A practice lo be employed for the radiographic examination of materials and components with
thermal neutrons is outlined herein. It is intended as a guide
for the production of neutron radiographs that possess
consistent quality chancteristics, as well as aiding the user to
consider the applicability of thermal neutron radiology
(radiology, radiographic, and related terms are defined in
Terminology E 1316). Stitemens concerning preferred pnct i e are provided without a discussion of the technical
background far the preference. The nffenary technial
background can be found in Refs (1-24).~
I 2 Limirafiom-Acceptance standards have not been
established for any material or production process. Adherence to the practice .will, however, produce reproducible
rsults that could serve as standards. Neutron radiography,
whether performed by means of a racror, an acceferator,
subcritical assembly, or radioactive saurc+ will be consistent
in sensitivity and resolution only if the consistency of all
details of the technique, such as neutron saurce, collimation.
gmmefq film, ctc., is maintained through the practices.
These practices are limited to the use of photographic or
radiographic film in combination with conversion screens for
image remrding; other imaging systems arc available. Emphasis is placed on the use of nuclear reactor neutron
SQUTCIS

L .3 Inierprelafion and Acceprance Standnrds-Interprewlion and acceptance standards are not covered by these
practices. Designation of accept-reject standards is iecognirred to be within the cognizance of product specifications.
1.4 Safay Prarfices-General problems of personnel proteaibn against neutron and anociated radiation peculiar to
the neutron radiologic prare discussed in 15.1. For
further information on this important as*
of neutron
radiology, refer to current documents of the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measuremen& the
Federal Register, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Bureau of
'
Standards, and to applicible state and l a d codes.
1.5 Orher Aspecls offhe Neutron Radiographic PracessFor many important aspects of neutron radiography such as
technique, files, viewing of radiographs. storage of radio-

'

Thcrr: pndm arc undcr ihc juridictian of ASTM Curnrnittcc El7 on


N a n d m c u ' ~Tcning m d arc lhc dirm mpocuibiliry of Submrnmitrcc E07.05
an Nmlmn Padiopphy.
Cumnt dilian rppmvn( k c . 28. 1994. Publirhcd Fcbrunp 1991. Orifjnally
publhhd z E 748 80. L a picviour cdilion E 748 89.
Thc boldfxr nurnkn in mrrn,hicicr 10 ihc list of mkrcncn 31 ihc cnd

graphs, film processing. and record keeping, refer to Guide


..
E 94. (See Section 2.)
1.6 Perso~i~~cl.lor
T/~c,r~iial
Neuron Radiographic Inspec.
rion-Training and certification of personnel to perform
thermal neutron radiographic examinations is imponant to a
successful neutron radiologic operation. For additional information refer to American Society for Nondeitrucrive Teiting
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-IA.
1.7 The agency performing the testing or examination
shall meet the requirements of Practice E 543.
1.8 This sra~rdarddocs nor purpon ro address all offhe
safery problcnrs associared wirlr irs use. Ir is [he responribiliry
of rhe user qfrlris standard ro esrablislr appropriate safay and
hedrh praciices and defermine rhc applicabiliry of reooulafory
limirationr prior ro use.. (For more specific safety precautionary information see , I .4.)
2. Referenced Documents

2.1 A S T M Srandards:
E 94 Guide for Radiographic Tening'
E 543 Practice for Evaluating Agencies that Perform
Nondertructive Testing3
E 545 Method for Lktermining' Image Quality in Direct
Thermal Neutron Radiographic Examination"
E 1316 Terminology for Nondeitructive Examinations"
2 2 ASNT Srandard:
SNT-TC-IA Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Cerlificationi
3. Signifiance and Use
3.1 This practice includes typ& of materials to be examined, neutron radiographic examination techniques, neutron
production and collimation methods, radiographic film, and
convener meen selection. Within the p m m state of the
neutron radiologic a this practice is genelally applicable to
specific material combinations, processes, and techniques.

4. Neutron Radiography
4.1 The hfe~lrod-Neutron radiography is basically similar to X radiography in that both techniques employ
radiation beam intensity modulation by an object to image
macroscopic object derails. X rays or gamma rays are
replaced by neutrons as the penetrating radiation in a
through-transmission examination. Since the absorption
characterinin of matter for X rays and neutrons differ
'Annual Bad < ! l ' . t T . WSmndord~.Vol 01.03.
'Anil;lblc from lhc Arncriun k c t y lor Nondcnmnivr Tci~ing. 171 1
Adinslc I-lnr P.O. b
x 18518. Calurnhur. 01-153223-11518.

'-

Fast Neutron Source

I
Maderalor

Anerlure

Gamma

cay

Fillel
FIG.

' --i

ot ~ , ~ ~ D, , t ~ ~

@vevg

Obiecl

Neutron
Beam

Typical Neutron Radiography Facility with Divergent


Callirnator

dradcally, the two techniques in general serve lo c O m ~ l e ment one another.


4.2 Faciliries-The
basic neutron radiography facility
consists o i a source of f a neutrons, a moderator, a gamma
filter, a collimator, an object. a conve~ionscreen. a film
image recorder or other imaging system. a cassene, and
adequate biological shielding and interlock systems. A schematic diagram of a representative neutron radiography
facility is illustrated in Fig 1.
4.3 Thermalimion-The p r o c w of slowing down neutrans by permining the neutrons to come to 'Iherma1
equilibrium with their surroundings.

5. Neutron Sources
5.1 General-The thermal neutron beam may be obdried from a nuclear reactor, a subxitical asembly, a
radioactive neutron source, or an accelerator. Neutron
radiography has been achieved successfully with a l l four
sources. In all cases the initial neutrons generated possess
high energies and must be reduced in energy (moderated) to
be useful for thermal neutron radiography. This may be
achieved by surrounding the source with light materials such
as water, oil, plastic, paracf~n,beryllium, or graphite. The
preferred moderator will be dependent on the constraints
dictated by the energy of the primary neutrons, which will in
turn be dictated by neutron beam parameters such as
thermal neutron yield requirements, cadmium ratio, and
beam gamma ray contamination. The characteristics of a
particular system for a given application are left for the seller
and the buyer of the service to decide. This is an easier task
in the erase of neutron radiography than that of X radiography. Characteristics and capabilities of each trpe of source
are referenced in the References section. A comparison of
s o u r m is shown in Table 1.
5.2 Nuclear Reaclors-Nuclear reactors are the prererred
thermal neutron source in general, since high neutron fluxes
are available and exposures can be made in a relati\'ely short
TABLE 1 Cornoarisan of
Type 01 Sam%

Typcwl RadagrJphlc Flux, n/a7iz.s

Nudear readw
S~bcntml
assrmMy
Aoceleratm

lO5lto l V
lo' to 1@
l@ to l@
lo' to l~l'

Radiwatw

tinic span. 'IFiic higll nculroti intcl>silymakcs it possible


provide a liglllly collimated k x n > : ~hcrcforc.Iri~h-resolutio,,
radiographs w ~ bc
i produced.
5.3 Subcri~icol ~s.~e~?tb/j-Asubcritical assembly is
achieved by the addition of suficienl fissionable material
surrounding a moderated source oT neutrons, usually a
radioisotope source. ~ l t h o ~ gtlie
h total thermal neulron
yield is smaller than that o f a nuclear reactor, such a systenl
olTen the attractions of adequate image quality in a r-nable exposure tinie. relative eare oT licensing. adequate
neutron yield Tor most industrial applications, and the
possibility of tfanspomblc operation.
5.4 Acccl~~ralor
So~rrces-Acceleraton used for thermal
neutron radiography have generally been of the low-voltage
type which utilize the 'H(d,n)'He reaction, high-energy
X-ray machines in which the (x,n) reaction is applied and
Van de GraalT accelerators which employ the 'Be(d,n)I0~
reaction. I n all cases, the mrgeLs are surrounded by a
moderator lo reduce the neutrons to thermal energies. The
total neutron yields of such
can be in theorder of
1 0 1 2 . ~ . ~ -the
~ ; thermal neutron flu of such sources before
collimation can be in the order of 109n.cm-2.s-', for
example, the yield from a Van de Graaff a d e m o r .
5.5 ]soropic Sortrcr3-Many isotopic sources have been
employed Tor neutron radiologic applications. Those that
have been most widely utilized are outlined in Table 2.
~
~
dsources
i
~ the
~ best~ posibjty
~
i for pomble
~
~
operation. However, becauie of the relatively low neutron
yield. the exposure times are usually long for a given imaze
quality. The isotopic soura: Z52Cf offers a number of
advantages for thermal neutron radiology, namely, low
neutron energy and small physical size, both ofwhich lead to
eficient neutron moderation. and the posibility for high
total neutron yields.
6 . imaging Methods and Conversion Screens
6.1 General-Neutrons are nonionizing particulate radiation that have little dirm effea on radiographic film. T o
obtain a neutron radiographic image on film, a canversion
screen is normally employed, upon neutron capture, screens
emit prompt and delayed decay products in the form of
nuclear radiation or light. In ail cases the screen should be
placed in intimate contact with the radiographic film in
order to obtain sharp images.
6.2 Direcr h4e1110d-In the direa method, a film is placed
on the source side of !he conversion screen (front film) and
exposed to the neutron beam together with the conversion
screen. Electron emission upon neutron capture is the
mechanism by which the film is exposed. The screen is
generally one of the following types: ( I ) a free-standing
gadolinium metal screen accessible to film on both sides; ( 2 )
a sapphirei-oated, vapordeposited gadolinium screen on a
substrate such as aluminum; or (3) a light-emitting fluorescent screen such as gadolinium oxysulfide or 6LiF/ZnS.

Thermal Neutron Sources


Radlagiaphc Resdutlar

UWIJCLemlrZ

excclbt

&turn

s W opaabm. px!amy dfollt


ar-dlopenthn
st*
openm w l t y pos~lble

paoc lo m e d ~ n

opaaucn ml pcrtable

TABLE 2

SOV~CC

TYW

~Sources
~ ~ t Employed
i ~ e lor Thermal Neulron Radiography

1i.n)

60 days

"OPo-ae

lo.")

2"Am-Be

(=."I

138 days
458 yea's
163 days
2.65 years

251c(

11l.n)

SPonlanMuS lissl~n

mese comments canpare w r c e s m

Commmls'

Iiail.Llle

"'Sb-Qe

219~m.212
Cm.Be

s h m hait.LIe and high ~~bachground.low rieulian energy is


advanlaqe lor modcrallan. high yield source
shed hattJde. ww 7-background
long hall4fe. easily shieldca ,-bachgrouna
shEn hallJ8le. high nculron yvcld
long hallJile. hjgh neulrw yield. nmall slle and low energy oncr
advanIa~e5in moderalsan

lne table

Exposure of an additional film (without object) is often


useful to resolve anifacts that may app&r in radiographs.
Such anifam could result from screen marks, excess pressure, light leaks, developmen\ or nonuniform film. In the
case of light-emitting conversion screens, it is recommended
that the spectral response of the light emission be matched as
closely as possible to that of the film used for optimum
results. The direct method should be employed whenever
high-resolution radiographs are required, and high beam
contamination of low-energy gamma rays or highly radioactive o b j w do not preclude its use.
6.3 Indirecf Merhod-This method makes use of conversion screens that can be made temporarily radioactive by
neutron capture. The conversion screen is exposed alone to
the neutron-imaging beam; the film is not present. Candidate
conversion materials include rhodium, gold, indium, and
dysprosium. Indium and dysprosium are recommended with
dysprosium yielding the greater speed and emitting less
energetic gamma radiation. It is recommended that the
conversion xreens be activated in the neutron beam for a
maximum of three half-lives. Further neutron irradiation
will result in a negligible amount of additional induced
activity. ffier irradiation, the conversion sueens should be
placed in intimate contad with a radiographic film in a
vacuum cassette, or other light-tight assembly in which good
contact can be maintained between the radiographic film
and radioactive screen. X-ray intensification screens may be
used to increase the speed of the autoradiographic p r o m if
desired. For the indirect type of exposure, the material from
which the cassette is fabricated is immaterial as there are no
neutrons to be scatIered in the exposure process. In this case,
as in the activation process, there is litde to be gained for
conversion screen-film exposures extending beyond three
half-lives It is recommended that this method be employed
whenever the neutron beam is highly contaminated with
gamma rays, which in turn cause fdm fogging and reduced
contran sensitivity, or when highly radioactive objects are to
be radiographed. In shorf this method is beam gammainsensitive.
6.4 Orher Imaging Sysrems-The scope of these practices
is limited to fdm imaging (see 1.3). However, other imaging
systems such as track-etch or real-time are available.
7. Neutron Collimators
7.1 General-Neutron sources for thermal neutron radiology generally involve a sizeable moderator region in which
the neutron motion is highly multidirectional. Collimators
are required to produce a beam and thereby produce
adequate image raolution capability in a neutron radiology
facility. It should be noted that in the definitions of collimator parameters, it is assumed that the object under

Fast Neutron Source

ol Diameler 0

Moderator

Film

Diverging

Gamma Ray

Neutron

Filler

FIG. 2

Object

Beam

Pinhole Catlimatar

examination is placed as close to the imaging system as


possible to decrease both magnification and image
unsharpnes due to the finite neutron source s'm.Several
types of collimators are available. These include the widely
used divergent type, multichannel, pinhole, and slraight
collimators. The image spatial resolution properties of the
beams are generally set in part by the diameter or longest
dimension of the collimator entrance port (D) and the
distance behyeen that apetture and the imaging system (L).
An exception is the multichannel collimator in which D is
the diameter of a channel and L is the length of the
collimator. It should be noted that the detection system used
in conjunction with a multichannel collimator will register
the collimator pattern. Registry can be eliminated by empirically adjusting the distance between the collimator and the
imaging system until the pattern disappears. Ratios of LID as
low as 10 are not unusual for low neutron yield sources,
while higher resolution capability systems ohen will display
LID values of several hundred or more. The actual spatial
resolution or image unsharpness in a particular radiologic
examination will depend, of course, on factors additional to
the beam characterinics. Thex include the object size, the
geometry of the system. and scatter conditions. The size of
the X-radiologic source. F. would be replaced by the size of
the eReaive thermal neutron radiologic source (D) in the
calculation of geometric unsharpness. The geometrical aspects ofthe problem are discussed in Guide E 94.
7.2 Divcrgcnr Collimaror-The divergent collimator is a
tapered reentrant porl into the point of highest thermal
neutron flux in the moderator. The walls of the collimator
are lined with a thermal neutron absorbing material to
permit only unscattered neutrons from the source to reach
the object and the image plane. This type of collimator is
preferred when larger objects will be radiographed in a single
exposure. It is recommended that the divergent collimator be
lined with a neutron absorber which produces neutron

capture decay products that \\.ill ,I<,( result in background


fogging ofthe film. sucl~a s " ~ cjrt~onalc.
i
A typical divergent
collimating SYS1Cm is illustrated in t l ~ eschematic diagram of
Fig. I .
7.3 A~rillicl~onnelCaflinraror-The multichannel collimator is an array of tubular collimaton stacked within a
larger coliima1or envelope. It is recommended as a means of
achieving a high degree of collimation within a shon
collimation length. When this type of collimator is employed, a suitable collimator to detector distance should be
maintained to avoid regin? of the collimator pattern on the
radiologic image.
7.4 Slraiglrr Colli~naror-A straight-tub? reentrant port
can also be used instead ofthe tapered assembly described in
7.2. Although such collimaton were widely used in early
neutron radiologic work. the need to examine larger objects
and to achieve higher resolution has fostered the use of
divergent collimators.
7.5 Pinhole CoIIirriaror-Higher resolution can be obtained with a straight collimator when it is employed in
conjunction with a pinhole iris. The pinhole is generally
fabricated from a neutron-opaque material such as Cd, Gd,
or 'OB. The rmlution attainable will be dependent on the
pinhole diameter D. A schematic diagram ofthis system is
illustrated in Fig. 2.
8. Beam Filters
8.1 Thermal Neurron Radiograpl~y--In general, filters
may not be neassary. 11 may be desirable to employ Pb or Bi
filters in the neutron beam to remove beam gamma-ray
contamination. Whenever Bi gamma-ray filters are employed in a high neutron flux environment, the filter should
be encased in a sealed aluminum can to contain alpha
particle contamination due to the 2'0Po produced by the
neutron capture reaction in '@Bi. Gamma rays can cause
Glm fogging and reduced contrast sensitivity. In particular,
xinlillator converter screens exhibit sensitivity to beam
gamma-ray contamination. This effect can be minimized by
careful selection ofthe screcnffilm combination.

9. Masking
9.1 General-In general, masking is not ofien used in
thermal neutron radiology. Where it is desirable to reduce
scatter or to reduce unusual contrasts, the choice of masking
materials should be made carefully. Materials that scatter
readily, such as those containing hydrogen or materials that
emit radiation that may be readily detected, for example, as
indium, dysprosium, or cadmium, should be avoided or used
with exceptional care. Lithium-containing materials may be
useful for masking purposes. Background fogging may result
from the 470 keV gamma ray from boron.
10. Effect or Materials Surrounding Objwl and Cassette
10.1 Backscarrer-As in the case of X radiography, effects
of back-scattered radiation. for example, from walls, etc., can
be reduced by masking the radiation beam to the smallest
practical exposure area. Effects of backscatter can be determined by placing a neutron-absorbing marker of a material
such as gadolinium and a gamma-absorbing marker of a
material such as lead on the back of the exposure cassette. IT
problems with backscatter are shown, one should minimize

in tl~ec r l , ~ ~ u ar cx a illatcri3ls ~1131sca11~rO r enlit radiatio,,


3s discussed it1 Scctiot~9. nacksr~itcrcan
minimized I,,.
placing 3 neutron absorbcr sucll as g~doliniumbehind 11,;
cassette.
I I. Cassettes
1 1 . 1 ,\forcriol oJ COI~X~I-rmio11-The
casseue frame and

back may be fabricated of aluminum or magnesium as


employed in standard X-ray film cassettes. Aluminum or
magnesium entrance window X-ray cassettes can be used
directly for neutron radiography. Special vacuum cassettes
designed specificall? for neutron radiography are preferred'io
conventional X-ray cassettes. Plastic window X-ray cassettes
should not be used. The plastic entrance face may be
replaced with thin, 0.010 to 0.062-in. thick 11OO reactor
grade, or 6061T6 aluminum, or magnesium lo eliminate
image resolution degradation. The use ofhydrog-*nous materials in the construction of a cassette can lead to image
degradation and the use of these materials should be considered carefully.
1 2 a c u i Cassctrres-Whenetfer possible, vacuum
cassettes should be employed to hold the converter foil or
scintillator screen in intimate contact with the film both in
the direct and indirect exposure methods. Cassettes of the
type that maintain vacuum during the exposure or that must
be pumped continuously during the exposure are equally
applicable. Vacuum norage minimizes atmospheric corrosion of dysprosium conveners and subnanually increases
their useful life.
12. Thermal Neutron Radiographic Image Quality
12.1 irnage Quali~yIndicaors-Image quality indicator;
for thermal neutron radiography are described in Method
E 545. The devices and methods d a a i b e d therein permit:
(I) the measurement of beam composition, including relative
thermal neutron to higher energy neutron composition and
relative gamma-ray content; and (2) devices for indicating
the sensitivity of detail visible on the neutron radiograph.
13. Contrast Agents
13.1 I~~rproved
Conrrasr--Contrast agents are useful in
thermal neutron radiology for demonstrating improved contrasto f a tagged material or component. For thermal neutron
radiography even simple liquids such as water or oil can
serve as efkctive contrast agents. Additional useful marker
materials can be chosen from neutron-at~enuatingmaterials
such as boron. cadmium. and gadolinium. Of coune, the
deleterious effect of the contrast agent employed upon the
test object should be considered.
14. Types of Materials To Be Examined with Thermal

Neutron Radiography
14.1 General-This section provides a categorization of
applications according to the characteristics of the object
being examined. The following paragraphs provide a general
list of four separate categories for which thermal neutron
radiographic examination is particularly useful. Additional
details concerning neutron attenuation are discussed in
Appendix XI.
14.2 Derccrio~r a[ Similar Densir)! hfarerials-Thermal
neutron ndiognphy can oNer advantages in c a w of objects

of similar-density materials. that can represent prohlems for

X-radiography. Some brazing mntcrials, such as cadmium


snd silver for example, are rcadily shown by thermal neutron
adiography. Contrast agents can help show materials such as
ceramic residues in investmentian turbine blades. Inspection of castings for voids or uniformity and of cladding
materials can often be accomplished with thermal neutron
radiography. Material migration in solid-stale electronic
components, electrolfle migration in batteria, difusion
between light and heavy water, and movemenr of moisture
through concrete are examples in which thermal neutron
radiography has proved useful.
14.3 The Detection of LowDensity Conipoiienls and Materials in High-Densiry Con!ainmenrs-This
recommended
category includes the examination of metal-jacketed explosive devices, location and measurement of hydrogen in
cladding materials and weldmenrs, and of moisture in
assemblies, location of fluids and lubricants in metal containment systems, examination of adhesive bonds in metal
parts including honeycomb, locadon of liquid metals in
metal par&, location of corrosion products in aluminum
airframe components, examination of boron-filament composites, studies of fluid migration in sealed metal systems,
and the determination of poison distribution in nuclear
reactor fuel rods or control plates.
14.4 The Examination of Higl11v Radioadive ObjeclsThe technique of indirect neutron imaging is insensitive to
gamma radiation in the imaging beam or from a radioadive
object that could produce fogging of the film with the
resulting loss in contrast sensitivity. This category of r F m mended examinations includes the inspeaion of irradiated
reactor fuel capsules and plates for cracking and swelling, the
determination of highly enriched nuclear fuel distribution in
assemblies, and the inspeaion of weld and braze joints in
irradiated subassemblies.
14.5 D~FerentiafionBerween Isoropes of the Same Elemenl-Neutron anenuation is a function of the particular
isotope rather than the element involved. There are certain
isotopes that have either very high or very low anenuation
and, therefore, are subject to detection by thermal neutron
radiology. For example, lI3Cd is the only isotope of cadmium with a high thermal neutron attenuation. Also, one
can differentiate baween isotopes such as 'H and 'H or 13'U
and ='U.

~ t ior Objects
~ ~ t and
i 13sposurc
~ ~
i\lalerials
15.1 Obj~,c[s-Cenain objccts pl3ctd i n the neutron beam
may be activated, depending upon the incident neutron
energy, intensity and exposurc time, and the material activation cross section and half-life. Therefore, objects under
examination may become radioactive. In extreme cases this
could produce lilm fogging, thereby reducing contrast. Safety
is a nrong consideration; radiation monitoring of objects
should be performed after each exposure. Objects that
exhibit a radiation level too high for handling should be set
aside to allow the radiation to decay to acceptable levelk In
practice, since neutron exposure times are normally short, a
short decay period will usually be satisfactory.
15.2 Casselles-Radiographic cassettes containing materials such as aluminum and steel can become activated,
padcularly on multiple exposures. Monitoring of radiation
to determine safe handling levels can alleviate safety problems and minimize film fogging. Activated cassettes, screens,
and objects should be kept away from unexposed film.
Converted X-radiography cvsettes are virtually worthless for
high-resolution industrial neutron radiography. Vacuum
cassettes should be employed whenever poaible to maintain
the film and convener foil in intimate contact during the
exposure. This holds for both the direct and indirect
methods.
15.3 Coiisersion Screens-Conversion screens used for
direct exposure methods are usually chosen for low activation properties. Conversion meen materials such as
gadolinium, boron, or lithium seldom cause problems.
However, conversion screens for the indirect exposure
method are chosen for high-activation potential. Therefore,
exposed and activated screens such as indium, dysprosium,
rhodium, or gold should be handled with care. Screens
should be handled with gloves or tongs and should be moved
in a shield. High-radiation exposures to the fingers are a
potential hazard. A cassette will shield much of the beti
radiation emitted by the commonly used indirect exposure
converter screens. Conversion screens should normally be
allowed at leas a three half-life decay period before reuse to
prevent double exposures.

15. ~

16. Keywords

16.1 neutron attenuation; neutron collimator; neutron


radiography; neutron sources

XI. .4TTENUATION O F NEUTRONS R\' MATTER


X I . I A major advantage oi using neutrons for radiography is that radiologic observation of certain material cambinations is easily accomplished \\*ith slow neutrons where.
because OFauenuation difkrences. problems will arise with
X rays. For example, the high attenuation of slow neutrons
by elements such as hydrogen, lithium, boron, cadmium.
Thermal Neutron Linear Anenuation Coeniuenls
Using Average Scanering and Thermal Absorption Cross
Sections lor the Naturally Occuning ElementsA

T A B L E X1.l

0 0 5 5 Sedion (barns)'

Eiwoenl
~ l o m i cNO.

symba(

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

H
He

20

Ca

21 '
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Sc
Ti
V

33
34

Ar,

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

8,

Li
Be

a
C
N

0
F
Nc
Na

Mg
Al
Si

P
S
Cl
A
K

Cr
Mn
Fe

M
Nt

Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge

se
Kr

Rb
Sr
Y

Zr
~b

MO
Tc
Ru
~h
PO
Aq

Cd
I"
Sn
Sb

Te
I
Xe
cs

scanenng
38.0
0.8
1.4
6.14
3.6
4.75
10.6
3.76
4 .o
2.42
32
3.42
1.49
2.2
.5.0
0.98
16.0
0.6
1.5
32
24.0
4.0
4.93
3.8
2.1
10.9
6.7
17.3
7.9
42
6.5
7.5
7
10.0
6.1
7.5
6.2
10.1
7.60
6.40
5.0
5.8
5.0
7.5
5.0
5.1
6.2
5.7
2.2
4.0
4.2
5.5
3.6
4.30
7.0

~bwxplian
0.332
0.0
70.7
0.0092
759
0.W3
1.85
0.00
0.010
0.04
0.530
0.053
0230
0.16
0.18
0.52
33.2
0.678
2.10
0.44
26.5
6.1
5.04
3.1
13.3
2.55
37.2
4.43
3.8
1.1
2.9
2.3
4.3
11.7
6.8
25
0.37
1.21
1.28
0.185
1.15
2.7
22.0
2.56
150
6.9
63.6
2450
193.5
0.625
5.4
4.7
6.2
24.5
29.0

lhw Anenualii
hff-'.on-'

9"

9"
335
0.76
99.4
0.535

9as
5 a
5 s
0.095
0.150
0.104
0.122
0.183
0.052
5 s

9az
0.047
0.0849
1.69
0.n
0.702
056
122
1.14
4.W
1.99
0.99
0.35
0.48
0.44
0.52
0.797
027

9"
0.071
0203
0.330
0279
0.341
0.54
demilymknawn
0.723
11.3
0.77
4.10
113.4
7.50
0.171
'0.36
0.30
0.23
gas
0.306

Etnnen~

56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

Ba
La

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94

Conlinucd

Crassna'%

(barnslo

Scatler,n9

No,

85

T A B L E X1.1

Nd
Rn

8.1
9.3
4.7
3.3
160
...

Srn
Eu

8.0

cc
Pr

...

Gd

...

Tb
Oy

20.2
100
9.4
11.0
12.2
25
8
8
6.2

Ho
Er
Tm
Yb

Lu
HI
Ta

Re

0s
Ir
Pl
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb

Bi
PO
At
Rn
Fr
Ra
AC
TI,
Pa

5
11.4
15.2 ( a h )
14
112
9.3
20
9.8
11.4
9

...
...
...
...
...
...

12.7

...

9.0

Np
Pu

...

...

1.2
9.0
0.63
11.5
50.5
60
58W
4600
49 WO
25.5
930
66.5
162
103
38.6
77
102
21
18.5
88
15.3
426
10.0
98.8
375
3.4
0.170
0.033

...

...

...
...

130
510
7.40
15W ( f a )
7.68
9 W (fks'osion)
160 (nrsion)

Linear Anenualcon
Coellicien,, ern-,
0.143
0.49
0.154
0.412
1.68
density unxnown
179
95.3
1497
1.446
36.1
2.43
5.68
3.83
1.50
2.85
5.3
1.5
1.49
6.60
2.17
30.9
1.40
6.39
16.1
0.46
0381
026

..

...

density u n b w n
g=
densityunknawn
1.69
density unkrour.
0.60
W.4
0.788
densify unkwr*
7.96

a Updaled I r a n prevaus edilion v i l h data pimarily fcan BNL 325.3rd ed..\'oJ


1.1973.
OAIl cross.seclbn v a l m arc mas1 p r h k values.

and several rare earths means that these materials can readil!
be shadowed with neutrons even when they are combined ir
a n assembly with some high atomic weight material such a:
steel, lead, bismuth, o r depleted uranium. Although thl
heavy material would make X radiography difficult, neutrol
radiography should yield a succasful inspection. Further, th
diKerences in slou, neutron attenuation ohen found betwec:
neighboring materials in the periodic table offer a n a d \ w
tage for neutron radiologic discrimination between material
that have similar X-ray artenuation characteristics.
X1.2 This advantage is illustrated in Fig. X l . l in whit
the mass attenuation coefficients pJp are plotted as
function of atomic number o f the attenuating element fi
both X rays (about 120 kVp energy) and slow neutron
There are many apparent attenuation differences. T h e
ficient plp is normally used in attenuation calculations in (1
exponential relationship

0
FIG. XI.?

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

ATOMK

100

ABSORPTIO.

NUMBER

Calculated Themal Nwlron and 100 & 500 KEV X-Ray Linear AHenuation Coefficients as a Fundion of Atomic Number

/,lo
= p-~w~e~ox

.=

90

ATOMIC NUMBER
Approximate Mass Anmuation Coeffiaents as a Function of Atomic Number

CALCULATIONS UTILIZED AVERAGE SCATTERING AND 2200 m l s

FIG. X1.2

80

(1)

ere:
ratio of emergent radiation intensity to the intensity
incident on a material,
= linear attenuation coefiicient,
= density, and
= thickness.

X1.3 For neutrons, it is more convenient to have the


relationship between attenuation coellicient and cross seclion, as rollOws:
11=

Po, = 40,

0,)

where:
P = number of nuclei per cm3 o i attenuating material,

(2)

I.,

a,""

-1,.

01NI.'10".1WI

*.".I_
m,."l*F,,,,.WUI.U."rEIn
.,'1II1*",ru.c+tr.ic.u.
c0,,w,,0 UYO( ,*IU",.OII,LO*I*,rn'",
r.. ' C . C l U 1 . 3 .
*I1CILi(

@
'. ' "

".,lxtl"C.

.",U'"*<rn"'<".".

FIG. X1.3

..Y,m*UOnUI..",$.

<,I

I,,"

.#.n"rn.'"olwi<lr8w, lo 0I.tDl.Oi.
M U ~.0,,"0,^U
"A,?"

*.".L

U u U l l .

"Uannr.l~l*;i

,mu,-

Half-Value Layers of Selecled Materials fat Thermal Neutrons

Courtesy ol Aeroresl Operations. Inc.

a, = total

cross section (cm'), equal to the sum ofabsorption


and scattering moss sections (a, = a%),and
p = the linear attenuation coefficient (cm-I).
A tabular listing of linear attenuation coefficients is shown in
Table X1.I and a comparative plat is given in Fig Xl.2. The
data presented in fig. XI .3 give half-value-layer thicknesses
for thermal neutrons for many materials.

XI .4 In radiologic situations, radiation that is transmitted


through the object being examined is recorded so that those
areas in which radiation has been removed, either by
absorption or by scattering, may be observed. Equations (I )
and (2) are valuable in assessing the relative change in
transmitred radiation intensity for several materials and
thicknesses within an object of interest.

X2. CALCULATION O F T H E LINEAR ATTENUATION C0EI:FICIENT O F A COMPOUND


X2.1 Ifthe material under examination contains only one
element, then the linear attenuation coefticient is as follo\vs:
fl = P -

A'o
A

where:
p = linear auenuation coefficient, cm-I,
p = material density, grn.cm-',
N = Avogadro's number = 6.023 x 10'' a1oms.g-mol-'.
a = total cross section, cm', and
A = gram atomic weight of material.
X2.2 If on the other hand, the material under cxarnination contains se\ceral elements, or is in the form o i a
compound, then the linear attenuation coefficient is as
iollows:

where:

)1

= linear attenuation coefficient of the compound, cm-'.

= compound density, g.cm-',


A' = Avogadro's number = 6.023 X LO2' atoms.g-mol-'.
A4 = g n m molecular weight of the compound,
u , = number of absorbin2
.atoms of ith kind uer compound
molecule. and
a , = total cross section of the ith atom, cm'.
X2.3 As an esample. consider the calculation of the linear
attenuation coeflicicnt. p. for the compound polyethylene
Cliz:
p

where:
p = 0.9 l g.crn-'.
N = 6.023 x 10" atonis,g-mol-I,
A4 = 14.0268 g.

Lecture Guide: UT Basic Principles


INTRODUCTION
Ultrasonic testing

- introduces high frequency sound waves into test object


- to obtain information about object
- measures two quantities

- time for sound to travel


- amplitude of received signal
Primary Applications

- Thickness measurement

- Discontinuity detection
- Material properties
Ultrasonic Signal Terminology

Indication: displayed s i p d

- Reflector: source of an echo


- Discontinuity: interruption of the test materid
- Defect: unacceptable discontinuity

Advantages and Limitations

Advantages

- deep penetration
- portable equipment

- pulse echo testing requires access to only one side of test object
- accurate for thickness measurement and discontinuity location
- permits volumehic examination
- suitable for go / no-go testing: audio and visual alarms
- no known hazards

Limitations

- test object must be able to conduct sound


- liquid couplant is required

- need a nained operator


- dead zone: discontinuities just beneath surface may not be detectable

SOUND

Sound is the passage of mechanical energy, in the form of vibrations, through a


medium
The medium provides two properties required for vibration to occur

- Mass:

matter that the energy can move

- Elasticity: restoring force

Sound can propagate in all three states of matter

- solids
- liquids

- gases

Ability to propagate depends upon:

- type of sound wave


- material composition

- sonic wavelength

GENERATION OF SOUND

.
.
.

Transducer (often called a search unit or probe)

A device which converts energy from one form to another

An ultrasonic transducer is the link between the instrument and the test object
Operates on piezoelecnic principle

- piezoelecDic crystals develop a voltage when subjected to mechanical

pressure (i.e., when deformed)

piezoelectric process will operate in reverse

- piezoelectric crystals change shape (and be caused to vibrate) when a


voltage is applied to them

Transducer assembly (contact type)

- crystal element: thickness determines frequency of vibration


- elemcdes: establish electrical contact with the crystal
- frontal member

- Contact transducers: wear plate provides protective contact surface


- damping block: controls crystal ringing; absorbs rear sound waves

Damping
Block

!;:
>;

i/i

i
$

ii

I
Electrodes

Wear
Plate

Types of Transducers

- straight beam: introduces sound perpendicular to the test surfaces

- single crystal: for testing thicker materials

- dual crystal: for testing thinner materials


- especially thickness gauging of corroded and eroded materials

- delay line: high resolution for near surface flaw detection, plus thickness
gauging on thin materials
-paintbrush: long, rectangular active area, usually made from a "mosaic" of
crystals, for rapid scanning of large surfaces

- angle beam: introduces sound at an angle to the test surface

- immersion: for use in a liquid environment


- focused: concave surface

The Test Sequence

- instrument's timebase (sweep generator) initiates time/distance display


- insmment's pulser emits initial pulse

- to activate transducer, sending sound into test object


- initial pulse appears on display
- sound travels through test object
- sound reflects from material boundaries and discontinuities

- these reflections strike transducer, are converted into electrical signals


and displayed

TimelDistance Relationships

- sound travels at different speeds in different materials


-

speed of sound is constant in a given material

- ~hereforcwe can measure distance by measuring sound travel time


roo i
90

............3..................................
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70

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.... ..".'"............:..............:i..............:..-.........i.............i'."........ ........:.............. ...........:
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20 i... ..........i..............'..............:.............. ...... .............! ............:............ ..... :..............:
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I I ~ I ~ ~ I I I ~ I I I I ~ I I I I ~

Delay a n d range controls

- provide time base adjustment

- DELAY control horizontally shifts reflections without altering space


between them

- RANGE control expands or contracts space between reflections

Echo Amplitude/Signal Height Relationship

Echo amplitude determines height of the echo signal on the display

Gain control provides amplitude adjustment

Wavelength and Its Elements

Properties of sound waves include:

- velocity
- frequency

- wavelength
Velocity is defined as the speed of sound

- i.e., distance mveled per unit time


- velocity depends on:
- density and elasticity of test material

- wave mode (shear, longitudinal, surface, etc.)


- material temperature

Frequency is the rate of vibration

- i.e., the number of complete waves that pass a given point in one second
- a wave is generated from one full cycle of transducer vibration
- frequency depends on the number of cycles per second
- frequency units
- Hertz (Hz): cycles per second

- Kilohertz (KHz): thousands of cycles per second


- Megahertz (MHz):millions of cycles per second
Importmt frequency ranges

- audible (human hearing) range: 20 to 20,WO Hertz

- ultrasound: above 20,000 Hertz


- commercial testing range: lOOICHz to 25 MHz+
a sound wave is sonic vibration in motion

- apuise or wave wain is a series of sound waves

- defrned as the distance from one point on a wave train to


the next identical point

- also defined as the distance sound travels within the duration of one complete
cycle

Wavelength (mm) = Velocitv (kmlsecl


Frequency (MHz)

IV.

REFLECTION PRINCIPLES

Sound reflects when it strikes an acoustic interface

An echo is a reflection from an acoustic interface

An acoustic interface is the boundary between two materials of different acoustic


impedance

Acoustic impehnce is the opposition that a material offers to the passage of sound

Acoustic impedance =Velocity x Density (2 =V x r)

.
.

The greater the acoustic impedance difference, the greater the percentage of
reflection
Echo performance also affected by size, shape, orientation, and texture and
thickness of reflector
Sound can be absorbed and scattered as it mvels b u g h a given material

- because the material's structure may include grain boundaries, porosity,


or impurities

V.

MAJOR TEST VARIABLES

Basic Test Method

Coupling Technique

Wave Travel Mode

Sound Travel Geometry

Data Presentation Method

Basic Test Method

Thru-transmissiontechnique

- sound is transmitted in one direction thru object

- Received at the other end of the object


- Test sample compared with reference sample
- Reduced amplitude indicates interruption of sound travel
-Display shows amplitude of received signal

- Requires fucturing of transducers


- Requires access to both sides of test object
- Does not provide individual echo signals for each reflector

Pulse-cclm technique

Test object information provided by reflected sound energy

- Individual echo signal for each reflector


- Displayed Information: echoes reflected from acoustic interfaces

Resonance tests were used for thickness measurements

- Resonance occurs when material thickness equals 112 of wavelength


- has been replaced by pulse-echo method

Coupling

Liquid couplant is needed to exclude air and act as medium for hansmitting
ultrasound into test material because:

- high reflectivity due to impedance mismatch at air interfaces


- wavelength is too short in air at the high frequencies used for testing

Couplant considerations:
-Wetting ability

- Viscosity
- Should not damage test material
- Ease of removal

Typical couplants:
-water

- oil
- cellulose and water mixture

- grease

Contact testing technique: couplant is applied to test surface

- Advantages of contact testing

- portability
-allows the transducer to be moved by hand over complex part geometries

- requires a lower initial investment in equipment

SEARCH

IBI

COUPLANT

TEST

Immersion testing technique: transducer and test object are immersed in water

- the water usually contains additives (wetiing agent,


anti-fungicide, etc.)

- Advantages of immersion

- uniform coupling

- high speed testing

- recording of test results

- virtually immune to transducer wear caused by abrasion


- allows use of higher frequency transducers

- abiity to angulate transducer

- ability to use focused transducers

precise control over transducer movement

Surface Condition

smooth surface is preferred

- rough entry surface scatters the sound, reducing test sensitivity

Wave Motion

Sound waves travel through a material by displacing tiny particles (molecules) in


the material

Various wave modes

- longitudinal, shear, surface, plate

Wave rZ1odesare defined by particle movement in relation to direction of navel

Longitudinal waves

- also known as compressional waves

- particle motion parallel to wave travel

- alternating zones of compression (high particle density)


and rarefaction (low particle density)

- travel in solids, liquids, and gases

- highest velocity wave mode

Transverse waves

- also known as shear waves

- particle motion perpendicular to wave travel

- alternating zones of peaks (upward particle displacement)


and troughs (downward particle displacement)

- travel in solids only

- approximately h q the velocity of longitudinal waves

Rayleigh waves

- also known as surface waves

- travel across material surface

-velocity is 90 percent of shear waves

-penetrates to approximately one wave length

Plate waves

- propagation occurs only in thin sheet materials

- when material thickness is less than three wavelengths


- two modes; symmetrical and asyinmebical

1-25

Sound Travel Geometry

Maximum sound reflection is obtained when sound beam is perpendicular to


reflecting surface

- discontinuity pardel to the sound enhy surface: straight beam transducer

- discontinuity obliquely oriented to the test surface:

/
1

angle beam transducer

Display presentation techniques

- A-scan
- horizontal scale: distance I time

vertical scale: echo amplitude I transducer output voltage

- B-scan; side view of test object: profile of interfaces reflecting sound


beam

- C-scan: plan(top) view through test object

VI.

TEST INSTRUMENTS

Introduction

- Ultrasonic test instruments are comparirors

- Therefore ultrasonic instruments must be calibrated prior to use

Ultrasonic Instrument Functions

Clock Circuit (Timer, Synchronizer)

- Clock initiates the chain of events that results in one complete cycle of an
ultrasonic test

- Clock sends mgger signal, at regular intervals, to sweep generator and


pulser

- Trigger signal is repeated at a given frequency, called pulse repetition rate

-When repetition rate is too fast, wraparound (display of echoes from


previous test cycles) occurs

Display:

Conventional Cathode Ray Tube

- Provides a visual display of test signals

- Contains an electron gun which generates a narrow beam of elections


directed toward front of tube

Sweep generator

- generates a display of sound travel time on the horizontal scale


- for distance readout

- RANGE control adjusts horizontal scale for desiml distance range

- scale will be valid for a given sound velocity only

- horizontal display is adapted for different material velocities using a


M A T E W VE%ClTY contml

Pulser

- Emits electrical signal which activates transducer


- Called initial pulse or main bang

- Duration of transducer ringing determines the length of the dead zone


- Dead zone is the depth range in test material from which no indications can
be displayed

- DAMPING and/or PULSE ENERGY

adjust initial pulse

Receiver

- Receiver circuit processes and amplifies signals enroute to CRT


-Processing is provided by detector and filter subcircuits

- Filtering is a cosmetic change to the signal that removes test information


- Videoflters smooth out pulse cycle information
- Frequency

filter selects of either narrow band or broad band display .

- Narrow band display provides an improved signal to noise ratio


.

- improves test sensitivity


- Broad band display is for high resolution testing

Amplifier

- A subcircuit in the receiver circuit


- Multiples the voltages of signals
- Controlled by GAIN control

- Gain controls are calibrated in decibels (dB)


-Decibel values are logarithmic

- To estimate discontinuity size


- determine difference in echo amplitude between discontinuity signal and
reference signal, with use of a calibrated gain control
-REJECT control adjusts the amplifier's input sensitivity

- prevents the display of undesired low amplitude signals


- for example: grass or hash (metal noise signals such as echoes
from material grain boundaries or inherent fine porosity)

VIII. REFLECTORS IN THE SOUND BEAM

Sound Beam Geometry

- The sound beam consists of a near field (Fresnel zone)


and a far field (Fmunhofer zone)

- The end of the near field (and the beginnjmg of the far field) is called the

- Point sources: Sound originates on the crystal surface as a number of


individual point sources radiating spherical waves

- As the waves progress outward from the transducer, they interfere with
each other

- the interference in the near field causes varying wave amplitudes


- therefore, it is difficult to estimate reflector size in the near field

- at the yo point, waves combine into a single spherical wave front

- far field: predictable decrease in sound pressure as distance from the


transducer increases

- therefore, reflector size can be estimated in the far field

Laws of Distance

- Infinite reflectors
-- intercepts the entire sound bearn

- Small reflectors
- intercept only a portion of the sound bearn

Material Loss Attenuation

- amplitude losses caused by the structure of the test material


- scattering of sound by coarse grain structure or fine porosity

- conversion of sound into heat by absorption

- Distance Am~litudeCorrection IDAC) curve techniaue: a curve showing


amplitude versus distance for a given reflector is manually or electronically plotted
on the CRT screen

- Electronic distance am~litudecompensation techniaue: the test i n s m e n t varies


gain as a function of distance so that a given reflector exhibits the same displayed
amplitude at all distances

- Test block technique: reflectors in test objects are compared to machined


reflectors in standardized test blocks

-Test block (ASTh4 Block) specifications

- Area Amplitude Blocks Set (Alcoa A)


- 8 blocks
- 314 deep flat-bottomed hole in each block
- labeled #1- #8 for 64th~of an inch hole diameter
- used to check test system linearity

- Distance Amplitude Blocks Set (Alcoa B)


- 19 blocks
- 314 deep flat-bottomed hole in each block
- lengths vary to provide metal paths of 1/16" - 5-314" from
test surface to hole interface
- used to evaluate discontinuities, set sensitivity, set DAC
- Basic Blocks Set
- 10 blocks, each 2" in diameter
- combination of portions of area amplitude and distance amplitude block sets

TEST PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

a Penerratiorl: the ability to pass through a material interface of a given


size (e.g., grain boundaries and inherent porosity). Penetration improves
by decreasing test frequency.

b. sensitivity: the ability of the test system to display small reflectors, to


display a given size reflector of a given distance along the sound beam axis.
Sensitivity depends primarily on five factors:
(1)

Beamspread: As beamspread is decreased, more sound


pressure per unit area strikes a reflector, thus increasing echo
amplitude. Beamspread is decreased by increasing
transducer area and/or increasing frequency.

(2)

Near Field Len&: As near field length varies, the position

of a reflector relative to the yo point likewise varies.


Sensitivity is optimized when the reflector is positioned near
the beginning of the far field.
(3)

Freauencv Bandwidth: As bandwidth is decreased,


sensitivity increases. Bandwidth i s decreased by decreasing
transducer damping.

(4)

Transducer Crvstal Material: Piezoelectric crystal materials


vary in their efficiency as both transmitters and receivers of
sound.

(5)

Test Svstem Simal to Noise Ratio: Signal/Noise Ratio


depends on a number of factors such as penetration and test
instrument design.

c. Resolun'on: the abiity of the test system to individually display


reflectors located at slightly different depths along the sound beam.
Resolution depends primarily on Frequency Bandwidth. As bandwidth is
increased resolution increases.

XI.

ANGLE BEAM THEORY

Straight beam transducers are only effective for detecting flaws parallel to the test surface

Angle beams are required for detecting flaws obliquely oriented to the test surface
Angle beams are produced in the test material using the principle of refraction
Refraction is the bending of a sound beam when it passes through an interface between two
materials of different velocity

In contact angle beam testing, the transducer crystal element is mounted on an


angle wedge to produce refraction

In immersion angle beam testing, the transducer is "an,dated" to produce refraction

Angle Beam Transducer Assembly

1-44

Sound beam approaching interface is called incident beam

Sound beam is reflected at the interface

Angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence

Mode Conversion

- occurs when a sound beam is incident to an interface at an angle other than


90 degrees
- A pomon of incident beam's energy converts at the interface to a h a m of
the opposite wave mode

- reflects at an angle other than the angle of incidence

:Mode Converted

Refraction

- When a sound beam passes at an angle other than perpendicular to the interface,
between two materials of different acoustic velocity, a change in beam direction
called refraction occurs

:Mode Converted

Shear Beam

Snell's Law defines the relationships between incident and refracted sound beams:
Sjn (Incident) Sin (Refracted)

Velocity (Incident)
Velocity (Refracted)

Critical Angles

- Thefirst critical angle is the incident a n p l ~that causes the refracted


longitudinal wave to be refracted 90 degrees

: Mode Converted
: Beam

- The second critical angle is the incident angle that causes the refracted
shear wave to be refracted 90 degrees

I Mode Converted

: Surface Waves

- A surface wave starts to develop at the second critical angle

Lecture Guide: ET Basic Principles

Overview
Summarv of the Eddy Current Test Process

An alternating current generator applies an alternating voltage


to a coil, causing ac current to flow through the coil.

The current flow in the coil causes an alternating magnetic


field to develop around the coil.

When the coil is brought near to an electrically conductive


test object, the alternating magnetic field develops circulating
electrical currents in that object.

The current flow provides test information that can be


displayed and interpreted.

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr bsociates, Inc.

Maior aoulication areas


-

In-service inspection of tubing at nuclear and fossil fuel power


utilities, at petrochemical plants, on nuclear submarines and in
air conditioning systems

Inspection of aircraft structures and engines

Production testing of tubing, pipe, wire, rod, and bar stock


Eddy current applications result from sensitivity to several
variables:
Conductivity variations
Presence of surface and subsurface discontinuities
distance)
Spacing between test coil and test material (18-08
Material thickness
Thickness of plating or cladding on a base metal
Spacing between conductive layers
Permeability variations

Copyright 1993 HeUier Associntes, Lnc.

Advantages and Limitations

The advantases are:

1.

Sensitive to numerous material variables

2.

Much of the equipment is portable, lightweight, and battery


powered.

3.

The method is virtually nondestructive


-

4.

Test results are usually instantaneous

5.

No couplants, powders, or other physical substances are


link
applied to test material; aaugnetic field is the only&t4y.eencoiLaud_t.esf.naterial

Exception: computer analysis of recorded multi-channel test


data

Ideal for "go/no-go" testing


-

Audible and visual alarms available for high speed testing

Alarms triggered by threshold gates or box gates

6.

No known safety hazards

7.

Material preparation is usually unnecessary; cleanup is not required

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associates. Inc.

The limitations are:


1.

Sensitive to numerous material variables

2.

Test material must be electrically


.
conductive
-,*-

But it is possible to measure thickness of nonconductive


coatings on conducting materials

' d)(i
f l

4
-

,,

3.

Eddy currents normally cannot penetrate ferromagnetic materials


Consequently, testing on ferromagnetics is limited to surface
defects only

unless material has been magnetically saturated using


direct current field coils

Magnetic saturation limited to certain test geometries only

4.

Likely demagnetization after testing is completed.

Limited penetration even on nonferromagnetic materials

5.

Penetration limited to fractions of an inch in most


materials.

Requires a trained, skilled, experienced operator

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associntcs. Inc.

Magnetism
A magnet's force field can be visualized as a number of closed loops
-

The magnetic loops are called lines of force orflux lines

the lines of force flow from the north to the south pole around the
outside of a magnet; and from the south to the north pole within the
magnet

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Ass?ciatrs. Inc.

Field intensity depends on flux density

Flux density is the number of flux lines per unit area perpendicular
to direction of flow

Gauss is the unit of measure for flux density

One gauss is one line of force per square centimeter

Flux density is greatest within the core of a magnet and at the poles

Flux..density.decreases with distance from the magnet according to


the inverse square law
i.e. flux density is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance from the poles of the magnet

Flux Field

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

Electromagnetic Principles
The Induction Process
1.

An alternating current generator applies alternating voltage to a coil


circuit. A portion of this voltage, (VR), is applied across the
resistance of the coil wire.

2.

(VR), causes a current (Ip) to flow through the coil.

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associates. Inc.

3.

Electromagnetism occurs.
-

3.

The alternating current flowing through the coil causes an


alternating magnetic field (CDp) to develop around the coil.

Self induction occurs.

The coil's alternating magnetic field induces a back voltage


(VL) into the coil.

According to Faraday's Law, the quantity of induced voltage is


proportional to the rate of flux variation.

Since the flux is varying the most through 00,1800, and 3600;
and varying the least through 900 and 1800, the back voltage is
900 out of phase with the coil current and flux.

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

4.

Inductive Reactance occurs.

Since the back voltage is 900 out of phase with the coil current,
it will oppose changes in the coil current.

Since amplitude change is the very nature of alternating


current flow, opposition to change in AC is effectively
opposition to flow of AC.

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associntcs. Inc.

5.

If a secondary circuit is placed in proximity to the primary, a voltage will


be induced into it, current will flow through it, and an aItemating magnetic
field will develop around it.

Lenz's Law will take effect: the direction of current flow in


the secondary will be opposite in direction to current flow in
the primary.

In addition, the polarity of the secondary flux will be opposite


to the polarity of the primary f l u .

' Copyright 1993 Hellicr Assacintcs. Inc.

6.

Due to Lenz's Law, the secondary flux will be opposite in polarity to the
primary flux.

the secondary flux will therefore cancel some of the primary flux.

this reduces the amplitude of peak primary flux

which reduces the rate of variation of primary flux

less variation of primary flux results in reduced back voltage

which results in a reduction of inductive reactance

when the coil is moved toward a more conductive portion of the test
material test coil inductive reactance decreases

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc

Summarv of Induction Process Terminology

Electromagnetism

electric current flowing thr~ugh-g~~~&~u_ctor


causes a magnetic
f a d to develop around that conductor, .-perpendicular
to i F
-_-_A

A more concentrated magnetic field can be obtained by


winding the conductor into a coil

Rux density decreases with distance from a magnet according


to the inverse square law

Electromagnetic induction (Faraday's Law)

Self Induction

relative motion between a magnetic field and conductor causes


an electrical current flow in that conductor

Relative motion between an AC magnetic field and the


conductor developing that field induces a voltage into that
conductor

Back Voltage (Back EMF)

The voltage induced as the result of self induction

Because it is induced 90 degrees out of phase with the coil


current, back voltage will oppose changes in the coil current

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associntcs. Inc.

Inductive Reactance

The opposition to change in alternating current flow caused by


back voltage

Since amplitude change is the very nature of alternating


current flow, opposition to change in AC is effectively
opposition to flow of AC

Inductive reactance depends on coil design and test frequency

When more flux lines cut across more coil turns per unit time,
inductive reactance increases

Hence, the formula:

X ~ = 2 n f L

Lenz's Law
the direction of an induced current will be such that its own
magnetic field will o
d the induced
current

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

Eddy Current Test Process

Circulating electrical currents induced in an isolated, electrically


conductive object by an alternating magnetic field

In contrast to electricity conducted along the length of a wire, the


electricity generated by the test coil's lines of force has a circular
eddy-like pattern

Seauence of Events During an Eddv Current Test


The test instrument and coil assembly function together, so that:
1.

The test instrument's AC generator applies alternating voltage to the


test coil, causing an alternating current to flow through the coil

The frequency of the eddy currents alternating in the test material depends on the
test instrument's ac frequency generator

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

2.

The current in the coil develops a magnetic field around the coil (the
primary flux)

the primary flux induces a back voltage into the coil, causing
inductive reactance

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associntcs, Inc.

3.

The primary flux also induces a voltage into the test material,
causing eddy currents to circulate

Copyighr 1993 Hcllicr Associntes. Inc.

5.

The eddy currents generate a magnetic field of their own (called the
secondary flux)

- which reacts with the primary field that the coil is generating

test material conditions (defects, conductivity changes, thickness


changes) affect the flow of eddy currents

changes in the flow of eddy currents cause changes in the secondary


field

changes in the secondary field cause changes in the impedance of the


coil

4.

Changes in the impedance of the coil cause a change in the indication


on the display (test output).

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associates. Inc.

Eddy Current Characteristics


*

Flow Patterns

They flow in closed loops

They flow in concentric circular paths


parallel to the turns of the coil
perpendicular to the coil's flux

orientation of eddy current flow in the test material therefore


depends upon the orientation of coil flux to the test material
which, in turn, depends on the orientation of the turns of the
coil to the test material
orientation of the coil's turns and, thus, eddy current
distribution are determined by the coil's configuration

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

Eddy current flow is least disturbed by discontinuities oriented


parallel to their flow paths

Most disturbed by discontinuities oriented perpendicular to their


flow paths

In their attempt to flow in unbroken loops, eddy currents follow the


path of least resistance around nonconducting obstacles

Copyiight 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

eddy currents behave like compressible fluids


the flow paths are circular as long as the eddy currents are
undisturbed by nonconducting material boundaries and
discontinuities
the flow paths will distort and compress to accommodate
intrusion of theiqflow

The direction of travel continually alternates between clockwise and


counter-clockwise movement

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associatcs. Inc.

Skin Effect
-

-.

Eddy currents are subject to skin effect


current density is maximum at the material surface and
decreases rapidly (exponentially) with depth
standard depth of penetration (6) is the material depth at which
current density decreases to 36.8% of surface current density

skin depth refers to the layer of material thickness extending


from the surface to the standard depth of penetration
the skin depth formula applies to thick materials only (t > 56)

Phase Lag
Eddy currents experience a linear phase lag with depth
as depth increases, eddy current activity is progressively
delayed
phase lag in the test material proceeds at the rate of one radian
(57.3") per standard depth of penetration

Test Output

During an eddy current test, a primary circuit (the test coil) induces
eddy currents into a secondary circuit (the test material)

The test material behaves the same as a single turn secondary coil

Variations in the test material change the test coil's inductive


reactance and effective resistance, producing indications on the
instrument display

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associntcs. Inc.

21

Note the use of the term effective resistance


the resistance of the coil's wire does not change
however, the eddy currents circulating in the test material
cause friction and dissipate a part of their energy as heat
thus the secondary acts as a load on the primary, causing a
resistance change on the display

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associ;ltes. Inc.

Impedance

When resistance and inductive reactance are combined they produce


a quantity called impedance

Impedance amplitude is the magnitude of the vector


"* .,-sum of inductive
.reactance andFsl3Eice

impedance amplitude is the coil's total opposition to current


flow
as inductive reactance and/or resistance increases, impedance
amplitude increases

Impedance phase angle is the proportional relationship


between inductive reactance a n d resistance

as inductive reactance increases relative to resistance,


impedance phase angle increases
as resistance increases relative to inductive reactance,
impedance phase angle decreases

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associntcr. Inc.

With most eddy current instruments, the coil assembly is connected


to the instrument via a bridge circuit

at the start of the test, the instrument operator balances the


bridge to provide a reference signal
during testing, the display provides a readout of bridge
imbalance caused by interaction of the coil with the test
material
-

When an instrument is balanced during test setup, it is balanced for


impedance values at a particular point on the impedance plane

the balance point serves as a display reference during testing

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associates. hc.

Impedance Plane Display


-

The impedance plane is a graphic plot of values present in the test


coil

The total voltage affecting coil current consists of two components


voltage across the coil's resistance
induced back voltage that causes inductive reactance.

The voltage across the coil's resistance is in phase with the current

The induced back voltage is 90 degrees out of phase with the current

A graph of these two voltages would therefore place them on axes


that are 90 degrees opposed

Likewise, a plot of the impedance components associated with these


voltages, inductive reactance and resistance, would require axes that
are 90 degrees opposed
-

Resistance values are shown on the X axis

Inductive reactance values on the Y axis

Such a plot is called an impedance plane and is used for displaying


eddy current test data.

Impedance plane display instruments present both impedance


amplitude and phase angle simultaneously on a CRT screen

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associalcs. Inc

Signal Analysis

Test information on an impedance plane instrument is interpreted by


observing the movement of the display dot on a cathode ray tube
screen while the test coil interacts with the test material

Each type of condition that an eddy current test can detect is


characterized by a certain pattern of display dot movement

Test variables are arranged along curves or "loci" on the impedance


plane

Generally, there are separate curves for each variable

Distribution of information on the impedance plane can be altered by


changing test frequency

Redistribution of information on the impedance plane by adjustment


of frequency is a key technique in optimizing test performance

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associalcs. Inc.

Lift-Off Curves

The zero conductivity point, also called the coil in air or empty coil
point is typically located at a position of low resistance, but high
inductive reactance

Resi s t a n c e

This is the impedance point for a coil whose flux is not near any
conductive material

Copyright 1993 Hcilier Associatrr. Inc.

As a coil is moved toward a conductor, secondary flux changes the


coil's impedance and the display dot moves

Res i s t a n c e

The position where movement terminates depends on the


conductivity of the test material

Copyright 1993 Hellier Asxrciatcs. Inc.

The more conductive the test material, the greater the cancellation of
primary flux

Thus, the greater the drop in inductive reactance, the further


downward the display dot moves

In addition, since the coil and test material are mutually coupled, the
test material acts as a load on the coil and the effective resistance of
the coil changes

The movement of the display dot is therefore a combination of


variations in both inductive reactance and effective resistance.

I
Resistance

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

Conductivity Curve

The conductivity curve originates at the zero conductivity point and


terminates at the infinite conductivity point

counterclockwise extreme represents zero conductivity


clockwise extreme represents infinite conductivity
sometimes called the comma curve because of its shape

Copyright 1993 HcUier Associntes. Inc.

Different positions along this curve represent nonferromagnetic


materials of different conductivities
whose thicknesses are infinite relative to electromagnetic
penetration
i.e., the flux lines entering the material, as well as the eddy
currents that they generate are not touching the bottom surface
of the material

d
U

Rir Point

t
i
v
8

R
8

a
C

t
a

Resistance

Capyight 1993 Hcllicr Associatcs. Inc.

As frequency is increased, the impedance points for the various


conductivities move clockwise along the curve

Thus, as frequency is increased, the lower conductivity materials


spread apart along the curve while the higher conductivity materials
become compressed at the bottom end of the curve

Higher frequencies provide greater separation fdr conductivity tests


on lower conductivity materials

Copyright 1993 HeUicr Associntes. Inc.

As test frequency is decreased, the impedance points for the various


conductivities move counter-clockwise along the curve

$
U

R i r Point

t
I

R
e
a
C

t
a
n
C

Resistance

And, as frequency is decreased, the higher conductivity materials


spread apart while the lower conductivity materials become
compressed at the top end of the curve

Lower frequencies provide greater separation for conductivity tests


on higher conductivity materials

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associntes. Inc.

Frequency adjustment also helps separate the lift-off and conductivity


variables
At low frequencies, lift-off curves for low conductivity materials are
almost parallel to the conductivity curve
As frequency is increased, the operating point moves clockwise along
the coaductivity curve, increasing the angle between the lift-off
curve and conductivity curve

Maximum separation is achieved at the so-called "knee" of the


conductivity curve, where the lift-off curve approaches it almost
perpendicularly

Coil Diameter

Increases in coil diameter move the display dot clockwise on the


conductivity curve

Decreases in coil diameter move the display dot counter-clockwise


on the conductivity curve

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associarcs. Inc.

Thickness Curves
-

As stated above, the conductivity curve consists of impedance points


for materials whose thicknesses are infinite, relative to
electromagnetic penetration

At lesser thicknesses, eddy current flow in the material becomes


restricted and the impedance point spirals away from the
conductivity curve

As thickness.approaches.zero, the impedance point approaches the


zero conductivity point

One standard depth of penetration is approximately located on


thickness curves at a point slightly to the right of initial intersection
with the conductivity curve

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

Frequency adjustment is again available to optimize performance

As frequency is decreased, material penetration increases, but


thickness resolution on thinner materials decreases

As frequency is increased, material penetration decreases, but


thickness resolution on thinner materials increases

L"r=

.
- .,

Resistance

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associntcs. Inc.

Discontinuitv Signal Displav

A discontinuity causes an interruption of current flow

The magnitude of an eddy current discontinuity signal depends on


the quantity of interrupted current flow

Eddy current density decreases exponentially with depth

Discontinuity volume, shape, and position all affect signal


magnitude

The depth of the disturbance, however, causes a linear phase lag of


the signal

Copydghl 1993 Hellier Associntcs. Inc.

Test Variables
a

Test Performance Parameters

Eddy current test performance is generally defined by the following


criteria:
Sensitivitv: The minimum size of discontinuity that can be
displayed from a given material depth
Penetration: The maximum depth from which a useful signal can
be displayed for a particular application
Resolution: The degree to which separation between signals can be
displayed

Copyright 1993 Hellicr Associnm, Inc.

Control of Test Performance

Test performance is primarily influenced by conductivity,


permeability, frequency, and coil design

In that only test frequency and coiI design are selectable, these two
are the primary controls over test performance

Conductivitv: The greater the conductivity of the test material, the


greater the sensitivity to surface discontinuities, but the less the
penetration of eddy currents into the material
Explanation:
As the coil's flux field expands, voltage is induced first
on the surface and then at increasing depths in the test
material

In high conductivity materials, a considerable eddy


current flow and thus a strong secondary flux field is
developed at the surface
This results in a substantial cancellation of primary flux
Because the primary flux has been greatly weakened,
less primary flux is available to develop eddy currents at
greater depth

Permeability: As material permeability increases, signals


resulting from permeability variations increasingly mask eddy
current signal variations
this effect becomes more pronounced with increased depth
permeability thus limits effective penetration of eddy currents

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

Freauencv: As test frequency is increased, sensitivity to surface


discontinuities is increased, permitting increasingly smaller surface
discontinuities to be detected
as frequency is decreased, material penetration is increased
the test frequency for obtaining standard depth penetration in.a
given material can be estimated from a Penetration Chart
because of the number of variables affecting eddy current
behavior, standard depth should only be used as a starting
point
the optimum frequency is best determined by experimentation

Coil Desi~n: Penetration and sensitivity are affected by coil


geometry
penetration: larger coils produce flux fields that extend
further in both the lateral and depth dimensions.
Rule of thumb: eddy current penetration is limited
to coil diameter
sensitivity: since a small surface defect would cause a
proportionally greater disturbance in the field of a smaller
coil, smaller coils are preferred for detection and localization
of small surface defects
Rule of thumb: coil diameter should not exceed the length of
he discontinuity that is to be detected

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associarcs, Inc.

TEST MATERIAL VARIABLES

Response of the test system to the test material can be classified


according to three types of test material variable:
J I. Conductivity

2. Geometry
J

3. Permeability
!
,

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

Conductivitv

Conductivity is the ease with which electrons pass ihrough a given


material
Conductivity depends on relative ability of a material's atoms to
allow electron flow
Each metal is assigned a conductivity value on a scale called the
International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS)
G
.
.
:
:,.:.>,,,zd..

:,-:
.::;.<

;
~L-

According to the IACS, conductivity values


- are rated in percent,
with the conductivity of pure copper being 100%

Factors causing conductivity variations include:


1.

Variations in chemical comoosition: The various metallic


elements and alloys can be sorted as long as none of the
materials has overlapping conductivities

2.

Mechanical processing: Cold working affects lattice structure,


causing minor conductivity changes

3.

Thermal processing: Heat treatment causes hardness changes


that are detectable as conductivity variations

4.

Unrelieved residual stresses cause unpredictable conductivity


variations. Thus. it is a undesirable variable

- 5.
6.

Variations in thickness of plating or cladding are a


combination of both conductivity and geometric variables
Material temperature: As material temperature increases,
conductivity decreases
an undesirable variable
-

Variations in temperature can be caused by


environment, materials processing, and eddy currents
themselves

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc

Geometry

Geometric variables result from restriction of eddy current flow due


to differences in distance or size:

1.

Material thickness can be measured because changes in


thickness affect eddy current flow.in the.test material
As the material becomes thinner, eddy current flow becomes
restricted
Eddy current density is greatest at the material surface and
decreases exponentially with depth (skin effect)
Eddy current sensitivity to thickness variations also decreases
with depth
Recall that at standard depth of penetration eddy current
density decreases to 36.8% of surface density
Optimum performance is obtained up to this depth

2.

Material discontinuities cause indications to the extent that


discontinuity dimensions and depth disturb eddy current flow
discontinuities whose major dimensions are perpendicular to
eddy current flow paths and which are located near the test
surface will provide the strongest indications, since eddy
currents attain peak amplitude progressively later with depth

Copyright 1993 Hellier Aswcintcs. Inc.

3.

Material boundaries. Restriction of current flow called "edge


effect" occurs when an eddy current surface coil approaches
the end of a plate

a current flow restriction called "end effect" occurs when an


encircling or internal coil approaches the end of a tube or pipe
Both effects produce strong signals
The effects are intensified by the wider eddy current fields
developed by large diameter coils and lower test frequencies.
Smaller diameter coils reduces edge effect; use of shielded
coils virtually eliminates it
When a surface coil is drawn perpendicularly toward a
material edge, an edge effect signal increases in amplitude
If ~e field simultaneously intercepts a discontinuity during
this approach, the two conditions will produce a combined
signal, rather than separate edge and discontinuity signals

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

Thus the discontinuity may not be detected


The problem can be eliminated by scanning the coil parallel to
the material edge at a constant distance from the edge; this
technique maintains edge effect at a constant value. Interception of a discontinuity will then cause a signal change. Simple
fixtures to accomplish this can be easily fabricated

Copyrighl 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

4.

Coil couvling. When distance between the test coil and test
material varies, the intensity of the flux field induced in the
test material likewise varies
The spacing between a surface coil and the test material is
called "lift-off'
The spacing between either an internal coil or encircling coil
and concentrically positioned test material is caIIed "fill
factor" Coupling effectiveness between inner diameter probes
and the inner wall of the tube is calculated as fill factor
Lift-off is useful for measuring the thickness of paint or other
nonconductive coatings on the surface of a metal
Lift-off can also be used to measure the thickness of
nonconductive materials, as long as such materials are placed
on a conductive surface
Fill factor deflections can indicate material variations such as
wall thickness changes or ovality conditions
Fill factor is calculated from the following formula:
rC
~ 5 ; e
s~c..y-o...<a_J
5=1==__

7!

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associatcs. Inc.

fiw

/'

~4~ii

Permeability

Permeability is the measure of a material's ability to be magnetized,


that is, a material's ability to concentrate magnetic flux

Permeability is quantitatively expressed as the ratio of flux density to


magnetizing force

A hysteresis loop is a plot of a material's flux density variations as


magnetizing force is varied

C o m p l e t e d H y s t e r e s i s Loop

Copyiight 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

Saturation occurs at that point on the loop where further increases in


magnetizing force do not cause significant increases in flux density

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associates. Inc.

Residual magnetism is the amount of flux density remaining in the


material after the magnetizing force has been reduced to zero

B
Residual
Magnetism

Saturation

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associates. Inc.

Ferromagnetic metals, including iron, carbon steels, 400 series


stainless steel, nickel, and cobalt, have high permeability

The alternating magnetic field of an eddy current coil becomes


highly concentrated in such materials and overpowers the eddy
current response, causing the test system to display permeability,
rather than conductivity, variations

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associntcs, Inc.

TEST EOUIPMENT

Instrument Overview

All eddy current instruments require at least three circuit elements:


AC generator, coil, and processing/display circuitry

During testing, the instrument should be checked at regular intervals


against the reference standard to ensure that it is operating properly
and is still set up correctly for the test being performed

If a variation in instrument performance or setup is discovered, all


material tested since the last verification of proper performance and
setup should be retested.

Single Frequency Instruments

The AC generator of a single frequency instrument drives the test


coil with only one frequency.
Basic Control Functions

Frequency: Adjusts the frequency at which the ac generator drives


the test coil

Gain (Sensitivity, dB): Adjusts amplification of the bridge output


signal for display

Phase Rotation: Rotates the direction of dot deflection

Balance (Null, Zero): Adjusts impedance to be identical on both


sides of the bridge

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associntcs. Inc.

The AC generator@) of a multi-frequency instrument drives the test


coil with two or more frequencies.

Multi-frequency instruments offer potential for substantial


enhancement of performance. Use of more than one test frequency
has two advantages:

1.

Use of -multiple frequencies aLIows more than one


frequency-dependent performance variable to be optimized
simultaneously
For example: during in-service tube inspection using internal coils, a
higher frequency provides sensitivity to inner diameter
discontinuities, with a lower frequency for sensitivity to outer
diameter discontinuities

2.

Test signals generated by the various frequencies can be "mixed" to


prevent display of undesirable signals
Suppression of signals from steel supports during inspection of
nonferromagnetic tubes is an example
Each e.dditiona1 frequency enables the mixing out of an additional
variable

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Azsociatcs. Inc.

Coils

Two classifications of eddy current test coils

I.

Basic configuration: determines how the coil physically "fits" the


test object

2.

Absolute vs differential operation: determines how the coil assembly


is wired to the instrument's circuitry, which determines the material
conditions to which the system is sensitive

Coil design, as well as magnitude and frequency of the applied


field developed by the coil.
current, all affect the electro~~lagnetic

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

..

Configurations

Surface Coils are built into probe type housings for scanning
material surfaces

In addition, the coil can be wound around a ferromagnetic core for


even more field strength

Wide surface coils permit rapid scanning and deeper penetration, but
cannot pinpoint the-location of small discontinuities
They are useful for conductivity testing because they tend to
average out localized conductivity variations along material
surfaces

Narrow coils are preferred for detecting and pinpointing the location
of small surface discontinuities
Because of their smaller diameter electromagnetic fields,
narrow coils are less susceptible to edge effect

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Assxiafcs. Inc.

Encirclin~Coils completely surround the test material

normally used for production testing of rods, wire, bar stock, pipes
and tubing

Material tested with encircling coils should be centered in the coils


by means of guides, so that the entire circumference will be tested
with equal sensitivity

Because of "center effect", eddy currents oppose and therefore


cancel themselves at the center of solid cylindrical materials tested
with encircling coils
Thus, discontinuities located at the center of rods and bar stock
cannot be detected with encircling coils

Encircling coils inspect the entire circumference of the test object,


but cannot pinpoint the exact location of a discontinuity along the
circumference

Coppight 1993 Hcilier Associntcs. Inc.

..

"Spinning coils", which are actually surface coils that revolve around
cylindrical test material, are employed when identification of circumferential location is required in encircling coil applications

Since spinning coils couple to only a limited segment of test material


circumference, they are not subject to center effect

However, spinning coils inspect with a spiral pattern, so their


material coverage depends on coil rotation speed versus material
transport speed

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc

Internal Coils pass through the cores of pipes and tubes, and are
normally employed for in-service inspection
Like encircling coils, standard bobbin-wound internal coils inspect
the entire circumference of the test object at one time
but cannot pinpoint the exact location of a discontinuity along.
the circumference

Copyright 1993 Hellier Associates. Inc.

..

Absolute, differential, and external reference modes can be used with


any of the three basic coil configurations: surface, encircling, and
internal coils

With most eddy current instruments, the coil assembly is connected,


to the instrument via a bridge circuit

The bridge must be balanced by connection of matching impedance


values to each side of the bridge

The display,circuit is connected across the bridge to provide an


indication whenever there is an impedance variation between the two
sides of the bridge

Absolute coil configurations place a single coil on the test material


and employ a balance load, remote from the test material, to balance
the bridge

Absolute coils detect any'condition which affects eddy current flow

Copyright 1993 Hellier A s s x i a m . Inc.

..

Differential self-comuarison configurations use a matched pair of


coils to perform a comparison.
both coils are coupled to the test material, with one portion of the
test material being compared to another
Conditions sensed by both coils cancel and are not detected
Conditions sensed by only one coil are detected
Differential coil signals are difficult to interpret
The displayed signal represents the difference between two
coil's impedances, rather than the impedance of a single coil's
interaction with the test material

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc.

Other Coil Setups

External Reference employs one coil coupled to the test material,


with the other coil coupled to a reference standard
provides an indication whenever the test material differs from
the standards

Copyright 1993 Hcllier Associotcs. Inc.

Transmit-Receive configurations use one coil assembly to induce


eddy currents into the test material and a second coil assembly to
sense the secondary field

\Reflection coils employs two coils on the same side of the test object

c
Display

Through transmission coils position transmitting and receiving coils


on opposing sides of the test object.

p'.

a,"

\,\-

Copyright 1993 Hcllicr Associates. Inc

!
I

LEAK TESTING
Defiaai.tion - NDT method used:
1) for the detection and location of leaks
and 2) for the measurement of fluid leakage
in either pressurized or evacuated systems
or components
Leak - the physical hole that exists not the
quantity of fluid passing through the hole

Leaks can be due to cracks, crevice, fissure, hole


or passageway, that contrary to what is intended
admits water, air or other fluid or lets fluids
escape
Leakage - the flow of fluid through a leak
without regard to the physical size of the hole
through which flow occurs

Leak rate - amount of fluid passi-ngthrough the


leak per unit of timeof t h e under a given set of
conditions (expressed as units of quantity or
mass per unit of time)

Minimum detectable leak - smallest hole or


discrete passage that can be detected
Minimum detectable leak rate - smallest
detectable fluid-flow rate

Leaks can have influence on the safety or


performance of a system
Leak Testing performed for:
1) prevent material loss which can interfere
with system operation
2) prevent environmental contamination .
hazards or nuisances caused by accidental
leakages
3) to detect unreliable components and those
whose leakage rates exceed acceptance
criteria
Sensitivity - how small a physical leak can be
detected
Part surface must be clean of any contaminents
that could interfere with the test and be dry

Types of leaks:
1) real leaks - localized leak such as a hole
2) virtual leak -gradual desorption of gases
from surfaces or escape of gases from nearly
sealed components within a vacuum system
Mean Free Path - the average distance that a
molecule travels between successive collisions
with the other molecules in the gas phase

Types of flow in leaks:


1) permeation - passage of a fluid into,
throughand out of a solid barrier having no
holes large enough to perinit more than a
small fiaction of the total leakage to pass
through any one hole
2) molecular flow (< 10-6 atm cm3Isec) when mean fiee path of the gas is greater
than the largest cross-sectional dimension of
the leak
3) transitional flow (10-4 to 10-6 atm
cm31sec) - when mean free path of the gas is
approximately equal to cross-sectional
dimension of the leak

4) viscous flow - when mean fiee path is


smaller than the cross-sectional dimension
of the leak (consists of laminar and
turbulent flow)
5) laminar flow (10-2 to 10-6 atm cm3isec) where velocity distribution of the fluid in
the passage or orifice is parabolic; particles
follow straight lines
6) turbulent flow (>lo-2 atm cm31sec) particles follow very erratic paths
7) choked flow - if upstream pressure is held
constant and downstream pressure is
gradually lowered, the velocity of the fluid
through the passage will increase until it
reaches the speed of sound

Four (4) primary leak testing methods


Bubble Testing (BT)
Halogen Diode Leak Testing (ELIIT)
Pressure Change Measurement Test
(PCMT)
Mass Spectrometer Leak Test (MSLT)

Sensitivih ranges of the leak testing methods


Sensitivity range in cm3/second
METHOD
PRESSURE
VACUUM
Bubble test - liquid film 10-1 to 10-5
10-1 to 10-5.
Bubble test - immersion 1 to 10-6
Pressure - increase
1 to 10-4
Pressure - decreaselflow 1 to 10-3

1 to 10-4

Halogen (heated anode)

10-1 to 10-6

10-1 to 10-5

Mass spectrometer

10-3 to 10-5

10-3 to 10-10

A gas pressure differential is first established


across a pressure boundary, therefore preventing
the test liquid fkom entering or clogging the
leaks
Gas leakage through pressure boundary is then
detected by the formation and observation of
bubbles in the dectection liquid at the exit points
of leakage

Provides immediate indications of the existence


and location of large leaks
Three classifications of bubble testing
1) Liquid immersion technique
pressurized test object or system is
submerged in test liquid
e
bubbles form at exit point of gas leakage
and rise to the surface of the test liquid

2) Liquid film application technique


thin layer of test liquid is flowed over
the low pressure surface of test object
bubbles form at exit point of gas leakage
3) Foam application technique
used for detection of large leaks
test liquid is applied as thick suds or
foam
rapid escape of gas tiom large leaks
'blows a hole' through foam blanket
indicating leak

Advantages
relatively simple, rapid and inexpensive
fairly sensitive technique
location of exit points of leaks very
accurate
in immersion technique, entire
pressurized component can be inspected
simultaneously on exposed surfaces
visible to the examiner
large .leaks can be detected first and
sealed or repaired, then smaller leaks
can be detected with more refined
testing apparatus
required level of operator training and
skill is minimal
Disadvantages
contamination of test spechan surfaces
improper temperature of part surface
contamination or foaming test liquids
improper viscosity of test liquids
excessive vacuum over surface of test
liquid

low surface tension of test liquids


leading to clogging of leaks
prior use of cleaning liquids that might
clog leaks
air in test liquids or outgassing from test
surfaces causing bubble formations
OGEN DIODE E E K TESTmG

In a halogen leak detector, minute quantities of


halogen vapor enter a detector cell and are
ionized catalytically on a heated platinum anode
Ions are collected on a cathode electrode which
has a negative potential
A current proportional to the rate of ion
formation flows in an external circuit to produce
an indication on a meter

Rate at which ions are formed is proportional to


the halogen concentration in the gas which
passes into the detector cell

A unique feature of the dector cell is that the


ionization process can take place at atmospheric
pressure
Ionization process is specific to halogen vapors
produced by halides
Halides are produced by elements containing
halogens such as chlorine, iodine, bromine,
fluorine and astatine
Most common tracer gas used in this method are
those containing chlorine such R-12 and R-22

R- 12
R-22

Dichlorodifluoromethane
CC12F2
Monochlorodifluoromethane CHClF2

Since R-12 liquifies at 70 psig and R-22


liquifies at 122 psig at 70F, systems tested at
room temperature can not have 100% tracer gas
pressure greater than these pressures

Pressurized air is added to tracer gas when


testing at higher pressures or to minimize the
quantity of tracer gas used due to cost
Dilution with air without increasing the pressure
will reduce the testing sensitivity

Test instrumentation will also respond to solid


particles of iodides, chlorides, bromides and
fluorides
These may be found in cigarette smoke, solder
fluxes, cleaning compounds and aerosol
propellants
Items such as rubber and plastic tubing should
be avoided since halogen gases are absorbed by
these and could interfere with test readings

Test sensitivity can be effected by background


contamination caused by a large leak masking a
signal from a small leak nearby

Five classifications of halogen diode leak testing


1) Direct halogen leak testing with no
significant halogen contamination in the
atmosphere with a standard halogen
detector
halogen pressurized component is
sniffed locally with probe
2) Direct halogen leak testing with
significant halogen contamination in the
atmosphere with a proportional detector
halogen pressurized component is
sniffed locally with probe
3) Shroud Test
air is passed over a halogen
pressurized component which is
contained in a close fitting container
or shroud and the discharged air is
sampled by the halogen detector useful for components with
maximum cross sectional diameters
of 2"
4) Air curtain shroud
a coniponent previously subjected
to bombing (pressurized with a

halogen gas) is placed in an open


top shroud and the lower end of the
shroud is sampled by the halogen
leak detector
useful for high production testing of
small items such as transistors
5) Accumulation test
a halogen gas blanket is between an
outer shroud and the component
exterior surface and the internal
atmosphere of the component is
sarnpled by the halogen detector
useful for components up to several
cubic meters in volume

In pressure change measurement testing, leakage


rates are determined by quantitative
measurement of pressure changes or flow rates
of air or pressurizing gases, without requiring
use of tracer gases.

Typical gases - atmospheric air and i~itrogen

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411)

FIG. 2
FIG. 1

Vacuum

Box

Vacuum Chamber Technique

polyethylene or structural plastic, the test fluid must not


promote environmental stress cracking (E.S.C).
7.7 Ifthe test fluid is to be used on oxygen systems it m u a
meet the requirements of MIL-L-25567D.

8. Immersion Technique
8.1 Applicafion-This technique is applicable to test specimens whose physical size allows immersion in a container of
fluid when the test specimen can be sealed prior to the test.
8.2 Techniquesjbr Creasing Pressure D~rerenfialr
8.2.1 Pressurizcllion of Terr SpecimenSeal components
and apply an elevated pressure, or if accessible, increase the
internal pressure for test purposes.
8.2.2 Elevased-Temperasure Tesf Fluid-Heat
the test
fluid to a temperature not exceeding the maximum rated
temperature of the test specimen. This will cause expansion
of the gas inside the test specimen, creating a pressure
differential. This technique is usually limited to use on very
small parts.
8.2.3 Vacuum Technique-Immerse the test specimen in
the test fluid and then place the test fluid container in the
vacuum chamber. Reduce the pressure in the chamber to a
point that does not allow the test fluid to boil, thus creating a
presure differential. This technique is normally used on very
small parts.
8.3 Test Fluids Used in Immersiorl Technique-The following test fluids mav be used. orovided thev are not
d e m m e n ~ lo
l the component being'tested:
8.3.1 Wafer-Should be treated with a wetting agent up
to % by volume to reduce surface tension and promote
bubble gowth.
8.3.2 Mefhyl Alcohol (Teclinical Grade). Undilufed-Not
suitable for the heated-bath technique or the vacuum technique.
8.3.3 Ethylene Glj~col(Technical Grade), Undiluted.
8.3.4 Mineral Oil-Degreasing of the test specimens may
be necessary. This is the most suitable fluid for the vacuum
technique.
8.3.5 Fl~ioracarbo~is
or Glj~ccrfn-Ruorocarbons are nor

recommended Tor stainless steel nuclear applications. .


8.4 Proced~rres:
8.4.1 Pressurized Tesr Specilnetz:
8.4.1.1 Specimens Sealed at Elevored Pressures-Place
the test specimen or area being tested in the selected test fluid
and observe for a minimum period of 2 min. Interpret as
leakage a stream ofbubbles originating from a single point or
two or more bubbles that grow and then release from a single
~inl.
8.4.1.2 Very S m l l Specimens Sealed as Ambienr or
Reduced Pressures-Place the test specimen in a pressure
chamber and expose to an elevated pressure. The actual
pressure is dependent on the specimens. Place the specimen
in the selected test fluid within 2 min after removal from the
pressure chamber and observe for a minimum period of 2
min. Interpret as leakage a stream of bubbles originating
from a single point.
8.4.2 Elevrued Temperasure Test Fluid-Place the test
specimen in the test fluid which is stabilized and maintained
at an elevated temperature at a temperature dependent on
the specimen. Observe for a stream of bubbles originating
from a single point or two or more bubbles that grow and
then release from a single point Interpret either as indicating
leakage. The time of observation shall be dependent o n the
internal volume of the specimen and the case materials of the
enclosure. Dwell time must be sufIicient to allow a pressure
increase to a pressure dependent on the specimen.
8.4.3 ifaantum Teclmique-Place the test specimen in a
container of the selected test fluid and place the container in
a vacuum chamber with viewing porn. Reduce the pressure
in the vacuum chamber and observe for a stream of bubbles
originating from a single point or two or more bubbles that
grow and then release from a single point. The amount of
vacuum used will be dependent on the test fluid and should
be the maximum obtainable without the test 'fluid boiling.
This technique is also applicable to unsealed components or
specimen sections by use ofthe apparatus s11own in Fig. I.

9. Liquid Application Tccl~nique


9.1 Applicarion-This technique is applicable to any test

specimen On which a pressurc din.ercnti3i can he c r a t e d


across the area to be examined. An example oftl>istechnique
is the application ofleak-test solutions to pressurized gas-line
joints. It is most useful on piping synems, p r w u r e vessels.
tanks, spheres, pumps, or other large
- a .~.n a r a t u son which the
immersion techniques are impractical.
9.2 Locotion of B~tbblcT m Fl~tid-Apply the test liquid
to the low-pressure side ofthe area to be examined and then
examine the area for bubbles in the fluid. Take care in
applying ihe fluid to prevent formation ofbubbles. Flow the
slution on the test area. Joints must be completely coated.
The pressure dinerential should be created before the fluid is
applied, to prevent clogging of small leaks.
9.3 Tj'pe o/Bubble Tesi Fluid-A solution of commercial
leak-testing fluids may be used. The use of soap buds or
household detergents and water is not considered a satisfactory leak-test fluid fur a bubble test, because of lack of
sensitivity due to masking by foam. The fluid should be
capable of being applied free- of bubbles so that a bubble
appears only at a leak. The fluid selected should not bubble
except i n response to leakage.
9.4 Vaoium Technique-Place a vacuum box (see Fig. 2)

over the bubble lest nuid. In testing equipment, such as


storage tank floors and roofs, place the vacuum box over a
section of the weld seam and evacuate to 3 psi (20.68 kPa)
(or what the applicable nandard requires) and hold for a
minimum time Of 15 s.
10. Precision and Bias
10.1 A c c t r r a q ~ T h emethods are not intended to measure leakage rates but lo locate leaks on a go, no-go basis.
Their accuracy for locating leaks of lo-' atm.cm3/s (1. x
Pa.m3/s) and larger is t5 %. Accuracy for locailng
smaller leaks depends upon the skill of the operator.
10.2 Rcpcorobili1.1~-On a go, no-go basis, duplicate testr;
by the same operator should not vary by more than 2 5 % for
leaks of I x lo-' atm-cm3/s (I X loes Pa.rn3/s),
10.3 Rcprod~tcibiliry--On a go. no-go basis, duplicate
tests by other trained operaton should no1 vary by more than
10 % for leaks of I x lo-'' atm.cm3/s (I X lo-') Pa.m'/s
2nd larppr
11. Keywords

11.1 bubble leak resting; film solution leak test; immersion leak test; leak testing; vacuum box leak testing

T w Amer~canSmrly tor Tesl,ng an0 IAalerfiJlrIJhcr noposn.on nupenmg 11s *Jlldfly ot a n / p l e n l ngatr S e n e a .o cannecr.on
wnh any .lcm mnl.oncd .n lhsr rieoaard Urcn 01 Inn rtandara ale erpesrty aavaw lnal dererm rwl on 01 the talo!ly 01 an, such
me rrsX 01 mlr~ngemenlor sucn rqhlr. ore cnllretf I e s r own reSpn%b Icy
plmt n(mlz.

and m M be reviewed evwy five years snd


Thk slandard ir subjen to revision a1 any time by the respansible lechnical
ilmt rsvirw: eilhvreapprovedor wllhdrawn. Ywrmments are invilw'eilherlor rwtsion 01lhk standardor far edd8b.d standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarlers. Ywr mmmenls wiN receive carefulamideration a1 a meeting ot the responrlblc
t&nical cammhee. which yw may attend. 11 yw 1-1 lhal yaur ramments have nol received e fair hearing you lhwld make y w r
vkw Wown to the ASTt.4 Cammatee M Slandards. 1916 Race St.. Philadelphia, PA 19103.

d STb

Designation: E 427

- 94

Standard Practice for


Testing for Leaks Using the Halogen Leak Detector
(Alkali-Ion Diode)'
Thjr standard ir i\>urd undcr
Grcd dniUnrtalrn I: 417, 8Iv znuinl*.i tn~nlnlurrl?I;tlltl~(ttl~
Ibr ~I~-.~~nrlt~tul
~~JIC.IIC, CIIC
,,I
o<ginal adogisnn or. tn $I>:
caw .n icrtsinn. ,hc :cny orbs rc.>sitin. A nunthrr in p.rcnll,ru-. ~ndlmbn! l a !.mr of la<$rr.ppia\a~. A
Jupcncripl cp8lon 1.) indirdlrs 2 0 rdltondl chlngr llncc ihc 1a1I rvvlutln

I. Scope
1.1 This practice covers procedures for testing and locating the sources of gas leaking af the rate of I x lo-'
Standard cm3/s ( I x lo-' Pa m3/s). The tcsf may he
conducted on any device or component across which a
pressure differential of halogen tracer gas may be created.

and on which the effluent side of the area to be leak tested is


accessible for probing with the halogen leak detector.
1.2 Five methods are described:
1.2.1 A4ethod A-Direct probing with no significant halogen contamination in the atmosphere.
1.2.2 Atefhod B-Direct probing with significant halogen
contamination in the atmosphere.
1.2.3 Method C-Shroud test.
1.2.4 Method D-Air-cunain shroud test.
1.2.5 Melhod E-Accumulation test.
1.3 The vaIus stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The metric equivalents of inchpound units may be approximate.
1.4 This standard does nor prtrpon lo address the safii!?
concerns f i j a , associared lvifh hs use. If is the responsibility of rhe user of rhis standard tu estubiish appropriae
sajely a n d health practices and defermine !he opp/icabi(ilj?of
reerqIdoqr limilaionr prior to itse.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Sfandard:
E 1316 Terminology for Nondestructi\*eExaminations'
2 2 Orher Documents:
ASNT "Leak Testing Handbook" Volume One of :Nondestructive Testing Handbook"'
SNT-TC-IA Recbmrnended Practice for Penonnel Quaiification and Certification in Nondest~ctiveT a i n g 3
ANSIIASNT CP-189 ASNT Standard Tor Qualification
and Certification ofNondestructi\.e Testing Personnel'
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions-For definitions of terms used in this
standard, see Terminology E 1316, Section E.
'Thir pmcricc k undcr lhc jurisdiction 01 ASTM Commiltcc E-7 an
N o n d a ~ c t i v ~ T a u ' n g a nislfrcdimt
d
rrspanribilil?ol'Submmmiller 07.08 on
h k T a i n g Mcrhod.
C u m n l edition appro& March IS. 1994. Published May 1994. Origirwlly
PUblkhcd ;rs E427-71. hp,nviour edition E 4 2 7 -911.
Annirol B w k oJ.4ST.li Slondurds. Val 03.03.
Available from Arncrion Saciny far Nondcnmciiw Tcrtinr. 171 1 ArIin~x18e
f'hZ3. P.0. Box 28518. Columbus. OH 43228451X.

'

'

ni

rr4nprov=l

4. Summary or l'racticc
4.1 Section 1.6 of NASA's Loukugc T~~srinl:
Hundhook'
will be of value lo somc users in determining which leak test
method lo use. Section I I of the .4SAfT T<,.~iili,r:
Ifand/~o~ik

may also be of value.


4.2 Thex methods require halogen leak detection equipmen1 with a full-scale readout ofat least 3 x lo-? Std cm3/s
(3 x 10-"' Pa m3/s) on the most sensitive range, a maximum
I min drift of 0 and sensitivity drift o i f 1 5 percent of full
scale on this range. and f 5 percent or less on others (see
8.1.5).
4.3 Method A (Fig I ) is the simplest test. requiring only
that a halogen tracer-gg pressure be created across the area
to be tested. and the xarching of the atmospheric side of the
area with ihe detector probe. This method detects leakage
and locales its source or sources, when used in a tesi area free
from significant halogen contamination in the atmosphere
(see 7.1). Experience has shown that leakdetedon down to 1
x
Sld cm3/s (1 X. lo-' Pa m3/s) in factory environments will usually be satisfaclory if reasonable precautions
are taken against releasing halogens in the building If a ten
booth is constructed so as to be purged with clean outdoor
air, this level may be reduced to 1 x lo-' Std cm3/s (1 x
Pa m3/s). Testing down to I x
Std crn3/s (I x
IO-"' Pa m3/s) will require additional halogen removal. This
can be accomplished by paning the ten-booth purge air
through a bed of activated charcoal.
4.4 Method B (Fig 2) is essentially the same as Method A,
except that the amount of air drawn by the probe from the
test area is reduced, and the required sample flow is made up
with pure ( b l is, zero-halogen) air. This reduced sample
intake has the disadvanmge of reducing the vacuum-cleaner
efiect of the larger flow and thus requires closer and more
careful probing However, the tolerance to atmospheric
halogen can be increased up to 100 times. Also, large leaks
beyond the range ofMethod A can be accurately located (but
not measured) by Method B.
4.5 Method C (Fig. 3A and B) is suited for leak testing
items which have an approximate cross-section dimension of
2 in. (50 mm), but may be as long as 30 fi (10 m). In this
method, air, either atmospheric or purified, is passed over
the halogen-pressurized
which is inside a close-fining
container. The discharge air from the container is sampled
by the halogen detector, and any additional halogen content
indicated. The shroud principle may be applied in a manner

:,

as sirnplc 3s Fig. 3l3, wllcrci,l


l l i ~ ~ .orc 13pC I \ 3ppliCti
around a flanged joint to bc tested. or as complete as in Fig
3A. T h e latter provides isolation of the detector rrom
atmospheric halogens, a pure-air reference supply, and a
convenient calibration means. This enables detection of

Hologcn Leok 0r:cctor

t4clnod C

Hologcn

FIG. 1 Halogen Leak Detedor. Method A


Propo<lianing P r a b c
Melhod 8

Hologcn Leak Oeleclor

-.

--b

2
.

RG. 2 Pmpwtioning Pmbe, Halogen Leak Detector, Method 6


Air(S0-100 psiql

Ic;~hs:IS small 3s I x 10-' Std crn3/s ( I x lo-' Pa mr/s).


4.6 MeLhod D (Fig. 4) is userul for high-produclion testing
orsmall items such as transistor; which have been previously
subjected to a halogen gas prcsure above atmospheric
(bombed), or testing the sealed-offend o f a till tube, and the
like. In this method, the end or the shroud is always open,
and the detector always draws a sample from the lower end.
Atmospheric halogens arc prevented from entering by a
laminar-flow pure-air curtain. When any leaking object is
insened below the flow division level, the leakage is t!lcn
picked up by rhe detector. This method is useful for deteciing
leaks down to 1 X 1 OT7 Std cmr/s (1 X 1 0-a Pa m3/s) in size.
4.7 Method E (Fig. 5) is similar to Method C (Fig. 3A),
except it provides for testing p a r 6 up to several cubic meters
in volume. This is accomplished by allowing the leakage to
accumulate in the chamber for a fixed period, while keeping
it well mixed with a fan, and then testing the internal
atmosphere for an increase in halogen content. The practical
sensitivity attainable with this method depends primarily on
two things. First, o n the volume between iheshroud and the
object; and second, o n the amount of halogen outgassing
produced by the object. Thus, a part containing rubber,
plastin, blind cavities o r threads cannot be tested with the
sensitivity obtainable with a smooth metallic pan. The
sensitivity of the test and net volume of the system are
related as follows:
A, = LFIV
where:
A, = the rate of halogen increase in the volume, Std cm3/s2,
L = the leak rate into the volume, Std.cm3/s.
F = the flow rate in the detector probe, Sld m 3 / s , and
V = the net volume o f the system, em3
For practical operating considerations, the minimum value
of A, that should be used is about 2 x lo-" Std crn3/js2 (2 x
10-12 Pa m3/s). (This will give a detector readout of 100 x

Shroud Leak Test

Method C

'90-

Close-filling Cover

Pressurizing Cann
(If Requiredl

tMinirnum
FIG. 3 A

Shroud Leak Test. Method C

Plug Valve

I
Clearance

Sample Shioud L e o k ierf ,,,elhad

O p e n l o g In Tape

appropriate ior NDI' I


11 qualilication according to
Rccommcndcd I ' r a ~ ~ i c c No. SNT-TC-IA or the American
Society for Nondestructive Testing or ANSIIASNT Standard
CP-189.

Tape O v e r G a p B e l w e e o
TWO ~ l a n g e s

6. Significance and Use


6.1 Halogen leak testing can be used to indicate the

presence, loca~ionand magnitude of leaks in a closed vesscl.


This test method is normally used Tor production examination. Its use with halogenated refrigerant gases has been
declining because orconcerns about the efict of these gases
on the ozone layer.

Pipe
Flong~

FIG. 38

Simple Shroud Leak Test, Methad C

3.5 A l m . r r l r t r
o..,rr
scrceo

FIG. 4

Air-Curlain-Shroud Leak Tesf Method 0

Accumutotian

Leak Test

DEVICE

kyessurizing

Method

1-

'

Connection

FIG. 5 Accumulation Leak Tesf Method E

Std cm3/s ( 1 x 10-lo Pa m3/s) after a 50-s


or I x
accumulation period.) Thus, (based on F = Std cm3/s) a 5 X
Std cmvs leak ( 5 x lo-" Pa m3/s) may be detected in
a system of 10' cm3 net volume, or a 5 x 10-5-Std cml/s
or
Pa m3/s) leak in a 10'-cml system. Where
variables, time, volume, and leak rate permit, values of
readout should be set in the lo-' or 10-8-Std cm3/s range for
less critical operation. Methods C, D, and E are well adapted
for automation of valving and material handling.

5. Personnel Qualification
5.1 It is recommended that personnel performing leak
testing attend a dedicated training coune on the subject and
pass a written e\amination. The training course should be

7. Interferences
7.1 .4r1i1o.~plreric
Hulu,q~~tis--When direct probing (Methods A and B) is used to locate leaks, the leak detector probe
is drawing in air from the atmosphere. If the atmosphere is
contaminated with halogen to a degree that produces a
noticeable indication on the detector, the detection of
halogen from leaks becomes much more difficult. Significant
atmospheric conramination with halogen' is defined as the
level where the detector response, when the probe is moved
from zero-halogen air to test-area atmosphere, exceeds that
expected from the s m a l l a leak to be detected. For reliable
testing, atmospheric halogen must be kept well below this
level.
7.2 Halogens Ourgassed jrom Absorben1 MaterialsWhen leak testing is done in enclosures which prevent
atmospheric conramination from interfering with the test
(Methods A, B, and C), halogen absorbxi in various nonmetallic materials (such as rubber or plastics) may be released in
the enclosure. If the amount released starts to approach the
amount from the leak in the same period of time, then a
reliable leak test becomes more difficult. The amount of such
materials in the enclosure, o r their exposure to halogen must
then be reduced to obtain a meaningful test
7.3 Pressurizing wiih Tesr Gas-In order to evaluate
leakage accurately, the test gas in all paris of the device must
contain subnantially the same amount of tracer gas. When
the device contains air prior to the introduction oftest gas, or
when an inen gas and a tracer gas are added sepmely, this
may not be true. Devices in which the effective diameter and
length are not greatly different (such as tanks) may be tested
satisfactorily by simply adding tracer gas. However, when
long or restricted systems are to be tested, more uniform
tracer distribution will be obtained by lint evacuating to a
few tom, and then filling with the test gas. The latter must be
premixed if not 100 percent tracer.
8. Apparatus
8.1 Hologerl Leak Defector-To perform leak tests as
specified in this standard, the leak detector should meet the
following minimum requirements
8.1.1 Scnsor-Alkali-ion diode or electron capture.
8.1.2 Rcadoltr-Panel instrument or digital readout.
8.1.3 Ra~lge(Linear)-l x 104 to I x
Std cml/s ( 1
x lo-' to I X lO-'"a
m3/s) full scale.
8.1.4 Response Tinie-3 s or less.
8.1.5 S~obilifyof Zero and Sensirivirp-A maximum
variation of 21 5 percent of full scale on most sensitive nnge
while probe is in pure air; a maximum variation of 2 5

;,

pcrcent O r rull sc3le on otl,cr ranges, I;,~period ol. I riiiri


8.1.6 Co~rtrolr.
.
8.1.6.1 Range-Preferably i n s o l e steps or about 3 times
or 10 times.
8.1.6.2 Zero-Automatic zeroing option is desirable.
8.2 Halogen Leak Standard-To perform leak tests as
specified in this standard, the leak standard should meet the
following minimum requirements:
8.2.1 Ranges-I0 x lo-'' to 10 x 1 0 ' ' ~Std cm3/s (lo-'
to lo-" Pa m3/s) full scale.
8.2.2 Adjusrabiliry-Adjustable lwk standards are a convenience, but are not mandatory..
8.2.3 Accurac)i-225 percent of full-scale value or better.
8.2.4 Temperarure Coeflcienr-Shall be srated by manufacturer.
8.3 Orher Appamlus-Fixtures or other equipment specific to one test method are listed under that method.
~

9. Material
9.1 Tesr G a r
9.1.1 Tesr-Gas Requtreme~irs-To be satisfactory, the test
gas should be nontoxic, nonflammable, not detrimental to
common materials, inexpensive, and have a response factor
of one. R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CCI,F,) and R-22
(monochlordfluoromethane, CHClF,) have these characteristics. R-12 is commonly used unless the higher pressure
of the more expensive R-22 is needed (130 psig versus 70
psig at 70 F). If the test specification allows leakage of f X
loe5 Std cm3/s (I x lo4 Pa m3/s) o r more, or iflarge vessels
are to be tested,oonsideratidn shouId be given to diluting the
tracer gas with nonhalogen gas such as dry air or nitrogen.
This will avoid operating in the nonlinear portion of the
sensor output, or in the case of large venels, save tracer-gas
expense. However, the balogen content of the qxdication
leak should remain compatible with the expeded level of
atmospheric halogen and the test method as outlined in
Seaion 4.
NOTE I-Whm a vcacl is not evacuated prior to adding t a t gsr, the
Lana is automatially d~lutedby I atm orair.
9.1.2 Producing Premixed Tesr Gas-If the volume of the
device or the quantity to be tested is small, premixed gases
can be conveniently obtained in cylinders. The user can also
mix gases by batch in the same way. Continuous mixing
using calibrated orifices is another simple and convenient
method when the test pressure does not exceed 50 percent of
the tracer gas pressure available (Note 2). Another method is
to pars the nonhalogen gas through the liquid tracer. This
produces test gas containing the maximum amount of tracer
gas.
NOTE2: Gution-Thc liquid tnccr gar supply should not be h a t e d
abve ambient tcmpenture.
9.2 Pure Air, Air J?om Which Halogens Have Been
Removed la a Level oJless Than 1 ppb (or Ofher Suirable
A'onhalogen Gas. Such as Nirrogen).
9.2.1 Requiremenrs:
9.2.1.1 Less than I ppb of halogen.
9.2.1.2 Less than 10 ppm of gases reactive with oxygen,
.uch as petroleum-base solvent vapors.
9.2.1.3 Dew point IB'F (IO'C) or more below ambient
temperature, and

9.2. I .4 SII;III ilc rcasonabl? frcc rrom rust. din, oil, etc.
9.2.2 I'rod~rc~ioitoj 1'11l.r' .-lil: 0). Otln,). Gus-Air or gas ol.
suitable purity, may be produced by first passing it through a

conventional filterdrier
activated charcoal.

(ir

necessary.) and then through

10. Olibrntion

10.1 The leak detectors used in making leak tests by these


methods are not calibrated in the sense that they are taken to
thestandards laboratory, calibrated, and then returned to the
job. Rather, the leak detector is used as a comparaior
between a leak standard (set to the specified leak size) which
is pan of the instrumentation, and the unknown leak.
I-iowever, the sensitivity of the leak detector is checked and
adjusted on the job so that a l a k of specified size will give a
readily observable, but not off-scale reading. More specific
details are given in Section I I under the test method being
used. To verify detection. reference to the leak Standard
should be made before and after a prolonged test. When
rapid repetitive testing of many items is required, refer to the
leak standard alien enough to assure that desired test
sensitivity is maintained.
11. Procedure

I I. I General Cansiderarions:
I 1.1.1 Tesr Speci/icarions-Use a testing specification
that includes the following:
11.1.1.1 The gas pressure on the high side ofthe device to
be tested; also on the low side if it need differ from
atmospheric.
11.1.1.2 The test gas composition, if there is need to
specify i t
11.1.1.3 The maximum allowable ieak rate in standard
cubic centimeters per second.
11.1.1.4 Whether the leak rate is for each leak or for total
leakage of the device, and
11.1.1.5 if an 'each leak" spedfication, whether or not
areas other than seams, joints, and fittings need to be tested.
11.1.2 Safe1.v Factor-Where
feasible, ascertain that a
reasonable safety factor has been allowed between the actual
operational requirements of the device, and the maximum
specified for testing Experience indicates that a factor of at
least 10 should be used when possible. For example, if a
maximum total leak rate for satisfactory operation of a
Pa m3/s), the test
device is 5 x 10" Std cm3/s (5 x
requirement should be 5 x
Std cm3/s (I x
Pa
mvs) or less.
11.1.3 Tesl Pressure-Test the device at or above its
operating pressure and with the pressure drop in the normal
direction, where practical. Take precautions so that the
device will not fail during pressurization, or that the operator
is protected from the consequences of a failure.
11.1.4 Disposition or Recovery of Tesr Gas-Do
not
dump test gas into the test area if further testing is planned.
Either vent it outdoors or recover for reuse if the volume to
be used makes this wonhwhile.
1 1.1.5 Derrimenral Effecrs o j R-12 and R-22 Tracer
Gases-These gases are quite inert, and seldom cause any
problem with most materials, patticularly when used in
gaseous form for leak testing and then removed. Test gas
should not be left in the device unless it h d q and sealed, as

most halogens in the presence 01.moisture acccleratc corrosion over a period of time. When tiicrc is a question as to the
compatibility of the tracer with a particular malerial, an
authority on the latter should be consulted. This is panicularly true when the material may be subject to chloride stress
corrosion under conditions of use.
I 1.1.6 Correlario~io j TCSI-GosL<,akagc ~eirhOrlrcr Gascs
or Liqlrids a1 Di//i'~-cvir O[~e,zlri~~g
I ~ r r s s ~ ~ r r s - 4 i v the
en
normal variation in leak geometry. accurate correlation is an
impossibility. However, if a safety factor of ten or more is
allowed (see 1 1.1.2) adequate correlation for gas leakage
within these limits can usuall!. be obtained by assuming
V ~ K O U Sflow and using the following relation:
Q2 = Q,(N/KI)[P?2- /',')/(PI1 - P3')1
where:
Q,
= test leakage.
Q,
= operational leakage.
= viscosity of test gas (Note 4).
I\'Z
= viscosity of operational gas (Note 4).
N,
p,, P I = absolute pressures on high and low sides at test,
and
P,, P3 = absolute pressures on high and low sides in operation.
Experience has shown that, at the same pressures, gar leaks
Std cm3/s ( 1 x will not show visible
smaller than I x
leakage of a liquid, such as water, that evaporates fairly
rapidly. For slowly evaporating liquids such as lubricating
oil, the gas leak should be another order of magnitude
smaller, 1 x lod Std cm3/s.*
NOTE3-Viwosity difiercnm between gasa is a rcladvely minor
cITcci and u n bc igno~dif daircd.
11.2 Method A (See 2.3 and Fig. I):
11.2.1 Appararw
11.2.1 .I Test specification.
11.2.1.2 Halogen leak detector; standard probe type.
11.2.1.3 Halogen leak standard, upper 9/10 of scale to
include halogen content of maximum leak in accordance
with the specification, with response factor correction.
11.2.1.4 Test gas, at or above specification pressure.
11.2.1.5 Pressure gages, valves and piping for introducing
test gas, and if required, vacuum pump for evacuating
device.
11.2.1.6 Pure-air supply, if not part of halogen leak
detector.
11.2.1.7 Test booth or other atmospheric contamination
control, if shown to be necessary by 11.2.2.
11.2.2 Procedure:
11.2.2.1 Set the halogen leak standard at the maximum
halogen content of the specification leak. Exanrple: if the
maximum leak rate is 1 x lom4Std cm3/s (I x lo-' Pa m3/s)
and the test gas is I percent R-12 in air. set the standard at I
X lo4 x .O1 = I x lo4 Std crn3/s (I X lo-' Pa m3/s).
11.2.2.2 Stan the pure-air supply and adjust to flow in
excess of that of the leakdetector probe, couple the probe
loosely to the supply, so that air is not forced into the
detector.
'Sanlclcr. U. I.. and blollcr. T . W.. "Fluid Flaw Convcrrian in k 3 L s and
Gpillrria." I'acorrn Sy!ttpri,,n! Tronronionr. 1956. p. 29. Alu, Gcncnl E l c n k
Ca. Kcpan R56GL261.

11.2.2.3 Svan tile detector. warm up and adjust in accorinstructions Tor detection of
dance with the nru~~uCdcturci's
leaks of size of I 1.2.2.1, using the "Manual Zero" mode.
11.2.2.4 Remove the probe from the pure-air supply to
the test area, and note the reading, and also minimum and
maximum readings for a period or I min.
11.2.2.5 Rezero the instrument. place the probe on the
leak standard, and note the reading.
Nore 4-ll neccrwv to obtain a rwmnahlc inslrumcnt denemion in
11.2.2.4 and lI.Z.Z.5. relurn the p r a k lo lhc pure-air supply. adjun i l ~ c
-nnge' control and rczcro il ncccswry.
11.2.2.6 IT 11.2.2.4 is larger than 11.2.2.5. or if the I-min
variation is more than 30 percent of 11.2.2.5. lake steps to
reduce the atmospheric halogen content of the test area
before proceeding with the leak test.
11.2.2.7 If the "automatic zero" mode is to be used.
increase the sensitivity by a factor of three.
11.2.2.8 Evacuate (if required) and apply test gas to the
device at the specified pressure.
11.2.2.9 Probe areas suspected of leaking. Hold the probe
on or not more than 0.2 in. (5 mm) from the surface of the
device, and move not faster than I .O i n . 1 ~(30 mm/s). If leaks
are located which cause a "reject" indication when the probe
is held 0.2 in. ( 5 mm) from the apparent leak source, repair
all such leaks before making final acceptance test. If a
marginal indication is observed while detecting in uautomatic zero" mode, reduce the sensitivity by a factor of rhree,
switch to the 'manual zero" mode and compare the leak
reading on the leak standard and on the device.
11.2.2.10 Maintain an orderly procedure in probing the
required areas, preferably identifying them as tested, and
plainly indicating points of leakage.
11.2.2.1 1 At the completion of the tesf evacuate or purge,
or both, the test gas from the device.
11.2.2.12 Write the test report, or athenvise indicate test
results as required.
1 1.3 Merhod B (See 4.4 and Fig. 2):
11.3.1 Apparafw-Same as for Mehod A (see 11.2)
except 11.2.1.2, halogen leak detector to be proportioning
probe type.
11.3.2 Procedure-Same as for Method A except as follows:
11.3.2.1 Use a self-contained pure-air supply. Activate by
closing the probe tip valve tightly, which sends 100 percent
pure air to the sensor.
11.3.2.2 in 11.2.2.4. open the probe value wide (about
two turns), which sends 100 percent atmospheric sample to
the sensor.
11.3.2.3 If the conditions of 11.2.2.6 are met, proceed
with the test. If not. partially close the probe valve until they
are. However. do not reduce the valve ouenine below the
~ o i n at
t which the resuonse to the leak standard is reduced
30 percent.
11.4 hferliod C (See 4.5 and Fig. 3):
1 1.4.1 Apparalw:
11.4.1.1 Test specification.
11.4.1.2 Purge the sample detect and calibrate unit
(PSDC), Fig. 3A, plus the shroud to fit the device under test
(the upper 9/10 of halogen leak standard scale shall include
halogen content of maximum leak in accordance with the
speciliotion, with response factor correction).

1 1.4.1.3 Test gas, at or above specification pressure if the


device is not already pressurized.
I 1.4.2 Procedure:
11.4.2.1 Set the halogen leak standard at the maximum
halogen content of the specification leak (see 11.2.2.1).
11.4.2.2 Adjust the air pressure. air flows (except purge
valve V1) and valves V4 and V7 as indicated in the diagram
for this method. (The addition of flowmeters and pressure
gages at appropriate places in the circuit to facilitate these
adjustments is recommended.)
11.4.2.3 Start the detector, warm up and adjust in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction for detection of
leaks of size 1 1.4.1.1, using the "manual zero" mode.
11.4.2.4 Place a device not containing halogen (dummy)
in the shroud and open valve V2 for as long as is required to
purge the shroud of a~mospherichalogens.
11.4.2.5 Turn valve V7 to "calibrate" and valve V4 to the
"sample" position, note detector indication, adjust the sensitivity if required, and return the valves to the original
("standby") positions. Remove the dummy device of
11.4.2.4.
11.4.2.6 I m r t the device to be tested inside the shroud
and connect the evacuate or pressurize line, or both. if device
is not already pressurized with tracer gas.
11.4.2.7 Open valve V2 for as long as is required to purge
the shroud of atmospheric halogens.
11.4.2.8 .Turn valve V4 to the "sample" position.
11.4.2.9 If the device is already pressurized, read the
leakage, if any, on the detector.
11.4.2.10 If the device is not pressuriml, check the leak
detector for indication of incomplete purging, then pressurize and read the leakage, if any. An indication of the leak
detector greater than that obtained during calibration
11.4.2.4 shows leakage greater than allowed by the
tion.
1 1.4.2.1 1 If the device has been pressurized with halogen
tracer for the leak test only, exhaust the test gas outside the
test area, or r m v e r for reuse.
11.4.2.12 Remove the device from the shroud and write
the test report, or othenvise indicate the results of test as
required.
1 1.5 Method D (See 4.6 and Fig. 4):
1 1.5.1 A p p a r a w
1 1.5.1.1 Test specification.
11.5.1.2 PSDC unit (fig. 3A) plus shroud as in Fig. 4 to fit
device (the upper 9/10 of the halogen leak standard scale
shall include halogen content of maximum leak in accordance with the specification, with response factor correction).
1 1.5.2 Procedure:
11.5.2.1 Set the halogen leak standard at the maximum
halogen content of the specification leak (see 11.2.2.1).
11.5.2.2 Adiust the air Dressure and flows as indicated in
the diagram fo; this metho>. Valve V2 is open, and valve V4
is set at the "sample" position continuously.
11.5.2.3 Stan the detector, warm up, and adjust in
accordance with the manufacturer's instruction for detection
of leaks of size 11.5.1.1, using the "manual zero" mode.
11.5.2.4 Place a device not containing halogen (dummy)
in the shroud. Turn valve V7 to the "calibrate" position, note
detector indlcatlon, adjust the sensitivity if required and
,

return the valve to the original (standby) position. Remo\sc.


the dummy device.
11.5.2.5 Insert the device to be leak-tested (and which has
previously been "bombed" or which is pressurized with
halogen tracer) in the shroud.
NOTE5-Any pan or the device rhnr is
below lh~.purge air omning.

lo

be luk-lesled must be

11.5.2.6 Read the leakage, if any. An indication on the


leak detector greater than that obwined during calibration
(see 11.5.2.4) shows leakage greater than that allowed by'the
specification.
11.5.2.7 Remove the device and record the test results as
desired.
11.5.2.8 If a large leak is detected, the clean-up of the
shroud and sensor can be expedited by turning valve V7 to
"standby" for a few seconds. This will purge shroud, lines
and sensor with pure air.
11.6 Method E (See 4.7 and Fig. 5):
1 1.6.1 Apparatus:
1 1.6.1.1 Test specification.
11.6.1.2 PSDC unit (Fig. 3A) plus shroud as in Fig. 5 (the
upper 9/10 of halogen leak standard scale shall include
halogen content of maximum leak per specification, wirh
response factor correction).
11.6.1.3 Test gas, at or above specification pressure, if the
device is not already pressurized.
11.6.2 Procedure:
11.62.1 Set the halogen leak standard at maximum
halogen content of the specification leak (see 11.2.2.1).
11.6.2.2 Adjust the air pressure, air flows (except purge
valve V 3 as indicated on the diagram for this method.
11.6.2.3 Start the detector, warm up, and adjust in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for detecting leaks of size of 1 1.6.1.1, using- the "manual zero"
mode.
11.6.2.4 Place a device not containing hatogen (dummy)
under the shroud.
11.6.2.5 Open valve V2 for as long as is required to purge
the shroud of atmospheric halogen.
11.6.2.6 Turn valve V7 to the "calibrate" position, allow
an appropriate ammulation period (with fan running), turn
valve V4 to the "sample" position, and note detector
indication. If necessary adjust the sensitivity and repeat
11.6.2.5 and 11.6.2.6. Remove the dummy device.
11.6.2.7 Insert the device to be tested inside the shroud
and connect the evacuate or pressurize line, or both, if device
is not already pressurized with tracer gas.
11.6.2.8 Open valve V2 for as long as is required to purge
the shroud of atmospheric halogens.
11.6.2.9 Turn valve V4 to the "sample" position.
11.6.2.10 If the device is already pressurized, note
whether the detector reading increases (in the allotted
accumulation period) beyond that obtained during calibration (see 11.6.2.6). If so, reject the device.
11.6.2.1 1 If the device is not pressurized, check the leak
detector for indication of incomplete purging, then pressurize and proceed as in 11.6.2.10.
11.6.2.12 Alternatively, sampling for leakage (V4) may be
delayed until the end of the accumulation period. However,
if this is done, time is lost and the sensor will be subjected to

the lest repon (Fig. 6). or otherwise indicate the results or the
test as required.

a more concentrated halogen sample, ifthc device has a large


leak.
11.6.2.13 If the device has been pressurized with halogen
tncer for leak tesl only, exhaust rhe test gas outside the r a t
area, or recover for reuse.
11.6.2.14 Remove the device from the shroud and write

12. Keyords

12.1 rreon leak testing; halogen leak testing; heated anode


halogen detection; leak testing

HALOGENLfiAKTESTREPORT
Tester
Tesl witnessed by
TeslW per ASTM Sld.
Oevicelested
No. accepled
Mar. kakuge, acn?(lledpa. x 10 Sld, cm31s
TOM -a
eachwlleakage
Device evacualed belae chaiging
II evawaled, pessuie
T
Test pessure
psg
Tesl gas:
I _ Tram:
- g a s
Atmospheric h&gm equivaienl
x 10
Leak Denectw SeMl No.
Leak Standard S e a No.

FIG. 6

..

Melhcd pieces NO. rejected -

Dale al Test

NO.

Sample Test Report Form

J n e h r . w n Soc,c!y i m Tallog and Malcrrsls lanes ncposllmrespMmng Ihv a l d i f 01 any wren1 r ~ g n :arrcncdm cmnmlao
any ncm mcnlsonw in rncs s t m a d U s m a1 l h n slamiad z e w a d y Z O d r s M lnal aclcrm n.?l,oo 01 ine ,~l,dby 01 on, swn
palcnl r,ghlr and the r d r ~ol mlr ngcmcnl d s w h ngnlr am eNlrely tiwr a n rcspwibla,
ant,

This slmdard is subjecl lo revision e( any lime by lhe mpmsible lachnicalmmhee wd mosl be reviewed every live y e u s and
Nnol rwised, &her reappoved or wahdrawn Your m m m m s ere imiled &her lor revision 01l h k srandard or lor sddifiwldmdards
&shooM be addrerred lo ASTM Headquarrers. Your mmmems will receive carefulm i d e r a l i o n a1 a meeling o( Lhe rerpwr;lble
IRhnM emmillee, which you may Mend. H you feel the1 yaur m m M s have md received a lab hearing you should make your
view known lo <heASTM CNnmineo on Standards. 1916 Race St.. Philadelphia, PA 19103.

451b

Designation: E 499

- 94

Standard Test Methods for

Leaks Using the Mass Spectrometer Leak Detector in the


Detector Probe Mode',2
Thtl rlandard is irrucd undcr tllc fixed dcsignaion E199: lhc nunihcr imrnedhicly iollorlnp ihc di-rienat~anindsr3lcr the ?car a1
aripnrl adopsion or. in ihc caw orrcuirion. llic ?.car o i l a n revision A numbcr in w r c n l h c a l indlcaicl lhc ?car arlarl rc~pprourl.A
lurnwnpt imilao (.) indicxca an cdisonal r h a n y sinrc lhc Ian rcvirion or rapliro\.al

I . Scope
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for testing and
louting the sources of gas leaking at the rate of I x
standard cm3/s) or greater. The test may
P a m3/s (1 %
be conducted on any device or component across which a
pressure differential of helium or other suitable tracer gas
may be created, and on which the emuent side ofthe leak to
be tested is accwible for probing with the mass spectrometer
sampling probe.
1.2 Two test methods are described:
1.2.1 Tesr Merhod A-Direct probing, and
1.22 Tesr Merhod B-Accumulation.
1.3 This standard does nor purport ro address ihe sa/cry
concerns, $any, associared,n~irhirs tise. I r is [he responsibility o/ rhe user ofrhis standard ro esrablish uppropriare
saJery and health pracrices and derermine rhe applicabiliry of
reguiafory limirarionsprior lo use.

2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Srandard:
E 1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations3
2.2 Other Documens:
SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing4
ANSIjASNT CP-189 ASNT Standard for Qualification
and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel4
3. Terminology
3.1 Dejinilions-For definitions of terms used in this
standard, see Terminology E 1316, Section E.

4. Suuunaty of Test Methods


4.1 W o n 1.8 of the Leakage Testing
will be
ofvalue to some uses in determining which leak test method
to use.
4.2 These test methods require a leak detector with a
Pa. m3/s ( i x 1 OM'
full-scale readout of at leas I x

andb book'

'nae

id mclhodr arc u n d a the j u r l d i d a n of ASTM Cammilicc E-7 on


Nanduwaitivc: Tcriinc and are ihc d i r m raoonsibililv of Subcommiticc E07.08
on Lnk T d n g .
C u m n l cdilian aoorortd March 15. 1994. Pubiirhd May
. 1994. Orieinallv
.
P U M Wa E 499 -71. ~ uprrviour
t
&lion ~ 4 9 -91.
9
'(Almmpheric prmurc cxenwl. p-urc
abavc =~rnarphcricinlemall. This
dnument
(he D c t m o i Pmbc Modedcraibcd i n Guidc E 412.
' A n n u l sod. 01.4n
Sondordr.
.v
VOI 03.01.
' A ~ h b k i r o mAmninnSadcly l a r N o n d a r u a i v c T m ~ i n g .1711 Arlingrlc
P k 4 P.O. Box 28518. Calumbu. OH 432286518.
'Ulrr. 1. Willism. -Leakage T a i n g H a n d b m k " prrpand ror Liquid Prapul1 Scctian. la Prooulrion Labaniom. Natioml Acronaudcs and S D ~ CAdminC
-Inllon. Pmdcna. CA. Conlnn NAS 7.196. Junc 1961

standard cm3/s) on the mosi sensitive range, a maximum


I-min drin of zero and sensitivity of f S % of full scale on
this range, and 2 2 % or less on others (see 7.1). The above
sensitivities are those obtained by probing an actual standard
leak in atmosphere with the detector, or sampling, probe,
and nor the sensidvity of the detector to a standard leak
attached directly to the vacuum system.
4.3 Test hlerhod A. Direcr Probing (see Fig. I), is the
simplest test, and may be used in pans ofany size, requiring
only that a tracer gas pressure be created across the area to be
tested, and the searching of the atmospheric side of the area
be with the detector probe. This test method detects leakage
and ils source or sources. Experience has shown that leak
tesing down to 1 x lo-' Pa.m3/s ( I x 10" standard cm3/s)
in factory environmenls will usually be satisfactory if reasonable precautions against releasing gas like the tracer gas in the
ten area are observed, and the effects of other interferences
(Section 6) are considered.
4.4 Tesr Merhod 8. Accumulaion Testing (see Fig 2),
provides for the tesiing of parts up to several cubic metres in
volume as in fig. 2(a) or in portions of larger devices as in
Fig 2(b). This is accomplished by allowing the leakage to
aocumulate in the chamber for a f i e d period, while keeping
it well mixed with a fan, and then testing the internal
atmosphere for an increase in tracer gas content with the
detector probe. The practical sensitivity attainable with this
method depends primarily on two things &f
on the
volume between the chamber and the objed; and second, on
the amount of outgassing of trdcer gas produced by the
object Thus, a pan having considerable exposed subber,
plastic, blind cavities or threads cannot be tested with the
sensitivity of a smooth metallic part. The time in which a
leak can be detected is directly proportional to the leak rate
and inversely proporiional to the volume between the
chamber and the pan. In theory, extremely small leaks can
be detected by this test method; however, the time required
and the effecrs of other interferences limit the practical
sensitivity of this test method to about I x
Pa.m3/s ( I
x
standard cm31s) for small pans.

5. Personnel Qualification
5.1 It is recommended that personnel performing leak
testing
a dedicated uaining course on the subject and
pass a written examination. The training courje should be
appropriate for NDT level I1 qualification according to
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A of the American
Society
NondeStrucrive
Or
Standard
CP-189

4m E 499
6. Significance and Use
6.1 Test Method A is frequently
to test large systems
and complex piping installations that can be tilled with a
trace gas. Helium is nomally used. ~h~ test method is used
to locate leaks but cannot be used to quantify except for
approximation. Care must be taken to provide sufficient
ventilation to prevent increasing the helium background at
the test site. Resulu are limited by the helium background
and the percentage of the leaking trace gas wptured by the
probe.
6.2 Test Method B is used to increase the concentration of
trace gas coming through the leak by capturing it within a n
enclosure until the signal above the helium background can
be detected. By introducing a calibrated leak into the same
volume for a recorded time interval, leak rates can be
measured.

7. Interferences
7.1 Almospheric Heliltm-The

atmosphere contains about

five pans per million (ppm) ofhelium, which is being contin.


U O U S ~ Y drawn in by the detector probe. This background
must be "zeroed out" before leak testing using helium an
proceed. Successful leak testing is contingent on the ability of
the detector to discriminate betwen normal atmospheric
helium, which is very c o n m n S and a n increase in helium
d u e '0 a leak. Ifthe normally stable atmospheric helium level
is increased by release of helium in the test area, the referes
and leak testing more diflicuit.
ence level b e ~ ~ m unsmble,
7.2 Heliuni Ourgassed fiom Absorben1 Malerials--.~~.
lium absorbed in various nonmetailic materials (such as
mbber or plastics) may be relased during the test. If the rate
and magnitude of the amount released approaches the
amount released from the leak, the reliability of the test is
decreased. T h e amount of such materials or their exposure to
helium must then be reduced to obtain a meaningful test.
7.3 Pressurizing wilh Tesf Gas-in
order to evaluate
leakage accurately, the test gas in all pans of the device must
contain substantially the same amount of tracer gas. When
the device contains air prior to the introduction of test gas, or
Elecrricrl
Pawcr

Trap

Rovgh Pump

Pump

Leak. Note That Probe O o a Not Pick Up All of

FIG. 1

Method A
,n<

Rough Pump

the Lcakrge

Helium

9"

Probe

I-

Dctecror

Prerruri2ini)
Connection

a ] Accumulation Leak Test, Complete Device in Chamber

bl Accumulation Leak Test. Flexible Shroud over a Small Portion of Device


FIG. 2 Method B

when an inert gas and a tracer gas are added separately, this
may not be true. D e v i w in which the effective diameter and
length are not greatly different (such as tanks) may be tested
satisfactorily by simply adding tracer gas. However, when
long or restricted systems are to be tested, more uniform
tracer distribution will be obtained by fim evacuating to less
than 100 Pa (a few tom), and then filling with the test gas.
The latter must be premixed if not 100 % tracer.
7.4 Dirt and Liquih-As the orifice in the detector probe
is very small, the pa- being tested should be clean and dry
to avoid plugging. Reference should be frequently made to a
standard leak to ascertain that this has not happened.
8. Apparatus
8.1 Helium Leak Defecfor, equipped with atmospheric
detector probe. To perform tests as specified in this standard,
the detector should be adjusted for testing with helium and
should have the following minimum features:
8.1.1 Sensor Mass Analyzer.
8.1.2 Readour, analog or digital.
8.1.3 Range (linear)-A
signal equivalent to 1 x lo-'
Pa.m3/s (1 x
standard cm3/s) or larger must be
detectable.
8.1.4 Response lime, 3 s or less.

8.1.5 Sfabilify of Zero and Sensifivily-A maximum


variation of &5 % of full scale on the most sensitive range
while the probe is active; a maximum variation of 2 2 % of
full scale on other ranges for a period of 1 min.
NOTE I-Variations may he a funmion of cnvironmenwl interfcrcnm rather than equipment limiulions.
8.1.6 Conrrols:
8.1.6.1 Range, preferable in scale steps of 3x and lox.
8.1.6.2 Zero, having sufficient range to null out atmospheric helium. Automatic null to zero is preferred.
8.2 Heliltnz Leak Sfandard-To oerfonn leak tests as
specified in this standard, the leak standard should meet the
following minimum requirements:
8.2.1 Ranges-1 x
to
Pa.m3 (lo-' to lo-%
standard cm3/s) full scale calibrated for discharge to atmosphere.
8.2.2 Adjusfabilify-Adjustable leak standards are a convenience but are not mandatory.
8.2.3 Accuracy, &25 % of full-scale value or better.
8.2.4 Temperalure Coeficienf, shall be stated by manufacturer.
8.3 Helium Leak Sfandard, as in 8.2 but with ranges of
iOmRor
Pa.m"s (lo-' or lo-% standard cm31s).
8.4 01Aer Apparalus-Fixtures or other equipment spe-

increasing the prL.rsurc

u.!iil

: I ~ , , I Ilrss
, c ~r.,l,cns,ve

&35. such 2s

air.

11.2.2.1 1 At cornplelton of thc test evacuate or purge tesl


gas from the device. if required.
11.2.2.12 Write a test repon or otherwise indicate test
results as required.
NOTE 5-lr neceswry l o obwin a rwronablc inslmmcnl deflecrion.
adjusl range, rczero if nccesww, and reapply s;lmpling probe lo leak
slandard.
1 1.3 Tessr A4erhod B (refer to 4.4 and Fig. 2):
11.3.1 ilppara1li.r-Same as for Test Method A. except
that equipment for enclosing all or part of the item to be
tested is required as shown in Fig. 2.
1 I .3.2 Procedure:
I 1.3.2.1 Ser-up-Same as I 1.2.2.1 through 1 1.2.2.7, Test
Method A, except that somewhat larger variations in atmospheric helium can be tolerated due to the isolation of the pan
during test.
11.3.2.2 Sensitivirj~Setring-In general, it will be advantageous to use the maximum stable sensitivity setting on the
leak detector, in order to reduce the accumulation time to a
minimum.
11.3.2.3 Insert the pan to be tested (unpressurized), the
leak standard ( 1 1.2.1.3), and the detector probe in the Fig. 2
enclosure.
11.3.2.4 Note the rate of increau: of detector indication.
11.3.2.5 Remove the leak standard, pressurize the pan
with test gas, and again note rate of rise. if any. If 11.3.2.5
exceeds 1 1.3.2.4, reject part.
11.3.2.6 Remove the part from the enclosure and purge
out any accumulated helium.
11.3.2.7 Evacuate or purge test gas from the pan, if
required.
11.3.2.8 Write a test report or otherwise indicate test
results as required.

11.2 Tesr Mmhod A (refer to 4.3 and Fig. I):


I 1 .2. 1 Apparart~s:
I 1.2.1. I Tesr SpeciJkorioi~.
11.2.1.2 Nclitrm Leok Derecror. with atmospheric detector, sampling probe.
1 1.2.1.3 Heliu~vLeok Slandard, discharge to atmosphere.
Size equal lo helium content of maximum leak rate per
specification.
1 1.2.1.4 Heliuti~Leok Srandard. discharge to vacuum.
Pa-m3/s ( I
Size: anywhere between I x lo-' and I x
x
and 1 x lo-' standard cml/s), unless otherwise
specified by maker of leak detector.
11.2.1.5 Tesf Gas, at or above specification pressure.
1 1.2.1.6 Pressrrre Gages. I/alves, and Piping, for introducing test gas, and if required, vacuum pump for evacuating device.
11.2.1.7 Liquid Nirrogoi. if required.
1 1.2.2 Procedure:
11.2.2.1 Set helium leak standard at maximum helium
content of specification leakage. Example:
Maximum leak rav: I X lo-' Pa.m'/s ( I x lo-' standard cm3/s).
Tat gas I lo helium in air, w1 the standard a1
1 x 10-'XU.01 or I X 10-'Pa.m3/s(I x 104cm'h).
11.2.2.2 Start detector, warm up, fill trap with liquid
nitrogen if required, and adjun in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, using leak standard 11.2.1.4 attached to
vacuum system.
11.2.2.3 Attach atmospheric detector probe to detector
sample port in place of leak standard and open valve of
detector probe, if adjustable type is being used, to maximum
leak rate under which detector will operate properiy.
11.2.2.4 Rezero detector to compensate for atmospheric
12. Precision and Bias
helium.
12.1 Precision
11.2.2.5 With orifice of leak standard (1 12.1.3) in a
statement on precision is
12.1.1 Tesr Melhod A-No
horizontal position, hold the tip of the detector probe
made.
direaly in line with and 1.5 +. 0.5 mm (0.06 k 0.02 in.) away
12.1.2 T a r Method B-Replicate tests by the same operfrom the end of the orifice, and observe reading (Note 5).
ator with the same equipment should not be considered
112.2.6 Remove probe from standard leak and note
suspect if the results agree within j125 %. Replicate tests
minimum and maximum readings due to atmospheric
from a second facility should not be considered suspect if the
helium variations or other instabilities.
results agree within +SO %.
11.2.2.7 If 11.2.2.6 is larger than 30 % of 11.2.2.5, take
12.2 Biax
steps to reduce the helium added to the atmosphere, or to
12.2. t . Test Merhod A-Due to the nature of the test no
eliminate other causes of inskbility. If this cannot be done,
statement of bias is possible. Calibration standards are used
testing at this level of sensitivity may not be practical.
only to ensure that the leak detector is funciioning properly.
11.2.2.8 Evacuate (if required) and apply test gas to device
No leak measurement is intended.
at specified pressure.
12.2.2 Test Method B-Bias of leak rates between lo-'
11.2.2.9 Probe Areas Stcrpecred of haking-Probe shall
and
Pa.ml/s (lo-'' to 10-I standard cm3/s) are typically
be held on or not more than I mm (0.04 in.) from the surrace
+25 %.
of the device, and moved not faster than 20 mm/s (0.8 in.1~).
13. Keywords
If leaks are located which cause a "reject" indication they
13.1 bell jar leak test; bomb mass spectrometer leak test;
must be repaired before making final acceptance test.
helium leak test; helium leak testing; leak testing; mass
11.2.2.10 Mainrain an orderly procedure in probing the
spectrometer iwk testing: sealed object mass spectrometer
q u i r e d areas, preferably identifying them as rested, and
leak test
plainly indicating points of leakage.

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Designation:

E 1 6 0 3 - 94

Standard Test Methods for


Leakage Measurement Using the Mass Spectrometer Leak
Detector or Residual Gas Analyzer in the Hood Mode'

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for testing the


sources o l gas leaking at the rate of 4.4 x lO-I4 molesjs ( I x
standardim3/s at O'C) or greater. These test methods
may be conducted on any object that can be evacuated and
to the other side of which helium or other tracer gas may be
applied. The object must be structurally capable of being
tor).
evacuated to pressures of 0.1 Pa (approximately
1.2 Three test methods are described;
1.2.1 Test Merhod A-For the object under test capable of
being evacuated, but having no inherent pumping capability.
1.2.2 Tesl Merhod B-For the object under test with
integral pumping capability.
1.2.3 Tesr Merhod C-For the object under test as in Ten
Method B, in which the vacuum pumps of the object under
test replace those normally used in the leak detectar (LD).
1.3 The values mted in SI units are to be regarded as the
standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard doer nor purporr 10 addrers ail of rhe
safely wncerns, $ any, arsociafed u~ifh IS use. [I! is rlre
responsibility of the user of fhis srandard io er~ablishappropriare s&y and health pradices and determine the applicabiliry ofregulafary limi[afions prior to use

2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Srandard:

E 1316 Terminology for Nondestructive ExaminationZ


2.2 Ofher Documenls=
SNT-TC-IA Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing3
ANSIIASNT CP-189 ASNT Standard for Qualification
and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel3
3. Terminology
3.1 Dejinirions-For definitions of terms used in these
test methods, see Terminology E 1316.

4. Summary of Test Methods


4.1 These test methods require a helium LD that can
provide a syslem sensitivity of 10 % or less of the intended
leakage rate to be measured.
'Thcw <a
mclhodr arc under lhc jurirdinion of ASCh4 Commitlnr E-1 on
Nandcnruclivc Tcning and r m ~ h cd i m raponribilily o f Submmmillcc E07.08
on L n k Taiing Method.

Cumnt miition rpprovcd Mar& 15. 1994. Publishmi May

1994.

4.2 7'c~rA,i~ri~od
A-This test method is used to helium
leak test objects that are capable of being evacuated to a
reasonable test pressure by the LD pumps during an acceptable length of lime (Fig. 1). miis requires that the object be
clean and dry. Auxiliary vacuum pumps having greater
capacity than those in the LD may be used in conjunction
with them. The leak test sensitivity will be reduced under
these conditions.
4.3 Tesr Merhod B-This test method is used to leak test
equipmenl that can provide its own vacuum (that is,
equipment that has a built-in pumping system) at least to a
level of a few hundred pascals (a few torr) or lower. Refer to
Fig. 2.
4.4 Tesr Merhod C-When a vacuum system is capable of
producing internal pressures of less than 2 x 105 Pa (2 x
104 ton) in the presence of leaks,these leaks may be located
and evaluated by the use of either a residual gas analyzer
(RGA) or by using the specVometer tube and controls from a
conventional MSLD, provided that the leakage is within the
sensitivity range of the RGA or MSLD under the conditions
existing in the vacuum system. Refer to Fig. 3.

5. Personnel QualiIiuGon
5.1 It is recommended that personnel performing leak
testing attend a dedicated training m u m on the subject and
pass a written examination. The training course should be
appropriate for NDT Level I1 qualification in accordance
with Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A or ANSIIASNT
Standard CP-189.
6. Significance nnd Use
6.1 Tesl Merhod A-This test method is the most frequently used in leak testing components. Testing of components is correlated to a standard leak, and the actual leak rate
is measured. Acceptance is based on the maximum system
allowable leakage. For most produetion needs, acceptance is
based on acceptance of pans leaking less than an eslabliihed
leakage rate, which will ensure safe performance over the

------

m e t

canpanont

Enclosure (Hood)

I
I

_yTaat

-...-----

I
I

I
I

a A n n u l Bwk oJASljl{ Slandordr. Vol03.03.


Awilahlc imm A m c r i a n Sacicly far Nondcnrunivc Tmling. 171 1 Arlingalc

'

P l u r P.O. Box 28518. Columbus OH 432284518.

FIG. 1

Test Meihad A

Toat Encloauro ( I l o d l

- - - - - - - -6-- - - - 1
I
I
I
1
r
I

Toat

compncnt

I---

-----I

II

1
(

nigh

Vacuum Pump

I
1

I
I

I
I

~~~~~~Q

-I - - - - - J
FIG. 2

Test Method B

------I
I

I
I

rest

camponent

'I

I
I

6 Teat e n c l a a u r a (flood)

sigh vacvvm P m p

FIG. 3 Test Method C

projected U e of the component. Care must be exercised to


ensure that large systems are calibrated with the standard
leak located at a representative place on the test volume. As
the volume tends to be large (>I m3) and there are often low
conductance paths involved, a check of the response time as
well as system sensitivity should be made.
6.2 Tesc Method B-This test method is used for testing
vacuum systems either as a step in the final test of a new
system or as a maintenance practice on equipment used for
manufacturing, environmental test, or conditioning paN. As
with Test Method A. the reswnse time and a system
sensitivity check may be requireb for large volumes. 6.3 Test Method C-This test method is to be used only
when there is no convenient method of connecting the LD to
the outlet of the high-vacuum pump. I f a helium LD is used
and the high-vacuum pump is an ion pump or cryopump,
leak testing is best accomplished during the roughing cycle,
as these pumps leave a relatively high percentage of helium
i n the high-vacuum chamber. This will limit the maximum
sensitivity that can be obtained.

hours lo build u p llie partial pressure of helium in [llc


volumc belu,ecn the two leaks so that enough helium enlers
the vacuum syslem lo be detected by the LD. This type or
leak occurs frequently under the following conditions:
7.1.1 Double-welded joints and lap welds,
7.1.2 Double O-rings.
7.1.3 Threaded joints.
7.1.4 Ferrule and flange-ppe tubing liltings.
7.1.5 Casling will1 internal voids.
7.1.6 flal polymer gaskers. and
7.1.7 Unvented O-ring grooves.
7.2 In general. the solution is proper design lo elimina~e
there conditions; however, when double seals must be used,
an access pon belween them should be provided for attachmen1 to the LD. Leaks may then be located from each side of
the seal. The access port can be sealed or pumped continuously after repair by a holding pump (large vacuum system).
7.3 Temporarily plugged leaks often occur because of
poor manufacturing techniques. Water, cleaning solvent,
plating, flux. grase. paint, etc. are common problems. These
problems can be eliminated to a large extent by proper
preparation of the p a m before leak testing. Proper
degreasing. vacuum baking, and testing before plating or
painting are desirable.
7.4 The time constant for evacuation and for the rise of
the helium signal is invenely proportional to the pumping
speed and directly proportional to the volume being evacuated.
Low-condumnce tubing, or any other flow impedance, can
reduce the pumping speed of the system very significantly,
thus extending the system response time constant. If such an
impedance connects two volumes under test, a LD connection to each volume should be provided.
7.5 When unusually long pumping times are necesr;uy, aU
of the connections not being tested should be protected from
continuous exposure to the helium. This will reduce undesired high-helium background levels due to permeation of
helium through the O-rings. This can be effected by donbleseals (with evacuation of the space between), or sometimes
by more informal shielding approaches.
7T.57 MEIHOD A-HELIUM

LEAK TESl7NG OF
COMWNENIS/SYSTEMS USING THE LD

8. Apparatus
8.1 Leak Derecror, having a minimum deteciable lcak rate
as required by the test sensitivity.
8.2 A t ~ ~ i l i a Pumps,
r!~
capable of evacuating the object to
be tested lo a low enough pressure that the LD may be
connected.
8.3 Suirable Connecror and Valves, to connect to the LD
test port. Compression fitting and metal tubing should be
used in oreference to a vacuum h o w
8.4 ~iandardLcaks of Borh Capsrile o p e (Containing 11s
Own Ifeliutn Stipply) and Capillary Type, an actual leak that
is used to simulate the reaction of the test system to a helium
leak. The leak rate of the standard lcak used for the system
calibration shall be equal to or lrss then one half of the
acceptance level (maximum permissible leakage rate). Temperature correction of the permeation capsule-type swndard
~

7. interferences
7.1 Series leaks with an unpumped volume between them
present a difficult if not impossible problem in helium leak
testing. Although the &atrace gas enten the first leak readily
enough since the pressure difference of helium across the first
leak is approximately one atmosphere. it may take many

Calibration Setup w i t h a

capillary

CL

9.2 Adjust the LD readout to correspond to the temperd.


lure-corrected standard leal, value in accordance with tile
manufacturerz' instructions.
NOTE I-Valve closurn mnv be accom~lishcdautomalimllv
n,,
~,
s a m c LDr ~ n some
d
C O U ~ I C ~ O U - I Y htS1.D~
W
( = q u i r t conlinucd UU.
the rouy>xlng purnc, dunng terl~np, Refcr lo lhc m ~ n u l ~ c l u r c rown,,,,,!
'r

manual.
9.3 Disconnect tile capsule standard leak from the LD
and connect the test system to the LD.

Calibration S e t u p

with a

Capsule CL

FIG. 4 Calibration Setups

leaks should be performed when the ambient temperature


has a difference of 3C (5F) from the calibration temperature of the standard leak. The leakage rate error may become
significant (>I2 %) without temperature correction.
8.5 Vacuum Gage, to read the pressure before-the LD is
connected.
8.6 Heliwn Tank and Replalor, with attached helium
probe hose and jet.
8.7 Test Component/Sysrem Enclosure (Hood)-Either a
rigid structure or heavy plastic cover to contain and surround the test pan totally in helium tracer gas.

9. Instrument Cdibration
9.1 Attach the capsule leak to the LD and tune the LD to
achieve the desired sensitivity scale in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. Allow sufficient time for the
flow rate from the capsule leak to equilibrate. The permeation-type capsule leak should be stored with the shutoff
valve (if present) open, and the leak should be allowed to
equilibrate to ambient temperature for several hours. Capillary-type capsule leaks should be stored with the shutoff
valve closed to prevent unwanted decay of the reservoir
pressure.

10. System Calibration and Test Procedure


10.1 For small-volume tests (a few litres and less) or when
the standard leak cannot be attached directly to the test
component, the instrument calibration shall be used for the
system calibration. The correction factor (CF) used to
multiply the instrument calibration value for the system leak
rate is one.
10.2 For large-volume systems, attach one of the slandard
leaks to the test system at a location that provides the lowest
conductance path to the LD.
NOTE 2-11 using a capsule l u k . open the calibtated I& (CL)and
pump isolation wlva. and clow the ulibntion vslvc. Turn on the CL
vacuum pump. Refer to Fig. 4.
10.3 Evacuate the device to be tested until near equilibrium pressure is reactikd on the rough vacuum gage. Open
the valve to the LD and check the background helium
concentration. When the helium background is equal to or
less than one half the acceptance level (maximum permissible leakage rate), close the valve(s).to the roughing pumps.
10.4 System Calibraion or Procedure Quolifiiccion:
10.4.1 Record the helium background level.
10.4.2 Open the valve of the system standard leak (calibration valve) attached to the test component/system (Fig.
4).
NOTE3-Iiusing a clpillary leak, apply helium of one atmosphere to
the smndard l u k For the clpsule standard Ids, dmc the pump
isolation valvc immcdiatdy prior to opening the calibration valvc.
10.4.3 Graph the LD response as a function of time until
a steady-state condition is reached. Refer to Fig 5.
10.4.4 Close the standard leak valve, and reduce the
helium background of the test componentlsystem to the
same level as that obtained before system calibration. It may
be necessary to open roughing pump valves and use the
roughing pumps to expedite the reduction of the helium
background.
10.4.5 Calculate the LD C F for adjusting the instrument
calibration reading to a system calibration reading. For tests
on large-volume systems, the amplitude response of a leak in
the system is less than the amplitude response from the
instrument calibration standard leak
10.4.5.1 This CF should be calculated at either the time gt
which a steady-state response (SS) is reached or at the time at
which the LD response is 63 % of the change. This shall be
the minimum test period. The formula for the C F at this test
time is as follows:

where:
CL,. = temperature-corrected standard leak rate,

.-

Steady S t a t e value

---

MSLD

I/;;
I

Background
level

'c

Sr
T e s t Time

= system time constant

x = o

r;

volume of test system


Pumping speed of eystem

r = 6 3 s of amplitude change cauned by C L


5r = 99.9% of amplitude change (Steady State condition)

FIG. 5 System Time Constanl

LR = indicated LD reading (0.63 SS or SS) at the end of the


test period (T or 57 respectively), and
BR = background reading (initial reading).
10.5 Set the LD on the appropriate range.
10.6 Close the valves to the roughing pump(s) if they were
opened to expedite the reduction of the helium background.
10.7 Fd the test wmponent/system enclosure with helium or place the test patt in the enclosure. Large, enclosures
should be purged sumciently to remove the trapped air. For
any concentration other than 100 % helium atmosphere, the
system aoxptance level should be adjusted for the reduced
sensitivity.
10.8 Keep the test wrnponent/system in the test enclosure for the test period established in accordance with 10.4.5
and record the LD reading at the end of the period.
N m 4--The system time raponst may be longer than tile innrumen1 rapomtime.

10.9 Calculate the system leakage by multiplying the LD


reading by the C F to obtain the corrected system leakage. For
tests in which a system calibration was not performed (that
is, test volumes less than a few litres), use a C F of one.
10.10 Write a test report. or otherwise indicate the test
results as required.
TEXT MEITiOD B-HELIUM LEAK TESTING OF VACUUM
E O U l P M E M AND SYSTEMS THAT HAVE INIECRAL
PUMPING SYSTEMS OF THEIR OWN

11. Apparatus
11.1 Helium LD-Same

tion. All connections should have as high a conductance as is


practical.
12.2 Attach the standard leak to the vacuum chamber of
the object to be tested and as far as practical from the inlet to
the pumping system. Refer to Fig. 4.
12.3 Operate the equipment until equilibrium vacuum is
reached in the vacuum chamber.
12.4 Slowly open the inlet valve to the LD. Do not allow
the LD pressure to exceed the manufacturer's recommendations.
12.5 if the inlet valve can be opened fully without
exceeding the safe LD operating pressure, close the equipment roughing pump valve slowly. If this valve can be closed
completely. the maximum sensitivity of the test will be
achieved.
13. instrument Glibration
13.1 See Section 9.
14. System Calibration and Test Procedure
14.1 See Section 10.
TEST hlETl1OD C-USE 01:RCA OR OF HELIUM MSLD
SPECTRORlETEl TUBE AND CONIROL IN LEAK l T S n S C
(NO VACUUM SYSTEM IN THE LD)

15. Apparatus
15.1 RGA or lCfSLD and Cottlrols. tunable to the tnce
gas.

apparatus as Section 8.

12. Preparation of Apparatus


12.1 Connect the inlet valve of the LD of the foreline of
the object to be tested. If possible, insert a valve in the
foreline between the mechanical pump and the LD connec-

15.2 Standard Leak, of approximately the size of the


minimum leak to be located.
15.3 Slrirable Filling and Isolaling Valves, for attachment
to the hi&-vacuum chamber.
15.4 Liquid ~ i t r o g e nCold Traps, to be used if the system
conta~nscondensable vapors harmful to the RGA or the
MSLD

16. Preparation of Apparatus


16.1 Attach the RGA or the MSLD tube to the highvacuum section of the test object to he tested. The conneclion should be located near the pumped end of the system
and attached with as short and as lame a diameter tube as
practical. Maximum test sensitivity & obtained when the
high-vacuum pumps are throttled, by means of the highvacuum valve. so as to maintain as hi& a oressure in the
~n'imlationvalve
volume under'test as is safe for the
may be used between the detector and the system to allow
servicing the detector without loss of vacuum in the system
and to protect the detector from contamination when nor in
use. When a liquid nitrogen trap and isolating valve are both
being used, the cold trap should be located between the test
object and the isolating valve.
16.2 Attach a standard capillary or permeation leak to the
system as far away from the pumps as possible, using the
lowest conductance path. A small high-vacuum valve should
be used between the standard leak and the system, and a dust
cap should be provided for the capillary standard leak if it is

LL

to he left in place. Refer to Fig. 4 for the calibration setun

17. Instrument Calibration


17.1 See section 9.
18. System Calibration and Test Rocedure
18,1 seesection
19. Precision and Bias
19.1 Precision-The precision of these test methods..will
vary with each instrument and the sensitivity level of the leak
test.
19.2 Biu-The bias of the leak t a t will be equal to that
ofthe standard leak used for the system calibration when test
conditions are the same as the system operating conditions.

20. Keywords
20.1 helium leak test; helium mass spectrometer leak test;
hood leak test; leak testing; mass spectrometer leak test

Ths nK1ric.w W r y lor Testing and Malerials lakes m p a r h ~ q c I i n gthe validi7y dany w e n 1 righls asserted in mnnedion
wifh any i(Mt memiaoed in lhb standad. US- d l h b slandard are eqxdy advised lhal delenniMiion ol the validify d any such
wen(righls, and ihe rirk d i n f r i m olslhh rigMs, are direly their avn respnsibil#y.
Thb slandard is sobjeQ 10 revision al any W-9 by ihe respririMe l & n b l m m i n e e andmusl be revwew live yesrs and
fndrrnired, ei7herresppro"edorwilhd-.
Y o u r c ~ m w m a r e i n u ~ e d ~ I ~ ~ r ~
and shooM ba a d d w lo ASTM Hea+&es.
Ywr cMmwm wiilreccire M u 1 m M e ( a l i o n a1 a meeling d lhe r s s p ~ ~ i b l e
l&nW m m e e . Which you may anand. H you lee1 lhal your mmmnls have nd mceh'ed a fair hearing you shwld make your
views kMwn lo Uw ASTM Commnec an Si&s.
1916 Race Si. Philad#@ia. PA 19103.

THERMOGRAPHY
Introduction

.
.
.

all methods in which heat sensing devices are used to measure temperature variations in
components, structures, systems or physical processes
used for detection of subsurface flaws or voids, provided depth of flaw is not large
compared to its diameter
can inspect complex shapes or assemblies of similar or dissimilar materials
need only one side accessibility

Basic Principles of Thermography

thermography uses non-contact infrared scanning equipment to detect invisible infrared


radiation (heat) and converts this energy
-- to visible light,
- or an electrical simal to be displayed:

visible

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

.
.
.

involves the measurement or mapping of surface temperatures when heat flows from, to or
through a test object
thennograph - map of isotherms or contours of equal temperatures, over a test surface
examples of detectable changes - heat leaking out of a component causes a hot spot on the
part surface or unbonded area on a component which so uniformly heated will produce a
hot spot since the heat does not flow to the substructure compared to the normal area
the larger the imperfection and the closer it is to the surface, the greater the temperature
Merentid

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

.
.

heat flows from hot to cold within an object by conduction and between an object and its
surroundings by conduction, convection and radiation
electromagnetic radiation is emitted from a heated body when electrons within the body
change to a lower energy state. Both the intensity and the wavelength of the radiation
depend on the temperature of the surface atoms or molecules

Material Heat Transfer Characteristics

Material characteristics that affect conduction and convection


1) Specific heat (c) -

.
.

the amount of heat a mass of material will absorb for


a given temperature interval.
the mass per unit volume of the material
2) Density (p) 3) Thermal conductivity Q - the amount of heat that flows in a given direction
when there is a temperature difference across the
material in that direction
4) Thermal diffusivity (a)- the speed at which the heat flows away from a region
of higher temperature to the surrounding material
5) Convection heat transfer coefficient @) - a measure of how efficiency heat is
exchanged
. between a surface and a flowing
- gas
- or
liquid
a measure of the heat energy ( local thermal agitation)
6) Temperature Q contained at each point in the test object
Important material characteristic in radiation heat transfer is the emissivity (E) of a test
surface
Emissivity indicates the efficiency of a surface as a radiator (or absorber) of electromagnetic
radiation

blackbodies, the most efficient radiators or absorbers of electromagnetic radiation, have an


emissivity of 1.0, all other bodies have an emissivity less than 1.0

emissivity is a function of several variables such as color and surface roughness

variations in emissivity change the power of the radiation emitted at given temperature and
thus affect infr-dlwl.temperature measurements

Surface Preparation
e

surface condition can affect test results i.e. roughness, cleanliness, foreign materials,
uniformity and condition of paint or other surface coatings

Establishing Heat Plow

.
.
.

test piece to be inspected by thermography are considered to be either active or passive


passive - test pieces are artificially heated or cooled during the inspection to obtain a thermal
profile
active - test pieces that use the heating or cooling effects inherent in normal service durini
inspection

Inspection Equipment

.
.

Temperature sensors used in thermal inspection can be separated into two categories:
noncontact temperature sensors (used for thermography) and contact temperatures sensors
Noncontact sensors depend on the thermally generated electromagnetic radiation from the
surface of the test object This energy is typically in the infrared region
TYPES OF NONCONTACT SENSORS
A.

Infrared imaging svstems


1) hand held scanners - respond to wavelengths (h)of 8-12 pm emitted by objects
at or near room temperature but have poor imaging qualities and are not suitable for
accurate measurement of local temperature differences
2) high resolution infrared imaging systems - these systems use either pyroelectric
vidicon cameras with image processing circuitry or cryogenically cooled mechanical
scanners to provide good image resolution (150 pixels, or picture elements per scan
line)

.
.
.

Temperature sensitivity to 0.1" C (0.2" E)


[some claim down to 0.001" C (0.002 " F)]
Response time < 0.1 second to detect transient temperature changes or
differentials
Systems use either a gray scale or a color scale which are correlated to
temperature ranges to depict the temperature distribution within the image

3) the& wave interferometer systems - use modulated laser excitation with rapid
phase and amplitude sensing that can be scanned across a surface to produce an
image

system senses the interaction between the thermal waves of the laser and the
thermal variations from coating defects and thickness variations

B. Radiometers and pyrometers


Devices for measuring radiation, or spot or line temperatures, without the spatial
resolution needed for an imaging system usually have slow response time, so they
are good for monitoring constant or slow varying temperatures
Pyrometers - used as noncontacting thermometers for temperatures of 0" - 3000" C
( 32" - 5400" F)

.
.
.

Both radiometers and pyrometers are low cost devices that can be, used for long
term monitoring of processes
Contact Temperature Sensors - include material coating an thermoelectric devices
advanta~es- usually low in cost
disadvantages - provides qualitative temperature measurements which can show
small changes in temperatures and coatings can change the thermal characteristics of
the past surface

TYPES OF CONTACT SENSORS


A. Cholesteric liquid crystals

greaselike substances that can be blended to


compounds hive color
transition ranges at temperatures from -20 to 250 " C (-5 to 480" F)
Compounds can have a color response for a particular temperature range and
differentials of 1' - 50" C (2' - 90" F)

B. Thermally quenched phosphors

.
.

.
.

organic compound that emit visible light wwhh excited by ultraviolet light.
brightness of phosphorus inversely proportional with temperature over a range
from room temperature to - 400' C (750" F)
some can change as much as 25% / "C or 14% 1 "F
other coatings - heat sensitive paints, therrnochromic compounds, heat sensitive
papers, meltable frosts and waxlike substances can indicate surface temperatures.

C. Thermoelectric devices
Thermocouples -

consist of a pair ofjunctions of two different metals. As the


temperature of one of the junctions is raised, a voltage
relative to the other (reference)junction is produced that is
proportional to the temperature difference between the two
junctions.

Thermopiles -

are multiple themocouples used electrically in series to


increase the output-voltage. They have greater output (which
results in greater sensitivity) but have a slower response time
due to the increased mass.

Thermistors -

are electrical semiconductors that use changes in electrical


resistance to measure temperature

Acoustic emission

Reprinted from ResearchlDwelooment. May 1971, Volume 22, Number 5. oases 20-24

Acoustic emission
-.
Does metal 'shriek' when it's under stress or strain?
Indeed it does. . . and instruments and methods have been developed
to 'listen in' on materials and predict failures before they occur

President, ~ u n e G nR e e a r d ~ o r ~ a r a t i b n

and A. S. Tetelrnan

Schwl of Engineering. UCLA


Acoustic emission &ling offen a new method for
performing nondestructive tating of materials, manufacturing processes and suuctural components. When
a material is strained beyond its elastic limit, it emits a
characteristic noise signal thal is called ucomic c m b
sion. T h e total amount of acoustic emission increases
until the material fractures. Detedion of acoustic
emission signals allows an engineer o r scientist to
predict when a material is about to fail and gives him

Digital printer
bo \

or computer
cL
2

Reamplifier
Transducer
Alarm

AJ
Fig. 1. Simplified block diagram of acoustic emission
system. Sensing transducer in contact with structure
being investigated converts low-level stress waves to
electrical signals that are amplified, filtered and processed in varietv of wan.

the opportunity to prevent (fie failure in such wses.


The family physician employs one form of acoustic
emission Lcsting when he listens to the human heartbeat with a stethoscope. From the pulse rate and
amplitude of the e m i M sound, h e determines whether there are any defects in the heart However, the
sound emitted by a deforming metal o r nonmetallic
structure is much more difFicult to detect Sensitive
pieuxlearic transducers must be u t i i i i to hear the
key events o f deformation and fracture and convert
these p u b s to cleclmnic signals. Filters are required
to screen out unwarranted background o r extraneous
noise. T h e electronic signals need to he amplified,
pro&
and presented to the user in a simple display. Finally, the scientist o r engineer must have some
understanding of the "software" of this technique if
he is lo use it efficiently.
A great deal of r and d effort has been expended on
acoustic emission testing during the last several years.
An acoustic emission working group is in existence
and, in c a p e r a t i o n with ASTM, is sponsoring a twoday technical conference on emission tesiing in Florida in Decemher 1971. Apart from the original efforts
of Kaiser in Germany. almost all of the work has been
performed in the U.S. Acoustic emission techniques
haqe been fouhd to be one of the most informative
methods of determining material behavior and stNcturd performance. T h e techniques have been used
for nondesmctive inspection of ordnance and pressure vessels, for determining the efficiency of welding
and adhesive bonding processes: and for understand-

ing [he microscopic proccsscs o i iatiguc, slress corrosion cracking and composite failure. Malcrials such as
steel, titanium, aluminum. concrete, woad aod fiber
reinforced resins have been investigated.
How It Works
Acoustic emissions are the impulsively generated
small amplitude elastic stress wavcs created by deformations in a material. T h e rapid release of kinetic
energy from the deformation mechanism propagates
elaslic waves from the source, and these arc detected
as small displacements on the surface of the specimen.
The emissions indicate the onset and continuation o f
deformation and may be used to locate the source of
deformation through Lriaugulation techniques.
A particular feaNre which makes acoustic emission
analysis a most useful tool for the study of the behavior o f materials is that the pattern of emission u
determined by the lime distribution of the impulsive
deformations that occur within the material. Coosequently, the study of local defects can be carried out
without prior knowledge of their location, o r even
existence. In addition. emission data dscribe the volumetric deformation p r o c m not adquately available from surface phenomena (such as strain), thus
permining a mom comprehensive insight into the
deformation p r o e s e s (such as plastic flow, fracture
and phase transformations) that occur.
The application o f acoustic emission technology
involves a f f i n g the senson to the article under i n v s ligation; the detected emissions are then amplified,
selectively filtered. and conditioned, and then counted
either on a periodic basis, as a rate of emission, o r as a
cumulative total. Typically. inflection points in the
data curves obtained through either counting method
are used to determim such items as the onset o f
plasticity a n d l o r crack growth, continuatioo of slow
o r stable crack gmwth. and .the transition to unstable
crack growth. Emission signals are frquently also
recorded on magnetic tape for post-test analysis.
Figure 1 is a simplified block diagram showing the
detector in cootad with a strudurc. T h e sensing
transducer is normally constructed from a piaoelectric crystal that converts low level s t r w waves in the
structure to electrical signals that are amplified, band
pars filtered and processed in a variety of ways. T h e
signals are usually transient in nature and tend to ring
the detection transducer a t resonana. This rrcults in
an electrical signal that is a damped sinusoid with a
carrier frequency strongly dependent on the traosducer characteristics.
In many cases the signals are counted with a digital
counter. This count is converted to a dc voltage and
displayed on an x-y recorder. The digital counting
technique has other advantages in the event one
wishes to process the data with a digital computer.
The use of several acoustic emission channels on a
large structure can be used lo triangulate to a source
and thereby locate a flawed area. This is accomplished
in much the same manner as louting sources o f
earthquakes.
.+Applications

Strain

Fig. 2. Acoustic emission rate data observed fmm metal specimen pulled in tension. Note that emission rate is maximum
near yield strength and decreases in workhardening range.

Renure
Fig. 3. Typical summation of acoustic emission curves o h
tained from identical pressure vessels with different initial
flaw sizes. Slopes increase rapidly prior to failure. Data can
be used to predict failures before they occur.

k e e p growing

Acoustic emission testing techniques are rapidly


being used in many a r e a . Metallurgisls and materials
engineers are finding useful information concerning

Fig. 4. Summation acoustic emission as function of time for


three different heat treated specimens of an aluminum alloy
under load i n 3 per cent salt solution.

crack area (square inches\

~ i g . 5 . Summation of awustic emission signals a s function of area of hydmgen-induced cracking for several
values of stress intensity factor K.

the deformation mechanisms operating in materials.


These cover the gamut from glass and ceramics,
through conventional metals, into the more modern
composites.
Figure 2 shows the typical awustic emission response normally observed from a metal tensile specim e n T h e eminion rate is maximum near the yield
strength of the material and dsreases in the workhardening range The type of activity observed from
an nnftawed specimen of this kind is related to microscopic dislocation pmcascs and requirs a high sensitivity instrumentation system to be detected. T h e signal levels can vary by orders of magnitude depending
on such factors as the crystallme sWclure of the
materials, yield strength and past history.
Flaw de(ectioa The introduction of a Baw into a
material significantly changes the awustic c m k i o n
pattern in comparison to the unflawed specimen. T h e
data in Fig. 2 are primarily due to a uniform, homogeneous yielding that occurs in the gage section; in
this situation the emission incrcves to a maximum.
and decreases in the work-hardening region. When a
flaw is introduced, l o c a l i i yielding will occur in the
vicinity of the Baw even though the gross stress in the
specimen is weU below the yield stress. If the Baw is
large enough to caw failurc below g e n e d yield, a
continuous build up of crnission will occur until the
specimen fails.
Any anomaly that will c m t e l o c a l i i yielding will
result in awustic emission. Figure 3 shows typical
data from p r m r c vascls containing flaws o f sufficient sizc to cause failure to c o x r below general yield.
Note the large incrwwr in the Slopes of the summation of acoustic emission-prcnure curves prior to failure. Over 100 pressure vessels of different materials
have been monitored over lhe past 8 years. This rapid

increase in cn~issionprior to failure was observed in


all cases for failures bclow general yield. Many limes
the beginning of this rapid build up in activity occurs
at approximately 70-80 per cent of [he failure pressure. This allows failure to be anticipated in snme
cases.
Thin-wall vessels constructed from tough materials.
and containing small Raws often show a peak in the
acoustic emission data prior lo failure. similar to the
unflawed tensile specimen. It is then marc difficult to
make failurc predictions based on the slope of the
emission data. However, predictions can sometimes be'
made by periodically holding the vessel at constant
pressure on the increasing pressure cycle. Almost all
malerials 'containing flaws exhibit a creep effect at
some percentage of the critical stress where failure
occurs. This results in continuing acoustic emission
during t h a e constant-pressure hold periods. Laboxtory tests on fracture specimens can determine at
what percentage of the critical stress intensity factor
this creep effect ocmm and the pressure vessel test
can be used to estimate wheiher the stress intensity at
the largest flaw is above o r below this value. In many
materials the stress intensity factor must be 89 lo 90
per cent of the critical value Kcbefore tnc c m p effect
is observed.
Predicting suxrptibility to strm cormSon cracking
and hydmgen embritUemenL Many materials exhibit
susceptibility for subcridcal u a c k gmwth when cxposed to a combim~ionof certain environments, high
s@cscs.
c, and pre-existing Ram of length a. This
phenomenon is known a s sires w m i o n cracking.
Acoustic emission techniques can easily detect
stcorrosion cracking long before any visible evidence of attack is p r e x n t To demonsbate ihu effect,
three compact tension fradure specimens of an alu- minum alloy, containing sharp machined notches
were loaded to the same value of Ncss intensity
factor, K = (-)k, and subjected to a salt water
solution. Acoustic emision tranducers were attached, and the notched region of the specimens were
placcd in a 3 per a n t salt solution. The spacimem had
becn heat treated prior (D the test to such an extent
that one was s w r p t i b i e to strsr c o r n i o n cracking
and the other two were n o t
The summation of acoustic erninion counts p r s e n t
t o m each specimen was then plotkd as a function o f
time for a n 8 h o u r period. The d t i n g curves are
shown in Fig. 4. Note that specimen A shows aaivity
after only 20 minufm in thesolutionand goes to 10,000
counu in less than an hour. Specimens B and C
were not expected to besusceptible to theenvironment.
As expected; C did not show any activity over the 8hour period. In subsequent tesesIs,C was held for as
long as 86 hours with n o activity occurring. Spetimen
B did showsome susceptibility to stress corrosion. a[though in a much less dramatic manner Lhan A.
Following ~e 8-hour test the spccirncns were removed and examined a t 8 X magnification. No visible
difierenas were observed b e t w m the specimens. In
subsequent 86-hour t a u . A began to show a small
crack in the vicinity o f the notch tip. Most p r s e n t
. methods of determining stress corrosion suweptibiity
involves loading many specimqns simultaneously and
waiting for failures to occur. Thus. w n k s and months
are required to obtain the needed data. Acoustic
. emission techniques can shorten the time considerably
and arc idcally suilcd for determining whether or not

a particular cnvironmunt is hostilc to a given m~lcrial.

The role or dissolved hydrogen in promoling (r;lclure or high strength stecl components has been the
object o f numerous investications.
The acoustic emission resulting from the initiation of microcracks and
crack propagation can be easily recorded, and a quantitative relationship has been established between the
acoustic emission data and the amount of crack area
generated.
Figure 5 shows the rclationshi~between the summation of acoustic emissions present as a function of
the amount of hydropen-induced crack extension in a
cathodically chirgedTspecimen of 4340 steel. Note
that the number of counts present for a given amount
o f crack area swept out is strongly dependent on the
stress intensity factor K present at the crack tip.
Acoustic emission testing can thus be used to continuously monitor slow crack growth in cadmium
plated steel fasteners, and predict when a bolt is
approaching failure (when K -tKJ.
Mevuring coating thickness. There are many coating processes for protecting materials from erosion o r
corrosion under dilierent environmental conditions.
Anodizing is used by the aluminum industry. Thermal
oxidation can occur when materials such as titanium
alloys are subjected to high temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Both of these processes result in the
formation of brittle coat on the surface of the material. When the materials are deformed, the resulting
microcracks generated in this coating give rise to
acoustic emission signals that can he easily recorded.
A technique has been developed for measuring anod ' i coating thickness. It involves recording the total
number of counts for a given pressure from clamped
diaphragm specimens of thin aluminum with varying
anodized coating thickness.
Experiments have been performed recently on diaphragm specimens of 6 A I 4 V titanium alloy subjectcd to IS00 F in air, for different lengths of time.
The diaphragm specimens were clamped at the edges
and subject2 to ;n increasing hydro&tic pnsrure>n
one side, while acoustic emissions were recorded from
the opposite s i d e The summation of acoustic emission
counts were recorded up to 3M)O psi on each specim e n The total number of counts observed from each
was plotted as a function of the time of exposure of
each diaphragm to the 1500 F environment These
data. are presented in Fig. 6. Note that the longer
exposure results in a higher number of wunts to the
maximum prusure. Since the oxide coating thickness
is proportional to some function of the time of exposure, a test of this type can be used to determine the
average wating thickness. The 3000 psi was not sufficient lo plastically deform the diaphragm to such an
extent that a noticeable dimpling occurred. It was
determined that a few hundred psi was sufficient to
distinguish t h e difference between specimens; thus, a
device can be envisioned that would pressurize a given
area on a sheet specimen and provide a measure of the
wating thickness in a nondes&ctive manner.
Delcctinc
- hich
- temuenture failure. Many measurement techniques such as strain gaging, holography
and eddy currents, require access to the surface o f the
material. at o r adjacent to the area to be measured.
Thus, certain limitations are present when high temperature closed environmental conditions are present.
On the other hand, acoustic emission signals generated in materials will propagate for large distands

0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.0 2.25


Hours

Fig. 6. Sqmmation acoustic emission as function of


time of exposure at 1500 F for 6A1-4V titanium diaphragms pressurized to 3000 psi.

with little attenuation in most engineering materials;


and therefore the transducers can be located at some
distance from the activity without a loss of data.
One example of the use of this "wave guide" principle is shown in Fig. 7. A Rene' 41 tensile specimen
containing a transverse weld was tested at 1400 F i n a
gleeble machine. T h e determination of the on& of
microcracking was of ~ r i r n a r yinterest. The soecimen
was heated ti 1403 F during ;he first three mihutes. a t
which time load was applied until a preset stress was
obtained. At this point constant displacement was
maintained on the specimen. The signals from the
transducer (mounted on the water-uxrled grips external to the hot environment) were accumulated and
plotted as a function of time.
The acoustic emission data (Fig. 7) shows considerable activity during Load application; the emission
quiets down a s the displacement is held constant.
After approximately 30 seconds at constant displacemenl, crack initiation begins and continues. amlcrating until complete failure occurs. The emission data
provided detailed insight into a time dependent phenomenon, controlled by applied stress, temperature
and material composition. The acquisition of these
data was conveniently accomplished even under fairly
severe elearical and thermal noise conditions.

Future Applications
All materials and structures contain defects of one
sort or another. 'Generally, these defects wuse no
reduction in the strength of a part. However, if the
defects reach a certain range o f size, they become
dangerous and can cause a substantial reduction in
strength. AET offers the possibility of detecting these
cracks before they reach this critical size range.
TO understand how this is accomplished, it is necessary to digress a bit and consider the mechanics of
crack growth. Briefly, a crack of length o residing in

10

Crack ini!ia$ion

conaant
dirplocemcnt

Holding

..
.
. .. .
.:...+:;,.<;'";,.i'
. :
. ,
.

7 ;,

, ... ..-.. ... .. . . -

.,-. .

."

5.:

and failure
,

a i n =85 db
,,~B W
= 1W-300 KHz

'-

x'

'

4 ' :

Differential
transducer

3
2
,

,
,,

..
1

.... ... .. .
6

Minuter

Fig. 7. Summation acoustic emission as function of


time for welded Rene' 41 tensile specimen. Specimen
was heated to 1400 F in a gleeble machine loaded to a
constant displacement and held until failure occurred.

- ...

a n elastic volume under a tensile stress s is described


by a stress-intensity-factor K.
K=
(1)
K gives a measure of the local strain energy concentration, G. at the crack tip. For example. K =
(EG)H, where E is the elastic modulus. Unstable
(rapid, final) crack propagation occurs when G
reaches a critical value, G,, such that K reaches a
critical value
K, = (EG,)"
(2)
From Eq. 1. we see that the fracture s ~ e s or
s is rhen
given by
eF = Kc/
(a~,)"
(3)
where a, is the critical flaw size. Kc is called the fracture roughness. This key equation indicates that in
brittle materials (K, low), small flaws will become
critiul a t a particular slress level, whereas a, will be
large in tough materials (Kc high).
Flaws that are smaller than critical size when introduced into the suucture (by poor welding) can sfill
grow out to critical size under random loads (fatigue)
o r in reactive environments (stress corrosion cracking). Rare of slow crack growth also depends on K.
da/dr = f(K) = ffd;io)*)
(4)
It is necessary to detect a crack when its K I K , ratio is
low, if the stress is to be removed and brittle fracture
is to be prevented.
consis& of a series of disSlow crack
crete movemenls within the structure. Each movement rapidly removes the strain energy G stored near
the crack tip. A portion of this released energy is spent
by the increased crack-surface area as surface energy,
while another portion is released as elastic waves in
the form o f acoustic emissions. The results of rising
load tests have shown that the total number of acoustic emission signals, ZN, can be directly related lo
the applied stress-intensity-factor K, through a relationship o f the form
I N = AK(5)
where nr is a constant for a material and ~hickness.
Eq. 5 suggests thal acoustic enlission could be

applicd to thc dctcctlun ol cracks and their suhcritical


growth by continuous niunitoring oi a structure.
However, i n practical usage, cxccssive bockground
noise during service. such as accun in aircraft
nuclear power generating facilities, eliminates this
procedure i n many cases. As a n allernative to contin.
uous monitoring, a procedure lhat lakes advantage of
the irreversibility of acoustic emission is possible.
For example, i f a cracked structure is loaded to a
particular value of K and (hen unloaded, emission will
not occur during reloading until this previous value o f
K is exceeded. I t is therefore possible to take advan:
tage of this irreversible nature to determine whether
or not a crack has grown during service loading, by
periodically overstressing the structure to a stress level
higher than the service stress and simultaneously monitoring for acoustic emission. If Raws have grown
since the previous overstress, then the applied stress
intensity factor during the new overstress application
will have increased. and emission will be observed.
Alternatively, if no Raw extensions had occurred, the
applied stress-intensity-factor would remain as before
and no new plastic deformation, and hence no emission would occur. 1t is entirely f e G b l e that this
technique could be used to periodically overstress
selected structural components to determine if fatigue
cracks are growing in critical areas.
This concept of using.acoustic emission and a
scheduled applicalion of stress to estimate service life
may be applied to the case of turbine discr. Many of
the discs that are retired after a specified life could
undoubtedly experience further safe usage, provided
nondestructive testing techniques couid reliably predict that any parricular disc would be safe for a
specified period of additional service life.
During each cycle of loading. combinations of
stress, time. and temperature produce some creep and
fatigue damage which may, in turn, be accelerated by
metallurgical changes that occur during service.
From Eq. 5 , we see that a certain number of
acoustic emission signals, TN, (or also a certain
acoustic emission rate, N) indicates that a crack is
approaching K c and that the disc should be removed
from service. If the acoustic emission number is below
XN, then it is p w i b l e to guarantee that K is below a
particular value and that the disc has a certain guaranteed lifetime remaining to it, depending on the
exact form of equation (4).
The problem of estimating !he residual life of a
turbine disc is but one of a number of problems that
might be solved by AET. Consider weld cracking as
another example. Many failures of welded high
strength steel p a m resulting from the growth of
cracks are .difficult to detect by conventional NDI
methods. However, it should be possible to detect the
formation of a weld crack from the sound emitted
during the growth of the crack. Continuous AET
monitoring during welding should reduce the incidence of undetected weld cracks.
Bridges, dams and aircraft are all struc~uralsystems
in which failure occurs by slow crack extension prior
to failure. If this crack growth can be monitored.
either periodically o r continuously, it should be possible t? determine when K approaches K,, and hence
when'structural failure is impending. The one major
problem thal remains involves the screening out of
extraneous noise. but in many instances this is nonexistent or can be ovcrcome with existing technique$. 0

121ACOUSTlC EMISSION TESTING

PART 1

INTRODUCTION TO ACOUSTIC EMISSION .


TECHNOLOGY

The Acoustic Emission Phenomenon

" Acoustic emission is _ & e - e b t i w


1-

)
J?,'

I,
,

'

.,

?!.
J

'I 41

i!

that is spotane-

\ ously releazed by materials when they u n e o r m a t i o n .

In the early 1960s.a new nondestructie testing technology


was born when it was r e c o g n i d that
discontinuities in pressure versels
amusmonitoring their acoustic emission
.-- - signals. AIthou
tic emission is7he most wbel usedte;;iiiTior this p enomenon, it has also been d i edY stress waoe emission, stress
mw, microseirm, microsdmiic adimty and mdc noise.
Formally defined acoustic emission is "the ckrs of phenomena where transient elastic w a w are generged by the
rapid release of energy f m m I&
sourcer within a material, o r the transient elastic wavs so generated.": This is a
debition embracing bath the process of wave generation
and the wave itself.

t'

Source Mechanisms
Sources of acoustic emission include many different
mechanisms of deformation and fracture Earthquakes and
rockbursts in mines are the largest naturally occurringemir
sion sources. Sources that haw been i d e n a d in metals
include crack gmvth, moving dislocltions, slip, hvinning,
grain boundary sliding and the fracture and demhesion of
inclusions. In composite materials, sources indude mahir
cracking and the debonding and fracture of fibers. These
mechanisms typify the classical response of matelials to applied load.
Other mechanisms fall \\<thin the definition and are detectable with acoustic emission equipment. These include
leaks and cavitation; friction (as in rotating bearings); the
realignment or gravth of mag~leticdomains (Barkhausen effect); liquefaction and solidilic;ition; and solid-solid phase
trdnsfont~ations.Son~etimestliese s o u m s are &led sccorldanj sources or pselldo s o ~ ~ r cto
c sdistinguish them front
the classic acoustic ernission due to mechanical deformation
of stressed materials. A unified e~planationof the sources or
acoustic emission does not ~t exist. Neitlter does a complete analytical description of tlte stress wale energy in h e
vicinih of nn acoustic emissioti source. Hmwver, encouraging pro~rcsshas been ~ n a d ei n rl~esehvo ke\. resesrch areas.

Acoustic Emission Nondestructive


..
Testing
Acoustic emission examination is a rapidly maturing nondestructive testing method with demonstraid capabilities
for monitoring structural integrity, deteain l e a k and
incipient failures in mechanical equipment, an for characterinng materials behavior. T h e first documented application of acoustic emission to an engineerin s t t u b was
published in=
and all of the a ~ i l a b 1 e . i n 8 dapplication exp5rience has been accumulated in the comparatively
short time since then.

di5 h ! i k&\a

Comparison with Other Techniques

h&ec+ecS LJ
Amustic emission differs from most other nondem~ctive 4
methods in tw significant respects. Fi.the ene that is
detected is released from within the test obi& S e r tfian
being supplied by the nondestructiw met!&, as in ultrasonics o r radiography. Second, the acoustic emission
method is capable of detecting the d y ~ m i pnxerses
c
associated with the d
dation of stmctud integrity. Crack fj
and plastic eformahon an: major s o u r n of acouz- 4
h m m i o n . Latent drswnhnuities that enkrge under load
G E F a z i v e sources of acoustic emission by virlue of their
size. location or orientation are also t h e most likely to be significant in t e q of structural integrity.
Usually, certain areas within a structural system will de\dop local instabilities long before the structure fails. These
instabilities result in minute dynamic movements such as
plastic defonnation, slip o r crdck initiation and propagation.
Although the s t r e s ~ e s 7 i T : a ~ a l I , ~ % a ~well
b e below the
elastic design limit, the regtoion near a crack tip may undergo
plastic delbniGtGn as ;I resr~ltof high l w d l stresses. In this
situntion, t l ~ epropag;tting disco~ltinuitl/acts as a source of
stress waws ind l ~ c o ~ n eans active acoustic emission
Sotlice.
+cornustic elnissiuo csaivlit~ation is no~tdirectiond. Most
acoustic emission sources appear to functio~ias point source
emitters that r.idi;ttc
wauefmnts. Often.
a sei~sorlwittrd int
of anacoustic
etniszion source c;111drtect tlle resulting acoustic emission.

&

$ " .

.-

'.FUNDAMENTALS O F ACOUSTIC EMISSION

This is in contrast lo other i~>cthods


or tnu~idest~uctiw
testing, which depend on prior knowledge of tlie probable location and orientation or a discclntinuit). in order to direct :I
beam o l energv through the structure on a path tliet will
intersect tine area or interest.
Advantages

of Acoustic Emission Tesu

Tlie acoustic emission ~iiethodoKers the followi~igit(lvai~tages over other nondestructive testing methods:

1. Acoustic emission is a dynamic inspection mew

in
that it provides a response to discontinui~gmwthunder an imposed structural stress; static discontinuities
will not Renerate amustic emission sippals.
2. ~mustkemissiona n detect and ev&ate the signil,.
u n c e ofdiscontinuities throughout an entire structure
during a single test.
3. Since only limited access is required, discontinuities
may be detected that are inaccessible to the more tnditional nondestructive methods.
4. Vessels and other pressure systems can often be requali6ed during an in-5e~c-cinspection that r e q u i r e
little o r no downtime
, 5. ?he acoustic emission method may be used to p s n t
c
c a t a s t q h i c failure of systems with unlolown discuntinuities. and to limit the maximum pressure during
containment system tests.

'

/.y57?

TESTING113

rlniissiu~itests. lbhle 1 gives all overview of tlie ,"anner by


\\*hicllv~riotts11i:tterial properties and testing conditions in,Ihtencr acm~sticel~iissionresponse arnplitnides.The Llctors
~liotlldgenerzilly be runsidered as indicative. rather than ils
nbsolttte.

Application of Acoustic
Emission Tests
A classilication of the runctionnl categories of amustic
emission applications is given belo\":
1. mechanical pmperty testing and characterization;

2 ~reseg.9
pmol tezting;
3. in-%,*
(requalifiution) testing;
4. qn-linh~onitoEng;
5. in-process weld
.,. monitoring;
-,
,
6. m!l%id?ignature
anabis;
Zleak detection and-l--%o<-and
-&
8. geological a=.

By definition, on-line monitoring may be continuous o r


intermittent, and may involve the entire structure o r a limited mne only. Although leak detection and amustic signature analysis do not involve acoustic emission in the shictest
sense of the tenn. amustic emission twhniques and equipment are used for these applications.

'4y'<~?
Amustic emission is a wave ohenomenon and acoustic
.

emission teaine user the amibutes of particular wdw to


help character& the material in which the waw are trawl&eSing. \ F z e n z l a n d _ - m p l i t u d @ are -pIez.of
f6rm paramete? that are +ady
monitored in acoustic

Structures and Materials


A wide variety of structures and materials (metals, nonmetals and various combinations of these) can be monitored

WBLE 1. Factors that affect t h e relatfve a m p l i t u d e of acoustic emlsslon response


Factors That Tend t o Increase Acoustlc

Factors That Tend t o Dmease Acoustic

Emlnlon R e y x x u e Amplitude

Emblcn Reponre Amplitude

High mength
High main rate
LOW temperature
AZ!imtrow
Nonhomogeneity
Thitk smiom
Brittle failure [cleavage)
Material containing dixonunuities
Manemitic phaw rransformations
Crack propagation
Casl materials
Large grain size
Mechanically induced

LOW mength

FROM IPANNER

LOW srrain rate

High temperature
tsotropy
Homogeoeity
Thin senions
Ductile failure (shear)
Material withwt dixoncjnuiries
Diffusion-controlledphase transformations
Plastic deformation
Wrwghr materials
Small grain size
Thermally induced twinning

fiCOUmCEMLWON rECHNlOUESANDAPPUUnON~.R E P R I M E 0 WIIH PERMISSION.

14lACOUSTIC EMlSSION TESTING

11y acoustic emission t e c l i ~ ~ i ~during


u e s the application of a11
external stress ( l o a d ) . l l ~ pri~naryacoustic
e
emission mechanism varies with different materials and should be cliar~ct e d M o r e applying amustic emission techniques to a
new type of material. Once tlie cliaracteristic amustic emission response has been defined, acoustic emission tests can
be used to evaluate the structural integrity of a mmponent.

Testing of Composites
Amustic emission nionitoring of fiber reinforced c n m p s ite materials has proven quite effecthe when compared wvitll
other nondestructive testing methods. H-r.
attenuation
of the amustie emission signals in fiber reinforced materials
presents unique problems. ENediw acoustic emission monitoring of fiber reinforced components requires much doser
sensor spacings than would be the case with a metal mmponent of similar size and configuration. With the proper number and location of sensors, monitoring of composite structures has p m n higbly effective for detecting and locating
areas of fiber b k g e , d e l a m i n a t i o ~and other types of
s h u d degradation.

Acoustic Emission Testing EquipmentEquip~nent for processing acoustic emission siglals is


available in a varie? of fonns ranging from small prtaI,le
iastru~iie~~ts
to large multichannel systems. Conipo~ie~its
m~iiniouto all systems are sensors, preamplifiers, filters and
amplifiers to make the s i ~ i a measurable.
l
Methods used Tor
mwuretnent. display an2 storage my more widely according to tlie demands of the appliation. Figure 1 shows a
block diagram of a generic four-channel acoustic emission
system.

Acoustic Emission Sensors

When an amustic emission wavefront impinges on the


surface of a test object, w r y minute mduements of the surface molecules m u r . A sensois function is to detect this
mechanical m m m e n t and conwrt it into a specific, usable
electric signal.
The sensors used for acoustic emission testing often resemble an ultrasonicsearch unit in configurationand generally utilize a piemelectric tnnzducer as the electromechanical conversion device h e sensors may be resonant
Pressure System Tern
o r broadband. The main considerations in sensor selection
are (1) operating frequency; (2)sensitivity; and (3) environpressure
are sd
using h
tacit or
mental and physical characteristics. For high tern &re
other pressure t e s t The level of stress s o d d normally b e
tm.
W ' W i d e s may b e ud to isolate the sensor E r n the
held &Iw the r e l d -.
B ~ i
~ lg
& a~ b e inenvimnment
Tbis
be i
~
~sherses ~
~
~ is a convenient
~
l alternative to the use of
d u c e d to beamed
high
temperalure
sensors.
Waveguides
haw also been used
generated in rotary shafts. h e r m a l ztresses may b e created
to
~
m
d
i
t
i
o
the
n
acoustic
emission
signat
as an interpreeither be unil d Y .Tension and bending messes
tation aib
lateral o r +C
to best simulate service induced stresses.
Issues such as wave type and directionality are difficult to
handle in this technology, sin= the naturally occumng
amustic emission mntains a complex mixture of we
modes.

t-

Successful Applications

Examples of proven app~iutions for the amustic emission


method include those listed belmv.

1. Periodic o r continuous monitoring of pressure vessels


and other pressure mntainment SFtems to detect and
locate active dismntinuities.
2. Detection of incipient fatigue failures in aerospace and
other eneineerine
structures.
,.
3.' Monitorin materials behavior tests to characterize
various fai ure meclianisms.
4. Monitoring fusion or resistance weldmen6 during
welding o r during the cooling period.
5. Monitoring acoustic emission response during stress
corrosion crackine.. and ii\drocen embrittlement suscept~bilitytests.

..

~.
..
Selection
P~~E!~!/fiers
and Frequency.
The preamplifier must be located J o s e to the sensor. Of-

ten it is actually in+rated


into tbe sensor housing. T h e
preamplifier provides required filtering, gain
(most cornmonly 3 dB) and cable drive ca&-&ty.
F F i l t e ~ gin tbe
preamplifier (together with sensor selection) is the primary
meam of defining the monitoring frequency for the amustie
emission test. This may be suoolemented by additional filat the n'ainframeChoosing the ~nonitoringfrequency is an operator function, since the acoustic emission wurce is esseniially wide
band. Reported frequencies range from audible clicks and
rnwxks
un
.
7
.
.= to 50 MH-I
.
Although noTal\vaF fully appreciated by operators, the
obsened frequr~icvspectrum of amustic emission sienals is
c e dthe resonance and tnnsmission
significantly ~ n f l t ~ r ~ i bv

..

~~

. ..

FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING/ 15

FIGURE

1.

YMOFS

Schematic diagram of a basic four-channel acousric emission testing system


PROIMRlFlEG
wlrn FILIEG

M E N AMPIIFIEG
W~TH
FIUERI

MEAIuREMENI

C\RCUIT~

om

SrORhGE

YREEN

MIA
BUFFEFS

MY'thY

MlCllOCOMRmR

V
ORRIJOR

characteristics of both the specimen (geometry as well as


acoustic properties) and the sensor. In p h c e , the h r
uency limit is governed by backgmund noise; it is unuto go below 10 kHz e~ceptin microseismic work f i e
upper frequency limit is governed by wave attenuation that
restricts the uzehrl detection range; it is unusual to go above
1 M H z The single mcst common frequency range for
acoustic emission testing is 100 to 300 kHz

'
i
,

System Mainframe
The first elements in the mainframe are the main amplifiers and thmholds, which are adjusted to determine the test
sensitiviv. Main amplifier gains in the range of 20 to 60 dB
are most commonly used. Thereafter, the available processin depends on the size and cost of the G e m . In a small
portafle instrument. acoustic emission events or threshold
crossings may simply be counted and the count then converted to an analo voltage for plotting on a chart recorder.
In more a d v a n 2 hardware systems, pnnisions may be
made for energy or amplitude measurement, spatial filtering, time gating and automatic alarms.

Acounic Emission System Accessories


Accessory items often used in acoustic emission w r k include oscilloscopes, transient recorders and s+wm a d ? zrs, magnetic tape recorders, rms voltmeters, special calibration instmnients, and devices for simulating acoustic

emisdon. A widely accepted rimuktor is the Hsn-Xielsen


source. a modirted s-d
n d &at prwide5 a remarkably reproducible simulatdPamustic emission signal
when the lead is broken against the test structure.

Microcornputen in Acoustic
Emission Test Systems
Signal Processing and Displays
Nearly all modem acuusiic emission Nstems use micmmmputen in various configurations. as determined by the
l
system size and performance requirements. In e ~ i c a implementations, each acoustic emission signal is meamred by
hardware circuits and the measured parameters are passed
through the central microcomputer to a disk fie of signal
descriptions. The customary signal description includes the
threshold crossing counts, amplitude, duration, rise time
and often the energy of the signal, along with its time of occurrence and the values of slowly changing variables such a?
load and background noise l e d .
During or after data recurding, the mtem exiracts.data
for graphic displays and hardcopy report. Common displays
include history plots of acoustic emission versus time or
load, distribution functions, cmqlots of one signal descriptor against another and source location plots. Installed systems of this t y p range in size from 4 to 128 channels.

IbIACOUSTIC EMISSION

TESTING

Some ;illo!.s :i~tdt~i;lte!i:~l>


itt:ir in)l cslli1)it ; I I I ~t~ieasur&le
Kaiser effect el ;ill.
h4icrocomputer based systems are i~sually\*en \rr;atile.
Becmise or the Kaiser d k c t , e;lcl~acoustic signal 1n;iy
allowing data filtering (to remove noise) and exte~lsivepostonly occur once so 11131 itisliectinns ]lave a nmv-or-never
test display capability (to analyze and interpret results). Tllis
qnalily. In this respect. iicot~sticemission is at a disversatility is a great advantage in new or difficult applica;idvant~ge\when compared to tecl~niquesthat can 1% aptions, but it places high demands on the knwletlge auld
~
operaton or with differplied again and again. I I differer~t
technical training of the opentor. Other kinds o f ~ ~ u i p ~ n e ~ ic tt ~ tinstn~me~lts.
wvilhot~t ;iffecting the stnrcture or the
have been dewloped for routine industrial appliritio~~
it1 the
discontinuity.
hands of less highly tnined penonnel.
The outcome in practical terms is that acoustic ernission
Examples are the systems used for bucket truck testing
must be used at carefully planned times: during p m f tests.
(providing preprugrammed data repoits in a m d a n c e with
before plant shutdowns or during critical moments of conASTM recommended practices) and systems for resistance
tinuous operation. This seeming restriction sometimes
weld p r o c w control (these are inserted into the current
h o m e s the biggest advantage of the i&ustic emission
control system and terminate the welding process automattechniques. By using acoustic emission during service, proically as m n as ~ u l s i o nis detected).
duction can continue unintermpted. Eqienzive and time
Acoustic emission equipment was among the first nondeconsuming processes sucli as tlie erection of scaffolding and
structive testing equipment to make use ofcomputers in the
extensive surface preparation can be completely awided.
late 19605.Performane. in terms of acquisition speed and
real-time a n a l e capability, has been much aided by advances in miemcomputer technology. Trends apected in
the future include advanced kin& of wdveform analysis.
Acoustic Emission Test Sensitivity
more standardized data interpretation p d u r e s and more
.
dedicated industrial products.
Althou h the acoustic emission method is quite sensitiw,
cornpare lw.t h other nondestructiw methods such as ultrasonic testing o r radiographic testing, the sensitivity decreases with i n d g distances behveen the amustic emirCharacteristics of Acoustic
don source and the sensors. T h e same Cadors that affect the
Emission Techniques
propagation of ultrasonic waves a h affect the propagation
of the acoustic (stress) waves used in acoustic emission
The acoustic emission test is a passive method that monitechniques.
tors the dynamic redishibution of stresses within a material.
Wave mode conversions at the surfaces of the test object
o r component. ThereTo% acoustic emission monitorin is
and other acoustic interfaces. combined with the faa that
only effeaive while the material o r structure is subject$ to
direrent wave modes propa ate a t diilerent velodties. are
an introduced stress. Examples of these strenes include
factors that complicate anafysis of acoustic emission repressure testing of vessels o r piping, and tension loading o r
sponse signals and produce uncertainties in d m l a t i n g
bend loading of stmctunl components.
acoustic ernission source locations with hianguiation o r
other source locating techniques.
O p e r a t o r Training a n d System Uses

--

Irreversibility a n d t h e Kaiser Effect

-Background Noise a n d Material Properties


An important feature aflecting acoustic emission applicaIn principle, overall acoustic emission system sensitivily
, ; tions is the generally irreversible response from ~iiostmetals. in practice, it is often found that once a given load has
depends on the sensors as tvell as the cl~aracteristicsof the
..
4
k e n appliedand the acoustic emission fmnl a w r ~ i m o d a t - specific instrumentation system. In practice, houwer, the
ing that stress has ceased, additional acoustic emissio~iwill
se~isitivityof the acoustic emission metl~odis often primarily
not OM^ until that s t i b s level iraceeded. ewn if t l ~ eb a d
limited by ambient background noise considentions for
is mn~pletelyremoved and then reapplied. This oftell useful
engineering materials with good acoustic transmission
cl~aracteristia.
- $ (and sometimes troublesome) behavior has been nnn~edthe
cv I Kniscr@kt in h s ofthe researcher who first reported it.
\\'hen monitoring structures made of materials that ex? T h e degree to which' th-mt
is present varies
Ilil>ithigh acoustic attenuation (due to scattering or absotp,/ behwen metals and may even disappear completely after
tion), tlie acoustic properties of the material usually limit
, ,
s w r d hours (or days) for alloys that esliibit apprecktble
the t ~ l t i ~ ~ ltest
a t e sensitivily and will certainly impose !imits
;.; .'d ;
tempemlure annealilig (remveYl cliar;lrlc~~istics. 0x1 the maximum sensor spacings that can lx used.

..

>5,
z,fl

, ,

3,.

,. , j '
.?
,

,.~

FUNDAMENTALS OF

Effecuof System Sensors


Sensor coul~lilig:rtrd reproducilrilit).ciiiol rcsputi\c arc ilnportant factors that nust l>econsi<lereclwlretr al)l)lyi~~g
1nl11tiple acoustic ernissio~isensors. Glrer~~I
c;~libr;~tiotr
clrecks
sl~ouldbe performed before, nl~erand sometimes durilrg
the acoustic emission nro~iitorilrgprocess to ensure that $111
channels of the instrurne~~tatioir
are uperatitrg properly ;Ir
the correct sensitivities.
For nost engineering structures, sensor wlectioli and
placement nrust be carefully clrosen based on a detailed
howledge of the acoustic properties of the material and the
geometric conditions that will Le encountered. For eminple. the areas adjacent to attacl~~nents,
nudes and penetrations or areas where the w t i o o thickness changes usually
require additional senson to achieve adequate caverage.
Furthermore. discuntinuities in such locations often cause
high Iodized stress and these are the areas where maximum coverage is needed.

Interpretation of Test Data


Proper interpretation of the acoustic emission response
obtained during monitoring of presmrized systems and
other structures +ly
requires considerable technical
nence with the acoustic emission
b&en the acoustic emiaion system opentos, the data inte retation personnel and those conhulling the pprocess o?-ing
the
shucture
Since most computeri& multichannel acoustic emission
+ems handle m i p n s e d a in~ a pseudo batch p d u r e ,
an intrinsic d a d time m r s durine the b t a transfer o m ess. This is usually not a problem b$ can &onally
-it
in anal* ermn when the quantity of acoustic emission signals is Nffiaent to mrload the data handling capabilities of
the acoustic emission system.

Compensating for Background Noise


When acoustic emission monitoring is used during hydrostatic testing of a vessel or other pressure sytem, the acoustic emission system will often prwide the first indieation of
leakage Pump noise and other vibrations. or leakage in the
pressurizing y t e m , can also generate background noise
that limits the aerall systeni sensitivity and hamlxn acr.rtrate interpretation.
Special precautions and fhturing may be necessary to reduce such background noise to tolenble levels. Acoustic
emission monitoring of production processes in a manufacturing environment inwl\.es special problems related to the
high ambient noise levels (lmtl~electrical and acoustical).

ACOUST~CEMISSION TESTING! 1 7

i'r~-,enIive llle;~s~~r<~s
CII:II,
ti<~c~~ss:tt~
to ])rovidc sr!r[icivti[
c:lect~ic:~l
or ;icotbstioil ir'<~l:tti<)~i
to ;tcl;ic?.ceSfecti\c a a i ~ t s t i ~
etnission irio~iitorinfi.
\';iriot~sprwtrcl~trrsI r ; ~ \ r licc-1111sed to re(liicc lire cfr~cts
of l>;tckgro~~nd
iroise sottrces. In~.lrxledalrlong tlrcse are ineclr;i~ricidand amr~sticisol;~tiul~;
elect~icalisulatio~~;
electronic filtering within the acoustic eliiission system: nilxlificatio~rsto the iiiecl~i~~riwl
or li!dr:rrtlic 1o;rditrg process;
special sensor cunfi~uratiotisto co~itlolelectronic gates for
noise blocking; and statistically l~.uedelectronic currnterIneasures includi~rgautorurrelatic~nilrd cross mrrelatioti.

The Kaiser Effect


Josef Kaiser is credit& as the founder of niodem acoustic
emission tecl~nolo~y
and it was his pioneeringwrk in Germany in the 1950s that triggered a connected, continuous
flow of sul)seyoent de\rrloprnent. He made two major discaveries. The first w
w the near uni\eIsality of the acoustic
emission phenomenon. He observed emission in all the materials he studied. The second was the e K i that bears his
name
in translation of llis own words: 'Tests on various mate":
ah (metals. woods or mineral materials) have shown that larv
level emissions begin even at the lawst strw levels (less
than 1 MPa or 100 psi). They are detectable all the way
tl~mughto the failure load. but only ifthe material has exper i e d no previous loading. This phenomenon lends a spedal significance to acoustic emission
by the measurement of emission
dusion can be dram about the
loading experienced prior to tile test by the material under
investigation. In this. the magnitude and duntion of die
earlier loading and the time between the eariier loading and
the test loading are of no imp~rtance."~
Thu &ect has attracted the attention ofacousticemission
workers ever since. In fa<+.all the yean of acoustic elnission
reseadl have yielded no other generalization ofcomparable
power. As time went 11y. lmth practical applications and controwrsial ex&-ptions to the rules were identified.
The Dunegan

Corollary

The first nwjor application of the Kaiser efiect w.tl ;I test


stntegv for diagnosing dainage in pressure vessels and other
engineering stnlctttres."lre
s t n t e v included a clarification of the I>elrn\iorexpected o f i ~pressure wssel subjected
to a series of lo;idi,rgs (to a prwfpressure w i t 1 1 inten-ning
periods at a Iwer working pressure).
Should the \essel sufier no damage during a particular
working period, tlie Kaiser erect dictates that no elaissioo
will be obsenjed during tlie si~bsequent
loading. I n

ISIACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING

the event of discontinuiy gr~nvilidunlig a uwrking peliid.


subsequent proof loading twuld s~~bject
the inaterial at tlie
discontinuity to higher stresses tli;io I d o r e and tile discu~itinuity would emit. Emission during the proof loading is
therefore a measure of damage eq~eriencedduring the preceding working period.
This socalled Dunegao wrollonj Ixrame a standard diagnostic approach in practical field testing. Field operators
learned to pay particular attention to emission behueen the
w o h g p m r e and the pnmf pressure. and thereby made
many effeaive diagnoses. A superficial &ew of the Kaiser
eR& might lead t; the concluhon that practical application
of amustic emission technioua reauires a series of ever increving loadings. ~cnwwr,'effecti$ engineering diagnoses
can be made by. repeated
applications
of the same proof
-.
prersure

that colitest. Btlt actuiilly. K~iscr'sidc:~;il)plies 1110ref~x~idamentally to stress in a 111:iterili. hiolcriols entit a,ily itnrlcl:
rrr~pircrdenle(lssfrer.7 is the root principle to wnsider. Evaluated point-hyimi~it tllro~tglithe threedi~nensionalstress
field witliin the structure. this principle h;u wider truth than
the statemelit that structures enlit only under unprecedented load. Pmided that tlie microstnictr~rehas not been
altered between loadings. the Kaiser principle 1119 men
have the universal \.alidi? that the Kaiser eKwt evidently
lacks. at l w t for acthe deformation and discontinuity
growth.
In composite materials. an important acoustic emission
mechanism is friction b e b e e n free surfaces in damaeed
rrgions. Frictional acoustic emission is also p b s e d fGm
fatigue cracks in metals. Such source mechanisms contnvene both the Kaiser eKect and the Kaiser princi~le,but
they can be important for p r a c t i d detection of damage and
discontinuitia.

The Felicity Effect


T h e second major application of the Kaiser effect arose
from the study of rases where it did not occur. Specifically
in fiber reinforced
components, emission is often obs e n d at loads lower ihylthe previous maximum, especially
when the material is in poor condition o r close to failure.
l%s breakdown of the Kaiser effect war; s u d u l l y used to
predict failure loads in composite pressure vessels4 and
bucket huck booms.s
W was inhod'& to ddescribethe
The
was debreakdownof the Kaiser effect and thefeIi*
vised as the d t e d quantitative measure The felicity ratio has p
d to be a valuable diagnostic too1 in one of the
emission a plicationr;, the
most succeszful or
of fib*^ w s e l s and fionge d . 6 1' &ct- the
Kaiser effect maybe
as a
caseof the
effect (a felidty ratio 1).
The
of cases where the Kaiser eKect breaks
down was at firstquite confusingand contmrsial but evensome Furtherjnsighls emerged. The Kaiser
mo* no'iceabl~h situations where time dependent
nisrns conmil the deformation. The rheological flow or rekxation of the matrix in highly stressed mmposites is a
"lour the prwiprime -pie. 'Iow of the matrix
ous maximum can transfer stress to the fibers, causing them
to break and emit. Other cases where the Kaiser ellkct will
fail are corrosion processes and hydrogen embrittlement,
which are also time dependent.

The Kaiser Principle


Further insight can he gained b!. considering load on a
structure versus stress in the material. I n pnctical situaHans, test specimens or eiigineerina structures e\-pcrience
loading and most discussiotis o f t h e kiiser erfect come from

Overview of Acoustic
Emission Methodology
. ?hir Nonderrrudice Testing Handbmk volume contains
detailed descriptions of acoustic eminion sou-,
a rich
topic that involves the sciences of material, deformation
fracture Another topic appwing in this ,,lume is the
subject ofwax: propagation, the pmcerr
shaper the signal and brings the information from source to sensor. Attenuation d the wave d d e n n i n u .i d e t d h f i i t y and
therefore be considered when placing sensors; howledge of
the wave> velocity is a h needed for precise source lacation.
These are uncontrolled factors that must be avessed for

,a

tested,
Measurement and ana+& of the acoufic
signals is another major component of tile tecllno\ogy -red
this
Acoustic emission
from
defornation
may be so rare that a single detectedevent
is enough to wanant rejeaion of the object under test. Or.
they may be so frequent that the
acorntic signal is
continuous. Compoundin interpretation difliculties are amplitudes of the reive% signals that range mer
five orders of magnitude. T h e time diflerenes used to
l o u t e acoustic emission sources range from less than a
microsffond to liundreds of milliseconds. In addition to
handling all of these variables. an acoustic emission system
should allow any of several techniques for reducing background noise and spurious sigoals that orten interfere
acoustic emission measurements.
Tile acoustic emission t e c l w o l ~cwmprises
~
a
of

ranee

FUNDAMENTALS O F ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING1 19

is still i r l tile ~ ! : i rst:i$c;.


\~
Advx!tvc~\t ~ % \ l l ~ i l fc>?
] ~ l~\iscoi~ti.
~~s
powerflll t ~ h n i q r t e s fur e ~ p i o i l i $tile
~ ~11:lturai ;tcoustic
..
tittity c h ; ~ r ; ~ c t e r i z by
~ l i~ ~~ ~: ~I l\ I ~ :111:1ixsis
~ I ~ I I ;lre'\vy prh~alis.
emission process and for piit~inj; l)ri~ctical\,due Fro111t l l r
l er rl will
~ sig.
available information. These teclltli~~ues
include ~~lell~cnls iog. 1)ut it retll:tit>s I 0 1%. l ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ r\ ~l ~l l lic~t ~~thy
t~ific:ts~tly
~llfvct1 1 1 X
~ J~
~)r:tctic:~l
i ~ c ~ ~ ~eiiIissi1111
t s t i c t s t i t ~ gis
lor cllaracterizing tile aruustic e1nissi1111
~ W I I i)artio~lar
I
111:tterials a t ~ dprocesses; methods fur eli~llinntiojinoise; I i ~ r p < , r k w ~ ~ ~ e ~ l .
Tile t e c l ~ t ~ o 1:tclis
l o ~ ~~ni\.ers:~l
rvz~t~ersarks
lor tile de.
checking wave propagation properties of engioeeri~lgstntcscripti1111of ~oaterkllet~~issi\ities
and the interpretakion or
tures and applying the results to test deign; lor loadi~lgtlvzt
structural test data. T l ~ e r ris a w ~ ~ s t a need
a t to improve inwill optimilz the acoustic e~nissio~i
data ftnm a structure
strumentation p r f o n l ~ a n c c111d noise rejection t e c l ~ n i ~ u e s
without causing appreciable damage; for louting acuustic
3s acoustic enlission is pressed illlo service ill tougller entiemission sources, either mugllly or precisely; methods of
mnments and more demanding applintions. 6 d e accepdata analysis and presentation; and rnet11od.s for acceptance.
tance
is continuing b11t slmvly. Perl~apsmost ofall, there is a
rejection or further inspection of the test stmdure.
major need to
useft11 inlonnation in assimilable
The field olacoustic emission testing is still growing n g form to the many nonspecialists who 11ak a use for acoustic
orously and presents many challenges. Signifiunt wearc11
emission testing but find the subject difTicult to ap roach
uestions are still unanswered. The mathematid theory of
This wlurne or the Notldcstntdiu: Tiiity: IfondbmEis one
%e acoustic emission source llas been developed beginning
way of satisfying tliat in~l)ortantneed.
in the inid 1970s and tile pra~iicalapplication olthir; theor?l

VISUAL TESTING
1

INTRODUCTION

The oldest and most commonly used NDE method is Visual Testing (VT).
It may also be the least understood and least effectively used of all methods.
.
There is a difference between just looking at an object and really seeing it
through a trained eye. VT may be defined as "an examination of an object using
the naked eye, alone or in conjunction with various magnifying devices,
without changing, altering, or destroying the object being examined."
In VT the most important tools are the ones you were born with, your
eyes. Visual acuity is of prime importance to the visual examiner. According
to recent stati~tics, at least fifty percent of the American population over
twenty years of age are required to wear some type of corrective lenses.
However, in the early stages of eyesight failure, either many persons are not
aware that they need corrective lenses or they just do not wear them.
As with any sensitive tool, the most important tools in visual
examination must b e checked for accuracy at regular-intervals to ensure that
they remain accurate and sensitive. Most standards require that visual
examiners have annual eye examinations to check:
Near vision acuity,
Far vision acuity, and
Color perception.
Although the eyes are the most important tool, in many situations they
are not sensitive enough, not accurate enough, or cannot get to the area to be
examined. In those cases, the use of optical aids is necessary in order to
complete the visual examination.
2 BASIC PROCEDURE

VT is the observation, either directly or indirectly, o f ' a specimen by an


. . . . . examiner .in -.such 'a .fashio.&' as 30 determine :the .piesence or,absknce of. swiqde:'.
. .
disr5ohti"uities br irregularities: VT should .be the' first NDE &thod
td' be
applied to a specimen. Other NDE methods may or may not be required after
VT. The procedure is usually quite simple:
'

1.

2.
3.

Prepare Surface
Assure adequate illumination
Observe

Visual Testing is composed of the following six basic elements that


interact with each other, with each affecting the end results:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

2.1

The examiner
The test object
Illumination of the test object
Optical aids
Mechanical aids (measuring devices)
Recording method
Examiner

The visual examiner must be competent. Many specifications and codes


require that visual examiners be qualified through formalized training
programs and on-the-job experience, and certified to ensure their competency.
SNT-TG1A (1988 edition).'has included VT as a recognized NDT method and
recommends that an indiiidual with a high school education have a minimum of
24 hours formal training and at least 3 months on-the-job experience in order
to qualify as a Level 11.
2

Jest Obiect

The test object's size, shape, and surface condition are important in
determining what optical aids and mechanical tools need to be used to
complete the examination, and what illumination will be required. Some of the
test object factors to be considered include the following:

'., . . .

'.

..
.. . :

Size of the test object;


Configuration of the test object;
Accessibility of areas; .. .
. ..
: Dire~tioh.
. d f . view:
:. ...
. .
Surface reflectivity; and
Discontinuity type, size, and shape.
',:

.. ..

.... .

.. . ..

..

. ..

. . ... ..

Illumination

2.3

lllurnination of the examination surface is extremely important for the


effectiveness of any VT. lllurnination is usually measured in footcandles. A
footcandle is the amount of light given off by a candle
at a distance of one foot from the eye. A standard 100 watt incandescent bul6
provides about five footcandles at a distance of five feet.
Some specifications establish minimum light intensity for VT while
others only specify "adequate illumination." Adequate illumination levels for
different types of examinations are referenced in some standards and
specifications.

..

An example of one means of establishing illumination levels is"the


requirement of being able to resolve a 1/32-inch black line on an 18 percent
neutral gray card when held within 24 inches of the eye, at an angle of not less
than 30 degrees to the surface of the card. Figure 1 illustrates this method.
.2.4

Qotical Aids

Optical aids that may be used in visual examination include the


following:
Mirrors
Magnifiers
Borescopes
Fiberscope
Mirrors provide the examiners with the ability to look
2.4.1
Mirrors.
inside castings, pipes, threaded and bored holes, and around corners. The
mirrors most commonly used in VT include the dental mirror and the pivoting
end mirror.

2.4.2
fvlaanifiers. Magnifiers are used as an aid in almost every type .of . .
VT: to b'rjng - out:sinalt details .and .for close 'ex.amiriati.on of discontinu[ties. :The..
magnifiers most commonly used in visual examinations include t i & fbllowing:

..'

Single lens magnifier,


Headband magnifier,
Pocket comparator, and
Eye loupe magnifier.
The single lens magnifier is normally used when 1 . 5 X to 10X
.'
magnification is needed. It usually is a single bi-convex lens 1 to 3 inches in
diameter mounted in a holder.
The headband magnifier (which is a pair of lenses in a frame attached to
a headband) is normally used for fine detailed examination of small objects
because it leaves the hands free for manipulating the object.
The pocket comparator measuring magnifier is a hand-held, double- lens
magnifier that may be from 7X to 20X, with any one of several available scales
or reticles, that allows measurements in inches, millimeters, angles, and
circle diameters.
The eye loupe magnifier, similar to a pocket comparator magnifier
without the measuring reticule, is usually attached to a headband or a clip
that attaches to regular eyeglasses. The loupe, with a magnifying lens from
5X to 30X, is normally used when extremely fine detail is required for
examination of small items.
Borescopes and F i b e r s c o ~ e ~Borescopes
.
and f i b e r k p e are used
2.4.3
for examining pipes and tubes, deep holes, long bores, pipe bends, and other
internal surfaces that cannot be viewed by direct viewing because of
inaccessibility. Borescopes come in many sizes from tiny needle-like
instruments to large instruments 6 inches in diameter and 100 feet long. Most
borescopes are equipped with a light source near the tip to illuminate the area
being examined, as illustrated in figure 2A.
The fiberscope is a flexible instrument used when access to the surface
to be examined is such that the examination instrument must go around
corners and curves. The fiberscope is made up of a bundle. of numerous very
fine glass fibers that transmit light... .Fiberscopes. provide. a .light 'source
through the tip tb illuminate the area of interest (also 'i~lustratkdin figure
26).

Mechanical Aids

2.5

To early man, measurements were related to different body part sizes,


even though they were not standard. For example, a cubit was the length of a
man's arm from the tip of the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Depending
upon the length of his arm, Noah's ark, which was 300 cubits long, could have'
been from about 400 feet to about 500 feet long. Figure 3 illustrates this
variation.
Since Noah's time, man has been improving the science of measurement
(metrology). Today many different measuring instruments are used by the VT
examiner, some of which are very simple devices such as the &inch scale
while others ar.e more complex precision measuring devices. The following
are
..,
examples of measuring devices used by the VT examiner:
Steel rules
Vernier calipers
Dial indicating calipers
Micrometers (OD, ID, and depth)
Dial indicators
Combination squares
Thread pitch gages.
Thickness gages
Levels
Weld gages (Fillet, Palmgren, Hi-Lo)
Steel rules are available in a wide variety of
Steel Rules.
sizes and graduations to suit specific needs. The most popular is the 6-inch
and
inch,. and 0.01 and 0.1 inch, as shown in
rule with gradation of
figure 4-4. Steel tapes are available in lengths up to at least 100 feet and are
reasonably accurate for non-precision measurements of long parts.

2.5.1

.2.5.2
Vernier Caiioers. Vernier calipers are more precise measuring
devices than rules because they allow measurements to the thousandth of an
inch. Vernier calipers .are available i n standard lengths from 6 inches to 48
inches (see figure
5).

'

..

2.5.3
Dial lndicatina Calioers. Dial indicating calipers are very similar
to the vernier calipers, have gradations on the bar and a dial indicator is used
6) to indicate the precision
rather than the vernier plate (see figure
measurement (thousandth of an inch).
2.5.4
Micrometers. Micrometers allow the examiner to obtain
measurements within 0.0005 inch with an accuracy of 0.0001 inch.
Micrometers are available in a variety of types and sizes, to enable the
examiner to make OD or length measurements, ID measurements. or depth
measurements. Figure 7 illustrates a standard micrometer.

2.5.5
Dial Indicators. Dial indicators are the most commonly used
measuring devices for VT examinations. The dial indicator is an instrument
consisting of graduated dial, an indication hand, a contact point attached to a
spindle, and an amplifying mechanism. The dials, which are graduated"to
indicate at least 0.001 inch, are generally used with a base stand having an
adjustable arm or a magnetic base stand with an adjustable post and arm (see
figure
8).
2.5.6
Combination S a w . The combination square set consists of a
blade (a 12-inch steel rule), and ttiree interchangeable heads: a square head, a
center head, and a protractor head. W h e n equipped with the square head, the
tool can be used as a depth gage, a height gage, or a scribing gage, and also for
checking if surfaces are plumb andlor square. When equipped with the center
head, it is useful i n locating the center of round stock; when equipped with
the protractor head, it becomes a bevel protractor and permits measurement
of angles. Figure 9 illustrates a combination square set.
B r e a d Pitch Gaaez. Thread pitch gages are used to determine the
2.5.7
number of threads per inch and the thread pitch on screws, bolts, nuts, pipe,
and other threaded parts (see figure 10). The teeth on the various leaves of
the thread pitch gage, which correspond to the standard thread forms, are used
like a profile gage.
Thickness Gases. Thickness gages such as bevel protractors are
used for gaging clearance between objects such as bearing clearance, gear
play, pipe-pipe flange clearance, or gaging narrow slots. Commonly called
feeler gages, they are available in sets that contain leaves ranging in
thickness from 0.0015 to 0.200 inch.
2.5.8 .

Levels. Levels are tools designed for use in determining whether a


plane or surface is truly horizontal or vertical. Some levels are calibrated to
indicate the angle on inclination in degrees in relation to a horizontal or
11).
vertical surface (see figure
2.5.9

Weld Gaoes. Weld gages come in a variety of designs either for


2.5.10
general purpose or for specific detail gaging. Some of the weld gages can be
used to make quantitative measurements while others are used for go-no-go
judgment only.
Figure 12 illustrates a Palmgren weld gage. Figure 13 shows how a
fillet weld gage is used to measure a convex weld. A fillet weld gage can also
be used to measure the size of fillet welds and concave conditions (see
.. figure
14).
The Hi-lo welding gage (figure 15A) can provide measurements of
internal alignment on the inside after fit-up, pipe wall thickness after
alignment, length between scribe lines, root opening, 37112' bevel, fillet weld
leg size, and reinforcement on butt welds.
The Deerman Hi-lo'gage (figure 158) has functions similar to the Hi-lo
welding gage but it is mdie applicable to small diameter pipe. This gage can
provide measurement of inside diameter mismatch after fit-up, root opening,
undercut and pit depth, weld reinforcement height and outside diameter offset.

The information gathered from the VT examination may be recorded


either as a hard copy or by the subjective method. .
The hard copy method produces a visual record by means of a photograph,
videotape, or movie film. This method permits comparison of the present
condition to a set of standards or to previously recorded conditions to
determine what, if any, changes have taken place. Eye fatigue is minimized
and corrections
.. for differences in individuals' visual acuity can easily be
accomplished. The hard copy provides more objective data and therefore a
higher degree of accuracy.

The subjective method is used when the visual examiner makes an


immediate decision based solely on what he or she sees and an interpretation
of what is seen. Although this is the most commonly used method of data
recording, it makes standardization difficult as it relies heavily on the visual
examiner's memory. visual acuity, and competence. Therefore, the degree of
accuracy is less than when data is recorded on hard copy.

3 CONCLUSION

In summary, VT is the oldest, the first recorded, and the most commonly
used NDE method. It requires a high degree of training and skill on the part of
the visual examiner and should always precede any other NDE method to be
applied.

Simplicity
Speed
Low cost (usually)
Extensive training usually not necessary
Minimal equipment needed
Can be performed while specimen is in use

3.2 Limitations
Only surface conditions can be detected or measured
Poor or variable resolution of eye
Fatigue
Distractions
Some equipment is expensive

oper Viewing Ang

/
.,P

,
'
\

,
'

\
\

'.

.i3 '

:
,/

(7

....
~ \
,\

'

,$

.r,,
cw\.

?;/

'
'

Figure

1.

.,6,

c)

8L

./
\

Basic Test for Adequate Illumination

LL

BORESCOPE

RUBBEREYECUP

STEEL SHEATH
DIRECTION OF VIEW
FIELDS OF VIEW
FORE-OBLIQUE

FIBERSCOPE

\\+

+"Y
'i . > 9
. )
/

,\L'

'-

<yr,

. . . .

. . . . . . .

:
,

. . . .

. . ..

. . . .. . . .

Lamp . . .

.'

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
. .
\-

.p "
.G

,, F '

\..; c?

:.

\,.

e.'
Figure

2. Typical Borescope and Fiberscope

13

foot

Figure

3.

Early Modes of Measurement

1-

. . , . . . .
..

Figure

. , . .., . .

..

..
. -...

" '

4. Steel Rule (A) and Double Hook Rule

INSIDE MEASL'=EMEN

MEASURING LENGTH OF
SHOULDER CW TURNED
RlER LOCK

.. '

GRADUATED BAR

VERNIER R A T E
ADJUSTAELE JAW

OWSIDE READING 1.4323.

Figure

5.

Vernier Caliper

INSIDE
MEASURING
CONTACTS
A

DEPTH ROD
c.

ADJUSTING

BEZEL CLAMP

EMXIS W E G . BAR GAAWATIONS .1W:


DWINWCATOA .MI' GWUXIAnON. .lW
PWREVOCmON

METRIC:W E 1 3 mm BAR GAAWATIONS


2 mm, WAClNMCATOA 0.02 M M GRADUATION.
2 mm W E PER REVOLUTION

MEASURING
CONTACTS

OUTSIDE
MEASUREMENT

Figure

INSIDE
MEASUREMENT

6.

DEPTH
MUSUREMEN1

dial Indicating Calipers

Outside Micrometer

Figure

7.

Micrometer

Figure

8.

Dial Indicator

LOCATINGCENTER .
OF ROUND WORKPIECE

PROTRACTOR HEAD

CHECKING OUTSIDE SOUARENF

Figure

9.

combination Square Set

GAGING SINGLE PITCH


OCTERIOR THREAD

GAGING INTERNALTHREAD

Figure

10. Thread Pitch Gages

. .

Figure

11.

Levels

To determine the size of the convex


fillet weld

To check the permissible


tolerance of convexity

Figure

To determine the size of a concave


fillet weld

To check the permissible


tolerance of reinforcement

12. Palrngren Weld Gage

Figure

13.

Measuring Convex Fillet Weld Size

Figure

14.

Measuring Concave Fillet Weld Size

118" Mismatch

WELD HEIGHT GAGE

PIT DEPTH GAGE

OUTSIDE HI-LO GAGE

Internal Misalignn
Fit-Up or Alignment

A.

B. Deerman Hi-lo Gage

Hi-lo Welding Gage

Figure

15. Weld Gages

C H A P T E R 7: C O M P A R I S O N A N D S E L E C T I O N O F N D T P R O C E S S E S
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraph

Page

.....................
.............
..........

GENERAL
METHOD IDENTIFICATION
NDT DISCONTINUITY SELECTION
DISCONTINUITY CATEGORIES
DISCONTINUITY CHARACTERISTICS AND
METALLURGICAL ANALYSIS
NDT METHODS APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS
BURST
COLD SHUTS
FILLET CRACKS (BOLTS)
GRINDING CRACKS
CONVOLUTION CRACKS
HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE CRACKING
HEAT-TREAT CRACKS
SURFACE SHRINK CRACKS
THREADCRACKS
TUBING CRACKS
HYDROGENFLAKE
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
INCLUSIONS
INCLUSIONS
LACK OF PENETRATION
LAMINATIONS
LAPS AND SEAMS
LAPS AND SEAMS
MICROSHRINKAGE
GAS POROSITY
UNFUSED POROSITY
STRESS CORROSION
HYDRAULIC TUBING
MANDREL DRAG
SEMICONDUCTORS
HOT TEARS
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION

............
............
...
......................
...................
..............
................
..............
.........
...............
.............
.................
..................
................
............
....................
......................

..............
...................
.................
.................
.................
..................
................
................
...............
..................

..................
....................
...........

LIST OF FIGURES
Page

Figure
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-20
7-21
7-22
7-23
7-24
7-25
7-26
7-27
7-28
7-29
7-30
7-31
7-32

Liquid Penetrant Test . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Magnetic Particle Test
Ultrasonic Test
Eddy Current Test
Radiographic Test
Burst Discontinuities
Cold Shut Discontinuities
Fillet Crack Discontinuity
Grinding Crack Discontinuity
Convolution Crack Discontinuities
Heat-Affected Zone Cracking Discontinuity
Heat-Treat Crack Discontinuities
Surface Shrink Crack Discontinuities
Thread Crack Discontinuities
Tubing Crack Discontinuity
Hydrogen Flake Discontinuity
Hydrogen Embrittlement Discontinuity
Weldment Inclusion Discontinuities
Wrought Inclusion Discontinuities
Lack of Penetration Discontinuities
Lamination Discontinuities
Lap and Seam Discontinuities in Rolled Threads
Lap and Seam Discontinuities in Wrought Material
Microshrinkage Discontinuity
Gas Porosity Discontinuity
Unfused Porosity Discontinuity
Stress Corrosion Discontinuity
Hydraulic Tubing Discontinuities
Mandrel Drag Discontinuities
Semiconductor Discontinuities
Hot Tear Discontinuities
Intergranular Corrosion Discontinuity

...

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......
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.........
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.............
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.....
....
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7-3
7-4
7-4
7-4

I
.a

7-5

7-9
7-11
7-13
7-15
7-18
7-20
7-22
7-25
7-27
7-29
7-32
7-34
7-36
7-38
1-40
7-43
7-45
7-47
7-49
7-52
7-54
7-56
7-57
7-59
7-61
7-64
7-66

CHAPTER 7: COMPARISON A N D SELECTION O F N D T PROCESSES


700

GENERAL

mjs chapter summarizes the characteristics of various types of disconti-

*uities, and lists the NDT methods that may be employed to detect each
type of discontinuity.
m e relationship between the various NDT methods and their capabilities
and limitations when applied to the detection of a specific discontinuity is
shown. Such variables as type of discontinuity (inherent, process, or
service), manufacturing processes (heat treating, machining, welding,
grinding, or plating), and limitations (metallurgical, structural, or processing) also he@ in determining the sequence of testing and the ultimate
selection of one test method over another.
701

METHOD IDENTIFICATION

Figures 7-1 through 7-5 illustrate five NDT methods. Each illustration
shows the three elements involved in all five tests, the different methods in
each test category, and tasks that may be accomplished .with a specific
method.
ELEMENT

PROCEDURE

TASK
-

Figure 7-1. Liquid Penetrant Test


702

NDT DISCONTINUITY SELECTION

The discontinuities that are discussed in paragraphs 706 through 732 are
only some of the many hundreds that are associated with the various
products of today's industry.' During the selection of discontinuities for
inclusion in this chapter, only those discontinuities which would not be
radically changed under different conditions of design, configuration,
standards, and environment were chosen.

'

ELEMENT

TASK
1

DRY VISIBLE
TESTING

PERSONNEL

=-t
EIY

AND NEAR-SURFACE
DISCONTINUITIES

TECHNIQUES

WET VISIBLE
TESTING

EQUIPMENT

WET FLUORESCENT
TESTING

Figure 7-2.
ELEMENT

PROCEDURE

Magnetic Particle Test

PROCEDURE

PERSONNEL
DETERMINE

THRU TRANSMISSION

SPECIALIZED
APPLICATIONS

Figure 7-3. Ultrasonic Test


ELEMENT

PROCEDURE

PERSONNEL

a
El-'
TECHNIQUES

MANUAL COATING AND PLATING

EQUIPMENT

Figure 7-4.

Eddy Current Test

TASK

ELEMENT

PROCEDURE

TASK

DETECT
DISCONTINUITIES
TECHNIQUES

X-RAY
TESTINGFILM

DETERMINE
BOND
EQUIPMENT

GAMMA RAY FILM


TESTING

SPECIALIZED
APPLICATIONS

Figure 7-5. Radiographic Test


703

DISCONTINUITY CATEGORIES

Each of &e specific discontinuities are divided into three general


categories: inherent, processing, and service. Each of these categories is
further classified as to whether the discontinuity is associated with ferrous
or nonferrous materials, the specific material configuration, and the
manufacturing processes if applicable.
1.

Inherent Discontinuities

Inherent discontinuities h e those discontinuities that are related to the


solidification of the molten metal There are two types.

2.

a.

Wrought. Inherent wrought discontinuities cover those discontinuities which are related to the melting and original solidification of the metal or ingot.

b.

Cast. Inherent cast discontinuities are those discontinuities


which are related to the melting, casting, and solidification of
the cast article. It includes those discontinuities that would be
inherent to manufacturing variables such as inadequate feeding,
gating, excessively high pouring temperature, entrapped gases,
handling, and stacking.

Processing Discontinuities

F'rocessing discontinuities are those discontinuities that are elated to the


various manufacturing processes such as machining, forming, extruding,
rolling, welding, heat treating, and plating.

3.

Service Discontinuities

Service discontinuities cover those discontinuities that are related to the


various service conditions such as stress corrosion, fatigue, and wear.
704

DISCONTINUITY
ANALYSLS

CHARACTERISTICS AND

METALLURGICAL

"Discontinuity characteristics," as used in this chapter, encompasses an


analysis of specific discontinuities and references actual photos that
illustrate examples of the discontinuity. The discussions cover:

705

1.

a.

Origin and location of discontinuity (surface, near surface, or


internal).

b.

Orientation (parallel or normal to the grain).

c.

Shape (flat, irregularly shaped, or spiral).

d.

Photo (micrograph
discontinuity).

e.

Metallurgical analysis (how the discontinuity is produced and a t


w h a t stage of manufacture).

andlor

typical overall view

of

the

NDT METHODS APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS


General

The technological accomplishments in the field of nondestructive testing


have brought test reliability and reproducibility to a point where the design
engineer may now seiectively zone the qecific article. Zoning is based
upon the structural application of the end product and takes into
consideration the environment as well as the loading characteristics of the
article. Such an evaluation in no way reduces the end reliability of the
product, but evaluation does reduce needless rejection of material that
otherwise would have been acceptable.

Just as the structural application within the article varies, the allowable
discontinuity size will vary depending on the configuration and method of
manufacture. For example, a die forging that ;has large masses of material
and extremely thin web sections WOUIC not require the same level of
acceptance over the entire forging. 'Re forging can be zoned for rigid

..-r..

.I

...L-..-

+ha ~ t n % n + ~ .1-rn'lml

---

L:-h--

--.a

7---

:
:
J

,.

The nondestructive testing specialist must also select the method which
will satisfy the design objective of the specific article and not assume that
all NDT methods can produce the same reliability for the same type of
discontinuity.
2.

Selection of the NDT Method

In selecting the NDT method for the evaluation of a specific discontinuity


keep in mind that NDT methods may supplement each other and that
several NDT methods may be capable of performing the same task. The
selection of one method over another is based upon such variables as:
a.

Type and origin of discontinuity

b.

Material manufacturing processes

c.

Accessibility of article

d.

Level of acceptability desired

e.

Equipment available

f.

Cost.

A planned analysis of the task must be made for each article requiring NDT
testing.
The NDT methods G t e d for each discontinuity in paragraphs 706 through
732 are in order of preference for that particular discontinuity. However,
when reviewing the discussions, it should be kept in mind that rapidly
developing new techniques in the NDT field may alter the order of test
preference.
3.

Limitations

The limitations applicable to the various NDT methods will.vary with the
applicable standard, the material, and the service environment. Limitations not only affect the NDT method but, in many cases, &o affect the
structural reliability of the test article. For these reasons, limitations that
are listed for one discontinuity may also be applicable to other discontinuities under slightly different conditions of material or environment. In
addition, the many combinations of environment, location, material, and
test capability do not permit mentioning all limitations that may be
associated with the problems of locating a specific discontinuity. The
intent of this chapter is fulfilled if you are made aware of the many factors
that influence the selection of a valid NDT method.
7-7

706

BURST

1.

Categorx. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface or internal. Straight or irregular cavities varying in size from wide


open t o very tight. Usually parallel with the grain. Found in wrought
material that required forging, rolling, or extruding. (See Figure 7-6.)
4.

5.

Metallurgical Analysis
a.

Forging bursts are surface or internal ruptures caused by


processing at too low a temperature, excessive working, or
metal movement during forging, rolling, or extruding operation.

b.

A burst does not have a spongy appearance and, therefore, is


distinguishable from a pipe, even when it occurs a t the center.

c.

Bursts are often large and are very seldom healed during
subsequent working.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for the detection of internal bursts.

.(2)

Bursts are definite breaks in the material and resemble a


crack, producing a very sharp reflection on the scope.

(3)

Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting varying degrees


of burst, a condition not detectable by other NDT
methods.

(4)

Nicks, gouges, raised areas, tool tears, foreign material,


or gas bubblei on the article may produce adverse
ultrasonic test results.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used. Testing is


restricted to wire, rod, and other articles under 0.250 inch (6.35
mm) diameter.

A FORGING EXTERNAL BURST

B. BOLT INTERNAL BURST

..,,. . '..
. ,:
..

C. ROLLED BAR INTERNAL BURST

D. FORGED BAR INTERNAL BURST

Figure 7-6.

Burst Discontinuities

c.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.

(1)

Usually used on wrought ferromagnetic material in which


the burst is open to the surface or has been exposed t o the
surface.

(2)

Results are
evaluation.

limited

to surface and near

surface

d.

LiquidtPenetrant Testing Method. Not normally used. When


fluorescent penetrant is to be applied to an article previously
dye penetrant tested, all traces of dye penetrant should first be
removed by prolonged cleaning in applicable solvent.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method.


Not normally used.
Such
variables as the direction of the burst, close interfaces, wrought
material, discontinuity size, and material thickness restrict the
capability of radiography.

1.

Category. Inherent

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Cast Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface and subsurface. Generally appear as smooth indentations on the


cast surface resembling a forging lap. (See Figure 7-7.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Cold shuts are produced during casting of molten metal. They may result
from splashing, surging, interrupted pouring, or the meeting of two
streams of metal coming from different directions. Cold shuts are also
caused by the solidification of one surface before other metal flows over it,
the presence of interposing surface films on cold, sluggish metal, or any
factor that prevents fusion where two surfaces meet. Cold shuts are more
prevalent in castings formed in a mold having several sprues or gates.

A SURFACE COLDSHUT

8. lNTERNAL COLD SHUT

C. SURFACE COLD SHUT MICROGRAPH

Figure 7-7. Cold 'shut Discontinuities


5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used to evaluate surface cold shuts in both


ferrous and nonferrous materials.

(2)

Indications appear as a smooth, regular, continuous or


intermittent line.

(3)

Liquid penetrants used to test nickel base alloys, certain


stainless steels, and titanium should not exceed 1% sulfur
or chlorine.

(4)

Certain castings may have surfaces that are blind and


from which removal of excess penetrant may be difficult.

(5)

b.

e.

The geometric configuration (recesses, orifices, and


flanges) of a casting may permit buildup of wet developer
thereby masking any detection of a discontinuity.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for the evaluation of ferromagnetic


materials.

The metallurgical nature of 431 corrosion-resistant steel


is such that, in some cases, magnetic particle testing
indications are obtained which do not result from a crack
or other harmful discontinuities. These indications arise
from a duplex structure within the material, wherein one
portion exhibits strong magnetic retentivity and the other
does not.

Radiographic Testing Method.


(1)

Cold shuts are normally detectable by radiography while


testing for other casting discontinuities.

(2)

Cold shuts appear as a distinct dark line, or band, of


variable length and width, and definite smooth outline.

(3)

h e casting configuration may have inaccessible a r e a .


that can only be tested by radiography.

708

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended. Cast structure


and article configuration do not, as a general rule, lend
themselves to ultrasonic testing.

e.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not recommended. Article


configuration and inherent material variables restrict the use of
this method.

FILLET CRACKS (BOLTS)

1.

Category. Service

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface. Located a t the junction of the fillet with the shank of the bolt
and progressing inward. (See Figure 7-8.)

A FILLET FATIGUE FAILURE

8. F R A C N R E AREA OF (A) SHOWING

TANGENCY POINT OF FAILURE

C. CROSSSECTIONAL AREA OF
FATIGUE CRACK I N FILLET SHOWING
TANGENCY POINT IN RADIUS

Figure 7-8. Fillet Crack Discontinuity


4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Fillet cracks occur where a marked change in diameter occurs, such a s a t


the head-toshank junction where stress risers are created. During the
service rife of a bolt repeated loading takes place whereby the tensiIe Ioad
fluctuates in magnitude due to the operation of the mechanism. These
tensile loads can cause fatigue failure starting a t the point where the stress
risers occur. Fatigue failure, which is surface phenomenon, starts a t the
surface and propagates inward.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations

a.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(I)

Used extensively for service associated discontinuities of


this type.
7-13

b.

c.

d.

e.

*.

(2)

A wide selection of transducers and equipment enable onthespot evaluation for fillet crack.

(3)

Since fillet cracks are a definite break in the material,


the scope pattern will be a very sharp reflection.
(Propagation can be monitored by using ultrasonics.)

(4)

Ultrasonic equipment has extreme sensitivity, and established standards should be used to give reproducible and
' reliable results.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Normally
used
troubleshooting.

during

inservice

overhaul

or

(2)

May be used for both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic


bolts, although usually confined to the nonferromagnetic.

(3)

Fillet cracks appear as sharp, clear indications.

(4)

Structural damage may result f k m exposure of highstrength steels t o paint strippers, alkaline mating
removers, deoxidizer solutions, etc.

(5)

Entrapment of penetrant under fasteners, in holes, under


splices, and in similar areas may cause corrosion due t o
the penetrant's affinity for moisture.

II

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Only used on ferromagnetic bolts.

(2)

Fillet cracks appear as sharp clear indications with a


heavy buildup.

(3)

Sharp fillet areas may produce nonrelevant magnetic


indications.

(4)

17.7 pH steel is only slightly magnetic in the annealed


condition, but becomes strongly magnetic after heat
treatment, when it may be magnetic particle tested.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normaIIy used for detection


of fillet cracks. Other NDT methods are more compatible to
the detection of this type of discontinuity.
Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for detection
of fillet cracks. Surface discontinuities of this type would be
difficult to evaluate due to size of crack in relation to the
thickness of material.

i
!

709

GRINDING CRACKS

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous

3.

. Discontinuity Characteristics

surface.' Very shallow and sharp a t the root. Similar t o heat-treat crack
and usually, but not always, occur in groups. Grinding cracks generaus
occur a t right angles to the direction of grinding. They are found in highlj
heat-treated articles, chrome plated, case hardened, and ceramic materials
that are subjected to grinding operations. (See Figure 7-9.)

A TYPICAL CHECKED GRINDING CRACK PATTERN

0. GRINDING CRACK PATTERN NORMAL TO GRINDING

C. MICROGRAPH OF GRINDING CRACK

I
I

Figure 7-9. Grinding Crack Discontinuity

4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Grinding of hardened surfaces frequently introduces cracks. These thermal


cracks are caused by local overheating of the surface being ground. The
overheating is usually caused by lack of, or poor, coolant; a dull, or
improperly ground, wheel; too rapid feed; or too heavy cut.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Normally used on both ferrous and nonferrous materials


for the detection of grinding cracks.

(2)

Liquid penetrant indication will appear as irregular,


checked, or scattered pattern of fine lines.

(3)

Grinding cracks are the most difficult discontinuity to


indicate and require the longest penetration time.

Articles that have been deareased may still have solvent


entrapped in the discontinuity and should be allowed
sufficient time for evaporation prior t o the application of
the penetrant.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.

(1)

Restricted to ferromagnetic materials.

(2)

Grinding cracks generally occur at right angles t o grinding


direction, although in extreme cases a complete network
of cracks may appear, in which case they may be parallel
to the magnetic field.

(3)

Magnetic sensitivity decreases as the size of grinding


crack decreases.

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used for detection


of grinding cracks. Eddy current equipment has the capability
and can be developed for a specific nonferrous application.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detection of


grinding cracks. Other forms of NDT are more economical,
faster, and better adapted to this type of discontinuity than
ultrasonics.

!
i

I
i

e.

710

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detection


of grinding cracks. Grinding cracks are too tight and small.
Other NDT methods are more suitable for detection of grinding
cracks.

CONVOLUTION CRACKS

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity characteristics

Surface. Range in size from microfractures t o open fissures. Situated on


the periphery of the convolutions and extend longitudinally in direction of
rolling. (See Figure 7-10.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

The rough "orange peel" effect of convolution cracks is the result of either
a forming operation that stretches the material or from chemical attack
such as pickling treatment. The roughened surface contains small pits that
form stress risers. S-dbsequent service application (vibration and flexing)
may introduce stresses that a c t on these pits and form fatigue cracks as
shown in Figure 7-10.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Radiographic Testing Method.


(1)

Used extensively for this type of failure.

(2)

The configuration of the article and the location of the


discontinuity limits detection almost exclusively to
radiography.

(3)

Orientation of convolutions t o X-ray source is very


critical since those discontinuities that are not normal to
X-ray may not register on the film due to the small
change in density.

(4)

Liquid penetrant and magnetic paGticle testing may


supplement but not replace radiographic and ultrasonic
testing.

C.

A WPlCALCONVOLUTlON DUCTING

8. CROSSSECTION OF CRACKED CONVOLUTION

HIGHER MAGNIFICATION OF CRACK


SHOWING ORANGE PEEL

D. MICROGRAPH OF CONVOLUTION WITH


PARTIAL CRACKING O N SIDES

Figure 7-10. Convolution Crack Discontinuities


(5)

b.

The type of marking material (e.g., grease pencil on


titaniux) used to identify the area of discontinuities may
affect the structure of the article.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for the detection


of convolution cracks. The configuration of the article (doublewalled convolutions) and the prescence of internal micro
fractures are all factors that restrict the use of ultrasonics.

711

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used for 5+


detection of convolution cracks. As in the case of u k E ~ c i c
testing, the configuration does not lend itself to this m e t M ?f
testing.

d.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method. Not recommended for t*


detection of convolution cracks. Although the discontinuitis
are surface, they are internal and are superimposed over
exterior shell which creates a serious problem of entrapment.

e.

Magnetic Testing Method.


nonferrous.

Not

.
applicable.

Materid

HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE CRACKING

1.

Category. Processing (Weldments)

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface. Often quite deep and very tight. Usually run parallel with the
weld in the heat-affected zone of the weldment. (See Figure 7-11.)
4.

hietallurgical Analysis

Hot cracking of heat-affected zones of weldments increases in severity


with increasing carbon content. Steels that contain more than 0.30%
Carbon are prone to this type of failure and require preheating prior to
welding.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for ferromagnetic weldments.

(2)

Prod burns are very detrimental, especially on highly


heat-treated articles. Burns may contribute to structural
failure of article.

(3)

Demagnetization of highly heat-treated articles can be


very difficult due to metallurgical structure.

A MICROGRAPH OF WELD AND HEAT.AFFECTED ZONE


SHOWING CRACK. NOTE COLD LAP MASKING THE
ENTRANCE OF THE CRACK

8. MICROGRAPH OF CRACK SHOWN IN (A)

Figure 7-11. Heat-Affected Zone Cracking Discontinuity

b.

(1)

Normally used for nonferrous weldments.

(2)

Material that has had its surface obliterated, blurred, or


blended due to manufacturing processes should not be
penetrant tested until the smeared surface has been
removed.

(3)

Liquid penetrant testing after the application of certain


types of chemical film coatings may be invalid due to the
covering or filling of the discontinuities.

c.

Radiographic Testing Method.


Not normally used for the
detection of heat-affected zone cracking. Discontinuity orientation and surface origin make other NDT methods more
suitable.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.

e.

712

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Used where specialized applications have been developed.

(2)

Rigid standards and procedures are required t o develop


valid tests.

(3)

The configuraticn of the surface roughness (i.e., sharp


versus rounded root radii and the slope condition) are
major factors in deflecting the sound beam.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Although not normally used for


the detection of heat-affected zone cracking, eddy current
testing equipment has the capability of detecting nonferrous
surface discontinuities.

HEAT-TREAT CRACKS

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought and Cast Material

Surface. Usually deep and forked. Seldom follow a definite pattern and
can be in any direction on the part. Originate in areas with rapid change of
material thickness, sharp machining marks, fillets, nicks, and discontinuities that have been exposed to the surface of the material. (See
Figure 7-12.)
7-21

A FILLET AND MATERIAL THICKNESS CRACKS C'OP CENTER)


RELIEF RADIUS CRACKING (LOWER LEFT)

B. HEAT-TREAT CRACK DUE TO SHARP MACHINING MARKS

Figure 7-12. Heat-Treat Crack Discontinuities


4.

Metallurgical Analysis

During the heating and cooling process, localized stresses may be set Up by
unequal heating or cooling, restricted movement of the article, or unequal
:rosssectional thickness. These stresses may exceed the tensile strength
of the material causing it to rupture. Where built-in stress risers occur
(keyways or grooves) additional cracks may develop.

5.

NDT Methods AppLication and Limitations


a.

b.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

For ferromagnetic materials, heat-treat cracks are


normally detected by magnetic particle testing.

(2)

Indications normally appear as straight, forked, or curved


indications.

(3)

Likely points of origin are areas that would develop stress


risers, such as keyways, fillets, or areas with rapid
changes in material thickness.

(4)

Metallurgical structure of age-hardenable and heattreatable stainless steels (17.4, 17.7, and 431) may
produce nonrelevant indications.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Liquid penetrant testing is the recommended method for


nonferrous materials.

(2)

Likely points of origin for heat-treat cracks are the same


as those listed for magnetic particle testing.

(3)

Materials or articles that will eventually be used in LOX


qystems must be tested with LOX compatible penetrants.

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Although not normally used for


the detection of heat-treat cracks, eddy current testing
equipment has the capability of detecting nonferrous surface .
discontinuities.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detection of


heat-treat cracks. If used, the scope pattern wiU show a
definite indication of a discontinuity. Recommended wave
mode would be surface.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for detection


of heat-treat cracks. Surface discontinuities are more easily
detected by other NDT methods designed for surface
application.

713

SURFACE SHRINK CRACKS

1.

Category. Processing (Welding)

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface. Situated on the face of the weld, fusion zone, and base metal.
Range in size from very small, tight, and shallow, to open and deep.
Cracks may run parallel or transverse to the direction of welding. (See
Figure 7-13.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Surface shrink cracks are generally the result of improper heat application,
either in heating or welding of the article. Heating or cooling in a
Iocalized area may set up stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the
material causing the material t o crack. Restriction of the movement
(contraction or expansion) of the material during heating, cooling, or
welding may also set up excessive stresses.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations

'a.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Surface shrink cracks in nonferrous materials are normally


detected by use of liquid penetrants.

(2)

Liquid penetrant equipment is easily portable and can be


used during in-process control for both ferrous and
nonferrous weldments.

(3)

Assemblies that are joined by bolting, riveting, intermittent welding, or press fittings will retain the penetrant,
which will seep out after developing and mask the
adjoining surfaces.

(4)

When articles are dried in a hot air dryer or by similar


means, excessive drying temperature should be avoided t o
prevent evaporation of penetrant.

A TRANSVERSE CRACKS I N HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE

8. TYPICAL STAR-SHAPED CRATER CRACK

C. SHRINKAGE CRACK A T WELD TERMINAL

Figure 7-13. Surface Shrink Crack Discontinuities


b.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.

(1)

Ferromagnetic weldments are normally tested by magnetic particle method.

(2)

Surface discontinuities, that are parallel to the magnetic


field will not produce indications since they do not
interrupt or distort the magnetic field.

(3)

c.

Areas such as grease fittings, bearing races, or other


similar items that might be damaged or clogged by the
bath or by the particles should be masked before testing.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally confined to nonferrous welded pipe and tubing.

(2)..

A probe or encircling coil could be used where article


configuration permits.

d.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for the


detection of surface discontinuities. During the radiographic
testing of weldments for other types of discontinuities, surface
indications may be detected.

e.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detection of


surface shrink cracks. Other forms of NDT (liquid penetrant
and magnetic particle) give better results, are more economical, and are faster.

I
I

714

THREAD CRACKS

1.

Category. Service

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

!
11
8

Surface. Cracks are transverse to.the grain (transgranular) starting at the


root of the thread. (See Figure 7-14.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Fatigue failures of this type are not uncommon. High cyclic stresses
resulting from vibration and/or flexing act on the stress risers created by
the thread roots to produce cracks. Fatigue cracks may start as fine
submicroscopic discontinuities or cracks and propagate in the direction of
applied stresses.

A. COMPLETE THREAD ROOT FAILURE

C. MICROGRAPH OF (Al SHOWING CRACK


AT BASE O F ROOT

'0. TYPICALTHREAD ROOT FAILURE

0. MICROGRAPH OF IBI SHOWING TRANS-

GRANULAR CRACK ATTHREAD ROOT

Figure 7-14. Thread Crack Discontinuities


5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Liquid penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Fluorescent
penetrant
nonfluorescent.

is

recommended

over

(2)

Low surface tension solvents such as gasoline and


kerosene are not recommended cleaners.

(3)

When applying liquid penetrant to components within an


assembly or structure, the adjacent areas should be
effectively masked to prevent overspraying.

b.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used to detect cracks a t the threads on


ferromagnetic materials.

(2)

Nonrelevant magnetic indications may result from the


thread configuration.

(3)

Cleaning titanium and 440C stainless in halogeneated


hydrocarbons may result in structural damage to the
material.

'

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


thread cracks. The article configuration would require specialized equipment if adaptable.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


thread cracks. Thread configuration does not lend itself t o
ultrasonic testing.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


thread cracks. Surface discontinuities are best screened by
NDT method designed for the specific condition. Fatigue
cracks of this type are very tight and surface connected.
Detection by radiography would be extremely difficult.

715

TUBING CRACKS

1.

Category. Inherent

2.

Material. Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Tubing cracks formed on the inner surface (I.D.), parallel to direction of


grain flow. (See Figure 7-15.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Tubing I.D. cracks may be attributed to one or a combination of the


following:

A TYPICAL CRACK ON INSIDE OF TUBING SHOWING COLD LAP

B. ANOTHER PORTION O F SAME CRACK SHOWING CLEAN FRACTURE

2.

C. MICROGRAPH OF (Bl

Figure 7-15. Tubing Crack Discontinuity


a.

Improper cold reduction of the tube during fabrication.

b.

Foreign material may have been embedded on the inner surface


of the tubes causing embrittlement and cracking when the cold
worked material was heated during the annealing operation.

c.

Insufficient heating rate to the annealing temperature with possible cracking occurring in the 1200-1400F (645-760C) range.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Eddy Current Testing Method.

(1)

Normally used for detection of this type of discontinuity.

(2)

Tube diameters below 1 inch (2.54 cm) and wall thicknesses less than 0.150 inch (3.8 mm) are well within
equipment capability.

(3)

Testing of ferromagnetic material may be difficult.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used on tubing.

(2)

A wide variety of equipment and transducers are available


for screening tubing for internal discontinuities of this
type.

(3)

Ultrasonic
limitationri.

(4)

Certain ultrasonic contact couplants may have high sulfur


content, which will have an adverse effect on high-nickel
alloys.

transducers

have

varying

temperature

c.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


tubing cracks.
Discontinuity orientation and thickness of
material govern the radiographic sensitivity. Other forms of
NDT (eddy current and ultrasonic) are more economical, faster,
and more reliable.

d.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not recommended for
detecting tubing cracks.
Internal discontinuity would be
difficult t o process and interpret.

e.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not applicable. Material is


nonferrous under normal conditions.

16

HYDROGEN FLAKE

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

lternal fissures in a fractured surface, flakes appear as bright silvery


reas.
On an etched surface they appear as short discontinuities.
oinetimes known as chrome checks and hairline cracks when revealed by
~achining. Flakes are extremely thin and generally align parallel with the
rain. They are usually found in heavy steel forgings, billets, and bars.
h e Figure 7-16.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

lakes are internal fissures attributed to stresses produced by localized


:ansformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after
ot working. Usually found only in heavy alloy steel forgings.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.

(1)

Used extensively for the detection of hydrogen flake.

(2)

Material in the wrought condition can be screened


successfully using either the immersion or the contact
method. The surface condition will determine 'the method
most suited.

(3)

On the A-scan presentation, hydrogen flake will appear as


hash on the screen or as loss of back reflection.

(4)

All foreign materials (loose scale, dirt, oil, grease) should


be removed prioi to any testing. Surface irregularities
such as ~ c k s gouges,
,
tool marks, and scarfing may cause
loss of back reflection.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used on finished machined articles.

(2)

Flakes appear as short discontinuities and resemble


chrome checks or hairline cracks.
7-31

A 4340CMS HAND FORGING R E J E T E D FOR HYDROGEN FLAKE

8. CROSSSECTION OF IA) SHOWING FLAKECONDITION I N CENTER O F MATERIAL

Figure 7-16.

Hydrogen Flake Discontinuity

(3)

Machined surfaces with deep tool marks may obliterate


the detection of the flake.

(4)

Where the general direction of a discontinuity is questionable, it may be necessary to magnetize in two or more
directions.

'

c.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not normally used for
detecting flakes. Discontinuities are very small and tight and
would be difficult to detect by liquid penetrants.

d.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


flakes. The metallurgical structure of ferrous materials limits
their adaptability t o the use of eddy current.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recomniended for detecting


flakes. The size of the discontinuity and its location and
orientation with respect to the material surface restricts the
application of radiography.

HYDRQGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
Category. Processing and Service
Material. Ferrous
Discontinuity Characteristics
:ace. Small, nondimensional (interface) with no orientation or direction.
nd in highly heat-treated material that was subjected to pickling and/or
ing or in material exposed t o free hydrogen. (See Figure 7-17.)
Metallurgical Analysis
.ations such a s electroplating or pickling and cleaning prior t o electrong generate hydrogen at the surface of the material. This hydrogen
trates the surface of the material creating immediate or delayed
ittlement and cracking.
NDT Methods Application and Limitations
a.

Magnetic Particles Testing Method.

(1)

Magnetic indications appear as a fractured pattern.

(2)

Hydrogen embrittlement cracks are randomly oriented and


may be aligned with the magnetic field.

(3)

Magnetic particle testing should be accomplished before


and after plating.

A. DETAILED CRACK PATTERN OF HYDROGEN EMBRIVLEMENT

B. HYDROGEN

EMBRtlTLEMENT UNDER
CHROME PLATE

Figure 7-17.

C.

HYDROGEN E M B R l l T L E M E N T PROPAGATED
M R O U G H CHROME PLATE

Hydrogen Embrittlement Discontinuity

(4)

Care should be taken so as not to produce nonrelevant


indications or cause damage to the article by overheating.

(5)

301 corrosion resistant steel is nonmagnetic in the


annealed condition, but becomes magnetic with cold
working.

718

b.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not normally used for
detecting hydrogen embrittlement.
Discontinuitites on the
surface are extremely tight, small, and difficult to detect.
Subsequent plating deposit may mask the discontinuity.

c.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


hydrogen embrittlement. Article configurations and size db
not, in general, lend themselves to this method of testing.
Equipment has capability of detecting hydrogen embrittlement.
Recommend surface wave technique.

d.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not.recommended for detecting


hydrogen embrittlement.
Many variables inherent in the
specific material may produce conflicting patterns.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


hydrogen embrittlement. The sensitivity required to detect
hydrogen embrittlement is in most cases in excess of radiographic capabilities.

INCLUSIONS

1.

Categorg. Processing (Weldments)

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Welded Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface and subsurface. Inclusions may be any shape. They may be


metallic or nonmetallic and may appear singly or be linearly distributed or
scattered throughout the weldment. (See Figure 7-18.)
4.
r

I
I
1

iI

Metallurgical Analysis

Metallic inclusions are generally particles of metals of different density as


compared to the density of the weld or base metal. Nonmetallic inclusions
are oxides, sulphides, slag, or other nonmetallic foreign material entrapped
in the weld or trapped between the weld metal and the base metal.

A METALLIC INCLUSIONS

B. INCLUSIONSTRAPPED I N WELD

C. CROSSSECTION OF WELD SHOWING INTERNAL INCLUSIONS

Figure 7-18. Weldment Inclusion Discontinuities


5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Radiographic Testing Method.


(1)

This NDT metbod is universally used.

(2)

Metallic inclusions appear on the radiograph a s sharply


defined, round, erratically shaped, or elongated white
spots and may be isolated or in small linear or scattered
groups.

(3)

Nonmetallic inclusions will appear on the radiograph as


shadows of round globules or elongated or irregularly
shaped contours occurring singly, linearly, or scattered
throughout the weldment. They will generally appear in

the fusion zone or a t the root of the weld. Less absorbent


material is indicated by a greater film density and more
absorbent materials by a lighter film density.
(4)

b.

c.

Foreign material such as loose scales, splatter, or flux


may invalidate test results.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally confined to thin wall, welded tubing.

(2)

Established standards are required if valid results are to


be obtained.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally not used for detecting inclusions in weldments.

(2)

Confined t o machined weldments where the discontinuities are surface or near surface.

(3)

The indications would appear jagged, irregularly shaped,


individually or clustered, and would not be too
pronounced.

(4)

Discontinuities may go undetected when improper contact

exists between the magnetic particles and the surface of


the article.
d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


inclusions. Specific applications of design or of article configuration, however, may require ultrasonic testing.

e.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method. Not applicable.


are normally not open fissures.

119

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Waterial

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

1:

.' <.
!
I

Inclusions

INCLUSIONS

Subsurface (original bar) or surface (after machining). There are two types:
one is nonmetallic with long straight lines parallel to flow lines and quite
7-37

tightly adherent. Often short and likely to occur in groups. The other type
is nonplastic, appearing as a comparatively large mass not parallel t o flow
lines. Found in forged, extmded, and rolled material. (See Figure 7-19.)

A TYPICAL INCLUSION PATTERN ON MACHINED


SURFACES

C. MICROGRAPH OF TYPICAL

B. STEEL FORGING SHOWING NUMEROUS

INCLUSIONS

INCLUSION

Figure 7-19. Wrought Inclusion


4.

is continuities

Metallurgical Analysis

Nonmetallic inclusions (stringers) are caused by the existence of slag or


oxides in the billet or ingot. Nonplastic inclusions are caused by particles
remaining in the solid state during billet melting. Certain types of steels
are more prone to inclusions than others.

5.

NDT Methods Applications and Limitations

a.

b.

c.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used to evaluate inclusions in wrought material.

(2)

Inclusions will appear as definite interfaces within the


metal. Small, clustered condition or conditions on 'different planes cause a loss in back reflection. Numerous
small, scattered conditions cause excessive "noise."

(3)

Inclusion orientation in relationship to ultrasonic beam is


Critical.

(4)

The direction of the ultrasonic beam should be perpendicular to the direction of the grain flow whenever possible.

Eddy Current Testing Method.

(1)

Normally used for thin wall tubing and small diameter


rods.

(2)

Eddy current testing of ferromagnetic materials can be


difficult.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used on machined surface.

(2)

Inclusions will appear as a straight intermittent or as a


continuous indication.
They may be individual or
clustered.

(3)

The magnetizing technique should besuch that a surface


or near surface inclusion can be satisfactorily detected
when its axis is in any direction.

(4)

A knowledge of the grain flow of the material is critical


since inclusions will be parallel t o that direction.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not normally used for
detecting inclusions in wrought material.
Inclusions are
generally not openings in the material surface.

'

e.

720

Radiographic Testing Method.


Not recommended.
NDT
methods designed for surface testing are more suitable for
detecting surface inclusions.

LACK OF PENETRATION

1.

Category. Processing

2.

~ a t e r i * Ferrous and Nonferrous Weldments

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal or external. Generally irregular and filamentary occurring a t the


root and running parallel with the weld. (See Figure 7-20.)

k INADEQUATE ROOT PENETRATION

8. INADEQUATE

ROOT PENETRATION OF
BUTT W E L D E O T U B E

C. INADEOUATE FILLET WELD PENETRATION


KNOWN AS BRIDGING

Figure 7-20. Lack of Penetration Discontinuities

4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Caused by root face of joint not reaching fusion temperature tjefore weld
metal was deposited. Also caused by fast welding rate, too large a welding
rod, or too cold a bead.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

c.

d.

Radiographic Testing Method.


(1)

Used extensively on a wide variety of welded articles to


determine the lack of penetration.

(2)

Lack of penetration will appear on the radiograph as an


elongated, dark area of varying length and width. Lack of
penetration may be continuous or intermittent and may
appear in the center of the weld at the junction of
multipass bends.

(3)

Lack of penetration orientation in relationship to the


radiographic source is critical.

(4)

Sensitivity levels govern the capab&ty t o detect small or


tight discontinuities.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.

(1)

Commonly used for specific applications.

(2)

Weldments make ultrasonic testing difficult.

(3)

Lack of penetration will appear on the scope as a definite


break or discontinuity resembling a crack and will give a
very sharp reflection.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used to determine lack of penetration in nonferrous welded pipe and tubing.

(2)

Eddy current testing can be used where other nonferrous


articles can meet the configuration requirement of the
equipment.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used where backside of weld is visible.

(2)

e.

721

Lack of penetration appears as an irregular indication of


varying width.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Normally used where backside of weld is visible.

(2)

Lack of penetration appears as an irregular indication of


varying width.

(3)

Residue left by the penetrant and the developer could


contaminate any rewelding operation.

LAMINATIONS

1.

Catezory. Inherent

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface and internal. Flat, extremely thin, generally aligned parallel t o the
work surface of the material. May contain a thin film of oxide between the
(See
surfaces.
Found in forged, extruded, and roIled material.
Figure 7-21.)
4.

;vietallurgical Analysis

Laminations are separations or weaknesses generally aligned parallel t o the


work surface of the material. They may be the result of pipe, blister,
seam, inclusions, o r segregations elongated and made directional by
working. Laminations are flattened impurities that are extremely thin.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.

(1)

For heavier gauge material the geometry and orientation


of lamination (normal to the beam) makes their detection
limited to ultrasonic testing.

(2)

Numerous wave modes may be used depending upon the


material thickness or method selected for testing. Automatic and manual contact or immersion methods are
adaptable.

k LAMINATION IN 0.25 IN. 1635mml PLATE

C.

LAMINATION IN PLATE SHOWING SURFACE


ORIENTATION

6. LAMINATION IN TITANIUM S H E R

0. LAMINATION IN 1 IN. (25.4mm) BAR SHOWING

SURFACE ORIENTATION

Figure 7-21. Lamination Discontinuities

(3)

Laminations appear as a definite interface with a loss of


back reflection.

(4)

Through transmission and reflection techniques are applicable for very thin sections.

!
b.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Articles fabricated from ferromagnetic materials are


normally tested for lamination by magnetic particle
testing methods.
7-43

c.

(2)

Magnetic indication will appear as a straight, intermittent indication.

(3)

Magnetic particle testing is not capable of determining


the overall size or depth of the lamination.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

722
1.

2.
3.

. Normally used on nonferrous materials.

(2)

Machining, honing, lapping, or blasting may smear surface


of material and thereby close or mask surface lamination.

(3)

Acid and alkalines seriously limit the effectiveness of


liquid penetrant testing. Thorough cleaning of the surface
is essential.

d.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used to detect


laminations. If used, the method must be confined to thin sheet
stock.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


laminations. Laminations have very small thickness changes in
the direction of the X-ray beam, thereby making radiographic
detection almost impossible.

LAPS AND SEAMS


Category. Processing
. Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Rolled Threads

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface. Wavy lines, often quite deep and sometimes very tight, appearing

as hairline cracks. Found in rolled threads in the minor pitch, and major
diameter of the thread, and in direction of rolling. (See Figure 7-22.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

During the rolling operation, faulty or oversized dies, or an overfill of


material may cause material to be foIded over and flattened into the
qurface of the thread but not fused.

A TYPICAL AREAS OF FAILURE LAPS AND SEAMS

8. FAILURE OCCURRING AT ROOT O F THREAD

C. AREAS WHERE LAPS A N D SEAMS USUALLY OCCUR

Figure 7-22. Lap and Seam Discontinuities in Rolled Threads


5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations

a.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Compatibility with both ferrous and nonferrous materials


makes fluorescent liquid penetrant the first choice.

b.

723

(2)

Liquid penetrant indications will be circumferential,


slightly curved, intermittent or continuous indications.
Laps and seams may occur individually or in clusters.

(3)

Foreign material may not only interfere with the penetration of the penetrant into the discontinuity but may
cause an accumulation of penetrant in a nondefective
area.

(4)

Surface of threads may be smeared due to rolling operation, thereby sealing off laps and seams.

(5)

Fluorescent and dye penetrants are not compatible. Dye


penetrants tend to kill the fluorescent qualities in
fluorescent penetrants.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Magnetic particle indications of laps and seams generally


appear the same as liquid penetrant indications.

(2)

Nonrekevant
threads.

(3)

Questionable magnetic particle indications can be verified


by liquid penetrant testing.

magnetic

indications may

result

from

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


laps and seams. Article configuration is the restricting factor.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


laps and seams.
Thread configurations restrict ultrasonic
capability.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


laps and seams. Size and orientation of discontinuities restricts
the capability of radiographic testing.

LAPS AND SEAMS

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics
a.

Lap Surface.
Wavy lines -usually not very pronounced or
tightly adherent since they usually enter the surface a t a small

angle. Laps may have surface openings smeared closed. Found


in wrought forgings, plate, tubing, bar, and rod.
(See
Figure 7-23.)

A TYPICAL FORGING LAP

6. MICROGRAPH OF A LAP

Figure 7-23. Lap and *am Discontinuities in Wrought Material


b.

4.

Seam Surface. Lengthy, often quite deep and sometimes very


tight; usually occur in parallel fissures with the grain; and, a t
times, spiral when associated with roUed rod and tubing.

Metallurgical Analysis

Seams originate from blowholes, cracks, splits, and tears introduced in


earlier processing and elongated in the direction of rolling or forging. The
distance between adjacent innerfaces of the discontinuity is very small.
Laps are similar to seams and may result from improper rolling, forging, or
sizing operations. During the processing of the material, corners may be
folded over or an overfill may exist during sizing that results in material
being flattened, but not fused into the surface. Laps may'occur on any part
of the article.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.

(1)

Magnetic particle testing is recommended for ferromagnetic material.


7-47

(2)

Surface and nearsurface laps and seams may be detected


by this method.

(3)

Laps and seams may appear as straight, spiral, or slightly


curved indications. They may be individual or clustered
and continuous or intermittent.

(4)

Magnetic buildup a t laps and seams is very small. Therefore a magnetizing current greater than that used for the
detection of cracks is necesssry.

(5)

b.

c.

d.

e.

Correct magnetizing technique should be used when


examining for forging laps since the discontinuity may lie
in a plane nearly parallel to the surface.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.

(1)

Liquid penetrant testing is. recommended for nonferrous


material.

(2)

L q s and seams may be very tight and difficult to detect


especially by liquid penetrant.

(3)

Liquid penetrant testing of laps and seams can be


improved slightly by heating the article before applying
the penetrant.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


1

Normally used
machining.

to

test wrought

material prior

to

(2)

Surface wave technique permits accurate evaluation of


the depth, length, and size of laps and seams.

(3)

Ultrasonic indications of laps and seams will appear as


definite inner faces within the metal.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for the evaluation of laps and seams in


tubing and pipe.

(2)

Other articles can be screened by eddy current where


article configuration and size permit.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


laps and seams in wrought material.

724

MICROSHRINKAGE

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Magnesium Casting

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal. Small filamentary voids in the grain boundaries appear a s concentrated porosity in cross section. (See Figure 7-24.)

A CRACKED MAGNESIUM HOUSING

8. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF (A)

C. MICROGRAPH OF CRACKED AREA

Figure 7-24. Microshrinkage Discontinuity


7-49

4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Shrinkage occurs while the metal is in a plastic or semimolten state. If


sufficient molten metal cannot flow into different areas as it cools, the
shrinkage w U leave a void. The void is identified by its appearance and by
the time in the plastic range it occurs. Microshrinkage is caused by the
withdrawal of thelow melting point constituent from the grain boundaries.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Radiographic Testing Method.

(1)

Radiography is universally used t o determine the acceptance level of microshrinkage.

(2)

Microshrinkage will appear on the radiograph as an


elongated swirl resembling feathery streaks or as dark
irregular patches that are indicative of cavities in the
grain boundaries.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used on finished machined surfaces.

(2)

Microshrinkage is not normally open t o the surface. These


conditions will, therefore, be detected in machined areas.

(3)

The appearance of the indication depends on the plane


through which the microshrinkage has been cut. The
appearance varies from a continuous hairline to a massive
porous indication.

(4)

Penetrant may a c t as a contaminant by saturating the


microporous casting affecting its ability to accept a
surface treatment.

(5)

Serious structural or dimensional damage to the article


can result from the improper use of acids or alkalies.
They should never be used unless approval is obtained.

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


microshrinkage. Article configuration and type of discontinuity
do not Iend themselves t o eddy current testing.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


microshrinkage. Cast structure and article configuration are
restricting factors.

e.
725

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not applicable. Material is


nonferrous.

GAS POROSITY

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous Weldments

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface or subsurface. Rounded or elongated, teardrop shaped, with or


without a sharp discontinuity a t the point. Scattered uniformly throughout
the weld or isolated in small groups. May also be concentrated a t the root
or toe. (See Figure 7-25.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Porosity in welds is caused by gas entrapment in the molten metal, too


much moisture on the base or filler metal, or improper cleaning or preheating.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Radiography Testing Method.

(1)

Radiography is the most universally used NDT method for


the detection of gas porosity in weldments.

(2)

m e radiograhic image of a "round" porosity will appear as


oval shaped spots with smooth edges, while "elongated"
porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with the major
axis sometimes several times longer than the minor axis.

(3)

Foreign material such as loose scale, flux, or splatter will


affect validity of test results.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(I)

Ultrasonic testing equipment is highly sensitive, capable


of detecting microseparations.
Established standards
should be used if valid test results are to be obtained.

(2)

Surface finish and grain size will affect the validity of the
test results.

A TYPICAL SURFACE P O R O S I N

B. CROSSSECTION OF (A) SHOWING

EXTENT OF P O R O S I N

C. MICROGRAPH O F CROSSSECTlON SHOWING TYPICAL


S H R I N K A G E POROSITY

Figure 7-25. Gas Porosity Discontinuity


C.

d.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally confined t o thin-wall welded pipe and tube.

(2)

Penetration restricts testing t o a depth of more than oneq u a r t e r inch.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Normally confined to inprocess control of ferrous and


nonferrous weldments.

e.

(2)

Liquid penetrant testing, like magnetic particle,


restricted to surface evaluation.

is

(3)

Extreme caution must be exercised to prevent any


cleaning material, magnetic (iron oxide), and liquid penetrant materials from becoming entrapped and contaminating the rewelding operation.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not normally used to detect


gas porosity. Only surface porosity would be evident. Near
surface porosity would not be clearly defined since indications
are neither strong nor pronounced.

726

UNFUSED POROSITY

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Aluminum

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal. Wafer-thin fissures aligned parallel with the grain flow. Found in
wrought aluminum that has been rolled, forged, or extruded. (See
Figure 7-26.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Unfused porosity is attributed to porosity in the cast ingot. During the


rolling, forging, or extruding operations it is flattened. into wafer-thin
shape. J f the internal surface of these discontinuities is oxidized or is
composed of a foreign material, they will not fuse during the subsequent
processing, which results in an extremely thin interface or void.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.

(1)

Used extensively for the detection of unfused porosity.

(2)

Raw materials may be tested in the "as received"


configuration.

(3)

Ultrasonic testing fixes the location of the void in all


three directions.

A. FRACTURED SPECIMEN SHOWING

UNFUSED POROSIW

8. UNFUSED POROSITY EQUIVALENT TO 1/64 IN.


10.40 mm). 3/64 IN. 11.17 mm) 5/64 IN. 11.98 mm)
AND 8/64 IN. (3.18 mml lleftto ri&tl

C. WPICALUNFUSED POROSITY

Figure 7-26. Unfused Porosity Discontinuity

b.

(4)

Where the general direction of the discontinuity is


unknown, it may be necesary to test from several
directions.

(5)

Method of manufacture and subsequent article configuration will determine the orientation of the unfused porosity
to the material surface.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used on nonferrous, machined articles.

(2)

Unfused porosity will appear as a straight line of varying


lengths running parallel with the grain. Liquid penetrant
testing & restricted to surface evaluation.

(3)

Surface preparations such as vapor blasting, honing,


grinding, or sanding may obliterate possible indications by

masking the surface discontinuities, thereby restricting


the reliability of liquid penetrant testing.
(4)

727

Excessive agitation of penetrant materials may produce


foaming.

c.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


unfused porosity.

d.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


unfused porosity. Wafer-thin discontinuities are difficult to
detect by a method that measures density or that requires that
the discontinuity be perpendicular to the X-ray beam.

e.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not applicable. Material is


nonferrous.

STRESS CORROSION

1.

Categorx. Service

2.

Material. Ferrous and Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface. Range from shallow to very deep, and usually follow the grain
flow of the material; however, transverse cracks are also possible. (See
Figure 7-27.)

4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Three factors are necessary for the phenomenon of stress corrosion to


occur: 1) a sustained static tensile stress, 2) the presence of a corrosive
environment, and 3) the use of a material that is susceptible to this type of
failure. Stress corrosion is much more likely to occur a t high levels of
stress than at low levels of stress. The type of stresses include residual
(internal) as well a s those from external (applied) loading.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Liquid penetrant is normally used for the detection of


stress corrosion.

Figure 7-27. Stress Corrosion Discontinuity


(2)

In the preparation, application, and final cleaning of


articles, extreme care must be exercised t o prevent
overspraying and Contamination of the surrounding
ar.ticles.

(3)

Chemical cleaning immediately before the application of


liquid penetrant may seriously affect the test results if
the solvents are not given time t o evaporate.

(4)

Service articles may contain moisture within the discontinuity which will dilute, contaminate, and invalidate
results if the moisture is not removed.

b.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not normally used to detect


stress corrosion.
Eddy current equipment is capable of
resolving stress corrosion where article configuration is compatible with equipment limitations.

c.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used to detect stress


corrosion.
Discontinuities are perpendicular to surface of
material and require surface technique.

728

/I

d.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not normally used to detect


stress corrosion.
Configuration of article and usual nonferromagnetic condition exclude magnetic particle testing.

e.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used t o detect


stress corrosion. Surface indications are best detected by NDT
method designed for such application. However, radiography
can and has shown stress corrosion with the use of the proper
technique.

'

HYDRAULIC TUBING

1.

Category. Processing and Service

2.

Material. Aluminum 6061-T6

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface and internal. Range in size from short to long, shallow to very
tight and deep. Usually they will be found in the direction of the grain flow
with the exception of stress corrosion, which has no direction. (See
Figure 7-28.)

A INTERGRANULAR CORROSION

B. LAP IN OUTER SURFACE OF TUBING

C . EMBEDDED FOREIGN MATERIAL

D. TWIN LAPS IN OUTER SURFACE


O F TUBING

Figure 7-28. Hydraulic Tubing Discontinuities

7-57

4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Hydraulic tubing discontinuities are usually one of the following:

5.

a,

Foreign material coming in contact with the tube material and


being embedded into the surface of the tube.

b.

Laps which are the result of material being foIded over and not
fused. .

e.

Seams which originate from blowholes, cracks, splits and tears


introduced in the earlier processing, and then are elongated
during rolling.

d.

Intergranular corrosion which is due to the presence of a corrosive environment.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Eddy Current Testing Method.

(1)

Universally used for testing of nonferrous tubing.

(2)

Heavier-walled tubing, 0.25 in. (6.3 mm) and over, may


not be successfully tested due to the penetration ability of
the equipment.

(3)

The specific nature of various discontinuities may not be


clearly defined.

(4)

Test results will not be valid unless controlled by known


standards.

(5)

Testing of ferromagnetic material may be difficult.

(6)

All material should be free of any foreign material that


would invalidate the test results.

b.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not normally used for
detecting tubing discontinuities. Eddy current is more economical, faster, and, with established standards, is more reliable.

c.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


tubing discontinuities.
Eddy current is recommended over
ultrasonic testing since it is faster and more economical for this
range of surface discontinuity and nonferrous material.

d.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used for detecting


tubing discontinuities. The size and type of discontinuity and

the configuration of the article limit the use of radiography for


screening of material for this group of discontinuities.
e.

729

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not applicable. Material is


nonferrous.

MANDREL DRAG

1.

Category. Processing

2.

Material. Nonferrous Thick-Wall Seamless Tubing

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal surface of thick-wall tubing. Range from shallow even gouges to


ragged tears. Often a slug of the material will be embedded within the
gouged area. (See Figure 7-29.)

C. ANOTHER TYPE OF EMBEDDED SLUG

D. GOUGE ON INNER SURFACE OF PIPE

Figure 7-29. Mandrel Drag Discontinuities


7-59

During the manufacture of thick-wall seamless tubing, the billet is ruptured


as it passes through the offset rolls. As the piercing mandrel follows this
fracture, a portion of the material may break loose and be forced over the
mandrel. As it does, the surface of the tubing may be scored or have the
slug embedded into the wall. Certain types of material are more prone t o
this type of failure than others.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Eddy Current Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for the testing of thin-wall pipe or tube.

(2)

Eddy current testing may be confined to nonferrous


materials.

(3)

Discontinuities are qualitative, not quantative indications.

(4)

Several factors simultaneously affect output indications.

Ultrasonic Testing Method.


(1)

Normally used for the screening of thick-wall pipe or tube


for mandrel drag.

(2)

Can be used to test both ferrous and nonferrous pipe or


tube.

(3)

May be used in support of production line since it is adaptable for automatic instrumentation.

(4)

Configuration of mandrel drag or tear will produce very


sharp and noticeable indications on the scope.

c.

Radiographic Testing Method. Not normally used although it


has been instrumental in the detection of mandrel drag during
examination of adjacent welds. Complete coverage requires
several exposures around the circumference of the tube. This
method is not designed for production support since it is very
slow and costly for large volumes of pipe or tube. Radiograph
will disclose only two dimensions and not the third.

d.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not recommended for
detecting mandrel drag since discontinuity is internal and would
not be detectable.

e.

730

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


Not recommended for
detecting mandrel drag. Discontinuities are not close enough to
the surface to be detectable by magnetic particles. Most
mandrel drag will occur in seamless stainless steel.

SEMICONDUCTORS

1.

Category. Processing and Service

2.

Material. Hardware

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal. Appear in many sizes and shapes and various degrees of density.
They may be misformed, misaligned, damaged, or may have broken internal
hardware. Found in transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. (See
Figure 7-30.)

k STRANDS BROKEN IN HEATER BLANKET

C. BROKEN ELECTRICAL CABLE

8.

FINE CRACK IN PLASTIC CASING MATERIAL

0. FOREIGN MATERIAL WITHIN SEMICONDUCTOR

Figure 7-30. Semiconductor Discontinuities

4.

Metallurgical Analysis
I

Semiconductor discontinuities such as loose wire, weld splash, flakes, solder


balls, loose leads, inadequate clearance between internal elements and
case, and inclusions or voids in seals or around lead connections are the
product of processing errors.

5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Radiographic Testing Method.

(1)

Universally used as the NDT method for the detection of


discontinuities in semiconductors.

(2)

The configuration and internal structure of the various


semiconductors limit the NDT method to radiography.

(3)

Semiconductors that have copper heat sinks may require


more than one technique due t o the density of the copper.

(4)

Internal wires in semiconductors are very f i e and may be


constructed from materials of different density such as
copper, silver, gold and aluminum. If the latter is used
with the others, special techniques may be needed t o
resolve test reliability.

(5)

Microparticles may require the highest sensitivity to


resolve.

(6)

The complexity of the internal structure of semiconductors may require additional views to exclude the
possibility of non-detection of discontinuities due to
masking by hardware.

(7)

Positive positioning of each semiconductor will prevent


invalid interpretation.

(8)

Source angle should give minimum distortion.

(9)

Preliminary examination of semiconductors may be


accomplished using a vidicon system that would allow
visual observation during 360 degree rotation of the
article.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


semiconductor discontinuities. Nature of discontinuity and
method of construction of the article do not lend themselves to
this form of NDT.

731

c.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method. Not recommended for


detecting semiconductor discontinuities.

d.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


Not recommended for
detecting semiconductor discontinuities.

e.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


semiconductor discontinuities.

HOTTEARS

1.

Categorx. Inherent

2.

Material. Ferrous Castings

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Internal or near surface. Appear as ragged Line of variable width and


numerous branches. Occur singly or in groups. (See Figure 7-31.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Hot cracks (tears) are caused by nonuniform cooling resulting in stresses


which rupture the surface of the metal while its temperature is still in the
brittle range. Tears may originate where stresses are set up by the more
rapid cooling of .thin sections that adjoin heavier masses of metal, which
are slower to cool.
5.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

b.

Radiographic Testing Method.


(1)

Radiographic testing is the first choice since the material


is cast structure and the discontinuities may be internal
and surface.

(2)

Orientation of the hot tear in relation to the source may


influence the test results.

(3)

The sensitivity level may not be sufficient to detect fine


surface hot tears.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


(1)

Hot tears that are exposed to the surface can be screened


with magnetic particle method.

A. TYPICAL HOTTEARS IN CASTING

8. HOTTEARS IN FILLET OF CASTING

C. CLOSEUP OF HOTTEARS I N IAI

D. CLOSE-UP OF HOTTEARS I N IB)

Figure 7-31. Hot Tear Discontinuities

c.

(2)

Article configuration and metallurgical composition may


make demagnetization difficult.

(3)

Although magnetic particle testing can detect near


surface hot tears, radiography should be used for final
analysis.

(4)

Foreign material not removed prior to testing will cause


an invaliu test.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Liquid penetrant testing is recommended for nonferrous


cast material.

(2)

Method is confined to surface evaluation.

732

'

(3)

The use of penetrants on castings may act as a


contaminant by saturating the porous structure and
thereby affect the ability to apply surface finish.

(4)

Repeatability of indications may be poor.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting hot


tears. Discontinuities of this type when associated with cast.
structure do not lend themselves to ultrasonic testing.

e.

Eddy Current Testing Method. Not recommended for detecting


hot tears. Metallurgical structure along with the complex
configurations do not lend themselves to eddy current testing.

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION

1.

Category. Service

2.

Material. Nonferrous

3.

Discontinuity Characteristics

Surface or internal. A series of small micro-openings with no definite


pattern.
May appear singly or in groups. The insidious nature of
intergranular corrosion results from the fact that very little corrosion or
corrosion product is visible on the surface. Integranular corrosion may
extend in any direction following the grain boundaries of the material. (See
Figure 7-32.)
4.

Metallurgical Analysis

Two factors that contribute to intergranular corrosion are:

5.

a.

Metallurgical structure of the material that is prone to


intergranular
corrosion such as unstabilized 300 series stainless
steel.

b.

Improper stress relieving or heat treat may create the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Either of these conditions
colipled with a corrosive atmosphere will result in intergranular
attack.

NDT Methods Application and Limitations


a.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method.


(1)

Liquid Penetrant testing is the first choice due to the size


and location of this type of discontinuity.
7-65

A. MICROGRAPH OF INTERGRANULAR CORROSION SHOWING LlFFlNG OF

SURFACE FROM SUBSURFACE CORROSION

OF I N T E R G R A N U L A R CORROSION.
ONLY MINOR EVIDENCE O F CORROSION IS E V I O E N T FROM SURFACE

8. MICROGRAPH SHOWING N A T U R E

Figure 7-32. Intergranular Corrosion Discontinuity

b.

(2)

Chemical cleaning operations immediately before the


application of Liquid penetrant may contaminate the
article and seriously affect test results.

(3)

Cleaning with solvents may release


accelerate intergranular corrosion.

(4)

Trapped penetrant solution may present a cleaning or


removal problem.

chlorine

and

Radiographic Testing Method.

(1)

Intergranular corrosion in the more advanced stages has


been detected with radiography.

c.

(2)

Sensitivity levels may prevent the detection of fine


intergranular corrosion.

(3)

Radiography may not indicate the surface on which the


intergranular corrosion occurs.

Eddy Current Testing Method.

(1)

Eddy current can be


intergranular corrosion.

used

for

the

screening of'

(2)

Tube or pipe lend themselves readily to this method of


NDT testing.

(3)

Metallurgical structure of the material may seriously


affect the output indications.

d.

Ultrasonic Testing Method. Not normally used although the


equipment has the capability to detect intergranular corrosion.

e.

Magnetic Particle Testing Method.


Not recommended for
detecting intergranular corrosion. Type of discontinuity and
material restrict the use of magnetic particles.