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1

2
3

02.09.08

. {ak }
k=1 .

P
an + an+1 + an+2 + . . . =
ak .
k=n

4
5

ak ( k). n = 0 n = 1.

P
ak ( n = 1).

k=1

. N SN =

N
P

ak .

k=1
7
8
9

ak , .
lim SN ( ),
N

10

S = lim SN .
N

11
12

13
14

, , ,
, .
1.1 ( ).

P
> 0 N n > N p N

k=1

15

n+p

X



|Sn+p Sn | =
ak <


k=n+1

16

17

, , > 0 N n > N m > N




k=m

X
ak <



k=n

19

1.2 ( ). , 0.

20

18

ak ,

k=1

|ak |.

k=1

21

1.3. , .

22

. ,

23

> 0 N n > N m > N :

m
X

|ak | <

k=n

24

m

m

P
P
P
,
ak 6
|ak |,
ak .
k=n

25

26

k=n

k=1

P
. , rn = S Sn =
ak , rn 0.
n
k=n+1


P

P


, rn =
a 6
|a |.
k=n+1 k k=n+1 k

27

. , , , .

28

1.4 ( ).

29

30

1.

ak S ,

k=1

31

32

2.

ak S .

k=1

ak S ,

k=1

P
k=1

ak bk S S .

k=1

bk S ,

33

3.

ak S ,

35
36

37
38
39
40

41

42

mP
n+1

ak , 0 = m1 < m2 < m3 < . . .

n=1 k=mn +1

k=1
34

, , S . ak 0
k
mk mk1 ,
.
.
. ,
.
ak 0, mn mn1 6 M N, S mn1 6 m 6 mn ,
k



m
mn1
m
Pn
P+M

Pn
|ak | 6
|ak | = o (1) 0. Smn S,
ak 6
|Smn Sm | =
n
n
k=m+1 k=mn1 +1
k=mn1 +1
Sm S.

m

43

44

45
46

47
48

49

1.
.
2. 0 6 ak 6 bk k > K, ,
.
uk
vk

3. 0 < 6

6 < k > K,

P
k=1

50

51

. k > K vk 6 uk 6 vk . ,

uk

vk

k=1

vk , (

k=1
52
53
54

2) . .
. 0 < 6

uk
vk

6 < k > K, K ,

uk
uk
6 lim
<
k
v
vk
k k

0 < lim
55

56

4.

P
k=1

57
58

59
60
61

uk

vk

k=1

uk+1
uk

vk+1
vk

k > K,

,
.
. m > n > K,

um
un

m1

k=n

uk+1
uk

m1

k=n

vk+1
vk

vm
vn ,

um 6

6 uvnn vm , m > n > K. n. , um 6 C vm ,


2.


62

05.09.08

63

5 ( )

64

uk .

k=1
65

1.

uk+1
uk

6 q < 1 k > K, .

66

2.

uk+1
uk

> 1 k > K, 0 .

67
68

. vk = q k . 1) 4. 2)
uk > uK k > K.

. 1) , lim

69
70

lim
k

uk+1
uk

lim

71

uk+1
uk

< 1. 2) ,

> 1.
uk+1
uk

6 1 6 lim

1
k(k+1)

uk+1
uk

lim

uk+1
uk

72

73

6 ( )

74

= 1, , .

, .

uk .

k=1

1.

76
77

78
79

80
81
82
83

84
85

uk 6 q < 1 k > K, .

2. k uk > 1 k, 0
.

75

. vk = q k . 1) 2. 2)
, uk > 1.


. 1) , lim k uk < 1. 2) ,
k

lim k uk > 1.
k

lim k uk = 1 lim k uk = 1, , . ,
k
k
P 1

k(k+1) , .
2.1. 1) , 1)
(, ).
n1

86

87

k
. uuk+1
6 q < 1 k > K, un = uK+1 uuk+1
6 uK+1 q nK2 ,
k
k=K+1

1 K+2
n u
n
1 q < 1.

n 6 n uK+1 q

88

89

2k+(1) 1) , 1)

k=1

90
91

92

7 ( )
f (x) [m, +).
Z n+1
Z n+1
n
X
06
f (k)
f (x) dx =
f ([x]) f (x) dx 6 f (m),
m

k=m
93

[x] x.

R
m

k=m
94
95

.
n
R n+1
R n+1
R k+1
P
f (x) m f (x) dx = m f ([x]) f (x) dx, k f ([x]) dx = f (k). , f ([x])

k=m
96

97

f (x) dx .

f (x) > 0.
=

n
P

R n+1
m

f ([x]) f (x) dx =

n R
P
k+1
k=m

f ([x]) f (x) dx 6

n R
P
k+1
k=m

f (k) f (k + 1) dx =

(f (k) f (k + 1)) = f (m) f (n + 1) 6 f (m). ,

k=m
98

, .
3

99

P
k=1

100

1
k ,

dx
x ,

> 1 6 1.

101

Z n+1
Z
n
n
X
dx X 1
1
1
1
06

=
ln(n + 1)
dx = C
n
k
x
k
[x] x
1
1

102

103
104

k=1

k=1

8 ( )

P
k

ak ai > 0 i bk > 0. vk = bk aak+1
bk+1
k=1

105

k > K.

1. vk > l > 0 k > K,

106

ak .

k=1

2. vk 6 0 k > K

107

P
k=1

108

109

ak .

k=1

k
. 1) vk = bk aak+1
bk+1 > l > 0, k > K, ak bk ak+1 bk+1 > lak+1 , k > K.

P
P
l
ak+1 6
(ak bk ak+1 bk+1 ) 6 aK bK .

k=K
110

1
bk

k=K

aK bK . 2 l

ak+1 , , ,

k=K

2) vk = bk

111

112

>

n1
Q
k=K

113
114

bk
bk+1

ak
ak+1

bK
bn ,

bk+1 6 0, k > K. ak+1 > ak

n > K. an >

bK aK
bn ,

ak+1
bk
bk+1 , ak

>

bk
bk+1 ,

k > K.

, 2,

an
aK

ak .
k=1
n1
Q ak+1
ak >
k=K

an . 

n=K

9 ( )

P
k

1).
ak , ai > 0 i k = k( aak+1
k=1

115
116

117

118

119

k > r > 1 k > K, .


k < 1 k > K, .
k
. . bk = k, k N. vk = k aak+1
(k+1) =


k
= k aak+1
1 1 = k 1.

k
. a) 9 , lim k( aak+1
1) > 1, ) ,

120

k
lim k( aak+1
1) < 1.

121

10 ( )

122

P
k=1

123
124

ak

ak
ak+1

k
k1+ ,

. , > 0, k . > 1 = 1 > 1,


. < 1 = 1 6 1, .

125

16.09.08

129


k
k
ak > 0, k N aak+1
= + k + k1+
, , , , > 0, k .
. > 1 = 1 > 1, . < 1 = 1 6 1,
.

130

126
127
128

131

ak
k ak+1

= > 1, . .

ak
k ak+1

= < 1, 0 .

132

1. > 1. lim

133

2. < 1. lim

3. = 1, > 1. lim k

134

4. = 1, < 1. lim k

135

ak
ak+1


1 = lim +

ak
ak+1


1 = < 1, . .

k
k

= > 1, . .

5. = 1, = 1. bk = k ln k, k > 2.

k=2

1
k ln k

k=2

1
bk

. .


ak
1
k
vk =
bk bk+1 = 1 + + 1+ k ln k (k + 1)ln(k + 1) =
ak+1
k k
k
k ln k
= k ln k + ln k + ln k (k + 1) ln(k + 1) = (k + 1)(ln(k + 1) ln k) +
=
k
k

1+k
1
k ln k
1 < 0
= ln 1 +
+
n
k
k
136

137

, .

3.1 ( ).

uk (

k=1
138

, ) |u1 | > |u2 | > . . ., uk 0 ( uk


k

139
140

141

142

0). . |rn | 6 |un+1 | 6


6 |un |, n N.
. u2k1 > 0, u2k 6 0 k N. S2n =
u2k1 + u2 k > 0, S2n . ., S2n+1 = u1 +

n
P

n
P


u2k1 + u2k ,

k=1

u2k + u2k+1 , u2k + u2k+1 6 0, S2n+1

k=1
143

144

. , S2n 6 S2n+1 . S2 6 S2n 6 S2n+1 6 S1 . , lim S2n = lim S2n+1 .


n

P
, S2n+1 S2n 0. ,
uk .
n

145
146

147

k=1

u2k1 6 0, u2k > 0 1.


P
P
P
rn =
uk . un+1 > 0, rn =
u2k+n1 + u2k+n >
0 = 0.
k=n+1

0 6 rn = un+1 +

k=1

u2k+n + u2k+n+1 6 un+1 +

k=1

148

149

150

k=1

0 = un+1 , |rn | 6 |un+1 | 6 |un |.

k=1

1.


uk , vk , k N .

n
P
k=m

151

+ Un vn Um1 vm1 =

n1
P

uk vk =

n1
P


Uk vk vk+1 +

k=m1
k
P

Uk vk vk+1 ) + Un vn Um1 vm , v0 = 0, U0 = 0, Uk =

j=1

k=m

uj .

.
n
X

uk vk =

k=m

n
X

Uk vk

k=m

n1
X

n
X
k=m

Uk1 vk =

n
X

Uk vk

k=m

n1
X

Uk vk+1 =

k=m1

Uk (vk vk+1 ) + Un vn Um1 vm1 .

k=m1
152

153
154

.
. {ak }
k=1 (. . )

P
ak+1 ak .
( . ),
k=1

155
156
157
158

159
160
161
162
163

164
165
166

,
, .
, .
3.1. - .

() .
. {zk }
k=1 , zk = ak + bk , ak , bk R,
|ak+1 ak | 6 |zk+1 zk |, |bk+1 bk | 6 |zk+1 zk |. , .
n
n


P
ak+1 ak = P ak+1 ak =
{ak }
k=1 ,
k=1

167
168
169
170

171
172

173

k=1

= an+1 a1 . , {ak } . .
.
1.
n1
n1

P
P
Sn =
ak+1 ak , . Sn an =
|ak+1 ak |
k=1 
k=1
(ak+1 ak ) a1 . an = Sn (Sn an ). an = n n ,
n , n

3.1.1. .

174

175
176

19.09.08

12. .

P
P

uk , vk ,
uk vk .
k=1

13. .

177
178

k=1

uk , vk 0 -

k=1
179

uk vk .

k=1

.
n
X

uk vk =

k=m

n1
X

Uk (vk vk+1 ) + Un vn Um1 vm1

k=m1

n1
n1

X
X

Uk (vk vk+1 ) 6 sup |Uk |
|vk vk+1 |,

k

k=m1

181

k
X

uj .

j=1

k=m1
n1
X

> 0 N1 : n, m > N1 : sup |Uk |

180

Uk =

|vk vk+1 | <

k=m1

{Uk vk } . > 0 N2 n, m > N2 : |Un vn Um1 vm1 | <


P

n

N = max{N1 , N2 }. n, m > N :
uk vk < 2 + 2 = .

2.

k=m

183

, .

P
uk = (1)k |uk | uk = (1)k+1 |uk |.
(1)n .

184

|uk | 0. , .

185

. N N,

182

k=1

186

a(k)

k=1

187

188

ak .

k=1

ak .

k=1

4.1 ().

ak S ,

k=1

a(k) S.

k=1

189

190

n
P

max ()
k6n

|a(k) | 6

j=1

k=1

> 0 N :

|aj | 6

|aj | < .

j=1

|ak | < . ,
P
P

P
m
m

M N : {(k) : k 6 M } {1, . . . , N }. m > M .
|a(k) | S =
|a(k) |
|aj | 6
k=N +1

191

k=1

192

j=1

k=1

|aj | < .

j=N +1

193

194

4.2 ().
,


ak , ai R, l R

k=1

a(k) l.

k=1
195
196

. uk , vk

P
P
. ak 0, uk vk 0. :
uk = +,
vk = .
k

k=1

k=1

197

1. l R. k1 :

k1
P

199
200

201

uj +

n1
P

vi < l. k2 > k1 :

203

204

uj +

n1
P

vi > l.

i=1

.


. |Skr +nr l| 6 |vnr | 0. : Skr+1 +nr l 6 |ukr+1 | 0.
n
n
, l .
!
ni+1
ni+1
n
P1
P
P1
2. l = +. {ni }, ni+1 > ni : i N
uk > vi + 1.
uk vi > n.
i=1

k=ni
202

k2
P
j=1

i=1

j=1

j=1
198

k1
P

uj > l. n1 N :

k=ni

, + ( ).
3. l = . . (-: . . . )

205

206

4.3 ().

uk

k=1
207
208

vk U V ,

k=1

, , ,
U V.
. wk ui vj . m N (m)
i j, ui vj , k 6 m.
m
X
k=1

209
210

(m) (m)

|k | 6

X X
i=1

j=1

(m)

|ui vj | =

X
i=1

(m)

|ui |

|vj |.

j=1

. ,
n P
m
n
n
P
P
P

ui vj =
uj
vj U V .

i=1 j=1

i=1

j=1

211

212

23.09.08

5.1 ().

uk

k=1
213

, U , V ,

vk , -

k=1

wk , wk =

214

216

ui vk+1i U V .

i=1

k=1
215

k
P

, . , - ui vj . .

P
n
n

P
P

n P
wk =
ui vj
uk .
. ,
i=1 j=1

k=1

217

j=1

l=1

l
P

k=1 i=1

Vl =

219

 P
N
6
+

j=1

k=1

n
n P
P

k=+1


n
P
k=N +1

221

224


P
n
n
P

n P
wk 6
ui vj
|uk | < n > N |Vn V | < . n > 2N :
i=1 j=1

228
229
230

231
232

k=1

wk =
o (1) n .

i=1

234

n
P

ui vj =

i=1 j=1

i=1

ui

n
P
j=1

vj U V ,
n

. {ak }
k=n .
Q
am am+1 . . . =
ak .
, m = 1.

ak , Pn =

k=1

n.

n
Q

. lim Pn 6= 0, ,
n
P = lim Pn .
n
lim Pn 0, , , ,
n
.
5.2 ( ). , ak 1 rn = PPn 1.
n

. .
k
: ak = PPk1
1

235
236

237
238

239

, , an 1 , an > 0. ,
.
5.3 ( ).

Q
P

ak
ln ak .
n
P

ln ak = ln

k=1

240

k=1

k=1

ak .

k=1

. ln Pn = ln

n
Q
k=1

241

ak =

n
P

ln ak . : ln P =

k=1
n
P

ln ak , Pn = e

243

ln ak

k=1

5.4.

ln ak .

k=1

e
n

k=1

242

ak

k=1

233

k=1

n P
n
P

225

227

k=1

k=m

226

k=1

222

223

i=1

k=1



P
P

|uk | + sup Vn ) ,
|uk | + 2 sup Vn = 2(
uk Vn Vn+1k 6 2

n
P

ui vj

i=1 j=1

j=1

l=1

vj . > 0 N :

218

220

k=1


P
P
P
nk+1
n
n
n P
k
n
P
P
P
P
P

n
n
n
uk (Vn Vn+1k ) ,
vk =
uk
vj
vj
ui vk+1i = ul
= ul

k=1

ln ak

6= 0.

(1 + k ), 1 < k , k ,

k=1

k .

k=1

244

ln(1 + k ).

k=1
245

246

. , ln(1 + k ) 0 k 0. k 0,
k
k
k

P
ln(1+k )

1. k 0
ln(1 + k )
k
k

247

k=1

k .

k=1

248

( ). sin x = x


Q
1
k=1

249
250

251

x2
k2 2


.

. x = k, k = 0 k N, .
x 6= k k Z.

n 
Q
sin mx
sin2 x
1. m = 2n + 1, n Z+ , m
.
1 sin
2 k
sin x =
m

k=1

252
253
254
255
256

257

, sin mx = sin x Pn (sin x), Pn n. n = 0 ,


n = 1 . sin 3x = 3 sin x 4 sin3 x = sin x(3 4 sin2 x). m > 3, m+2. sin(m+2)x+sin(m2)x = 2 sin mxcos 2x = 2 sin x
Pn (sin2 x) (1 2 sin2 x), sin(m + 2)x = sin x Pn+1 (sin2 x) sin x Pn1 (sin2 x) = sin x
2
P]
n+1 (sin x).
sin mx
Pn (y) sin2 fm , k = 1, . . . , m, sin mx k
m , k = 1, . . . , m. m sin x =
| {z }
x0
1

258

2
1
m Pn (sin

n 
Q

x), Pn (y) = c
1
| {z }
k=1

y
sin2 k
m

. , c = m.

sin mx
m sin x

n 
Q
k=1

sin2 x
sin2 k
m

y0
c

259

260

261


n 
z
Q
sin2 m
z
msin
1

. m = 2n + 1, p 6 n, |z| 6 p,
z =
sin m
sin2 k
m
k=1



p 
z
z
Q
Q
sin2 m
sin2 m
z
1 sin2 k
msin
Rp,n , Rp,n = k = p + 1n 1 sin2 k
. p, n
z =
sin m
m
m
k=1

p 
Q
2

+. sinz z =
1 k2z2 Rp , Rp = lim Rp,n .

2. x =

1
m z,

k=1

10

262

263

264

265

26.09.08

, sinx x


n
x
Q
sin2 m
1 sin2 k
Rp,n =
, m = 2n + 1, p 6 n.

267
268

. :

sin x
x
m sin m

p 
Q

k=1

x
sin2 m
sin2 k
m

Rp,n . ,

.


n
x
Q
sin2 m
1 sin2 k
Rp (x) = lim
. , Rp 1.
n k=p+1

269

k=1

k=p+1

266



Q
2
x=x
1 kx2 2 .
k=1

p 
Q
2
=
1 kx2 2 Rp (x), Rp (x) = lim Rp,n (x),

Q

n
Q
n

(1 + |k |) 1.
6.1. k , k = 1, . . . , n,
(1 + k ) 1 6
k=1

k=1

270

271

272

. n = 1 . |(1 + 1 ) 1| = |1 | 6 (1 + |1 |) 1 = |1 |.

q+1
q+1
q
Q
Q
Q

(1+k ) +
n = q n = q +1. (1+k )1 6 (1+k )
k=1
k=1
k=1
Q
Q
Q
q
q
q+1
Q
Q
Q
q
q
q
(1+|k |)|q+1 |+ (1+|k |)1 =
(1+|k |)1.
+ (1+k )1 6 (1+k )q+1 + (1||)1 6
k=1

k=1

k=1

k=1

k=1

k=1

273
274

275

276

277

278

279

280

281

282

sin x = x x3! + . . . .
|x| 6 1:

3


1
5
7

x
+ x x + . . . 6 |x3 | 1 + 1 + 1 + . . . = |x3 | 6

3!
5!
7!
6 62
63
1

6.0.1 (- ).

2,

x=

284

285

1
2n+1


287

288

289

1=

Q
k=1

22n
n!

k=1
1

1 3
|x |
5

22n (n!)2
(2n)!



1
4x2

pi
2

 2n 2 2

Q
2 (n!)
(2k)2
1
=
lim 2n+1
.
(2k+1)(2k1) = n
(2n)!
k=1





Q (2k)2 1
Q (2k+1)(2k1)
= 2
.
(2k)2
(2k)2

k=1

k=1

(2k)2
(2k+1)(2k1) .

2

1
2n+1

2n
(2n1)(2n3)1

2n 2n n!
2n(2n1)(n+1)

2

1
2n+1

2n
(2n1)(2n3)

.



Q
x2
6.0.2. cos x =
1 (2k1) 2 2 .
( 2 )
k=1
. cos x =
2N
Q

2x
290

1
4
|x| 6 1|x| 15 |x|
x| 56
|x|.
 6 | sin x| 26|x| + 5 |x|, 5 |x|
 6 | sin
2

6|x|
n
n
x
Q
Q
Q
|
)
|sin m
(
n
5m
|Rp,n 1| 6

1
6
k
=
q
+
1

1
6
1+
1+
1
+
2
2
|sin k
( 45 k
m |
m )
k=p+1
k=p+1



2
Q
P
|x|2 P 1
|x|2
.
1 + |x|
,
4k2
4x2 = 4
k2 .
k=1
k=1
k=1


2
Q

1 + |x|
1.
4x2
p
k=p+1




2
Q


|Rp 1| = lim Rp,n 1 6
1, Rp 1.
1 + |x|
2
4k
n
p
k=p+1


Q
2
p . , sinx x = k = 1 1 kx2 2

283

286

1
6

cos x = lim

1 k4x
2 2

k=1
N 
Q

n 2x

k=1

sin 2x
2 sin x

2

1 k2x2

x 6= k.
2N
Q

= lim

k=1

x2
k 2 2
2

( )

lim

N
Q

N k=1

11


1

x2

( 2k1
)
2

|x|2
(2k)2

n
Q

291


1

k=1

2
2

( 2k1
)
2

n
Q
k=1

n
Q

(2n1) 4m
(2k1)2

n
Q
(2k12m)
(2k1+2m)
k=1
k=1
 n
2
Q
(2k1)

k=1

(1)m
292

n
Q

(2k1+2m)

k=nm+1
n
Q

(2k1)

(1)m .

k=nm+1

293

294
295

296

297

.
. {sk }
k=1 . (, , (C, 1)) S, S = lim n ,
n
n
P
1
n = n
sk .

k=1

ak . S, .

k=1
298

299
300

S.
. 1, 1, 1, . . . (C, 1) 0.

P
(1)k+1

k=1

12

301

302
303

304

30.09.08

. {ak }
k=1 . (, , (C, 1)) S, S = lim n ,
n
n
P
1
sk .
n = n

305

k=1

ak . S,

k=1
306

307
308

S.
. () ,

P
ak ) S, ,
, sk (
k=1

309
310
311

sk ( ) S.
sk tk () S1 S2 , sk + tk ( )
S1 + S2 .

315

. , ( ) .
,
() .

316

7.1. () .

312
313
314

317
318
319

320

321

. .
, . . sk = o (1). ,

0. > 0 N Nk > N : |sk | < . n > N : n =






N
n
n
N
P
P
P
P


e n > N
e : |n | < .
= n1
sk + n1
sk , n1
sk < n1 (nN ) 6 , n1
sk = o (1) 0. N
n
k=N +1
k=1
k=N +1
k=1
, n 0. sk s, sk = s + o (1), n = s + o (1), n s.
n

. sk +, > 0 N N n > N : sk B 2 (+),

322

323

sk >

2
.

n > N : n =
2

1
n

N
P
k=1

sk + n1

n
P

sk ,

k=N +1

325

n , N
n
. . .

326

7.1. sk (

324

e n > N
e:
=
o (1) n . N

1
n

n
P

k >

k=N +1
n > 1 ,

nN
n

2

2
N
n ,

1
n

N
P

sk =
o (1)

k=1

n B (+). , n +.

ak ) -

k=1

327

328
329

( - ), sk =
o (k) (ak = o (k)).
. sk = kk (k 1)k1 = k(k = k1 ) + k1 = k o (1) + O(1) = o (k).
ak = Sk Sk1 =
o (k)
o (k) =
o (k).

330

331

332

ak S ( ), r [0, 1)

k=1

334

ak rk1 ( )

k=1

333

k=1

ak rk1 S.
r10

{sk }
k=1 S ( ), S ()

P
s1 +
(sk sk1 )
k=2

336

7.2 (). () S, () S.

337

338

= (1r)

335

339

n
P
k=1

n
P

n
P
k=1

ak rk1 =

n1
P

Sk (rk1 rk ) + Sn rn1 =

k=1

n
P

Sk (rk1 rk ) + Sn rn =

k=1

Sk rk1 +Sn rn . Sn = o (n), r [0, 1)Sn rn 0. ,

k=1

Sk rk1 = (1 r)

n
P

ak rk1 = (1r)

k=1

kk rk1 + nn rn . nn = O(n), r [0, 1) nn rn 0.


n

k=1

13

P
k=1

Sk rk1 ,

340

ak rk1 = (1 r)2

k=1

341

342

343

344

P
a1 = 1, ak = 0 k > 2. r (0, 1) 1 = (1 r)2
krk1 .
k=1
P



> 0 N N : n > N |n s| < .
ak rk1 S , ,
k=1

ak =
o (k), lim n an rn1 6 r < 1.
n


P

N

P
P
P




k1
|kk kS|rk1 +
kk rk1 (1 r)2
kSrk1 6 (1 r)2
ak r
S = (1 r)2

k=1

k=1

345

kk rk1 , (r [0, 1)).

k=1

+ (1 r)2

k|k S|rk1 6 (1 r)2

|k(k S)| + (1 r)2


krk1 6 C (1 r)2r1
0 + (.
k=1
P



). ro [0, 1) r (r0 , 1) :
ak rk1 S < 2,

k=N +1

346

k=1

k=1

N
P

k=1

k=1

347

S.

348

7.3. .

349
350
351

. ,
. .
n
n
n
P
P
P
Sn =
ak +. .
ak rk1 = (1r)
Sk
k=1

352

353

354

k1

k=1

+ Sn r . Sn > 0 n. Sk < 0 . ,

+.

Sk rk1 .

k=1
355
356

k=1

Sk rk1

k=1

ak rk1 , +

k=1

Sk rk1 = + r = r0 [0, 1),

k=1

+ r [r0 , 1) .

P
,
Sk rk1 r [0, 1). > 0 N N n > N :
k=1

357

358

Sk > 2 . n > N
> (1 r)

N
P
k=1

Sk rk1 +

ak rk1 > (1 r)

k=1
2

(1 r)

Sk rk1 = (1 r)

k=1
N
P
k=1

2 k1
.
r

N
P

Sk rk1 + (1 r)

k=1

, r0 (0, 1) r (r0 , 1) :

Sk rk1 >

k=N +1

P
k=1

14

ak rk1 >

359

360

03.10.08

. , , .

361

(1)k1 k

k=1
362
363

364

.
n
P
(1)k1 xk =
=

367
368

n
P

(1)k kxk1 =

k=1

(1+x)(1(1)n (n+1)xn +(1)n xn+1 )


(1+x2 )

. lim f (x) = lim g(y) = H. > 0 B1 B x B1 : |f (x) H| < .


B

375

b B x B
b Dx D y Dx : |h(x, y) g(y)| < .
> 0 B

371

374

lim f (x) lim g(y)

370

373

1+xx
(1+x)2

(1995 )
B B, D D, h(x, y) . BD (
e B, lim h(x, y) = g(y) y D
e D.
) R ( C), lim h(x, y) = f (x) x B
B

372

369

365

366

k=1
1
1 .
(1+x)2
x10 4

1(1)n xn+1
.
1+x

e D1 D y D1 : |h(x, y) f (x)| < . D2 D y D2 : |g(y) H| < .


x B1 B
b
e B
b B. x B
b Dx D1 D2 D,
e Dx D. y Dx : |h(x, y) g(y)| 6
B B1 B,
6 |h(x, y) f (x)| + |f (x) H| + |H g(y)| < 3.
b B x B
b Dx D y Dx : |h(x, y) g(y)| < .
. > 0 B
e D
e x D y D
e x : |h(x, y) f (x)| < .
1. , lim f (x) = H. > 0 x B

376

b B Dx D y Dx : |h(x, y) g(y)| < . x2 B


b B Dx D y Dx :
x1 B
1
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
e B,
b B B. x1 , x2 B D Dx Dx D,
e D0 D
|h(x2 , y) g(y)| < . B B
1
2
y D0 : |f (x1 )f (x2 )| 6 |f (x1 )h(x1 , y)|+|h(x1 , y)g(y)|+|g(y)h(x2 , y)|+|h(x2 , y)f (x2 )| <
< 4.

377
378
379
380

e B x B
e Dx D
2. , lim g(y) = H. > 0 B1 B x B1 : |f (x) H| < . B

381

e B D
e x y D
e x : |h(x, y) f (x)| < .
y Dx : |h(x, y) g(y)| < . x B
0
0
b
e
e
e
x B1 B B 6= , D Dx Dx D, D D, y D0 : |g(y) H| 6 |g(y) h(x, y)| +
+ |h(x, y) f (x)| + |f (x) H| < 3. , lim g(y) = H.

382
383
384

385
386

. (
lim f (x) lim g(y))
B

387

b D y D
b By B x By : |h(x, y) f (x)| < .
> 0 D

391

. fn E E fn (x).
E.

P

fk E E -

392

388
389
390

k=1

393
394

. () x,
P
() fn (x) (
fk (x))
k=1

395
396
397

.
() E, ()
E.

400

. fn E
f , fn f . E > 0 N n > N x E : |fn (x) f (x)| < .

fk (x) S(x), fn S . E

401

Sn (x) S(x) E.

398
399

k=1

15

402

403
404

07.10.08

. () x,
P
fk (x))
() fn (x) (
k=1

405
406
407

408
409
410

.
() E, ()
E.
. fn E
f , fn f E > 0 N n > N x E : |fn (x) f (x)| < .
: sup |fn (x) f (x)| 0.
n

411

fk (x) E S(x), fn

k=1
412

S . E Sn (x) S(x) E.
E

fn (x) f (x).

413

414
415

416
417
418

. fn E, fn E > 0 N n, m > N x E : |fn (x) fm (x)| < .


9.1 ( ).
Sn E
E.
E

419

. . fn (x) f (x), > 0 N n > N x E : |fn (x)f (x)| < 2 .


n

420
421
422
423

n, m > N x E : |fn (x) fm (x)| = |fn (x) f (x)| + |f (x) fm (x)| < .
. fn E, fn (x)
x E, E . f (x) = lim fn (x) x E. ,
n

424
425

426

427

428

. > 0 N m, n > N x E : |fn (x) fm (x)| < .


m , n > N x E : |fn (x) f (x)| 6 .


P
9.1.1 ( ).
fk
k=1
n+p

P

E > 0 N : n > N p N : x E
fk (x) < . , k=n+1
P

n

, > 0 N n, m > N x E :
fk (x) < .
k=m

429
430

. , |Sn+p (x) Sn (x)| < . .


.


431

432

1. fn (x) f (x), F E, fn (x) f (x).

n
E

n
E

E
434

2. fn (x) f (x), R, fn (x) f (x) ( ). fn (x) f (x),

433

gn (x) g(x), fn (x) + gn (x) f (x) + g(x) ( ).


n

435

. .

436

3. fn (x) f (x), g(x) E, g(x)fn (x) g(x)f (x). :

437

k=1
438
439

fk (x) . E S(x) , g(x) E,

g(x)fn (x)

k=1

E g(x) S(x) .
( g(x) < sup g(x)).
E

440

441

1 (). E

442

fk (x) -

k=1

k , x E : |fk (x)| 6 k .

k=1
443

P
k=1

E.
16

444
445

446

.
m

P
P
k | < . x E |fk (x)| 6 k ,
k , , > 0 N n, m > N : |

k=n
k=1

P
m
P

m
k < ,
fk (x) 6
n, m > N x E :
k=n

k=n

447
448
449

E.
2 (). fn K
, f (x) K |fn (x) f (x)| 0
n

450

x K. fn (x) f (x).
n

451
452
453

454

.
> 0 Fn = {x K : |fn (x) f (x)| > }. K.

T
F1 F2 . . .,
Fn = . Gn = M \ Fn , M , Gn n=1

n=1

Gn = M K. K Gn1 , . . . , Gnm . n
e = max n1 , . . . , nm .

455

G1 G2 . . ., Gne K, Fne = , x K : |fne (x) f (x)| < .

456

n > n
e x K : |fn (x) f (x)| 6 |fne (x) f (x)| < . fn (x) f (x).

457
458

459

. x [0, 1) 0, . xn [0, 1]
{1} (x). .

3 (). E

fk (x),

k=1
460

E x E E

461

462

, |fn (x)| 0 . E S(x) ,


n
P


n


fk (x) S(x) = Sn (x) S(x) 6 |fn+1 (x)| 6 |fn (x)| E.

k=1

463

. x E

fn ( ,

k=1
464

0). x E,

465

S(x) , |Sn (x) S(x)| 6 |fn+1 (x)| 0,

466

sup |Sn (x) S(x)| 0.

xE

17

467

10

10.10.08

468

4.

469

uk (x) E, vn (x)

k=1
470

E.

|vk vk+1 | -

k=1

uk (x) vk (x) E.

k=1

472

. {f (x)} E ( ), E sup |f (x)| < + ( C x E :

473

|f (x)| < C).

471

,xE

474

5.

475

476

uk (x) E, vk (x) 0
k

k=1

|vk (x) vk+1 (x)| E,

477

E.

478

n+p
P

uk (x)vk (x) =

k
P

p
P

un+j (x)vn+j (x) =

p1
P

j=1

k=n+1

Uk =

uk (x) vk (x) -

k=1

k=1

479

(Un+j Un ) (vn+j vn+j+1 )+(Un+p Un ) vn+p ,

j=1

uj .

j=1
p1
n+p

X
X

uk (x)vk (x) 6 sup |Un+j (x) Un (x)|
|vn+j (x) vn+j+1 (x)|

16j<p

k=n+1

j=1

+ |Un+p (x) Un (x)|

v1 (x) +

n+p1
X

!
(vk+1 (x) vk (x))

k=1

6 sup |Un+j (x) Un (x)|

|v1 (x)| + 2

16j<p

n+p
X

!
|vk (x) vk+1 (x)|

k=1

6 C sup |Un+j (x) Un (x)| .


16j6p
480

481

.. : > 0 N n > N p N x E : |Un+p (x)Un (x)| < .


n+p

P

n > N p N x E :
uk (x) vk (x) 6 C .
k=n+1

482

n+p

P

uk (x)vk (x) 6 2

k=n+1

sup

|Uk (x)|

kN,xE

p1
P

|vn+j (x) vn+j+1 (x)| + 2

sup

|Uk (x)| vn+p (x).

kN,xE

j=1

:
> 0 N1 n > N1 x E : |vn (x)| <
N2 n > N2 p N x E :

n+p
X

|vj (x) vj+1 (x)| < .

j=n+1

483

n+p

P

n > max{N1 , N2 } p N x E :
uk (x) vk (x) 6 4
k=n+1

484

. . .

485

sup

|Uk (x)| = C .

kN,xE

486

10.1. B , B B fk (x) f (x), k N -

487

lim fk (x) = bk . lim f (x) = lim bk ( lim lim fk (x) = lim lim fk (x)).

B k

k B

488

. . h(x, y), f (x) = lim h(x, y),

489

b B x B
b : |fk (x) f (x)| < . B
b B.
g(y) = lim h(x, y). > 0 N k > N B

18

490
491
492
493

b B x B
b N k > N : |fk (x) bk | < . > 0 N k > N x B : |fk (x) f (x)| < .
> 0 B
b B : x B|fn (x) bn | < .
n, m > N x B : |fn (x) fm (x)| < 2. . m > N . B
b
b
> 0 B B x B N k > N : |fk (x)bk | 6 |fk (x)fn (x)|+|fn (x)bn |+|bn bk | < 2++2 = 5.
.
E

494

10.2. E , fk (x) f (x), a

495

E, k N

496

497

lim f (x) = lim bk .

E3xa

.
. E = [0, 1), a = 1, fk (x) = xk . lim xk = 0, x [0, 1).
k

498

lim

lim xk = 0 6= 1.

lim xk = 1. lim

x10

lim xk = 1,

k x10

x10 k

19

499

11

14.10.08
E

500

11.1 ( ). fk f , E

501

, a E, k N lim fk (x) = bk ,

E3xa

lim f (x) = lim bk .

E3xa

E
502

11.1.1. fk f , E , fk -

503

a E, f a E.

504

11.1.2. fk f , E , fk

505

E, f E.

E
k

506
507

. K . C(K) K kf k = max |f (x)|.


K

508
509

510
511

11.1.3. C(K) ( R C), .


. , .
: fk f ( .) , kfk f k = max |fk (x) f (x)| 0,
K

K
512

, fk f .
k

513

fk , > 0 N n, m > N : kfn fm k = max |fn (x) fm (x)| <


K

514
515

< , fk K, f C(K),
fk f ( . C(K)).

k

516

11.2 ( ).

uk (x)

k=1
517
518

E S(x) ( E ), a E k N

P
lim uk (x) = bk , lim S(x) =
bk .
E3xa

519

E3xa

11.2.1.

k=1

uk (x) E S(x), E

k=1
521

, uk (x) a E E, S(x)
a E.

522

11.2.2.

520

uk (x) E S(x), E -

k=1
523

524
525
526
527

528
529
530
531

, uk E, S(x) E.
11.3 ( .). fk I, fk0 (x) I, fk (x) .
I.
I

. f I, fk f , fk0 f 0 .
. > 0 N n, m > N : 1)|fn (x0 ) fm (x0 )| < , x0 I,
0
fk (x), 2) x I : |fn0 (x) fm
(x)| < .
x I n, m > N : |fn (x) fm (x)| 6 |fn (x) fm (x) (fn (x0 ) fm (x0 ))| + |fn (x0 ) fm (x0 )| =
0
= |(fn0 (c) fm
(c))(x x0 )| + |fn (x0 ) fm (x0 )| < |I| + = (|I| + 1) = C .
I

532

fk I, f : fk (x) f (x).
k

533

x I , f 0 (x) fk0 (x) f 0 (x).


k

534
535
536
537

k (x)
k (t) = fk (t)f
I \ {x}. , k (t)
tx
0
0
I \ {x}.
>
0
N
n,
m
>
N
x

I
:
|f
(x)

fm
(x)| < . n, m > N t I \ {x} : |n (t)
n


fn (t)fm (t)(fn (x)fm (x))
0
0
m (t)| =
= |fn (c) fm (c)| < , c t x.
tx

: lim

lim k (t) = f 0 (x) = lim k lim x (t) = lim fk0 (x).

I3tx k

20

I3tx

538

11.4 ( .).

I, uk (x) I

540

I.

541

S(x) I S 0 (x) =

P
k=1

uk (x) -

k=1

u0k (x)
k=1

539

I,

uk (x) I,

k=1

u0k (x) I
[a,b]

542

543

11.5 ( ). fk (x) f (x) fk (x) R[a, b]


k
Rb
Rb
( H[a, b]). f (x) R[a, b] ( H[a, b]) a f (x) dx = lim a fk (x) dx.
k

544
545
546
547

548

549

550

551

552

. > 0 N k > N x [a, b] : |fk (x) f (x)| < . k > N . > 0


( (x) [a, b]), = {(i , i )} (i i ) (
Rb
(x)) |(fk , ) a fk (x) dx| < .


T = {(i , i )} ( (x)) (f, T)





Rb
Rb
Rb

R b

R b

lim a fk (x) dx . n, , m > N : a fn (x) dx a fm (x) dx = a (fn (x) fm (x)) dx < a 2 dx =
k
Rb
Rb
= 2(b a) , . a fk (x) dx . lim a fk (x) dx.
k
Rb
. . T = {(i , i )} (. (x)) : |(f, T) lim a fk (x) dx| 6
k


P

Rb
Rb
Rb

6 |(f, T)(fk , T)|+|(fk , T) a fk (x) dx|+| a fk (x) dx lim a fk (x) dx| < (f (i ) fk (i )) |i | +
k
i
+ + 2(b a) 6 (b a) + + 2(b a) = C .


21

553

554

12

14.10.08

12.1 ( ).

uk (x) -

k=1

555
556

[a, b] S(x) , uk (x) R[a, b] ( H[a, b]), S(x) R[a, b] ( H[a, b])
R
Rb
P
b
S(x)
dx
=
u (x) dx.
a
a k
k=1

557
558

. P , K P .

561

12.2. P P , P (.
, P ) .
T
. P =
F , F . . -

562

: K , K P , P K P .

559
560

F P

563
564
565

566
567

. E D . -. > 0, D
E, x E y D : (x, y) 6 .
D ( E) , D .
12.3. > 0 E {xk }nk=1 , E
. .

568

. E = , . . E 6= 0, y E, R = + max (y, xk ),

569

B R (y) E.

16k6n

570
571

572
573

574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584

585

. E ( ) , > 0 . E.
12.4 ( ). P . - , .
. . P , P , . 1 P , .
P , 1 P , P = P
.
: P , P , P .
B (x), x M P {B (xk )}nk=1 , {xk }nk=1
P , , P, , P .
: P .
, P . , P , P {G } ,S . .
{x1k }nk=1 , B 1 (x1k ) P , , P . P B 1 (x1k )
k
S
( G ). {x2k }
B 12 (x2k ) P , , ,
k=1 ,
k

586
587
588
589
590

591

P B1 (x1k1 ) ( ). P B 1 (x1k1 )B 21 (x2k )


, P B 1 (x1k1 )B 21 (x2k2 ). (x1k1 , x2k2 ) < 1+ 21 .
i
( ). (xi1
ki1 , xki ) 6
1
1
6 2i2 + 2i1 .
{xiki } . , . x0
n

T
. x0 P , x0 P , P
B2i (xiki ) .
i=1

592

593

G 3 x0 , B (x0 ) G n N : (xnkn , x0 ) < 2 2n+1 < 2 .



 n
T
i
P
B2i+1 (xki ) B (x0 ) G , ,
i=1

594

G . , P .

22

13

595

596
597
598
599
600

601
602

17.10.08

13.1. E , E
2, E.
. {xk }nk=1 E. B (xk ) E 6= , xk -
yk B E. B (xk ) E = , . 2,
E.

. {f } E E,
> 0 > 0 x, x0 E, (x, x0 ) < : |f (x) f (x0 )| < .

604

13.1 (). C(K) . ( .)


K kf k = max |f (x)|. = {f } C(K)

605

603

xK

606
607
608
609
610
611
612

.
. . . , C(K), D > 0, f : kf k 6 D, f x K : |f (x)| 6 D,
.
, . > 0
{gk }nk=1 C(K) . gk K, k > 0 x, x0 K,
(x, x0 ) < k : |gk (x) gk (x0 )| < (gk K). = min k .
16k6n

613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620

621

f gk , 1 6 k 6 n, kf gk k 6 , max |f (x)gk (x)| 6 . x, x0 K, (x, x0 ) < :


|f (x) f (x0 )| 6 |f (x) gk (x)| + |gk (x) gk (x0 )| + |gk (x0 ) f (x0 )| < 3.
. . .
> 0 , > 0,
x, x0 K, (x, x0 ) 6 f : |f (x) f (x0 )| < . K , {xk }nk=1 . Rn ( Cn ): f (f (x1 ), . . . , f (xn )).
, Rn (Cn ) , , , Rn ( Cn ). {fm (x1 ), . . . ,s
fm (xn )}M
m=1 , fm . f
n

P
fm : (f (x1 ), . . . , f (xn )), , (fm (x1 ), . . . , fm (xn )) < ,
|f (xk ) fm (xk )|2 < . ,
k=1

622

k, 1 6 k 6 n, |f (xk ) fm (xk )| < . kf fm k = max |f (x) fm (x)|. x K xk : (x, xk ) 6 .

623

|f (x) fm (x)| 6 |f (x) f (xk )| + |f (xk ) fm (xk )| + |fm (xk ) fm (x)| < 3.

xK

624
625
626

13.1.1. fk
. ,
K .
.

627

628

ck (z z0 )k , ck , z0 , z

k=0
629
630

. z z0 w

P
ck wk .
k=0

631

13.2 ().

ck wk . R [0, +],

k=0
632
633

BR = {w C : |w| < R} {w C : |w| > R}


1
1
R=
( 01 = +, +
= 0). R , BR k
lim

k
634

|Ck

ck w k .

k=0

637

p
P
.
ck wk , lim k |ck wk | < 1 ( k
k=0p
p
p
1
k
k
k
|ck w | = |w| lim
|ck | < 1, |w| <
. lim k |ck wk | > 1,
.) lim
k
lim
|ck |
k
k
k
k
p
0 , |w| lim k |ck | > 1,

638

|w| >

635

636

lim

1
k

|ck

23

639



ck
. lim ck+1
, R .
k

640

641

642



ck wk
. lim ck+1
k+1 > 1, . ,
w
k




ck
ck
lim ck+1 > |w|, . lim ck+1
< 1,
k
k


ck
0 , lim ck+1 < |w|, .

k

643

13.3.

ck z k , R . r < R,

k=0
644

B r (0) = {z C : |z| 6 r}.

645

646

ck rk . , .

k=0

|ck |rk . -

k=0

ck z k B r (0).

k=0
647

648
649

13.3.1. BR (0).
. z, |z| < R r > 0, |z| < r < R.

B r (0), , z.

651

13.3.2.
BR (0).

652

. BR (0) =

650

S
n=1

653
654

BR n1 (0), K BR (0), -

, , , . , ,
. , .


24

655

14

656

( )

657

21.10.08

14.1.

ck z k BR (0) = {z C : |z| < R},

k=0
658

R .

659

14.2 ().

ckz k z0 ,

k=1
660

z, |z| < |z0 | B r (0) = {x C : |z| 6 r}, r < |z0 |.

661

14.3 ( ).

662

ck kz k1 -

, , , R > 0,

664

665

. R =

1
lim

666

668

669

ck kz k

k=0

lim

k|ck |

k
k lim k ck

lim

= R.

ck kz k . S(z) =

ck z k ,

k=0

ck (z k z0k ).

k=0
k1
P

n1

P k nk1
P
an bn = (a b)
a b
, S = S(z) S(z0 ) =
ck (z z0 )
z m z0km1 .
m=0
k=0
k=1
k1

k1
P
P m km1
P m km1
k1 S
z z0
. z =
ck
z z0
, 0 < |z| < .

6 k(|z0 | + )

670

ck

k=1

|ck |k |z0 | +

k1

m=0

( |z0 | + < R),

k=1
k1
P

z m z0km1 . |x| = |z z0 | < , lim

m=0
k1
P

k=1
672

ck kz k1

k=1

|z0 | < R. > 0 : |z0 |+ < R. z = z0 + z, |z| < R. S(z)S(z0 ) =

m=0

671

ck

k=0

k=1
667

ck kxk1

ck z k .

k=0

k=1
663

lim

z0

z m z km1 =

m=0

ck

k=1

ck kz0k1 .

k=1

674

14.3.1. .

675

14.4 ( ).

673

ck (z z0 )k

k=0
676
677

[a, b] R BR (z0 ), R . [a; b]

Rb P
Rb
P
ck (z z0 )k dz =
ck a (z z0 )k dz.
a
k=0

678

k=0

14.5 ().

ck z k z0 , -

k=0
679

[0, z0 ] = {z : z = tz0 , 0 6 t 6 1}.

680

ck z0k , tk [0; 1] -

k=0
681

ck tk z0k t [0; 1].

k=0

682

14.5.1.

ck tk z0 , lim

t10 k=0

k=0
683

ck tk z k =

ck z0k .

k=0

, .

ak z k

bk z k -

684

14.6 ().

685

zk 0, zk 6= 0, ak = bk k = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

k=0
k

25

k=0

686

. a0 = lim

m k=0

k
an zm
= lim

m k=0

k
bk zm
= b0 .

k=1

687

zm , m = 1, 2, . . ., , a1 = b1 .

688

14.7.

ak z k1

bk z k1 -

k=1

ck z k

k=0
689

690

. S (n) (0) = cn n!. , cn =

S (n) (0)
.
n!

26

691

692
693

15

24.10.08

. f (x, y) X Y R ( C), Y . . , y0 Y . x X lim f (x, y) = g(x),


Y 3yy0

694
695
696
697
698

, x g(x) ( Y 3 y y0 ).
x X, , f (x, y) X g(x) (
Y 3 y y0 ).
, f (x, y) X g(x) Y 3 y y0 , > 0 > 0
y B0 (y0 ) Y x X : |f (x, y) g(x)| < , , ., sup |f (x, y) g(x)| 0.
Y 3yy0

xX

X
699

: f (x, y)

g(x).

Y 3yy0
700

f (x, y) Y 3 y y0 , g(x) X, f (x, y)

g(x).

Y 3yy0

703

. (x, y) = arctg |xy| ( (x, y) = |xy| ).


: Y = N R,
1=|xy|
.

704

15.1 ( ).

705

f (x, y)

706

).

707

. . f (x, y) g(x), yn ,

708

yn Y \{y0 }, yn y0 , > 0 N n > N : yn B0 (y0 )Y . > 0 > 0 y B (y0 )Y

709

x : |f (x, y) g(x)| < . , > 0 N n > N x X : |f (x, yn ) g(x)| < ,

710

f (x, yn ) g(x).

701
702

Y 3yy0

g(x) {yn }
y0 : f (x, y0 ) g(x) ( n=1 Y \ {y0 }, yn
x

X
yy0

X
n

X
711

. , f (x, y) . yy0

712
713
714
715

{yn }, yn Y \ {y0 }, f (x, y0 ) g(x). ,


: > 0 > 0y B0 (y0 ) Y x X : |f (x, y) g(x)| > .
n = n1 yn B0 n (y0 ) Y , xn X : |f (xn , yn ) g(xn )| > . yn Y \ {y0 },
yn y0 , f (x, yn ) X g(x), |f (xn , yn ) g(xn )| > > 0. 
n

716
717

718
719
720

:
.
. f (x, y) (. X Y R C, Y
-, y Y ) X
Y 3 y y0 , > 0 y, y B0 (y0 ) Y x X : |f (x, y) f (x, y 0 )| < .

723

15.2 ( ). f (x, y)
x X Y 3 y y0 f (x, y)
x X Y 3 y y0 .

724

. . f (x, y)

721
722

Y 3yy0
725
726
727
728
729
730

g(x). > 0 > 0 y B0 (y0 ) Y

x X : |f (x, y) g(x) < 2 . y, y 0 B0 (y0 ) Y x X : |f (x, y) f (x, y 0 )| 6 .


. X Y 3 y y0 .
x X Y 3 y y0 f (x, y). ,
( g(x)) .
> 0 > 0 y, y 0 Bd t(yo ) Y x X : |f (x, y) f (x, y 0 )| < .
Y 3 y 0 y0 . y B0 (y0 ) Y : |f (x, y) g(x)| 6 .


731

732

1. f (x, y)

Y 3yy0

X0

g(x), X 0 X, f (x, y)

Y 3yy0

27

2. f (x, y)

733

g(x), (x) X, (x)f (x, y)

(x)g(x).

Y 3yy0

Y 3yy0
734

|(x)f (x, y) (x)g(x)| 6 sup || |f (x, y) g(x)|.


X
X

3. f (x, y)

735
736

g(x), h(x, y)

(x), f (x, y) h(h, y)

g(x) (x). -

Y 3yy0

Y 3yy0

Y 3yy0

737

X
738

15.3. f (x, y)

g(x), X , x0 -

lim

f (x, y) = b(y) ( R C),

Y 3yy0
739

740

X y Y

X3xx0

lim

Y 3yy0

b(y) =

lim

X3xx0

g(x).

. yn Y \ {y0 }, yn y0 .
n

741

f (x, yn ) g(x) n N
n

742

lim

f (x, yn ) = b(yn ),

X3xx0

lim b(yn ) =
n

743

lim

Y 3yy0

b(y) =

lim

X3xx0

15.3.1. f (x, y)

g(x). yn Y \ {y0 }, yn y0 ,

g(x).

X
744

lim

X3xx0

g(x) (?) f (x, y) x0 X -

Y 3yy0
745

X, g(x) x0 X X

746

15.3.2. f (x, y)

g(x) f (x, y) X, g(x)

Y 3yy0
747

X.

750

15.4. f (x, y), X Y R ( C) x

f (x, y) I Y 3 y y0 ,
y I x
f (x, y) I Y 3 y y0 ,

751

I g(x), f (x, y)

748
749

g(x)

U Y 3yy0

x f (x, y)

g(x).

Y 3yy0

752

. yn Y \ {y0 }, yn y0 .

753

x f (x, yn )

754

n I, f (x, yn ) I.

I

755

g(x) I, f (x, yn ) g(x)


n

x f (x, yn )

g 0 (x). , -

756

. yn Y \ {y0 }, yn y0 ,

757

yn0 Y \ {y0 }, yn0 y0 , y1 , y10 , . . . y0 .

758
759

g(x). , yn yn0 g(x) .




28

760

16

28.10.08

761

16.1 ( ). f (x, y) [a; b] Y R ( C), Y

762

, y0 Y , f (x, y)

[a;b]

g(x),

Y 3yy0
763
764

y Y f (x, y) x [a, b] ( ).
Rb
Rb
g(x) [a; b] a g(x) dx = lim
f (x, y) dx.
a
Y 3yy0

[a,b]
765

. yn Y \{y0 }, yn y0 . f (x, yn ) g(x),


n

766
767

768

g(x) Rb
Rb
[a, b] ( ) a g(x) dx = lim a f (x, yn ) dx.
n
Rb
Rb
, , . , a g(x) dx = lim
f (x, y) dx.
a
Y 3yy0

769

770

.
R b(y)
I(y) = a(y) f (x, y) dx.

772

16.2 ( ). f (x, y) [a, b] Y R C, b(y)


a(y) Y [A, B] Y , y0

773

Y , f (x, y) g(x),

771

[A;B]

Y 3yy0

774
775

777
778
779
780
781
782

783
784
785

b(y) = b,

lim

Y0 3yy0

a(y) = a. y Y f (x, y)

x [A, B] ( ). g(x)
R b(y)
Rb
[A, B] lim I(y) = lim
f (x, y) dx = a g(x) dx.
a(y)
Y0 3yy0

776

lim

Y0 3yy0

Y0 3yy0

R b(y)

Rb
Ra
R b(y)
f (x, y) dx = a f (x, y) dx + a(y) f (x, y) dx + b f (x, y) dx.
Rb
Ra
Ra
Ra
a g(x) dx. a(y) = a(y) f (x, y) g(x) dx + a(y) g(x) dx.
0 Y 3 y y0 .

. > 0 > 0 y B0 (y0 ) Y x [A, B] : |f (x, y) g(x)| < .
R
a

0
y B (y0 ) Y a(y) |f (x, y) g(x)| dx 6 (B A). , 0.
, 0 Y 3 y y0 . . ,
.

.

a(y)

16.3 ( ). f (x, y) [A; B] Y , Y Rn , f (x, y) , b(y) a(y) R b(y)


Y [A, B]. I(y) = a(y) f (x, y) dx Y .
[A,B]

786

. , y0 Y f (x, y)

f (x, y0 ). [A, B]

Y 3yy0
n+1

793

Y , [A, B] Y R
. , [A, B]
Y ( R Rn ), [A, B]Y
Rn+1 , (x, y)
/ [A, B] Y , x, y
 .
x
/ [A, B]. B (x) : B (x) [A, B]
=
.

B
(x,
y)

([A,
B]

Y
)
= . y
/ Y ,


B (y) : B (y)Y = . Bd t (x, y) ([a, B]y) = . , , . [A, B]Y
Rn+1 .
f (x, y) , , , [A, B] Y .

794

f (x, y) f (x, y0 ). .

787
788
789
790
791
792

[A;B]

Y 3yy0

795
796
797

y f (x, y)

[A, B] [C, D], a(y) b(y)


R b(y)
[C, D] [A, B]. I(y) = a(y) f (x, y) dx
R b(y)
[C, D] I 0 (y) = a(y) y
f (x, y) dx + f (b(y), y) b0 (y) f (a(y), y) a0 (y).
16.4 ( .). f (x, y)

29

.
!
Z b(y0 +y)
Z b(y0 )
I(y0 + y) I(y0 )
1
f (x, y0 + y) dx
f (x, y0 ) dx =
=
=
y
y
y
a(y0 +y)
a(y0 )
Z b(y0 )
Z b(y0 +y)
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 )
1
=
f (x, y0 ) dx+
dx +
y
y b(y0 )
a(y0 )
Z b(y0 +y)
1
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 ) dx
+
y b(y0 )
Z a(y0 +y)
Z a(y0 +y)
1
1

f (x, y0 ) dx
f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 ) dx = I1 + I2 + I3 I4 I5
y a(y0 )
y a(y0 )
I

798

799

I1 :

f (x,y0 +y)f (x,y0 )


y

801
802

y f (x, y0

+ y), 0 < < 1,

y f (x, y0

y0 +y[C,D]

+ y)

y0

f (x, y) dx.
(y)b (y) y

1
I2 = y b(y0 +y)b(y0 ) f (
x, y0 ), x
b(y0 ) b(y0 +y). b0 (y0 )f (b(y0 ), y0 ).
I4 .



0)
sup
|f (x, y0 + y) f (x, y0 )|. |b0 (y0 ),
|I3 | 6 b(y0 +y)b(y

y

I1
y0

800

[b(y0 ),b(y0 +y)]

803

0. I3 I5 0.

30

804

805
806
807

808

17

17.1 ( . ). f (x, y) .
RB
RD
[A, B] [C, D]. A f (x, y) dx [C, D], C f (x, y) dy
[A, B]
Z BZ D
Z DZ B
f (x, y) dydxs.
f (x, y) dxdy =
C

809
810
811
812
813

814

815

816
817

31.10.08

.R . x

. F (x, y) = A f (t, y) dt, A 6 x 6 B. x


F (x, y) = f (x, y), A 6 x 6 B. - RD
RD

F (x, y) dy = C x
. x
F (x, y) dy =
C
RD
RD
RD
RBRD
RD
= C f (x, y) dy. C F (x, y) dy C f (x, y) dy. A C f (x, y) dydx = C F (B, y) dy
RD
RDRB
C F (A, y) dy = C A f (t, y) dtdy 0.

.
.
R
a 6 b, f (x, y) [a, b) Y ,
[a,b) f (x, y)dx, a R, b R,
.
R
. [a,b) f (x, y) dx Y ,
R
[a, b) y Y , [a,b) f (x, y) dx
Y , Y
Z 0

Z
b



> 0 > 0 b0 B0 (v) [a, b) y Y :
f (x, y) dx
f (x, y) dx <
a

[a,b)
, ,
Z 0

Z
b



0
0

> 0 b [a, b) b [a, b) b (b, b) y Y :


f (x, y) dx
f (x, y) dx < .
a

[a,b)

818
819
820

821

822

823
824
825

826

827

R
. [a,b) f (x, y) dx Y , f (x, y) ( )

R 0

R b00
b

0 00
0
[a, b] [a, b) y Y > 0 > 0 b , b B (b)[a, b) y Y : a f (x, y) dx a f (x, y) dx =
R 0

R 0

R b00
b

b

= b00 f (x, y) dx < . , ., > 0 b [a, b) b0 , b00 (b, b) y Y : a f (x, y) dx a f (x, y) dx =
R 0

b

= b00 f (x, y) dx < .

17.2 (
).
R
[a,b) f (x, y) dx Y Y .
R b0
. F (b0 , y) = a f (x, y) dx, a 6 b0 < b. Y
R
Y F (b0 , y) F (b, y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx.
b0 b0

828
829
830

831
832
833
834
835

836
837
838
839


> 0 > 0 b0 , b00 B0 (b)[a, b) y Y : |f (b0 , y) f (b00 , y)| < .
.

R
17.3. [a,b) f (x, y) dx
0
Y , Y 0 Y , 1)
R Y 2) Y (y)
[a,b) f (x, y)(y) dx Y , 3)
R
[a,b) g(x, y) dx Y ,
R
Y [a,b) f (x, y) g(x, y) dx.
R
. . [a,b) f (x, y) dx
R b0
Y F 0 (b0 , y) = a f (x, y) dx b0 b 0.
, .
.

31

840

841
842
843
844

845
846

847

848

849
850
851
852
853

854

.
1 (). f (x, y) y Y
R [a, b0 ] [a, b) |f (x, y)| 6 (x), [a,b) (x) dx
R
( ), [a,b) f (x, y) dx Y .

R 00

R 00

b

b
. b0 , b00 [a, b) y Y : b0 f (x, y) dx 6 b0 (x) dx
R
[a,b) (x) dx R 00

R
b

Y [a,b) f (x, y) dx. b0 f (x, y) dx 6

R 00
R 00

b
b

6 b0 |f (x, y)| dx 6 b0 (x) dx , b0 6 b00 .
R
2 (). [a,b) f (x, y) dx y K
K. b0 [a, b)
R b0
f (x, y) dx K, y K f (x, y) R K (a
). [a,b) f (x, y) dx K.
R
Rs
R
. (s, y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx a f (x, y)dx = [s,b) f (x, y) dx, a 6 s 6 b. K

855

, (s, y) 0. y K (s, y) S (s, y) 0


xb0

859

s b 0. (s, y) K s [a, b) (
). > 0 T
Fs = {y K : |(s, y)| >
> } K, s < s0 , FS Fs0
Fs = , M \ Fs , M
a6s6b
S
, ,
(M \ Fs ) = M K.

860

M \ Fs , Fs, , M \ Fs K. ,

861

Fs . , |(
s, y)| < K, s (
s, b) |(s, y)| < . , (s, y) 0.

856
857
858

a6s<b
K

sb0

32

862

863
864

865
866
867

868

869
870

18

07.11.08

. :
3 ( ).
R
( ) [a,b) f (x, y) dx Y , v(x, y) [a, b) Y , v(x, y) Var v(x, y) Y .
x[a,b)
R
[a,b) u(x, y)v(x, y) dx Y .
4 ( ).
R
[a,b0 ] u(x, y)( )
Y

871

872

873
874
875
876
877

878

879

880
881

882

883

884

885

b0 [a, b), y Y , v(x, y) y Y [a, b) v(x, y) 0, Var


v(x, y) .
[b0 ,b]
xb0
b0 b0
R
[a,b) u(x, y) v(x, y) dx Y .
. .
R b00
R b00
Rx
a 6 b0 6 b00 < b. b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx = (R S) b0 v(x, y) dU (x, u), U (x, y) = b0 u(t, y) dt.
R b00
R b00
: b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx = v(b00 , y)U (b00 , y) b0 U (x, y) dv(x, y). :

R 00

b
v(x, y) 6
. b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx 6 sup |v(b00 , y)||U (b00 , y)|+ sup |U (x, y)| Var
[b0 ,b00 ]
b00 [a,b)
x[b0 ,b00 ]


6 |v(a, y)| + 2 Var v(x, y) sup |U (x, y)| (-, v(a, y)... ).
[a,b]
x[b0 ,b00 ]
R
[a,b) u(x, y) dx Y , > 0 b [a, b) b0 , b00 [b, b]


R 00
R 00


b
b
y Y : b0 u(x, y) dx < . b0 , b00 (b, b) y Y : b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx < C, C =
= sup |v(a, y)| + 2 sup Var v(x, y). .
yY
yY [a,b)
R 00

R 0

R 0

b

b

b

. b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx 6 2 sup a u(x, y) dx |v(b00 , y)|+2 sup a u(x, y) dx
0
0
a6b <b
a6b <b

R 0

b

00
Var
v(x, y) = 2 sup a u(x, y) dx |v(b , y)| + Var
v(x, y) . : > 0 b b0 (b, b) y Y
[b0 ,b00 ]
[b0 ,b00 ]
a6b0 <b
R 00

b

: |v(b0 , y)| < Var b0 , b)v(x, y) < . b0 , b00 [b, b) y Y : b0 u(x, y)v(x, y) dx < C,
R 0 [

b

C = 4 sup a u(x, y) dx . ,
a6b0 <b,

yY
886

887
888

. "".

R18.1 ( ).
[a,b) f (x, y) dx Y , y0 Y ( [a,b0 ]

889

890

), b0 [a, b) f (x, y) g(x).


Y 3yy0
R
R
g(x)
dx
=
lim
f
(x,
y)
dx
(
, [a,b)
[a,b)
Y 3yy0

891

).

892

. Iz (y) =

893

894

Rz
a

f (x, y) dx, a 6 z < b. Iz (y)


Y 3yy0

Rz
a

g(x) dx,

a 6 z < b ( ). Y
R
, Iz (x) [a,b) f (x, y) dx. zb0

895

896

. , lim
lim Iz (y) = lim
lim Iz (y). ,
Y 3ytoy0 zb0
zb0 Y 3yy0
R
R
g(x) dx = lim
f (x, y) dx, .

[a,b)
[a,b)
Y 3yy0

897
898
899
900

18.2 ( ).
R
f (x, y) [a, b)Y , Y Rn . I(y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx
Y . I(y) Y (-, Rn
, ).

33

901

902

Rz

f (x, y) dx, a 6 z < b. z [a, b) Iz (y)


Y
R
Y ( ). Iz (y) I(y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx,

. Iz (y) =

zb0

903

904
905
906
907
908

909

910

I(y) Y .

18.3 ( ).

f (x, y) y
f (x, y) [a, b) J, J . R
R

f (x, y) dx
[a,b) f (x, y) dx J, [a,b) y
R
J. I(y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx R

J J. I 0 (y) = [a,b) y
f (x, y) dx.
Rz

. Iz (y) = a f (x, y) dx, a 6 z < b. , y


Tz (y) =
J
R
Rz

= a y f (x, y) dx, a 6 z < b. y


Iz (y) [a,b) y
f (x, y) dx, Iz (y) z b0
zb0

911

y J.
J

912

913
914

Iz (y) g 0 (y).
J g(x) , Iz (y) g(y), y
zb0
zb0
R
R

: g(y) = [a,b) f (x, y) dx, g 0 (y) = [a,b) y


f (x, y) dx.
.


34

915

916
917
918

919

920

921
922

19

11.11.08

R
19.1 ( . . . .). [a,b) f (x, y) dx [c, d], f (x, y) [a, b) [c, d].
RdR
R
Rd
c [a,b) f (x, y) dxdy = [a,b) c f (x, y) dydx.
Rz
. FZ (y) = a f (x, y) dx, a 6 z < b, z [c,d] R
RzRd
y, intdc Fz (y) dy = a b f (x, y) dydx. Fz (y) [a,b) f (x, y) dx, zb0
RdR
(R) c [a,b) f (x, y) dxdy =
Rd
RzRd
= lim c F2 (y) dy = lim a c f (x, y) dydx.

zb0

923
924
925
926
927

928
929
930
931
932

933

zb0

19.2 ( ).
f (x, y)
R
[a, b)[c, d), [c, d0 ] [c, d) [a,b) f (x, y) dx R
, [a, b0 ] [a, b) [c,d) f (x, y) dy ,
R
R
R
R
[c,d) [a,b) f (x, y) dxdy, [a,b) [c,d) dydx.
.
R
R
Rz
. [c,d) [a,b) |f (x, y)| dxdy. Fz (y) = a f (x, y) dx, a < z < b.
R
RzR
Rz
R
1 [c,d) Fz (y) dy = a [c,d) f (x, y) dydx. |Fz (y)| 6 a |f (x, y)| dx 6 [a,b) |f (x, y)| dx,
R
R
R
[c,d) [a,b) |f (x, y)| dx dy, [c,d) Fz (y) dy
z [a, b).
R
R
R
R
lim [c,d) Fz (y) dy = [c,d) lim F z(y) dy = [c,d) [a,b) f (x, y) dxdy =
zb0
RzR
R zb0
R
= lim a [c,d) f (x, y) dydx = [a,b) [c,d) f (x, y) dydx.

zb0

934

935
936
937
938
939
940

R
0

sin x
x

dx =

2.

R
. I(y) = 0 sinx x eyx dx,
R

y > 0. . . (0, +) I 0 (y) = 0 sin x eyx dx.


R
R
R
yx
yx
yx
0 sin xe
dx , sin xy
. 0 sin xe
dx = 0 eyx d cos x =


R
R
R


= cos xeyx +y 0 cos xeyx dx = 1+y 0 y yx dx = 1+y sin xeyx +y 2 0 sin xeyx dx =
0
R 0
R
1
0
= 1 + y 2 0 sin x eyx dx 0 sin x eyx dx = 1+y
2 = I (y), I(y) = arctg y + C.
R
R
|I(y)| 6 0 eyx dx = y1 0 e z dz = y1 0. 0 = 2 + C, C = 2 . I(y)
y

941

942
943
944
945

946

[0, +), I(0) = lim I(y) = 2 .


y+0
R
0 sinxx dx. 2 > 0, 0 = 0, 2 < 0.
R sin x
cos x dx. 2 > > 0, 0 0 < < , 4 < > 0.
x
0
. - . .
.
.
Z

947

0
948

f (ax) f (bx)
dx
x

f [0, +)

lim f (x) = f + (),

x+

R
a

f (ax)f (bx)
x

949

= (f (0) f ()) ln ab .

950

951

ab < < b, a < < b. 0, + (f (0) f (+)) ln ab .

f (ax)f (bx)
x

dx =

R

a
a

R b  f (t)
b

35

dt =

R

b
a

R b  f (t)
a

dx =

dt = f () ln ab f () ln ab ,


952

20

953

( )

954

955
956
957

11.11.08


R
(s) = 0 xs1 ex dx.
0 s > 0. s
+ ( xs1 ex 0 > 0). (s) (0, +).
x

958
959
960
961
962
963
964

965

966
967
968
969
970

971

972

973
974

[a; b] (0, +) . x (0, 1] 0 6 xs1 ,


R1
ex 6 xs1 6 xa1 , 0 xs1 ex dx [a, b] . x > 1 0 6
R
6 xs1 ex 6 max{xa1 , xb1 } ex , 1 xs1 ex dx [a, b] .
, (s) (0; +).
R [a, b] (0, +),
(0, +) 0 (s) = 0 xs1 ex ln x dx. , 0 (s)
R
[a, b] (0, +), , (0, +) 00 (s) = 0 xs1 ex ln2 x dx. (s)
R
(0, +) (n) (s) = 0 xs1 ex lnn x dx.
(n1)!
ns
n s(s+1)(s+n1)

20.1. (s) = lim

n!
(n
n s(s+1)(s+n)

= lim

+ 1)s

1
. ex , 1 + x 6 ex R. , 1 x 6 ex 6 1+x
.

n 
t
t
t 1
t n
n
t
t
t
n N, x R 1 n 6 e
6 (1 + n ) , n N, 0 6 t 6 n. 0 6 e 1 n = e
1 e 1 nt
.

 

 
t
t n
t
t n
t n
t n
t
t
t
t
n
1e 1 n
6e
1 n
=
1 = n 6 e , 1 + n 6 e . , e
1 1+ n
n 





t2
t2
t
t
t t2
=e
6e
1 1 n2
1 1 n
=e n.
 
R n s1 x
R
Rn
2
x n
. 0 6 0 x
e 1 n
dx 6 0 xs1 ex xn dx 6 n1 0 xs+1 ex dx 6 (s+2)
0.
n
 Rn



R n s1
R
n
n
1
n
(s) = lim 0 x
1 nx dx. 0 xs1 1 nx dx = t = nx = 0 ns ts1 (1t)n dt =
n
1
R1
R1
R1
R1

= ns 0 ts1 (1t)n dt. 0 ts1 (1t)n dt = 1s 0 (1t)n dts = 1s (1t)n ts + 1s 0 ts (1t)n1 dt =
0
R1
R1
R 1 s+1
n!
n2
= ns 0 ts (1t)n1 dt. , ns 0 ts1 (1t)n dt = ns n(n1)
t
(1t)
dt
= ns s(s+1)(s+n1)

s(s+1) 0
R 1 s+n1
(n1)!
n
n!
s
s

0 t
dt = n s(s+1)(s+n) = s(s+1)(s+n1) n s+n .

36

975

21

s

1 Y 1 + k1
n!
(s) =
= lim
(n + 1)s
n s(s + 1) (s + n)
s x=1 1 + ks

976

977

978

14.11.08

Rn \ {0, 1, 2, . . . , }
Z
(s) =
ss1 ex dx s > 0
0

979

21.1. s R \ {, 1, 2, . . .} (s + 1) = s (s).

980

. (s + 1) = lim

981

982

n!
(n
n (s+1)(s+n+1)

=s

n!
lim
n s(s+1)(s+n)

n+1
a+n+1

=


(1) = 1, 1 , n N (n + 1) = n!.
21.1.1. (1 s) = s(s) s R \ {0, 1, . . .}.

984

21.2. (s) (1 s) =

986

+ 1)s

= s(s).

983

985

n!
s(s+1)(s+n) (n

+ 1)s+1 = lim s

sin s

s R \ Z.

1+ 1 s
1+ 1 s
Q
Q
( k)
( k)
1
. (s) (1 s) = s (s) (s) = s 1s

=
s
s
1+ k
s
1 k
k=1
k=1



Q
2
1 x2 k2 , .
sin x = x

1
s

Q
k=1

1
s2
1 k
2

k=1

987

21.2.1. ( 12 ) =

988

21.2.2.

989

. . ( 12 ) =

990

991
992
993
994
995
996
997

998
999

1000

1001
1002

1003

1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010

R
0

ex dx =

2 .

R
0

1 ex
x

=2

R
0

et dt =


.
R1
B(p, q) = 0 xp1 (1 x)q1 dx. p < 1 0.
xp1 , 0 p > 0. : q > 0 1. -
, . :
p
. B(p + 1, q) = p+q
B(p, q), p, q > 0.
1
R
R
1 p
p
q
q
. . B(p+1, q) = 01xp (1x)q1 dx = 1
01x
d(1x)
=
x
(1x)
+
q
q
0
R
R
R
p
p
p
p
p
q p1
q1 p1
q1 p
+ q 01(1 x) x
dx = q 01(1 x) x
dx q 01(1 x) x dx = q B(p, q) q B(p + 1, q).
. B(p, q) = B(q, p), B(p, q) =
. t =
R tp 1
= 0 (1+t)
p+q .
21.3. B(p, q) =

x
1

0
tp
(1+t)p+q1

x, x =

(p)(q)
(p+q) ,

t
t+1 .

dt.

B(p, q) =

p1

t
01 (1+t)
p1

1
dt
(1+t)q1 (1+t)2

=


p, q > 0.

R
. p > 1, q > 1. (p + q) = 0 xp+q1 ex dx. x = (1 + v) u,
R
R
p(p+q)
u, v > 0. (p + q) = (1 + v)p+q 0up+q1 e(1+v)u du, (1+v)
0up+q1 eu evu du.
p+q =
R vp1
R
R
R

(p+q)
p1
dv = 0 0 up+q1 v p1 eu ev dudv =
(p+q)B(p, q) = (p+q) 0 (1+v)p+q dv = 0 (1+v)
p+q v
R R p+q1 p1 u v
R q1 u R
R
R
= 0 0 u
v
e e dvdu = 0 u e
(uv)p1 evu dvudu = 0 uq1 eu 0 tp1 et dtdu =
0
R q1 u
= (p) 0 u e du = (p) (q).
. , . , .

37

1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018

up+q1 v p1 eu evu du v [0, a] :


u
|u
v p1 eu evu | 6 ap1 up+q1e R .

p+q1 p1 u vu
int
v
e e
dv = uq eu 0 (uv)p1 euv d(uv) a [0, b]
0 u
.
p, q > 1 . (p, q > 0)
. :
p+q
p+q
p+q+1
B(q + 1, p + 1).
B(p, q) = p+q
p B(p + 1, q) = p B(q, p + 1) = p
q
0
p+q+1

, B(p, q) =

38

p+q
p

p+q+1
q

(p+1)(q+1)
(p+q+2)

(p)(q)
(p+q) .

1019

22

1020

B . .

1021

(s + 1) =

1022

1023
1024
1025
1026

18.11.08




2s ss es 1 + , 1 6 6 1, s > 0
s

R
. (s + 1) = 0 xs ex dx.
(xs es )0 = (s xs1 xs ) ex = (s x)xs1 ex , xs ex

[s, +). x = s(t + 1). (s + 1) =


R [0, s]
R
= 1 ss (t + 1)s es est d dt = ss+1 es 1 est+s ln(1+t) dt. .
2

1027
1028
1029

st + s ln(1 + t) = su2 , t u . - . . . : (s + 1) =
R su2 dt
= ss+1 es e 2 du
du. s : (tln(1+t)) =

2
t0
1
= u2 t0 1+t
= u, t0 = u 1+t
t = u t + 1 . t ln(1 + t) =( 2

1030

1031
1032

1033

1034

1035
1036

1037
1038
1039

O( 1s ).

. () L R C (x, y) : L2 R( C ), :

1040

1. (x, x) > 0 (x, x) = 0 x = 0 (z C, z > 0 |z| = z).

1041

2. R( C) x, y L : (x, y) = (x, y).

1042

3. x1 , x2 , y L : (x1 + x2 , y) = (x1 , y) + (x2 , y).

1043

4. x, y L : (x, y) = (y, x).

1044

1045

1
t
1
t
u
t
)= tt+ (1+th
t)2 2 . (1+th t)2 2 = 2 u = 1+th t , 0 < th < 1.
R su2
R
R
su2
su2
u + u th t = t, ut = 1 th u. e 2 (1 th u) du = e 2 du + e 2 (1 th)u du,
q R
R
p
2
su2

0 < 1th < 1. : I1 = e 2 du. : x = 2s u, I1 = 2s ex dx =


q
q
q

R su2
R x2
R su2

2
2
2
2 (1 th)u du, |I | 6 2
=
e 2 u du =
=
=
2
s 2 0 e
s 2 2
s . I2 = e

q
0
R su2 2
R st
s

2
2
= 0 e 2 du = 0 e 2 dt = 2s e 2 t = 2s . (s + 1) = ss+1 es
s + s , 1 6 6 1.
0
q



(s + 1) = 2s ss es 1 + 2 s . , s ,

:
n
P
#, #
Rn : ( x
y)=
xi yi .
i=1

1046

n
P
#, #
Cn : ( x
y)=
xjy j .
i=1

1047

1048

R ( C) x, y L : (x, y) = (x, y). (x, y) = (y, x) = (x, y).

1049

(x, y1 + y2 ) = (x, y1 ) + (x, y2 ). .

1050

1051
1052

x, y L : |(x, y)|2 6 (x, x) (y, y), ,


x y .

39

1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063

1064
1065

. 1. (x, x) = 0 x = 0. (x, y) = 0
, x y .
2. (x, x) > 0. (x + (x, y)y, x + (x, y)y) > 0.
R, (x + (x, y)y, x + (x, y)y) = (x, x)2 + (x, y)(y, x) +(x, y)(x, y) + (x, y)(x, y)(y, y) =
= (x, x)2 + 2|(x, y)|2 + |(x, y)|2 (y, y) > 0. , D = 4|(x, y)|4 4(x, x)|(x, y)|2 (y, y) 6 0.
|(x, y)| = 0, . |(x, y)| > 0, |(x, y)|2 (x, x)(y, y) 6 0.
, D = 0
0 : (0 x + (x, y)y, 0 x + (x, y)y) = 0, 0 x(x, y)y = 0, x y ,
02 + |(x, y)|2 6= 0. (x, y) = 0 ,
x = 0, y = 0, x y . , ,
.

p
kxk = (x, x).
:

1066

1. kxk > 0 kxk = 0 x = 0.

1067

2. kxk = || kxk.

1068

3. kx + yk 6 kxk + kyk.

40

23

1069

1070
1071

1072
1073

1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079

1080
1081

1082

1083

1084

18.11.08

, ( ) , , .
. .
. () x, y , (x, y) = 0.
{e } ,
e 6= 0 , , 6= , (e , e ) = 0.
{e } ,
ke k = 1.
.
. {e } L, x
)
)
= (x,e
L, x
b() = x
b = (e(x,e
ke k2 x {e } .
,e )
23.1 ( . ). {e }


n


P

c
e
x

L, x L ck , k = 1, . . . , n
k k >

k=1
n
P
x
bk ek , ck = x
bk .
> kx
k=1

1085

1086

1087

. kx
+

n
P

k=1
n
P

n
P

ck e k k =

k=1


x

n
P

ck e k , x

k=1

n
P


ck ek

n
P

= kxk2

k=1

k=1
n
P

ckck kek k2 (, ). : = kxk2


ckck kek k2 = kxk2 +

k=1

n
P
k=1

(ck x
bk )(ck x
bk )kek k2

n
P
k=1

x
bkx
bk = kxk2

, .

1089

23.1.1 ( ).

n
X

|b
xk |2 kek k2 +

n
P

n
P

k=1

bk kek k2 +
ckx

|ck b
xk |2 kek k2 .

k=1


x
bk ek k2 = kxk2

kxk2 >

23.1.2 ( ).

ck x
bk kek k2

k=1

n
X

|b
x2k kek k2

k=1

k=1

1090

ck (ek , x)+

k=1

k=1

1088

kx

n
P

n
P

ck (x, ek )

n
X

|b
xk |2 kek k2

k=1
1091
1092

1093

1094
1095
1096

1097
1098

1099

23.1.3. {e }la , x
> 0 |b
xk | ke k > .
. ,

kxk2
2 .

23.1.4. {e }la , x x
b 6= 0 (
n = n1 ).
23.2. {e }la .
x :
1. > 0 K N ck , k = 1, . . . , K, k , k = 1 . . . , K, kx

K
P

ck ek k < .

k=1
1100

1101

2. k , x
b 6= 0. x =
3. kxk =

P
k

x
bk ek .

|b
xk |2 kek k2 ( ).

1102

. . kx

K
P
k=1

1103

kx

K
P
k=1

ck eek k < ,

x
bek eek k < . x
bek 6= 0, 1 6 k 6 K,

41

ek , 1 6 k 6 K, , x
k , N :
bek 6= 0 k , 1 6 k 6 N .
n
n
P
P
x
bk ek k 6 kx
x
bk ek k < .
n > N kx

1104

1105

k=1

k=1

n
P

: kx

1106

k=1

1107

, 0 n .

1108

. . kxk2

n
P

x
bk ek k = kxk2

n
P

|b
xk |2 kek k2 = kx

x
bk ek k.

0 n . , 0 n .
, .


1109
1110

1112

n
P

k=1

k=1

1111

|b
xk |2 kek k2 .

k=1

. .
23.1. {ek } . x =

ck ek ,

k
1113

1114

kck = x
bk , z ek , (z, x) = 0.
 n

P
.
ck ek , z ck kek k2 z = ek , 1 6 k 6 n 0, z
k=1

1115

1116

ek , 1 6 k 6 n. {ek } , ( x =
n). {ek } , x =

n
P

n
P

ck ek

k=1

ck ek + o (1) n . z = em , n >

k=1
1117

> m (x, em ) = em kem k2 +


o (1) ( n ), |(x, o (1))| 6 kxk k o (1)k 0. ,
n

1118
1119

(x, em ) = em kem k2 = x
bm kem k2 . , , z

ek . (x, z) = 0 + o (1) 0. , (x, z) = (z, x) = 0 ( |(o (1), z)| 6 kmo(1)k kzk 0).
n

1120

1121

23.2. {ek } .

ck ek

k=1

|ck |2 kek k2 .

k=1

1122

1123

.
ck ek
k=1
k=n
m

m
P

P
P
2
2
2
2

|ck | kek k > 0 N
ck ek
ckck kek k < .

=
k=n

1124



m
P


> 0 N n, m > N
ck ek
< ,

n, m > N

m
P

k=1

k=n

|ck | kek k < . ? ! :)

k=n
1125
1126

. {eP
}la ,
x
x
b e x.

1127

, .

42

1128

1129
1130
1131
1132

24

25.11.08

,
... 27 . : " .
". ..: ", "
P
. {e } , x
x
b e

1133

1134
1135
1136
1137
1138

x {e }.
24.1. x 0

, ( x),
, .

P
P
kx x
b ek = kxk2 |b
x |2 ke k.

1139
1140

1141

.
(
P2
). kxk2 >
|b
x | ke k2 , ,

P

x
b e .


1142
1143
1144
1145
1146

1147

, x.
24.2. {e } .
:
1. x , x > 0 ck , k = 1, . . . , K k , k = 1, . . . , K,
K
P
kx
ck ek k < .
k=1

1148

1149

2. .
P
3. x kxk2 =
|b
x |2 ke k2 ( ).

1150

4. x y (x, y) =

1151
1152
1153
1154
1155

1156

1157

1) - 4) , 5) (x, e ) = 0, x = 0.
5) 1) - 4)
. 1) - 3) x, , , x ( ?). 4) 3). , 2) 4). P

k
P
, , x
b 6= 0 yb 6= 0. x =
x
bk ek , y =
ybk ek ,
k
k
P
x=
x
bk ek +
o (1).
k6n
!
P
P
P
P
(x, y) =
x
bk ek , y +(
o (1), y) =
x
bk (e , y)+o (1) =
x
bk ybk kek k+o (1) x
bk ybk kek k2 .
k6n

1158
1159

x
b x
b ke k2 ( ).

k=n

k6n

2) 5) , .
P
5) 2). , y = x
b e .

1160
1161

1162
1163

1164
1165

1166

\
x y, (x
y) = x
b yb = x
b x
b = 0. 5) x y = 0,
x = y.

. . {e } , 1), ,
5).
2
.
P l2 (l2 ) ak ,
|ak | < .
k
P
({ak }, {bk }) = ak bk .
k

1167
1168
1169

. {ak } l2 , {bk } l2 , {ak bk } l2 ,


P
|ak bk |2 6 (|ak | + |bk |)2 = |ak |2 + 2|ak ||bk | + |bk |2 6 2(|ak |2 +
|bk |2 ).
P
P
ak bk :
|ak bk | 6 12 (|ak |2 + |bk |2 ). ,
k

1170

. 4 :
43

1171
1172

1173

1174

1175

1. (x, x) > 0 (x, x) = 0 x = 0. ({ak }, {ak }) =

|ak |2 > 0 = 0 {ak }

.
2. (x, y) = (x, y)

3. (x1 + x2 , y) = (x1 , y) + (x2 , y)


P
P
4. (x, y) = (y, x). ({ak }, {bk }) = ak bk = a
k bk = ({bk }, {ak }).
k

44

1176

25

1177

1178
1179

1180
1181

1182

28.11.08

. f [a, b], f [a, b] > 0 g C[a, b],


{x [a, b] : f (x) 6= g(x)} < .
. f [a, b], f [a, b] > 0 E [a, b],
E < , f [a, b] \ E.
.

1184

1. f g [a, b], , ,
g(x) 6= 0 [a, b], .

1185

2. f [a, b], f ([a, b]), (f ) [a, b].

1186

3. fk , k = 1, . . . , n [a, b], max fk (x) min fk (x) [a, b].

1183

1187

1188
1189

.
25.1. Gk , k = 1, . . . ,
I, Gk Gk+1 k, inf Gk > 0. J G1 , inf (Gk J) > 0.
k

1190

1191

1192

1193
1194
1195

1196
1197

P
. G1 (i , i ), (i i ) < . M N :
i
P
|i i | < 2 , = inf mu Gk > 0. i 6 M inf (Gk (i , i )) = 0,
k
k
i>M


m
P
S

m : (Gm (i , i )) < 2M i 6 M . (Gm ) 6


(Gm (i , i ))+ Gm
(i , i ) <
<M

2M

i=1

[c, d] (i , i ), (i i ) < 4 (c i ) < 4 . J = [c, d]. (Gk (i , i )) 6


6 (Gk J) + (i d) + (c i ) < (Gk J) + 2 , (Gk J) > 2 .

25.0.1. Gk , k = 1, . . . ,

T
I, Gk Gk+1 k, inf Gk > 0.
Gk 6= .
k

1198
1199

i>M

= , . , i 6 M , = inf (Gk (i , i )) > 0.

k=1

. J1 G1 , .
S J2 J1 , J2 G2 . .
Jk Gk , Jk 6= .

k

1200
1201

25.0.2. Gk , k = 1, . . . ,

T
I, Gk Gk+1 k.
Gk = , Gk 0.
k

k=1
1202
1203

25.2. fk C[a, b], k N, x [a, b]


lim fk (x). > 0 Gk , G , fk

k
1204

1205

1206

1207

[a, b] \ G.
. k N, Gn = {x [a, b] : m, l > n, |fm (x) fl (x)| > k1 },

T
T
, Gn Gn+1 .
Gn 6= , x
Gn
fk (x). ,

n=1

n=1

Gn = , Gn 0.
n

n=1
1208

1209

k N nk N : Gn = {x (a, b) : m, l > nk , |fm (x) fl (x)| > k1 } < 2k .

S
P
G=
Gnk , G 6
2k = . fk n=1

1210
1211

1212
1213

k=1

(a, b) \ G, k N m, l > nk x (a, b) \ |fm (x) fl (x)| 6 k1 .


a b fk , fk [a, b] \ G.

25.1 (). [a, b] fk (x) f (x). f (x) [a, b] > 0 E [a, b] < ,
[a,b]\E

1214

fk (x) f (x).
k

45

1215
1216

1217

1218

. D0 [a, b], fk lim fk (x), D0 = 0. k N Dk [a, b], Dk < 2k1 , fk


k

S
DK , D < 2 . {li }i ,
. [a, b] \ Dk . D =
k=0
P
S
D,
|li | < 2 . G1 = li D, G1 < 2 , G1 . fk [a, b] \ G1
i

1219
1220
1221
1222

. , [a, b] \ G1 6= . fk (x) = fk (x) F = [a, b] \ G1 ,


F,
F. . fk (x) R lim fk (x) = lim fk (x) F = [a, b] \ G1 . lim fk (x)
k

1223
1224

1225

1226
1227

1228

1229
1230

R. : . G2 , G2 < 2 , fk
[a, b] \ G2 . , : [a,b]\E

[a,b]\E

? : fk (x) f (x), E = (G1 G2 ) [a, b]. , fk (x) , E 6 G1 + G2 < .


[a, b] . f (x) [a, b] \ E ( ). , f [a, b].

25.1.1. f [a, b], f [a, b].
. ,
F f , F . [a, b] f (x) =

= lim F (x + k1 ) F (x) k [a, b].

k

1231

1232


1. fk , k N, [a, b] .. [a, b] f (x) = lim fk (x), f [a, b].
k

1233

2. fk , k N, [a, b] [a, b] sup fk (x) (inf fk (x)) ,


k

1234

1235

[a, b].
3. fk , k N, . [a, b] [a, b] lim fk (x)
k

1236

( lim fk (x)), lim fk (x) = lim sup fk (x).


k

n k>n

46

26

1237

1238
1239

1240
1241
1242

02.12.08

6 ... . . :
26.1. fk , k N, [a, b] fk H[a, b], [a, b] k N
fk (x) 6 fk+1 (x), [a, b] lim fk (x) = f (x)
k
Rb
Rb
I = lim a fk dx. f H[a, b] I = a f (x) dx.
k

1243
1244
1245
1246
1247

1248

1249

1250

1251

Rb
. > 0, K N, I a fK dx < . k N k ,

k T = {(i , i )} [a, b]




Rb


, (fk , T) a fk dx < 2k . [a, b] k > K, fk () f () < .
(x) = kx (x)
[a, b], -
x [a, b]. T = {(
i , i)}
 P R
P
P

R
P
c (x). |(f, T) I| 6 f (xii ) |i | fki (i ) |i | +
fki (i ) |i | fki +
f dx I .
i ki
i
i
i
i
i



P

P
:
f (i ) fki (i ) |i | < |i | = (b a).
i
i


P


R
P
P 


fki (i ) |i | fki dx 6
2k = .

i
k=1
k=1 i : k =k
i
Rb
PR
PR
PR
f
dx
=
f dx 6
f dx 6 ( ). 6
f
K
k dx =
a
i K
i ki
i max
i
i
i
i
i
Rb
PR
= a fmax ki dx 6 I. , 0 6 I
fki dx < . |(f, T) I| < (b a + 2).


1252
1253
1254

26.2. fk , k N, [a, b] fk H[a, b],


[a, b] k N fk 6 fk+1 (x) [a, b] lim fk (x) = f (x)
k
Rb
Rb
I = lim a fk dx. f H[a, b] I = a f dx.
k

1255
1256
1257

1258

1259
1260

1261
1262

1263

. Dk [a, b], fk (x) 6 fk+1 (x)


( fk , fk+1 , fk (x) > fk+1 (x)). Dk = 0,
k N. D0 [a, b], lim fk (x), D0 = 0.
k
(
(

0,
x D
S
0,
x D
D =
, f =
. fk f
Dk , D = 0. fk =
lim fk (x), x
/D
fk (x), x
/D
k=0
k
Rb
1. f H[a, b] I = a f dx. f (x) = f (x)
Rb
[a, b], f H[a, b] I = a f dx.

26.1 (. ). fk , k N, [a, b] fk H[a, b],
Rb
[a, b] k N fk (x) 6 fk+1 (x) sup a fk dx < +. [a, b]
Rb
Rb k
f (x) = lim fk (x), f H[a, b] a f dx = lim a fk dx.
k

1264
1265

. , 2. , ,
lim fk (x). [a, b] fk (x) ,
k

1273

[a, b] lim fk (x).


k
Rb
fki , lim fki (x) . I = lim a fk dx. ki
i
k
Rb
, I a fki dx < 22i . Ei [a, b],


Rb
Rb
1
fki+1 fki (x) > 2i . Ei 6 2i
f
fki (x) dx 6 2i I a fki dx < 2i .
a ki+1

R
fki (x)+ i=1 fki+1 fki (x) . E0 x, k, fk (x)

fk (x) 6 fk+1 (x). (E0 ) = 0.


S
S
[a, b] \
Ri E0 , n 6 2i . fk1 (x) +
i=n


N


S
S
P
P
Ri E0 6
Ei <
+
fki+1 fki (x) = fki+1 (x) N .

1274

<

1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272

i=1

P
i=n

1275

1276

1277

i=n

3i = 2n+1 0.

i=n

. > 0 C
(
z,
|z| 6
[z] =
z
|z|
, |z| >
C.

47

1278

26.3. () f [a, b] > 0 . [f ] .

1279

. : f , [f ] . : > 0 [f ]
, f (x) = lim [f (x)]n .


1280

48

1281

27

1282

( )

1283
1284

05.12.08

f [a, b], f H[a, b]


Rb
[a, b] sup a [f ]k dx < .

[f ]k , k N,

1285
1286
1287
1288

1289
1290

1291

1292

1293
1294

. . f H[a, b], f , [f ]k k N,
Rb
Rb
[f ]k H[a, b] k N 0 6 a [f (x)]k dx 6 a f (x) dx.
Rb
. [f ]k H[a, b], k N, sup a [f ]k dx < , . f (x) = lim [f (x)]k =
k

= H[a, b].

27.0.1. f [a, b], |f (x)| 6 g(x)


[a, b], g H[a, b], f H[a, b].
(
f (x), f (x) > 0
f (x)+|f (x)|
+
. f , f (x) =
f (x) =
=
2
0,
f (x) < 0
(
f (x),
f (x) 6 0
|f (x)|f (x)
=
[a, b] ( f + f =
2
0, f (x) > 0
Rb
Rb
Rb
Rb
, a [f + ]k dx 6 a g dx, a [f ]k dx 6 a g dx), , f = f + f H[a, b].
f , <f H[a, b] =f H[a, b], , f = <f + =f H[a, b].


1296

27.0.2. f, g K[a, b], h [a, b] f (x) 6 h(x) 6 g(x) [a, b],


h H[a, b].

1297

. 0 6 h(x) f (x) 6 (g(x) f (x)) H[a, b], , g(x) f (x) H, , h(x) H[a, b].

1295

1298
1299

1300

1301

1302

27.1 (). g H[a, b], fk H[a, b], k N, k N g(x) 6 fk (x)


Rb
Rb
Rb
[a, b], lim inf a fk dx < . lim inf k fk (x) H[a, b] a lim inf k fk (x) dx 6 lim inf k a fk (x) dx.
. n N m > n g(x) 6 inf fk (x) 6 fm (x) [a, b]. k>n
Rb
Rb
, 2 inf fn (x) H[a, b] a inf fk (x) 6 lim inf k a fk (x) dx < . .
k>n
k>n
Rb
Rb
lim inf k fk (x) = lim inf fk (x) H[a, b] a lim inf k fk (x) dx 6 lim inf k a fk (x) dx.

n k>n

1303

1304

27.2 (). fk H[a, b], k N, f (x) > 0 [a, b] k N sup


k
Rb
Rb
lim inf k fk (x) H[a, b] a lim inf fk (x) dx 6 sup a fk (x) dx

Rb
a

fk (x) dx < X,

1305
1306
1307

27.1 (). f, g H[a, b], hk , k N [a, b] k N f (x) 6


6 hk (x) 6 g(x) [a, b], [a, b] h(x) = lim hk (x). h H[a, b]
k
Rb
Rb
a h(x) dx = lim a hk (x) dx.
k

1308
1309
1310
1311

Rb
Rb
. a h(x) dx 6 lim inf k a hk (x) dx . ,
Rb
Rb
g(x) 6 hk (x) 6 f (x) [a, b], a h(x) dx 6 lim inf k a hk (x) dx =
R
Rb
Rb
Rb
= lim supk a 6bhk (x) dx. , lim supk a hk (x) dx 6 a h(x) dx 6 lim inf k a hk (x) dx. Rb
Rb
, a h(x) dx = lim a hk (x) dx.

k

1312
1313

27.1.1 (). hk , k N [a, b] k N |h(x)| 6 g(x) H[a, b],


Rb
R
[a, b] h(x) = lim hk (x). h(x) H[a, b] a h(x) dx = lim a 6bhk (x) dx.
k

1317

L2 [a, b] [a, b] f , |f |2 H[a, b]. (f, g) =



Rb
= a f (x) g(x) dx , f g [a, b] |f (x) g(x)| = |f (x)||g(x)| 6 21 |f (x)|2 + |g(x)|2 ,
f g H[a, b].
L2 [a, b] [a, b], .

1318

27.2. L2 [a, b] ( ).

1314
1315
1316

1319
1320

1321

. fk L2 [a, b], k N , > 0 N


R
1
2
b
n, m > N : kfn fm k =
|fn fm |2 dx
< . k N nk ,
a

P
m > nk : kfnk fm k < 2k . fn1 (x) +
fnk+1 (x) fnk (x), Sm (x) = fnm+1 (x).
k=1

49

1322

1323

 1 R
R
1

2
2
b
b 2
2
(x)|
dx
(x)

f
(x)|
dx
6
|f
(x)

f
|f

1
dx
< 2k b a.
n
n
n
n
k
k+1
k
k+1
a
a
a
m

Rb P
P
P
|fnk+1 fnk | dx 6 b a
|fnk+1 (x) fnk |, a

2k < b a, .
Rb

k=1

k=1

1324
1325

1326

1327

1328

1329

k=1

[a, b].


P
fnk+1 fnk (x) [a, b] , f (x)
, fn1 (x) +
k=1
!1
2
m
2
m
Rb P
P
(x)|
dx

f
|f
.
|fnk+1 (x) fnk (x)| [a, b]
=
n
n
k
k+1
a
k=1
k=1


m
m
P

P
P

f n
|fnk+1 fnk |
2k < 1.
=
k+1 fnk 6
<

k=1
k=1
k=1
2

2
Rb P
Rb
|
dx 6 1
dx
<
1,

f
|
|f
a m

f
|f
nk
nk+1
nk
nk+1
k=1
a

|fnk+1 fnk | L [a, b],

k=1

1330

1331

1332

1333

1334

k=1

k=m
NP
1

= kf (x) fnN (x)k = kf (x) (fm (x) +

k=1
1335

k=1

(fnk+1 fnk ) L [a, b], f (x) L2 [a, b].


!1
2
 m
2
m
Rb P
P
(x)|
dx

f
|f

|fnk+1 (x)fnk (x)| [a, b], m > N


=
n
n
k
k+1
a
k=N
k=N

m
m
P

P
P

f n
kfnk+1 fnk |
2N +1 < 1.
=
k+1 fnk 6
<

k=N
k=N
k=N
2

2
Rb P
Rb
N +1
|
dx 6
dx
<
2
,

f
|
|f
a m

f
|f
nk
nk+1
nk
nk+1
k=N
a
k=N











P

6 2N +1 . P (fn
6 2N +1 . P (fn
)
)

f
|

f
6 2N +1 ..

f
|f
n
n
n
n
k =
k
k+1
k
k+1
k+1



..

k=N

(fnk+1 fnk ))k < 2

N +1

. fnk f k L2 [a, b].

m > nk kf fm k 6 kf fnk k + kfnk fm k < 2k+1 + 2k < 2k+2 .

50

k=N

1336

1337
1338
1339

1340
1341
1342
1343

1344

1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352

1353
1354

1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364

28

09.12.08

. L2 (R) - |f |2 R
f .
R
(f, g) = R f g dx ( ).
-, L2 (R)  R C, |f g|2 6 |f |2 + |g|2 + 2|f | |g|,
|f (x)||g(x) 6 12 |f (x)|2 + |g(x)|2 . . ,
.
1
R
kf k = R |f |2 2 .
28.1. L2 (R) .
. fk L2 (R), k N, fk , > 0 N
1
R
n, m > N : kfn fm k = R |fn (x) fm (x)|2 dx 2 < . l N fk [l,l] ([l,l] 1 [l, l]
0 ). l N fk [l,l] L2 [l, l], ,
f l . l, k N, l < k, f l = f k [l, l] . f , l N
f (x) = f l (x) [l, l]. , f L2 (R) fk .
> 0 N n, m > N : kfn fm k < . l N n, m > N : kfn [l,l] fm [l,l] k < .
m kfn [l,l] f [l,l] k 6 . l . kfn f k 6 . , ,
f L2 (R) (- fn f L2 (R)) f fk .

.
f g ( ) R, x R.
R
f g(x) = R f (x t)g(t) dt.
f g T R (
RT
[0, T ]). x R (x [0, T ]). f g(x) = 0 f (x t)g(t) dt ( [0, T ] x t mod T ).
f g(x) R :
1. f, g L2 (R).
2. R,
R ( R) .
3. , (f
|f | ), R, ( 0 ).
: 1. f L2 (R), f (t) L2 (R) f (x t) L2 (R). f g(x) = (f (x t), g(t)). 2.
g R, f , |f (x t)g(t)| 6 sup |f (t)| |g(t)|. , f (x t)g(t)
R

1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370

t R (f (x t)g(t)
). 3. , , .
f g(x) R :
1. f, g L2 [0, T ].
2. [0, T ],
[0, T ].

1373

1. ( ,
. : , ). 2. g [0, T ], f
, |f (x t)g(t)| 6 sup |f (t)| |g(t)|. , f (x t)g(t) t

1374

[0, T ].

1371
1372

[0,T ]

1375
1376

1377

1378

28.1. f T f H[0, T ], f H[a, a + T ] a R f


[a, a + T ] .
!
a+T
anT
anT
R
R +T
RT
R +T
. a [nT, (n + 1)T ], n Z.
f dx =
f dx =
+
f dx =
a
anT
anT
T
!
anT
RT
RT
R
=
+
f dx = 0 f dx.

anT

1379

1380

1. f g(x) g f (x) , , .

1381

2. fh (x) = f (x h). fh g(x) f g(x h) ,


, .

1382

51

1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388

1389

R
. f g(x) = R f (x t)g(t) dt. x t = u,
R
R
f g(x) = + f (u)g(x u)d(u) = f (u)g(x u) du = g f (x).
RT
. f g(x) = 0 f (xt)g(t) dt. .
RT
R xt
Rx
f (u)g(x u) d(u) = xT f (u)g(x u) du = 0 f (u)g(x u) du = g f (x).
x
R
R
fh g(x) = R f (x h t)g(t) dt ( ). R f (x h t)g(t) dt = f g(x h).
RT
RT
. fh g(x) = 0 fh (x t)g(t) dt = 0 f (x h t)g(t) dt = f g(x h).

1.

52

1390

1391
1392
1393
1394

1395

1396

29

12.12.08

. ( ) R R
{Kn (t)}
n=1 :
R
1. sup R |Kn (t)| dt <
n
R
2. lim R Kn (t) dt = 1
n
R
R 

3. > 0 lim
+
|Kn (t)| dt = 0.

1397
1398
1399
1400

. T T ( [o, T ]) {Kn (t)}


:
RT
1. sup 0 |Kn (t)| dt <
n

1401

1402

RT
n 0

Kn (t) dt = 1
R T
|Kn (t)| dt = 0.
3. > 0 lim
2. lim

1403
1404
1405

29.1. {Kn (t)} . . R ( [0, T ] T ), f


R (T ).
1. x f , f Kn (x) f (x)
n
R

1406

2. f R, f Kn f (x)
n

1407
1408

3. Kn (t) R, n N, f (k) (t), k = 0, 1, . . . , m R,


x R (f Kn )(m) (x) f (m) (x), f (m) R (
n

1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415

T , ) R
. R. x0 f , > 0 > 0 x B (x0 ) : |f (x)f (x0 )| < .
f Kn (x0 ) f (x0 ). , R Kn (t) , f . f Kn (x0 ) f (x0 ) = R f (x0 t)Kn (t) dt f (x0 ) =

R
R
R
= R (f (x0 t) f (x0 )) Kn (t) dt+f (x0 ) R Kn (t) dt 1 . |f Kn (x0 ) f (x0 )| 6 |f (x0 t)f (x0 )||Kn (t)| dt+
R

R

R +

+2 sup |f | +
|Kn (t)| dt+sup |f | R Kn (t) dt 1 . 0 3. R
R
R
0 2. 6 sup R |Kn (t)| dt. , N n > N |f Kn (x0 )f (x0 )| < C,
n

1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424

.
f , , . ,
, , x0 .
, .
T . x0 f , > 0 > 0 x B (x0 ) :
|f (x)f (x0 )| < . f Kn (x0 )f (x0 ). , Kn (t)
RT
, f . f Kn (x0 ) f (x0 ) = 0 f (x0 t)Kn (t) dt f (x0 ) =
R

R
RT
RT 
T

= 0 (f (x0 t) f (x0 )) Kn (t) dt+f (x0 ) 0 Kn (t) dt 1 . |f Kn (x0 ) f (x0 )| =6 0 + T |f (x0 t)f (x0 )|
R

R T

T
|Kn (t)| dt + 2 sup |f |
|Kn (t)| dt + sup |f | 0 Kn (t) dt 1 . , ,
R

1425
1426
1427
1428
1429

, .
R
. R. R f (x t)Kn (t) dt. : intR f 0 (xt)Kn (t) dt = (f Kn (x))0 (x) ( R
R
.) R f 00 (xt)Kn (t) dt = (f Kn (x))00 (x) . : (f Kn )(n) (x) = R f (m) (xt)Kn (t) dt =


= f (m) Kn (x) f (m) (x).
n

(1t2 )n

1430

. [1, 1] Kn (t) =

1431

0 R \ [1, 1], . R.
: 1 , 1. R
R 1
1
1. . 1 (1t2 )n dt = 2 0 (1t2 )n dt >
R1
R
R1
R 1
(1 2 )n dt

2
> 2 0 (1 t)n dt = n+1
. 1 + |Kn (t)| dt 6 1 2
= (n + 1) (1 2 )n 0.
n
n+1
R
n

t)
2 : Kn (t) = R (1cos
.
K
(t)
dt
=
1.


n
n

(1+cos t) dt
t
R
R
R

cos2n 2
, . Kn (t) = R cos2n t dt . cos2n 2t dt = 4 02 cos2n u du = 2 02 .
2
R

. 0 < <
. cos2n 2t dt = 2B(n + 21 , 12 ) = n
2n
2
R 2
n
cos
(1+cos
x)
2n
2
R
dx 6
= 2n cos 2 0.


(1+cos t)n dt

1432
1433
1434
1435

1436
1437
1438

R1

2 n
1 (1t )

dt

. .

53

1439
1440

29.2 ().
1. g C[a, b], > 0 P (x) : kf (x) P (x)k =
= max |f (x) P (x)| < , f , [a,b]

1441

1442

.
.

54

1443

1444
1445

30

16.12.08

, .

.




12 , cos nx, sin nx , n N einx nZ . :
inx

1446
1447
1448

inx

inx

inx

, sin nx = e e
.
enx = cos nx + i sin nx, cos nx = e +e
2
2i
L2 [0, 2]. , , .
n
P
( ) T (x) = a20 +
ak cos kx + bk sin kx (
k=1

1449

), , ,

n
P

ck einx .

k=n
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454

30.1 (). f 2 .
1. f C[0, 2], > 0 T (x) : kf (x)T (x)kc[0;2] = max |f (x)T (x)| <
R
< .
2. f C n [0, 2] ( n ), > 0 T (x) : kf (x) T (x)kC n [0,2] =
max |f (k) T (k) (x)| < ,
06k6n,xR

1455

f , 1) 2) T (x) . ak bk .
m

1456
1457

x)
. Km (x) = R 2(1+cos
m dx , m N. f Km (x)
0 (1+cos x)
R 2
R 2
1
R
. f Km (x) = 0 f (t)Km (xt) dt = 2 (1+cos t)m dt 0 f (t)(1 = cos(xt))m dt.
0

1458

1459

1460
1461

, f Km (x) f (x), (f Km )(x) f

(k)

(x).

30.2. ( ) L2 [0, 2].


. f L2 [0, 2]. |f [f ]k | 6 |f | (, ) |f [f ]k |

0
k
R2
2
R, 0 |f [f ]k | dx

0,
k

1462
1463

> 0 [f ]n , kf [f ]n kL2 [0,2] < [f ]n , 2 g C[0, 2] :


R 2
2
2
{x [0, 2] : [f (x)]n 6= g(x)} < n 2 , |g(x)| 6 n, (H) 0 |f (x) g(x)|2 dx < (2n)2 n 2 = 42 .
2

1464
1465
1466

? G {x [0, 2] : f (x) 6= g(x)}, G < n 2 .


(x): x G,
B(x) (x) G, (x) = 1 [0, ] \ G. T ,
P

P
(x), |[f ]n (i ) g(i )|2 |i | 6
(2n)2 |i | 6 4n2 G < 42 .
i G

1467
1468
1469

1470
1471

1472
1473

1474

1475

1476
1477
1478

1479
1480

( < 42 ) , k[f ]n gkL2 < 2. g C[0, 2] : k[f ]n gkL2 [0,2] .


1 g: > 0 T (x) : kg(x)t(x)kC[0,2] =
qR
2
= max |g(x)T (x)| < . T (x) : kgT kL2 [0,2] =
|g(x) T (x)|2 dx <
0
qRR

2
<
|g(x) T (x)|2 dx < 2 2 = 2 .
0

kf T kL2 [0,2] 6 kf [f ]n k + k[f ]n gk + kg T k < (3 + 2).



f 2 , H[0, 2],

R 2
P
P
[f ] = a20 +
ak cos kx + bk sin kx =
ck eikx , ak = 1 0 f (t) cos kt dt, k = 0, 1, . . . ,, bk =
k=1
k=
R 2
R 2
R 2
1
1
= 1 0 f (t) sin kt dt, k = 1, 2, . . . ck = 2
f (t) eikx dt = 2
f (t) eikx dt .
0
0
.
1. , [f ] = [f ] f 2, f H[0, 2], f, g 2
f, g H[0, 2], [f g] = [f ] [g].
2. f 2 , f H[0, 2], fn (x) = f (x h), [fn ] = [f ](x h) = h [f ].
R
R 2
R 2
1
1
1
. ck (fn ) = 2
f (th)eikt dt = 2
f (x)eik(x+h) dx = 2
f (x)eikx dxeikh =
02
0
0

P
P
P
= ck (f ) eikh . [fn ](x) =
ck (fn ) eikx =
ck (f ) eikh eihx =
ck (f )eik(xh) = [f ](x h) =
k=1

1481

k=

k=

= n [f ].

1482

3. f 2, f H[0, 2], f (x) = f (x), [f ](x) = [f ](x) = [f ](x).

1483

4. f, g 2 f, g L2 [0, 2], ck (f g) = ck (f ) ck (g), k Z.

55

1484

1485

. , f (x) = einx , g(x) = emx . f g =


(
R 2 i(mn)t
0,
m 6= n
inx
. 4 .
= 0 e
dt e
=
einx , m = n

R 2
0

ein(xt) eimt dt =

1488

f = T , g = P ,
. , , ck (T P ) = ck (T ) ck (P ). f L2 [0, 2] Tk

f L2 [0, 2]. Tl f L2 [0, 2], Pl g L2 [0, 2],

1489

ck (Tl ) ck (f ), ck (Pl ) ck (g). |ck (Tl )ck (f )| = |ck (Tl f )| = |(Tl f, ekx )| 6 kTl f kkeikx k 0.

1486
1487

[0,2]

1490
1491
1492




Tl Pl (x) f g(x), f g(x) = (f (x t), g(t)). |Tl Pl (x)f g(x)| = Tl (x t),P l (t) (f (x t), g(t)) 6
l



(1)O(1)+O(1)o
(1) =
6 Tl (x t) f (x t),P l (t) + f (x t),P l (t) g(t) 6 kTl f kkP l k+kf kkP l
gk = o
(1). , Ck (Tl Pl ) Ck (f g). , Ck (f g) = ck (f ) ck (g).
=o

l

1493

1494
1495

5. f 2 , [f 0 ] = 0 [f ].
R 2
R 2
R 2
1
1
. ck (f 0 ) = 2
H 0 f 0 (t)eikt dt = 2
R S 0 eikt df (t) = 1
R S 0 f (t) deikt =
2

R 2
P
P
P
1
= 2
ik(H) 0 f (t)eikt dt = ikCk (f ). [f 0 ](x) =
ck (f 0 )eikx =
ck (f )ikeikx =
ck (f )(eikx )0 .
k=

1496
1497
1498

6. 2 f L2 [0, 2] [A, B]

RB
a

k=

f (x) dx =

k=

ck (f )

RB
A

eikx dx.

: [A, B] [0, 2].


R B ikt
RB
P
P
1
e
dt =
f [A,B] . A f (x) dx = f, [A,B] = 2
ck (f )
ck ([A,B] ) = 2
ck (f ) 2
A
k=

1499

k=

P
k=

ck (f )

RB
A

ikt

dt

56

k=

1500

31

1501

: kf k2 =

1502

|a0 |2
2

19.12.08

|ak | + |bk | = 2

k=1

R 2
P b 2
|fk | kek k2 . : 0 |f (t)|2 dt =

|ck | .

k=

1504

31.1. f 2 ( f, |f | H[0, 2]), f 0, an (f ) 0,

1505

bn (f ) 0, cn (f ) 0.

1503

1506
1507

1508
1509

. f, |f | H[0, ], 0 6 |[f (x)]n | 6 |f (x)|, [f (x)]n f (x) ,


n
R 2
R 2
0 |f (x)[f (x)]n | dx 0. > 0 ex[f ]n : 0 |f (x)[f (x)]n | dx < . |ck (f [f ]n )| =
n
R

1 2

inx

= 2
(f
(x)

[f
(x)]
)
e
dx
<
. [f ]n L2 [0, ] ,

n
2
0

.
2

ck ([f ]n ) 0, N N k, |k| > N : |ck ([f ]n )| <


|k|0

1510

6 |ck (f [f ]n )| + c k([f ]n ) <

a0
2

n
P

ak cos kx + bk sin kx =

k=1
n
P

Sn (f, x) =

1513

ck (f )eikx =

1515

=
=

1518
1519
1520

1521
1522
1523
1524
1525

1526
1527

1
2

R 2 R 2
0

f (t)

n
P

1
f

n
P

dt =

< .

1
2

a0
2

R 2
0

R 2

1
2
1

|k| > N |ck (f )| 6




ak cos kx + bk sin kx =

k=1

ck eikx . Sn (x) =

k=

ck eikx .

n
n
P

eik(xt) dt =

k=n
1 (xt)
R 2
2i sin(n+ 2
)
1
f (t) 2i sin xt2
2 0

Sn (f ; x) =

1516

1517

k=n

k=n
1514

1511

1512

R 2
0

Dn (x), Dn (t) =

f (t)eikt dteikx =

f (t) e

f (t)

1
2

n
R 2
P
k=n

in(xt)

ei(n+1)(xt)
1ei(xt)

(xt)
sin(n+ 1
2)
2 sin xt
2

sin(n+ 1
t
2)
t
2 sin 2

dt =

f (t)eik(xt) dt =

1
2

R 2
0

f (t) e

i(n+ 1 )(xt)
i(n+ 1 )xt
2
2
e
i 1 (xt)
i 1 (xt)
2
e
e 2

dt =

dt.

31.2 ( ).
f 2

R

S > 0, 0 f (x+t)+ft(xt)2S dt .
x S.

R
R

. > 0 > 0 : 0 f (x+t)+ft(xt)2S dt < . Sn (f, x) S = 1 f (x t)Dn (t) dt
R
R
R0 
R

1 S Dn (t) dt = 1 0 + (f (x t) S) Dn (t) dt = 1 0 (f (x t) + f (x + t) 2S) Dn (t) dt =


R



R 

(xt)2S
sin n + 12 = I1 + I2 , 0 < < . sin x > 2 x 0, 2
= 1 0 + f (x+t)+f
t
2 sin 2
sin x.

R

, |I1 | 6 1 0 f (x+t)+f2(xt)2S
dt = 2 .
t




R

(xt)2S
f (x+t)+f (xt)2S
t
t
t
I2 = 1 f (x+t)+f

(t)
sin

(t)

cos

sin
nt
+
sin

cos
nt
dt
=
b
+
n
t
t
[;]
[;]
2
2
2
2 sin 2
2 sin 2


f (x+t)+f (xt)2S
t

+ an
[;] (t) sin 2 0. , N , n > N : |I2 | < 2 . ,
2 sin t
n

1528

1529

31.2.1. f . x ,
f x f (x).

1530

1531
1532
1533

1534
1535

31.3 ( ). f g 2 B (x), f (x) = g(x) B (x),


, .
. . (f g, x). 0 . 0 x.


().
 n1

n1
n1
P
P
P
1
n (x) = n1
Sk (x). n (f, x) = n
f Dk (x) = 1 f n1
Dk (x).

1536

1537

k=0

1538

1539

1
t
2 sin2 2

n1
P
k=0

1
2

n (f, x) =

k=0

(cos kt cos(k + 1)t) =


1
f

1cos nt
t
4n sin2 2

Kn (x), Kn (t) =

1cos nt
t
4n sin2 2

k=0

sin2 n
t
2
t
2n sin2 2

sin2 n
t
2
t
2n sin2 2

57

1
n

n1
P
k=0

)
sin(k+ 1
2
t
2 sin 2

1
n

n1
P
k=0

t
)2 sin 2
sin(k+ 1
2
t
2 sin2 2

1540
1541
1542
1543

R
2 . , 1 Kn (t) dt = 1
( - ).
Kn (t) > 0 [, ].
R 2
R 2
1
: > 0
Kn (t) dt 0.
Kn (t) dt 6 2n sin
0.
2 2
1
Kn (t)

1544

, . .

1545

31.4 (). f 2
,

1546
1547

1. f f n (f, x) f (x).

1548

2. n (f, x)

f (x+0)+f (x0)
2

3. f ( R), n (f, x) f (x).

1549

1550

1551

f (x + 0),
g(x) = f (x 0),

f (x),
gKn (t) =

1552
1553

1
R
g(xt)Kn (t) dt

, n (f, x) = n (f g, x) +

f (x0)=f (x+0)
. f (x)g(x)
2
f (x+0)+f (x0)
n (g, x)
.
2
n

x, n (f g, x) 0.
n

ak - , k = 0, 1, . . ., n , n,kn =

1554

1555

. : 2
x (x, x + )
x (x , x)
x, x

n+K
Pn 1

1
kn

aj , kn N.

j=n
1556

31.1. n S,
n

1557

n
kn

, n,kn S.
n

. kn n,kn = (n + kn )n+kn nn =

n=k
n 1
P

aj . n,kn = n+kn +

j=n
1558

n
kn

(n+kn n ) = n+kn +

(1) S.
+ O(1) o

1559

31.5 ( ).

P
k=0

1560

n S, Sn S.
n

1561

1562

. n,kn Sn =
, |n,kn Sn | 6

n+k
n 1
P
j=n+1

1563

1564
1565

1566
1567
1568

k , k = O( k1 ),

Ckn
.
n+1

1
kn

n+k
n 1
P

(Sj Sn ), |n,kn Sn | 6

j=n

> 0 kn ,

n > 2 ... -

kn
n+1

1
k
kn n

< ,

P
j=n+1

<

n
kn

n + kn 1 Cj , |k | 6

C
.
k

< 2 .


31.6 ( ). f 2 (x0)
, x f f (x+0)+f
.
2
. , ,
R
R 2
R 2
R 2 ikt

2
ikt
ikt
1
1
1
1
1
n . ck (f ) = 2 0 f (t)e
dt = 2 0 f (t) ik de
= ik2 0 e
df (t). 0 eikt df (t) 6
6 |eikt | cot Var f = C. , ck (f ) 6

C
.
k

58