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-

( )

148.
: -.
: 4-83,
1-28, 28 , , , ,
.

148

2006

(..)
(, 50 )
. ( 300 )
. ( 300 ),
( ) 1 1 (
, , ),

- : -,
- - (skin-), ,
, ( 4 ).
- ,
( ). ,

, .
.. ,
.
, , [2].
.. ,
. .
.. ,
x = 0 (. 1). E
. E Y
( ). , ,
. 1 . E H
, k,
.
3

k
k=

,
=

(1)

, , v
, .
X
M . 1. 6 H k2
: E 
JJ E
}
Z
ZN

E .
E
H J

 J

=

k1J
^= R
rM
( 0), t 
3

Z
 r

0.
E = E0 ei(tk1 r) ,

. 1.

E = E0 ei(tk2 r) ,

(2)
(3)

k1 = k2 = /c. :
k1x = k cos , k1z = k sin ,
k2x = k cos ,
k2z = k sin .

(4)

180, . M
E = E0 [ei(tk1 r) ei(tk2 r) ].

(5)

(5) r(x, 0, z) k1 k2 (4),


E = 2iE0 sin(kx cos )ei(tz sin /c) .

(6)


2iE0 sin(kx cos ),

(7)

z
v =

c
.
sin
4

: 1)
; 2)
x . ,

X
. ,
kx cos = n, .. ,
x=

n
;
k cos

(9)

, , . .
, ..
E(t) = 0.
, , y = 0 y = b. ,
.
, , .. , . ,
.
Ey
, , , Hx Hz .
,
.

, (H).
(H = Hy ), Ez 6= 0
(E-).
(9) . , a
, ,
cos n =

(8)

n = 0, 1, 2, ...

n
n0
nc
=
=
,
ka
2a
a

0 .
5

(10)

(10), .. ,

cos n =

n0
6 1,
2a

(11)

n , .
=

c
a

(12)


= 2a

(13)

n = 1.
(8), (10) (12)
.. , :
v =

c
c
c
=
=p
.
2
sin
1 cos
1 ( /)2

(14)

( v = /k) ,
( u = d/dk) . , .
, ( ) .
(1) (14) kz ,
:
r
 2

=
1
.
(15)
kz =
v
c

,
kz , , < (, , 0 > 2a)
. , < = c/a
. .
(15), ( ), (0 ) ( ):
1
1
1
= 2 2 .
2

(16)

, X ,
Y .
E- H- ,
. a b

1
= q

 ,
m 2
n 2
+
2a
2b

m n . m , (a), n
(b).
Emn Hmn . -
H10 .

, . , ,
H10 ( = 2a), (, H10 = 2b
H20 = a). - ,
.
- ,
( ),
. ,
. ,
Z,
E1 = E0 ei(tkz z) ,

E2 = E0 ei(t+kz z+) ,

(17)

,
.

E(z) = E1 + E2 = E0 eikz z 1 + ei(2kz z+) eit = A0 eit .
7

, (z = const)
,



(18)
A20 = E02 1 + 2 + 2 cos(2kz z + ) .
( ) ( )
:
Emax = E0 (1 + ),

Emin = E0 (1 ).

(19)

(18) , l (
)

=
.
(20)
l=
kz
2
.

Emax
K=
(21)
Emin
(...). (19) ,

=

Emax Emin
K 1
=
.
Emax + Emin
K +1

(22)

( ) = 1,
, - ( ), = 0.


. (), . , , ,
.

.

S. D 1 .
C

D
4-83
2

p
4

b
d

pd
1

d S
H B

P1-28
A

28-
9
d 4
d
2
7b b 3

b
dp d d d d

1 5 6 7 8

. 2.

(c RC-) . , .
C
( ) . , , .
. ,
- .
, , , U E
U En,

(23)

n :
(n = 2),
(n = 1). E(z) , , U (z), ln(U ) = f [ln(E)]
: ,

.
. 2.
( 1 ) A ,

1 , , ,

(
, , ). ,
28 .

n. E(z) ( ),
= , = 1. (17),
:
E(z) = E0 eikz z (1 e2ikz z )eit = E0 eit (eikz z eikz z ) =
= 2E0 eit sin(kz z) sin(kz z).

(24)

z .
(B . 2)
,
(...) .

c
pc

II
1

b
H

cp 7

. 3.

, ,

G (. 3). I II. 1, 2
3 .
.
W W0 :
W = W0 ez W = W0 10z (z ).
(z) (). 1
, . (z) []:
10 ;
.
(z) [] = 10 lg
10

W0
.
W

,

 


= 2,3
.

(25)


,
. z ( = z)
.
. , .
(17), E 2 ez ,
:
= 2ikz .
(15) (10)
(12),
s
r
 2
2  2
2
2a
1=
1
.
(26)
= 2ikz =
c

a
0
0 = c/ = 3,22 ,
= 9320 , a = 1,6
-.


(. 2):
, (, ..); ,
(, ), .

(. 3) .

, 4-83, , .

.
11

I.
1. 1 A (. 2), D 1
. B ().
.
15- .
2 = 9320 . 3, (),
. 4 ()
= 20 . .
,
, ( = c/2a; a =
= 23 ).
2. :
) 2 -
; 5 9 1;
) 3 ;
1 ; 4 ;
) 5 () , ( 50-100 );
) 3 , 1 ,
;
) 6 7 ;

, 8
2 .
. 5 ( K .
3. . ,
2 .

12

: . ,
, D.
, .
,
- , .
II. -
4. = 9320 ; , .
1 , , , 4 ( > 1 ).
5. 5 9 , .
, U z (100 1 ).
.
6. U = f (z)
. (16).
0
[. (1) (13)].
v (1).
u, u v = c2 .

III.
7. (U = Umin ); 5 9
,
.
( z < 2 ), U . , U U0 ' 1 . U  1 , ,
4.
8. U . K5 K9 , 5 9.
13

9. ln U ln[sin(kz z)], z
. (z . 2 )
ln U = f (ln z).
[.
(23) (24)].
IV.
10. . ,
(Umax < 1 ).
11.

.
12. , r [. (21) (22)]. .

V.
13. . 3: G I II (
); 3 a = 16
(,
); B . H.
,
, G.
14. .
15. ( = c/2a)
, ( = 9320 ) .

17. , ,
.
18. = f (z), z .
= /z ( ) [c.
(25) (26)].

1. (v = /k, u =
= d/dk) (15), , :
u v = c 2 .
2. ?

1. .. . . III. . .: , 1983.
84.
2. . . 6. . .: , 1966.
. 24.
3. .., .., .. . . I. ,
, , . .: , 2001. . II, . 8, 8.4; . III, . 6, 6.7.

VI.
16. , ( U < 1 ). ( =
= 20 )
, ; U .
14

15


,
, . .1.
z ,
Y
x y 6
. 6


q
h
Z
2b
?
X
x1 = a; x2 = a; y1 = b; y2 = b.
 2a
,
, y:

. .1

E = (0, E0 , 0).
, x, .
x y,
.

2

E
E
E
n E
+
+
= 2
,
x2
y 2
z 2
c
t2

(.1)

2
=
(.4)
c

, k0 n
n.
(.3) (, , )
q
(.5)
= k02 n2 kz2 .
k0 =

(.5) , k0 n x, .. kx =
= .
. .2. kz
k0 n O  k0 n
6
.
k0 n z
kz = k0 n sin ,

y 90 h
q - kx =

kx = = k0 n cos .

n , c . , ,
z , x y -
. , F (x,y)
z.
, y, F (x,y) x, (.1)
E = E0 F (x)ei(tkz z) ,

(.2)

. .2
E , E y. H
E, k0 n. ,
Hz . H-. y H-
, E Ez E.
(.3) :

F (x) = A cos x + B sin x.

(.6)

, kz z. (.2)
(.1) F (x)
x:

 2 2
d2 F (x)
n
2
(.3)
+
kz F (x) = 0 .
dx2
c2

( ) x,
x1 = a; x2 = a. (.6) ,
: Fs = A cos x, Fs (x) = Fs (x) Fu = B sin x, Fu (x) = Fu (x).

16

17

Fs (x), Fu (x).
. , :
Fs (x = a) = 0; Fs (x = a) = 0;
Fu (x = a) = 0; Fu (x = a) = 0.

(.8) ,
kz
0 6 kz 6 k0 n, kz ms :
s
2

(2ms + 1)
kz = k02 n2
.
(.9)
2a
- . ,
.
kz k0 n z , (.9)
, (.4) :
(2ms + 1)
6 1.
4a n

(.10)

, :
ms max 6

2an 1
.

06

(.11)

mu
61
2a n

(.13)

(.7)

:
q

cos a = 0 = a k02 n2 kz2 = (2ms + 1) ; ms = 0, 1, 2, . . . (.8)


2

06

(.10)

mu max 6

2an
.

(.14)

(.8) (.12), ,
(.8) p = 2m + 1 (p = 1, 3, 5, . . .), (.12)
p = 2m (p = 2, 4, 6, . . .).
(.10) (.13)
06

p
6 1;
4an

p = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

(.8) (.12) :
s
2

p
kz
ak0 n 1
; p = 1, 2, 3, . . .
=
k0 n
2

(.15)

(.16)

,
kz :
r
 p 2
kz = k02 n2
; p = 1, 2, 3, . . .
(.17)
2a

(.15) , p a n
p max p min (p min =
= 2p min ):
4an
cp
;
p min =
.
(.18)
p max =
p
4an

( , ). ms max
, .
(.7)
. (.8) :
q
2mu
sin a = 0 = a k02 n2 kz2 =
(.12)
; mu = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2

p min (p1) min < < p min ,


p-, (p 1). , , , ,
,

18

19

2c
c
<<
4an
4an

c :
c
=
(.19)
,
= 4an.
4an
< .
.
(.17) p = 1 :
s
r
2

 2

= k0 n 1
,
(.20)
k1z = k0 n 1

.. <
kz :
r
2
k1z = i k0 n
1 < .
(.21)

(.22) (.2), z:

2
(.22)
E = E0 F (x)ek0 n ( /) 1 z eiwt .

, ,
< , , ,
. , .
, x: E = (E0 , 0, 0)
(. .1) .
(.1)
E = E0 F (y)e

i(tkz z)

(.23)

F (y) (.6) (
(.5) ):


E k y
E k x kz
k0 n:
r
 q 2
kz = k02 n2
, q = 1, 2, 3, ...
(.26)
2b

, q ,
. (.15)
(E k x):
06

q
6 1;
4bn

q = 1, 2, 3, ....

(.27)

(.27) , q b n
q max q min (q min =
= 2q min ):
4bn
cq
,
q min =
.
(.28)
q max =
q
4bn
q min (q1) min < < q min ,
q-, (q 1). , , , ,
,
2c
c
<<
4bn
4bn
c :
=

c
,
4bn

= 4dn.

(.29)

, (a
b, x y):

< , [. (.20 .22)]. , x- (.29) ,


y- (.19), .. a > b.

, :

Fs (y = b) = 0; Fs (y = b) = 0;
Fu (x = b) = 0; Fu (x = b) = 0.

c
c
< <
.
4an
4bn

F (y) = C cos y + D sin y.

20

(.24)

(.25)

21

(.30)

, y- (E k y).
, ,
k0 n E = (Ex , Ey , 0)
(H-) x y. ,
(.5), :
q
q
k02 n2 kz2 = kx2 + ky2 .
(.31)

, pq max ,
p- y-
q- y-,
 p 2  q 2
1
1
1
=
+
=
+
,
(.32)
2pq max
2x max
2y max
4an
4bn

 pc 2  qc 2
2
+
.
pq
min =
4an
4bn

(.33)

. v
v ( ).
.
kz :
v =

k0 c
=
.
=
kz
k0 n sin
n sin

22

d
,
dkz

,
s
r
2

 p 2
c
c
p
=
1
.
vp = kz kz2 +
n
2a
n
2ak0 n

tp =

L
vp

p ,
t1 =

(.35)

(.37)

(.37) , (
p), .
vp . . , . ,
, f . p
. L.
:

(.34)

n. , :
, .. .
.
v ,
. ,
. ,

, .
v :
v =

(.17) (.4)
(kz ):
r
 p 2
c
=
kz2 +
; p = 1, 2, 3, ...
(.36)
n
2a

L
v1

tp max =

L
.
v max

,
(tp max t1 ).
, .
=

1
< (tp max t1 ),
f

,
.
.
23

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