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PUBLIC COMMUNICATION

I.

II.

TYPES OF SPEECHES
A. Speech to Entertain
i. After-dinner speeches
ii. Reunion speeches
iii. Anniversary speeches
B. Speech to Inform
i. Oral reports
ii. Lectures
iii. Demonstration speeches
C. The speech to persuade
i. To convince
1. peakers point of view is different from that of the
audience.
2. Speaker needs to alter mind set of audience to conform to
his belief system.
Example: My idea is better than yours!
ii. To actuate
1. Speaker has a proposal or solution to a problem.
2. Speaker needs to motivate audience to help implement
the proposed.
Example: Reduce, reuse, recycle!
iii. To reinforce
1. Speaker has the same stance as that of the audience on
an issue.
2. Speaker strengthens or supports that position or belief
system.
Example: Improve the quality of education!
PREPARING FOR A SPEECH PRESENTATION
A. Choose an appropriate topic
B. Determine the specific speech purpose
C. Analyze the audience and the occasion
i. demographic profile
ii. psychological profile
iii. situational analysis
D. Gather the speech materials (library materials, interviews, internet,
etc)
E. Make the Speech Plan
i. Title of Speech
ii. Specific Speech Purpose
iii. Thesis Statement or Claim
1. THE THESIS STATEMENT
a. The central idea written in one complete sentence
The controlling idea of your speech that determines
what should and what should not be part of your
speech
Examples:
There are 3 simple steps in preparing a good
outline.We can cope with stress through a number

of ways.Research has seen the possibility of using


stem cell therapy in treating human diseases.
2. CLAIMS or PROPOSITIONS
a. The thesis statement of a persuasive speech. A
general statement of an opinion that a speaker
wants accepted
i. A good claim is...
1. stated clearly
2. controversial or debatable
Outline of the Speech
1.
2.
3.
4.

Steps in making the outline


Develop the body in the light of the thesis statement and specific
Determine the most suitable introduction for the body of your speech.
Think of a conclusion that will create a most lasting impression of the
speech to your audience.
5. Develop the body of your speech
6. Decide on the sequential pattern of the major ideas of the speechspeech
purpose.
a. Topical
b. Chronological
c. Spatial
d. Cause-effect
e. Problem-solution
7. Formulate general statements (major headings of the outline) to support
the thesis statement.
a. Determine the subpoints.
b. Support the subpoints with details.
8. Develop the Introduction
a. Attention Step designed to catch the attention of the audience
b. Clarification Step - should clarify scope and purpose of speech
9. Develop the Conclusion
a. Summary Step sums up the major points of the body. Brings back
the audience to the central idea of the speech
b. Action Step - Makes an appeal or challenges the audience to take
action on a proposal made by the speaker. Reiterates the solution
to a problem the speaker hopes to get implemented
10.Presentation Aids
11.References
F. Word the Speech
G. Compose your speech based on your outline.
i. Use the oral style---language that is conversational, simple,
understandable, vivid and original.
ii. Do not plagiarize other peoples statements or ideas.
iii. Cite the name of the person you are quoting verbatimly.
iv. Acknowledge the source of the idea you borrowed and
paraphrased or restated in your speech.
H. Rehearse the Speech

III.

i. Practice until you have achieved fluency in delivering your


speech.
ii. See to it that you have the proper posture as you speak and that
your facial expressions, eye behavior, gestures and bodily
movements are not mechanical but spontaneous.
iii. Practice also how to use your presentation aids.
iv. Invite supportive people to listen to your speech. Solicit advice
or constructive criticisms from them.
v. Listen to yourself as you speak.
Presentational Methods of Delivering Speeches
A. Impromptu Speaking
i. unplanned and unrehearsed
ii. depends much on the knowledge of the speaker on the topic and
his or her presentation skills
Advantage
useful in an emergency

Disadvantage
speaker may have a rambling,
fumbling, and incoherent
speech

flexible and spontaneous


B. Memorized Mode
i. planned, structured, written out word for word and memorized
ii. relies much on the good memory of a speaker
Advantage
if written well, is coherent,
organized and precise the
way a speaker or her ideas to
be uttered
can be timed to meet the
time limit required of the
speaker

Disadvantage
may not be effective if speaker
has poor presentational skills
and a poor memory
not spontaneous and flexible

focuses more on words rather


than ideas
can cause problems in using
nonverbal behaviors
effectively
can cause problems in
establishing and maintaining
rapport with the audience
C. Reading from the manuscript
i. planned, structured, written out word for word, and read aloud
to an audience
ii. necessary in situations where exact and concise wording of the
speech is called for
Advantages
If written well, is coherent,
organized and precise the

Disadvantages
may not be interesting to
listen to if a

way a speaker wants his or


her ideas to be uttered.
a good way to avoid a slip of
the tongue or the use of
inappropriate or imprecise
language
can be timed to meet the
time limit required of the
speaker
audience may be able to get
a copy of the speech

speaker lacks the ability to


read the speech effectively
may be inflexible; not
spontaneous

can cause problems in using


nonverbal behaviors
effectively
can cause problems in
establishing and maintaining
rapport

D. Extemporized Delivery
i. planned and structured
ii. ideas are outlined; speaker keeps in mind the sequence of the
major ideas
iii. pre-wording of speech is practiced aloud; speaker may freely
express himself or herself in a different way each time he or she
rehearses
Advantages
If planned carefully and
rehearsed well, is coherent
and organized

flexible and spontaneous

IV.

Disadvantages
If not planned carefully and
rehearsed well, may appear
like an impromptu speech that
is delivered by a speaker with
lack of knowledge on the topic
and with poor presentation
skills
may go over the time limit if
speaker gets carried away
with his discourse (e.g. gives
many examples; restates or
explains ideas repeatedly)

ease at establishing and


maintaining
rapport with the audience
FORMS OF PROOF
A. ETHOS or Ethical proof. Also known as source-credibility, from the
Greek word, ethos, meaning character.
i. how the listeners perceive the credibility of the speaker
ii. may be an attitude that has been developed towards the
credibility of the speaker
1. Dimensions of Ethos
a. Character
b. Competence
c. Trustworthiness
d. Intention
e. Personality

2. Types of Ethos
a. Initial ethos. How listeners perceive the credibility
of the speaker before the speech is delivered
b. Derived or Transactional ethos. How listeners
perceive credibility of the speaker during the
presentation
c. Terminal ethos. How listeners perceived the
credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech.
B. LOGOS or Logical Proof. This attends to your listeners need to hear
logical evidence and rational arguments relating to your topic.
1. Evidence - These are supporting materials that are used
to prove or disprove something. When presenting
evidence...
a. It must be specific.
b. It must be new.
c. It must be from a credible source
(Lucas,2001)

V.

2. Forms of supporting materials


a. Explanation
b. Illustration or narrative
c. Specific instance or example
d. Analogy or comparison
e. Testimony
i. a direct quotation of someones statement
ii. is used as proof to support a claim
iii. may be an expert testimony (quoting
someone who is an authority on the topic) or
a peer testimony (quoting someone who has
witnessed or experienced a phenomenon)
Quote only from reliable or credible sources.
Make it clear whether you are paraphrasing
or quoting directly.
Quote accurately.
f. Restatement
C. PATHOS or Emotional Proof. This appeal is designed to evoke strong
emotions among the audience. It is anchored on the Theory of Human
Motivation that basically posits that people are motivated to action to
satisfy their needs and that lower-level needs be fulfilled mostly before
higher-level needs can be met (Maslow, 1970)
Maslows hierarchy of needs
FACTORS OF ATTENTION
Audience attention can be captured by using language that paints pictures in
the minds of the audience, or by using images that command high attention
value. Factors of attention
A. Activity
B. Reality
C. Proximity

D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
VI.

Familiarity
Novelty
Suspense
Conflict
The Vital
Humor

(Gronbeck, et. al., 1992, Bulan 200)


BEGINNING AND ENDING THE SPEECH
Why do we need an introduction?
To catch and hold the attention of the audience
To establish goodwill
To build speakers credibility
To meet audiences expectations
To give the audience an idea of the scope and purpose of the speech
A. Ways of beginning the speech:
1. Reference to subject or problem
2. Reference to the occasion
3. Personal greeting
4. Personal allusion
5. Real or hypothetical illustration/story related to the topic
6. Apt quotation
7. Rhetorical statement
8. Startling statement
9. Humorous anecdote or joke
Why do we need a conclusion?
To synthesize and unify the speech
To briefly point out what has been gained from the speech
To create a lasting mood that suits your purpose and topic
To signal a sense of finality
B. Ways of ending a speech a speech
1. Challenge or appeal
2. Summary of major points or ideas
3. Real or hypothetical illustration
4. Expression or personal intention or endorsement
5. Apt quotation
6. Rhetorical question
7. Humorous anecdote or joke
(Gronbeck, et.al., 1997)