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Alternative Rules

Design And Fabrication Of

Pressure Vessels

ASME Section VIII, Division 2

At the conclusion of this presentation we will be able to:
Describe the scope and contents of the ASME Boiler &
Pressure Vessel Code
Describe the background and scope of Section VIII,
Division 2
Identify the responsibilities of the User, the Manufacturer,
and the Inspector
Describe the required contents and certification
requirements of the Users Design Specification and the
Manufacturers Design Report

Code Forward
Key points
Constructioncomprises materials, design, fabrication,
examination, inspection, testing, certification, & pressure
Codebook not a handbook(provides minimum
requirements) it cannot replace education, experience, and the
use of engineering judgment
Rules may be supplemented by good practice and
jurisdictional requirements

Code Forward
Code neither requires nor prohibits use of computer programs
Code does not fully address tolerances
Code only specifies tolerances that validate the design rules
Rules do not approve, recommend, or endorse any proprietary
or specific design

Brief Comparison With

Division 1
Division 2 rules
Have higher allowable stresses
Have more rigorous design/analysis requirements
Have higher fabrication costs
Owner decides which rules to use
Div 1 or Div 2
Usually based on cost of vessel

Organization of Division 2
Part 1 General Requirements
Part 2 Responsibilities and Duties
Part 3 Materials Requirements
Part 4 Design by Rule Requirements
Part 5 Design by Analysis requirements
Part 6 Fabrication requirements
Part 7 Inspection and Examination requirements
Part 8 Pressure Testing Requirements
Part 9 Overpressure Protection
Mandatory and non-mandatory requirements are provided as
normative and informative annexes, respectively,to the specific
Part under consideration

ASME Section VIII, Division 2

General Requirements

Scope of the Code

Definition of Pressure vessels (1.1.3)
Containers for containment of pressure, either internal or
List of Excluded vessels (1.2.4)
Vessels within scope of other Sections
Fired process tubular heaters
Integral parts of rotating or reciprocating mechanical devices
Piping components
Components such as strainers, mixers, separators, provided the
pressure containing parts are considered piping.
Vessels in water service for certain combinations of P and T

Scope of the Code

Vessels with an internal or external pressure not exceeding
15 psi.
Vessels with an inside diameter not exceeding 6.
Pressure vessels for human occupancy
Excluded vessels may be constructed and stamped to Div 2 if
all requirements are met

Scope of the Code

Geometric Scope (1.2.3)
Where piping, other PVs or devices connect to vessel
First circumferential welded joint,
The first threaded joint,
Face of first flange
First sealing surface of propriety connections or fittings
Non-pressure parts Subject to specific non-pressure
Pressure retaining covers and their fasteners for openings
Such as manholes

Scope of the Code

The rules of this Division do not specify a limitation on
pressure but are not all-inclusive for all types of construction.
For very high pressures, some additions to these rules may be
necessary to meet the design principles and construction
practices essential to vessels for such pressures.
However, only in the event that, after application of additional
design principles and construction practices, the vessel still
complies with all of the requirements of the Code, may it be
stamped with the Certification Mark.
As an alternative to this Division, Section VIII, Division 3
should be considered for the construction of vessels intended
for operating pressures exceeding 68.95 MPa (10,000 psi).

Scope of the Code

May be followed by any of three procedure
a)The Manufacturer of the vessel completes the vessel in the
field, completes the Form A-1 Manufacturer's Data Report,
and stamps the vessel.

Scope of the Code

The Manufacturer of parts of a vessel to be completed in the
field by some other party stamps these parts in accordance
with Code rules and supplies the Form A-2 Manufacturer's
Partial Data Report to the other party.
The other party,
who must hold a valid U2 Certificate of Authorization,
makes the final assembly, performs the required NDE,
performs the final pressure test, completes the Form A-1
Manufacturer's Data Report, and stamps the vessel..

Scope of the Code

The field portion of the work is completed by a holder of a
valid U2 Certificate of Authorization other than the vessel
The Certificate holder performing the field work is required
to supply a Form A-2 Manufacturer's Partial Data Report
covering the portion of the work completed by his
organization (including data on the pressure test if conducted
by the Certificate holder performing the field work) to the
Manufacturer responsible for the Code vessel.

Scope of the Code

The vessel Manufacturer applies his Certification Mark with
U2 Designator in the presence of a representative from his
Inspection Agency and completes the Form A-1
Manufacturer's Data Report with his Inspector.
In all three alternatives, the party completing and signing the
Form A-1 Manufacturer's Data Report assumes
full Code responsibility for the vessel. In all three cases, each
Manufacturer's Quality Control System shall describe the
controls to assure compliance by each Certificate holder

ASME Section VIII, Division 2


Three parties involved with construction of a Code
stamped vessel

User Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the user or an agent acting on behalf
of the user to provide a certified Users Design
for each pressure vessel to be constructed in accordance with this
Provides basis for design and construction
Specifies effective Code Edition and Addenda
Must be certified in accordance with Annex 2.A of Codebook

Minimum UDS Requirements**

Location of installation
Jurisdictional authority
Environmental loads such as wind or earthquake
Vessel identification
Service fluid and density
Vessel configuration including openings and method of support
Design conditions including design temperature, design
pressure , minimum design metal temperature (MDMT), dead
and live loads
Operating conditions including operating pressure, operating
temperature, Fluid transients and flow

Minimum UDS Requirements**

Cyclic conditions and number of associated cycles
Materials of construction and service related requirements for
Corrosion and/or erosion allowance
All loads and load cases
Overpressure protection requirements
** This is not a complete list

Manufacturer Responsibilities
Assure structural and pressure retaining integrity of the vessel
Meet all Code and UDS requirements
Ensure work quality of sub-contractors
Prepare and provide Manufacturers Design Report (MDR)

Manufacturers Design Report

Minimum requirements
Final as-built drawings
The actual material specifications
Design calculations and analysis
Results of any fatigue analysis

Manufacturer Responsibilities
Documentation of design-by-rule calculations in Part 4 shall
include the following
(-a) The name and version of computer software, if applicable
(-b) Loading conditions and boundary conditions used to address
the load cases in the Users Design Specification
(-c) Material models utilized for all required physical properties.
(-d) Detailed calculations, including results from all of the
applicable steps in the calculations, showing the acceptance
criteria utilized to meet the requirements of this Division.
(-e) A summary of the calculation results

Manufacturer Responsibilities
Documentation of design-by-analysis calculations in Part 5 shall
include the following:
(-a) A detailed description of the numerical method used,
including the name and version of computer software, if
(-b) Description of model geometry
(including element type for finite element analysis)
(-c) Loading conditions and boundary conditions used to address
the load cases in the Users Design Specification
(-d) Material models utilized for all required physical properties
i.e. modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio, thermal

Manufacturer Responsibilities
(-e) Description of whether material nonlinearity is utilized in the
analysis including a description of the material
model (i.e. stress-strain curve and cyclic stress-strain curve)
(-f) Description of the numerical analysis procedure like
static analysis,
thermal analysis (temperature and stress),
buckling analysis,
natural frequency analysis,
dynamic analysis
and whether a geometrically linear or nonlinear option is invoked

Manufacturer Responsibilities
(-g) Graphical display of relevant results
Numerical model,
Deformed plots,
Contour plots of thermal and stress results
(-h) Method used to validate the numerical model
(-i) Description of results processing performed to establish
numerical analysis results (i.e. stress linearization
method, use of centroidal or nodal values for stress, strain,
and temperature results)
(-j) A summary of the numerical analysis results showing the
acceptance criteria utilized to meet the requirements
of this Division

Manufacturer Responsibilities
(-k)Electronic storage of analysis results including input files and
output files that contain numerical analysis results
utilized to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of
this Division
(-l) The results of any fatigue analyses according to paragraph
5.5, as applicable.
(-m) Any assumptions used by the Manufacturer to perform the
vessel design

Manufacturer Responsibilities
Work such as forming, nondestructive examination, heat
treating, etc., may be performed by others It is the vessel
Manufacturers responsibility to ensure that all work performed
complies with all the applicable requirements of this Division.
Subcontracts that involve welding on the pressure boundary
components for construction under the rules of this Division, and
for repair welds permitted by the ASME shall be made only to
subcontractors holding a valid U2 Certificate of Authorization.
All such subcontracted welding shall be documented on the Form

Inspector Duties
Assure all Code requirements are met
Conduct the following inspections (from Annex 7.A of the
Inspect materials for compliance, markings and traceability
Assure all heat treatments are properly performed
Assure all welding and NDE meet Code
Witness pressure test
Verify name plate markings

Data Reports
Shall be Completed by Manufacturer once fabrication is finished
Use form A-1 for overall vessel
Use form A-2 for part supplied by a Manufacturer other than the
vessel Manufacturer
Copies should be sent to:
The User
The Inspector, if requested
Jurisdiction, if required
A file copy to be kept by the Manufacturer, for a minimum of 3
Filed with the National Board (recommended)
Form A-3 is Supplementary Sheet

Proper stamp for a Division 2 vessel is the U2
Code symbol may be directly applied to vessel wall
Stamp is applied to name plate, then name plate is attached to
As a minimum, the following markings must be included on the
name plate:
The name of the Manufacturer
The Manufacturers serial number
The MAWP and the coincident design temperature.
The MAEWP, if applicable
The MDMT (Minimum Design Metal Temperature)
The year built
Method of construction (W, for welded F, for forged WL, for welded layered
Extent of heat treatment

ASME Section VIII, Division 2


To be continued